“Eight Musts” Coalesce into Consensus

This article was posted yesterday in the Observer News Weekly (暸望新闻周刊), and seems to be the first major policy declaration from the Xi administration. I will post an analysis shortly.

Belief, faith, confidence and real action are the guarantees for the success of our undertaking. If people in the same boat help each other, the sea will make way, and when the signal is cried, the waves will move to the side!

At the time of the first collective study of the 18th CCP Central Committee, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is the main line in implementing the report of the 18th Party Congress. We must closely grasp this main line and make persisting into and developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics into a focal point, rallying point and stopover point for implementing the spirit of the 18th Party congress, only in this way will we be able to study the spirit of the 18th Party Congress more deeply, understand it more thoroughly and implement it more consciously.

Practice fully proves that Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is the banner of the Chinese Communist Party and the unity of the Chinese people, the banner for brave advance and the banner of victory. If we want to completely construct a relatively well-off society, accelerate the moving forward of Socialist modernization and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, we must hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics from beginning to end, and unwaveringly persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese Characteristics.

The 18th Party Congress pointed out that, revolving around this main theme, to grasp new victories for Socialism with Chinese Characteristics under new historical conditions, we must closely grasp the basic requirements in eight areas, and let them become the common convictions of the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country. These eight basic requirements are: we must persist in the dominant role of the people; we must persist in liberating and developing social productive forces; we must persist in moving reform and opening-up forward; we must persist in safeguarding social fairness and justice; we must persist in marching the path of common prosperity; we must persist in stimulating social harmony; we must persist in peaceful development; and we must persist in the leadership of the Party. The basic requirements and common convictions of these “Eight Musts” are an enrichment and development of the inner meaning of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, and shall become our programme of action.

Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is the undertaking of the millions of people themselves, therefore, the mastering spirit of the people must be given full rein, to better guarantee that the people are the master of their own affairs.

Persisting in the dominant role of the people, is that we must believe in the people, rely on the people and consider the people as real heroes. This is the tradition and superiority of the Chinese Communist Party.

The 2nd Party Congress of 1922 pointed out that, all the Party’s actions must go deeply into the broad masses. In the revolutionary struggle, the Chinese Communist Party changed the viewpoint of the masses into a leadership method and work method, progressively formed the Party’s mass lines, and put forward a series of viewpoints, such as: the masses are true heroes, seeking the interest of the masses is the starting point and final settling place of Chinese Communist Party members’ revolution, the opinions and experiences of the masses are the basis for the Party’s formulation of policy, mobilizing the masses to liberate themselves, only by being the student of the masses is it possible to be the teacher of the masses, etc.

The 7th Party Congress of 1945 clearly entered the basic spirit of the mass line into the Party Constitution. Mao Zedong summarized: “We shall believe in the masses, we shall believe in the Party, these are two basic tenets. If these two tenets are doubted, nothing can be achieved”.

The development of thirty years of reform and opening up prove that Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is the undertaking of the millions of people themselves, the mastering spirit of the popular masses has achieved a huge burst forward in the process of this magnificent undertaking. It is as Deng Xiaoping pointed out: “Of the household contracting system in the countryside, the inventor’s rights belong to the peasants. Many things in rural reform are created at the grass-roots level, we take them, process them, and raise them into guidance for the whole country”.

Historical experience merits attention. In the magnificent practice of moving Socialism with Chinese Characteristics forward, we must most broadly mobilize and organize the people to manage State matters according to the law, manage economic and cultural undertakings, vigorously throw themselves into Socialist modernization construction, even better guaranteeing the people’s rights and interests, and even better guaranteeing the people to be the master of their own affairs.

Liberating and developing social productive forces are basic tasks of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, therefore, we must persist in taking economic construction as central, taking scientific development as the main line, realizing that we put people first, and scientifically develop in comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner.

Marxism believes that the development of productive forces is the final deciding power in the development of human societies. More than ninety years of Party history are the history of the Party leading the popular masses in incessantly liberating and developing productive forces.

During the revolutionary period, Mao Zedong clearly pointed out that: “For the good or bad, large or small of the function that all Chinese political parties’ policies and their practice manifest in the Chinese people, in the final analysis, we must look at whether or not it helps the development of the productive forces of the Chinese people, and how great that help is, and we must look at whether it fetters productive forces of liberated productive forces.” The victory of the revolution and the establishment of the New China have cleared away obstructions and provided guarantees for the development of the productive forces of society.

