CCP Central Committee Resolution concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform

(Passed at the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on 12 November 2013)

I, The major significance of and guiding ideology for comprehensively deepening reform

(1) Reform and opening up is a new magnificent revolution that the people of all ethnicities in the entire country undertake under the leadership of the Party and under new conditions of the times, and it is the clearest characteristic of contemporary China. In the 15 years since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress was convened, our Party has, with huge political courage, tenaciously moved forward reform of economic structures, political structures, cultural structures, social structures, ecological civilization structures and Party building structures, it has incessantly broadened openness, its determination was great, reform was deep, and its influence broad in an unprecedented manner, and its achievements have attracted worldwide attention.

The most important fruit of reform and opening up is that it initiated and developed Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and provided strong drivers and forceful guarantees for Socialist modernization construction. Facts demonstrate that reform and opening up is the crucial decision that decided the destiny of contemporary China, and is an important talisman for the undertaking of the Party and the people to catch up with the times in big strides.

Practice and development are boundless, liberating thoughts is boundless, reform and opening up are boundless. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, in order to completely construct a moderately prosperous society, and thereby construct a wealthy, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious Socialist modernized country, realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation, we must comprehensively deepen reform from a new historical starting point, incessantly strengthen self-confidence about the path, self-confidence about theory and self-confidence about the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

(2) To comprehensively deepen reform, we must hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, strengthen self-confidence, concentrate a consensus, comprehensively plan matters, move forward in a coordinated manner, persist in the reform orientation of the Socialist market economy, make stimulating social fairness and justice, and enhancing the people’s welfare as starting point and stopover point, further liberate thoughts, liberate and develop social productive forces, liberate and strengthen social vitality, resolutely eliminate systemic and mechanistic abuses in all areas, and strive to open an even broader prospect for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The overall objective of comprehensively deepening reform is perfecting and developing the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and moving the modernization of the country’s governance structure and governance ability forward. We must pay even more attention to the systemic nature, overall nature and coordinated nature of reform, accelerate the development of the Socialist market economy, democratic politics, advanced culture, a harmonious society and ecological civilization, let all vitality in labour, knowledge, technology, management and capital compete and burst forth, let all sources creating social wealth fully gush forth, and let the fruits of development be extended to the whole body of the people in greater numbers and more fairly.

Closely revolve around ensuring that the market has a decisive role in allocating resources in deepening economic structural reform, persist in and perfect basic economic systems, accelerate the perfection of modern market systems, macro-economic regulation systems and open economic systems, accelerate the transformation of economic development methods, accelerate the construction of an innovative country, promote an even more efficient, fair and sustainable development of the economy.

Closely revolve around persisting in the organic integration of the leadership of the Party, the people mastering their own affairs and governing the country according to the law in deepening political structural reform, accelerate moving forward with the institutionalization, standardization and proceduralization of Socialist democratic politics, build a Socialist rule of law country, develop a broader, fuller and completer Socialist democracy.

Closely revolve around constructing the Socialist core value system and a strong Socialist culture country in deepening cultural structural reform, accelerate the perfection of cultural management systems and cultural production and commercial mechanisms, establish and complete modern cultural service systems and modern cultural market systems, promote the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture.

Closely revolve around guaranteeing and improving the people’s livelihood even better, and stimulating social fairness and justice in deepening social structural reform, reform income allocation systems, stimulate common prosperity, move institutional innovation in the social area forward, move basic public service equalization forward, accelerate the formation of scientific and effective social governance mechanisms, guarantee the society is both full of vitality, as well as harmonious and orderly.

Closely revolve around building a beautiful China in deepening ecological civilization structural reform, accelerate the establishment of ecological civilization systems, complete land space exploitation, resource use reduction, and ecology and environment protection systems, promote the formation of the construction of new and modernized structures for the harmonious development of human and nature.

Closely revolve around raising the levels of scientific governance, democratic governance and governance according to the law in deepening Party building structure reform, strengthen democratic centralism system construction, perfect Party leadership mechanisms and governance mechanisms, persist in the Party’s advanced nature and purity, and provide strong political guarantees for reform and opening up, and for Socialist modernization construction.