The 8th Party Congress of 1956 passed a resolution that pointed out: “Our main domestic contradiction is the contradiction between the people’s requirement of establishing an advanced industrial country and the reality of a backward agricultural country; it is the contradiction between the people’s requirement of rapid economic and cultural development and the situation that, at present, the economy and culture cannot satisfy the people’s needs”. Because of this, the Party’s work focus is leading the people of the entire country to construct the economy, forcefully develop productive forces, realize the industrialization of the country, and progressively satisfy the people’s daily increasing material and cultural needs. This judgment is extremely valuable, conforms to the objective process of our country’s historical development, and conforms to the common hope of the people nationwide. It is a pity that, in the period thereafter, reversals occurred in the understanding of this problem, and complications occurred.

One appreciates difficulty only through personal experience. The experience of both positive and negative sides made the people of all ethnicities in the entire country reach such a consensus, this is “the contradiction between the people’s daily increasing material and cultural needs and the backwardness of social production, this main contradiction in society has not changed” which the Party Centre has stressed repeatedly and which is reiterated in the Report of the 18th Party Congress. Liberating and developing social productive forces are the basic tasks of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics from beginning to end. We absolutely must persist in this conviction, not waver, not toss and turn, take economic construction as central, take scientific development as the main theme, completely move economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction and ecological civilization construction forward, realize that people are put first, and develop scientifically in a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner.

Unite all forces that can be united, expand harmonious elements to the largest extent, strengthen social creative vitality, guarantee that the people live and work in peace and contentment, society is stable and ordered, and the country knows a long period of peace and order.

The reason that Chinese Communist Party leaders stood up and started the revolution is because the Old China, under the domination of the Three Big Mountains, lacked fairness and justice, to say nothing of harmony. To this end, Mao Zedong clearly pointed out at the 7th Party Congress that: “Many unfair matters must progressively march towards fairness. At any time there will be issues of unfairness, therefore we must resolve problems at any time.”

During the period of construction after the establishment of the Socialist system, in order to “let literature, art, science and technology flourish and develop, let the Party regularly maintain vitality, the people’s undertaking blossom, and China become a strong country that will make people look kindly on it”, the Chinese Communist Party members with Mao Zedong as representative, through analysing the characteristics and manifestations of the basic contradictions of Socialist society, made correctly dealing with contradictions among the people into a main theme in national political life, its objective was to create a political situation that was both centralized and democratic, both disciplined and free, both having unity and determination, and individual ease of mind, that was vivid and vigorous. This vivid and vigorous political situation is both the formidable and kindly portrayal of Socialist China.

Kindness means harmony, naturally it isn’t so that there will be no contradictions or no conflicts within this, the important thing is that the nature of these contradictions must be correctly understood and the correct methods must be adopted to resolve it. There is no need for reticence, this issue has not yet been resolved well in a historical period. Lessons are also precious wealth.

The process of reform and opening up after bringing order out of chaos is the process of “matters marching progressively towards fairness”, and is the process of China becoming a strong country that also loves the people – that puts guaranteeing and improving the people’s livelihood in a more prominent position. Fairness and justice are implicit requirements of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, social harmony is the essential property of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Understanding is hard-earned, the value of belief lies in holding on to it. Justice, fairness and social harmony must absolutely become objectives and convictions in which we persevere, and that we incessantly pursue.

Persisting in moving reform and opening up forward, persisting in marching the path of common prosperity, and persisting in peaceful development, are the common ideals that have been proven correct through more than thirty years of history and practice, that the people feel deeply within themselves.

The 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress of December 1978 opened up a new period, the clearest characteristic of which was reform and opening up. More than thirty years of full-speed development of China’s economy and society and the rapid increase in comprehensive national strength, have firmly established one conviction among the people of China: reform and opening up are the paths that must be followed to persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese Characteristics.

Perhaps, there may be people who ask: what is the objective of China’s reform and development? To sum it up in a word, it is to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and it is the satisfaction of the people’s expectation to live happy new lives.

Poverty isn’t Socialism, the wide gap between rich and poor also is not Socialism, going from letting some people become rich first to progressively realizing the people’s common prosperity is a necessary choice of history. Following the increase of national economic strength, we must extend the fruits of development even better and even more fairly to the whole body of the people, and steadily advance in the direction of common prosperity.

Perhaps, there may be people who ask: what does China’s development mean for the world? In one sentence, China persists in peaceful development, China’s development is an opportunity for the world, and not a menace.

China must develop peacefully. As far back as the early stages of reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping  incisively analysed the new situation that peaceful development became the main theme of the times, and clarified the necessity and possibility of striving to conduct domestic construction in a peaceful environment for a relatively long time. China does not have a tradition of military expansion. In modern global history, the background of some country’s rise was accompanied by conflict and expansion without exception, at that time, the Old China, that was semi-feudal and a semi-colony was the target of their wanton invasion, oppression and exploitation. But now, following the strengthening and rise of China’s comprehensive national strength, the function to which China gives rein in international affairs becomes clearer every day, “Chinese threat theories” of every shade and description have emerged in international society. These views exactly reflected the loss and helplessness of some countries.

Facts speak louder than words. Both now and in the future, regardless of to what extent it develops, China will never seek hegemony. What China seeks is peaceful development, what it thinks of is the interest of the people of the world. China’s peaceful development will continue, China must also make new and greater contributions to humankind. This is the common conviction of the peace-loving Chinese people.

The Chinese Communist Party is the leading core of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, ideals and convictions are the “calcium” of Chinese Communist Party members’ spirits.

Persisting in the leadership of the party is the key for China to gain victories in revolution, construction and reform. “Since we had the Chinese Communist Party, the face of the Chinese revolution has taken on an entirely new look”, this is an irrefutable truth. Mao Zedong pointed out that the experience of China’s revolution has “given us and the people of China such a conviction: without the efforts of the Chinese Communist Party, and without Chinese Communist Party members standing rock-form among the people of China, China’s independence and liberation are impossible, China’s industrialization and rural modernization are also impossible.”. In the period of construction and reform, the core force leading our undertaking still is the Chinese Communist Party. This is the consensus and conviction of the Party and the people of China.

Deng Xiaoping distinctly pointed out that the key to resolving China’s problems lies in the Party. China’s reform and opening up has seen huge achievements, and has displayed the outstanding governing ability of the Chinese Communist Party. The Chinese Communist Party’s responsibility is great, the mission of the Chinese Communist Party is glorious. Facing the market economy, reform, opening up and many other tests, and spiritual sluggishness, separation from the masses and many other dangers, and completely constructing a relatively well-off society on time, the Party must persist in building the Party for the public, governing for the people, strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership, persisting in the Party assuming responsibility for the whole picture, coordinating the core leading function in all areas, maintaining the advanced nature and purity of the Party, strengthening the Party’s creativity, cohesion and fighting strength, and raising the Party’s levels of scientific governance, democratic governance, and governance according to the law.

Convictions point the way to future actions, actions must be of one heart and one mind.

These eight basic requirements and common convictions put forward by the 18th Party Congress are the summoning call for the times of more than thirty years of practice of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, are the summary of the experience of the Party leading the people in conducting revolution, construction and reform, and are the consensus that merit to be cherished and persisted in for a long time, they should become conscientious actions that pervade the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country. Just as Comrade Hu Jintao pointed out in the Report of the 18th Party Congress, as long as we cherish ideals and firm convictions, do not waver, do not slacken and do not toss and turn, but struggle tenaciously, struggle arduously and struggle unwaveringly, we certainly can complete the construction of a relatively well-off society by the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party, and we certainly can construct a prosperous, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious modernized Socialist country by the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the New China.

Belief, faith, confidence and real action are the guarantees for the success of our undertaking. If people in the same boat help each other, the sea will make way, and when the signal is cried, the waves will move to the side. Be unwilling to yield to others, dare to be 1.3 billion sons and daughters of China running ahead of all under heaven, unite, go into action, use your own wisdom and abilities, to write a new Chinese legend in the journey of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!

“八个必须”凝聚共识
信仰、信念、信心和实干,是我们事业成功的保证。同舟共济海让路,号子一喊浪靠边!

在十八届中共中央政治局第一次集体学习时,习近平总书记指出,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义是贯穿党的十八大报告的一条主线。我们要紧紧抓住这条主线,把坚持和发展中国特色社会主义作为学习贯彻党的十八大精神的聚焦点、着力点、落脚点,只有这样,才能把党的十八大精神学得更加深入、领会得更加透彻、贯彻得更加自觉。

实践充分证明,中国特色社会主义是中国共产党和中国人民团结的旗帜、奋进的旗帜、胜利的旗帜。我们要全面建成小康社会、加快推进社会主义现代化、实现中华民族伟大复兴,必须始终高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,坚定不移坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。

十八大报告指出,围绕这一主题,在新的历史条件下夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利,必须牢牢把握八个方面的基本要求,并使之成为全党全国各族人民的共同信念。这八个基本要求即:必须坚持人民主体地位;必须坚持解放和发展社会生产力;必须坚持推进改革开放;必须坚持维护社会公平正义;必须坚持走共同富裕道路;必须坚持促进社会和谐;必须坚持和平发展;必须坚持党的领导。

这八个“必须”的基本要求和共同信念,是对中国特色社会主义内涵的丰富和发展,应当成为我们的行动纲领。

中国特色社会主义是亿万人民自己的事业,所以必须发挥人民主人翁精神,更好保证人民当家作主。

坚持人民主体地位,就是要相信群众、依靠群众,把群众当作真正的英雄。这是中国共产党的传统和优势。

1922年党的二大就指出,党的一切运动都必须深入到广大的群众里面去。在革命战争中,中国共产党把群众观点化为领导方法和工作方式,逐步形成党的群众路线,提出了一系列观点如:群众是真正的英雄,为群众谋利益是共产党员革命的出发点和归宿,群众的意见和经验是党制定政策的基础,发动群众自己解放自己,只有做群众的学生才能做群众的先生,等等。

1945年党的七大把群众路线的基本精神明确载入党章。毛泽东总结:“我们应当相信群众,我们应当相信党,这是两条根本的原理。如果怀疑这两条原理,那就什么事情也做不成了。”

改革开放30多年的发展充分证明,中国特色社会主义是亿万人民自己的事业,人民群众的主人翁精神在推进这一伟大事业的进程中得到极大迸发。正如邓小平指出的那样:“农村搞家庭联产承包,这个发明权是农民的。农村改革中的好多东西,都是基层创造出来,我们把它拿来加工提高作为全国的指导。”

历史的经验值得注意。在推进中国特色社会主义伟大实践中,我们必须最广泛地动员和组织人民依法管理国家事务、管理经济和文化事业、积极投身社会主义现代化建设,更好保障人民权益,更好保障人民当家作主。

解放和发展社会生产力是中国特色社会主义的根本任务,所以必须坚持以经济建设为中心,以科学发展为主题,实现以人为本、全面协调可持续的科学发展。
马克思主义认为,生产力的发展是人类社会发展的最终决定力量。90余年党的历史,就是一部党领导人民群众不断解放和发展社会生产力的历史。

在革命时期,毛泽东鲜明地指出:“中国一切政党的政策及其实践在中国人民所表现的作用的好坏、大小,归根到底,看它对于中国人民的生产力的发展是否有帮助及其帮助之大小,看它是束缚生产力的,还是解放生产力的。”革命的胜利、新中国的建立,为社会生产力的发展扫清了障碍、提供了保障。

1956年党的八大通过决议指出,“我们国内的主要矛盾,已经是人民对于建立先进的工业国的要求同落后的农业国的现实之间的矛盾;已经是人民对经济文化迅速发展的需求同当前经济文化不能满足人民需要的状况之间的矛盾。”因此,党的工作重点是领导全国人民搞经济建设,大力发展生产力,实现国家的工业化,以逐步满足人民日益增长的物质文化的需要。这一判断非常可贵,符合我国历史发展的客观进程,符合全国人民的共同愿望。可惜的是,此后一段时间对这一问题的认识出现了反复,发生了曲折。

事非经过不知难。正反两方面的经验,使全党全国各族人民达成了这样的共识,那就是党中央反复强调并在十八大报告中再次重申的“人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾这一社会主要矛盾没有变”。解放和发展社会生产力始终是中国特色社会主义的根本任务。我们一定要坚定这一信念,不动摇、不折腾,以经济建设为中心,以科学发展为主题,全面推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设,实现以人为本、全面协调可持续的科学发展。

团结一切可团结的力量,最大限度增加和谐因素,增强社会创造活力,确保人民安居乐业、社会安定有序、国家长治久安。

中国共产党之所以领导人民起来闹革命,就因为在三座大山统治下的旧中国不仅公平正义缺乏,更无和谐可言。为此,毛泽东在党的七大上明确指出:“许多不公平的事情要逐渐走向公平。哪一天都有不公平的问题,因此我们哪一天也要解决问题。”

在社会主义制度建立后的建设时期,为了“文学艺术、科学技术会繁荣发达,党会经常保持活力,人民事业会欣欣向荣,中国会变成一个大强国而又使人可亲”,以毛泽东为代表的中国共产党人,通过对社会主义社会基本矛盾的特点和表现形式的分析,把正确处理人民内部矛盾作为国家政治生活的主题,其目标是造成一个又有集中又有民主,又有纪律又有自由,又有统一意志,又有个人心情舒畅、生动活泼的政治局面。这一生动活泼的政治局面,正是社会主义中国既强大又可亲的写照。

可亲意味着和谐,当然其中并不是没有矛盾、没有冲突,重要的是要正确认识这种矛盾的性质并采取正确的解决方法。毋庸讳言,在一段历史时期内这个问题没有处理好。教训也是宝贵的财富。

拨乱反正后改革开放的历程,是“事情逐渐走向公平”的历程,是中国变成一个强国而又亲民——把保障和改善民生放在更加突出位置的过程。公平正义是中国特色社会主义的内在要求,社会和谐是中国特色社会主义的本质属性。认识来之不易,信念贵在坚守。公平正义、社会和谐,一定要成为我们锲而不舍、不断追求的目标和信念。
坚持推进改革开放,坚持走共同富裕道路,坚持和平发展,这是30余年来被历史和实践证明为正确的、全国人民感同身受的共同信念。

1978年12月党的十一届三中全会开启了新时期,最鲜明的特点就是改革开放。30余年中国经济社会的飞速发展,综合国力的迅速提升,已使中国人民确立了这样一个信念:改革开放是坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的必由之路。

也许有人会问:中国改革发展的目的是什么?一言以蔽之,是实现中华民族伟大复兴,是满足人民过上美好新生活的期待。

贫穷不是社会主义,贫富悬殊也不是社会主义,从让一部分人先富起来到逐步实现共同富裕是历史的必然选择。随着国家经济实力的增强,要使发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,朝共同富裕方向稳步前进。

也许还有人会问:中国的发展对世界意味着什么?一句话,中国坚持和平发展,中国的发展对世界而言是机遇而非威胁。

中国需要和平发展。早在改革开放之初,邓小平就精辟地分析了和平与发展成为时代主题的新形势,阐明了争取较长时间和平环境进行国内建设的必要性和可能性。中国没有武力扩张的传统。世界近代史上一些国家崛起的背后无一例外伴随着冲突、扩张,当年半封建半殖民地的旧中国曾是它们肆意宰割的对象。但现在随着中国综合国力的增强和提升,中国在国际事务中发挥的作用日趋明显,国际社会出现了形形色色的“中国威胁论”。这些论调恰恰反映了某些国家的失落与无奈。

事实胜于雄辩。不论现在还是将来,不论发展到什么程度,中国都永远不称霸。中国谋的是和平发展,想的是世界人民的利益。中国的和平发展将继续下去,中国也必将为人类作出新的更大的贡献。这是爱好和平的中国人民的共同信念。
中国共产党是中国特色社会主义事业的领导核心,理想信念是共产党人精神上的“钙”。

坚持党的领导,是中国取得革命、建设和改革胜利的关键。“自从有了中国共产党,中国革命的面目就焕然一新”,这是一个颠扑不破的真理。毛泽东曾指出,中国革命的经验,“给了我们和中国人民这样一种信心:没有中国共产党的努力,没有中国共产党人做中国人民的中流砥柱,中国的独立和解放是不可能的,中国的工业化和农业近代化也是不可能的。”在建设和改革时期,领导我们事业的核心力量仍是中国共产党。这是全党全国人民的共识和信念。

邓小平曾鲜明地指出,解决中国的问题,关键在党。中国改革开放取得的巨大成就,已经表明了中国共产党的卓越执政能力。中国共产党的责任重大,中国共产党的使命光荣。面临市场经济、改革开放等诸多考验和精神懈怠、脱离群众等众多危险,如期全面建成小康社会,党必须坚持立党为公、执政为民,加强和改善党的领导,坚持党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,保持党的先进性和纯洁性,增强党的创造力、凝聚力、战斗力,提高党科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平。

信念指引未来行动,行动需要同心同德。

十八大报告提出的这八个基本要求和共同信念,是改革开放30多年中国特色社会主义实践的时代召唤,是党领导人民进行革命、建设和改革的经验总结,是值得珍视并需长期坚持的共识,理当化为全党全国各族人民一以贯之的自觉行动。正如胡锦涛同志在党的十八大报告中指出的那样,只要我们胸怀理想、坚定信念,不动摇、不懈怠、不折腾,顽强奋斗、艰苦奋斗、不懈奋斗,就一定能在中国共产党成立一百年时全面建成小康社会,就一定能在新中国成立一百年时建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家。

信仰、信念、信心和实干,是我们事业成功的保证。同舟共济海让路,号子一喊浪靠边。不甘人后、敢为天下先的13亿中华儿女,团结起来,行动起来,用自己的智慧和才干,在实现中华民族伟大复兴的征途中书写新的中国传奇! (文/《瞭望》新闻周刊 李庆刚 作者单位:中共中央党校党史教研部)

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