(3) In comprehensive deepening reform, we must base ourselves on the reality that our country will remain in the preliminary stage of Socialism for a long time, persist in the major strategic judgment that development still is the key to resolve all or our country’s problems, put economic construction at the centre, give rein to the pulling function of economic structural reform, promote the adaption of relationships of production with productivity, and of the superstructure with the economic base, promote the sustained and healthy development of the economy and society.

Economic structural reform is the focus of deepening reform, the core issues are dealing with the relationship between the government and the market well, ensuring that the market has a decisive function in resource allocation, and giving better rein to the function of government. The market deciding resource allocation is a common law of market economics, to complete the Socialist market economy system, we must respect this law, and strive to resolve the problems of imperfect market systems, excessive government intervention and unsatisfactory supervision and management.

We must vigorously and reliably move marketization reform forward in breadth hand depth, substantially reduce direct government allocation of resources, promote that resource allocation is based on market principles, market prices and market competition, to realize productivity maximization and efficiency optimization. The duties and functions of governments are mainly to maintain macro-economic stability, strengthen and optimize public services, guarantee fair competition, strengthen market supervision and management, safeguard market order, promote sustainable development,

(4) The successful practice of reform and opening up has provided important experiences for completely deepening reform, and must be persisted in for a long time. The most important matter is persisting in the leadership of the Party, implementing the Party’s basic line, not marching the old path of feudalism and closedness, nor marching the evil path of changing banners, persisting in marching the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and guarantee the correct direction of reform from beginning to end; persisting in liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts, progressing with the times, being pragmatic, starting from reality in everything, summarize successful domestic methods, learn from beneficial foreign experiences, dare to move theoretical and practical innovation forward; persist in putting people firs, respecting the dominant position of the people, giving rein to the pioneering spirit of the masses, firmly rely on the people in moving reform forward, and stimulate people’s comprehensive development; persist in correctly dealing with the relationship between reform and development, we must be bold, our pace must be steady, we must strengthen the integration of top-level design and crossing the river by feeling the stones, of mutually stimulating broad moves forward and making focus breakthroughs, raise the scientific nature of reform and policymaking, broadly concentrate consensus, and form joint forces for reform.

At present, our country’s development has entered a new phase, and reform has entered a period of storming fortifications and an area of deep water. We must, with a strong sense of historical commitment, concentrate the wisdom of the entire Party and the entire society to the broadest extent, muster all positive factors to the broadest extent, dare to be gnaw through hard bones, dare to ford dangerous rapids, breach through fetters of ideological concepts with even greater resolution, surmount the barriers of solidified interests, and promote the self-perfection and development of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

By 2020, decisive results are to be obtained in reform of important areas and crucial segments, the reform tasks put forward in this Resolution are to be completed, institutions and systems that are structurally complete, scientifically standardized and effective in operation are to be formed, to ensure that institutions in all areas become ever more mature and finalized.

II, Persist in and perfect basic economic institutions

The basic economic system with public ownership at the centre, jointly developing with many kinds of ownership systems, is a major pillar of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is the foundation of the Socialist market economy system. The public economy and the non-public economy are both important component parts of the Socialist market economy, and are both important bases of China’s economic and social development. We must unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public economy, persist in the dominant position of the public ownership, give full rein to the guiding function of the State-owned economy, incessantly strengthen the vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy. We must unwaveringly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public economy, and arouse the vitality and creativity of the non-public economy.

(5) Perfect property rights protection systems. Property rights are the core of ownership systems. Complete a modern property rights system with clear attribution, clear-cut powers and responsibilities, strict protection and smooth transfer. Property rights in the public economy may not be violated, property rights in the non-public economy may equally not be violated.

The State protects economic property rights and legal interests in all sorts of ownership systems, it guarantees that economies under all ownership systems can equally use production factors according to the law, participate in market competition in an open, just and fair manner, and equally receive legal protection, and supervises economies under all ownership systems according to the law.

(6) Vigorously develop a mixed ownership economy. A mixed ownership economy with shareholding that overlaps or mutually blends State-owned capital, collective capital, non-public capital, etc., is an important real form of the basic economic system, it benefits the enlargement of the function of State-owned capital, maintaining and increasing its value and raising competitiveness, it benefits that capital under all sorts of ownership draw on each others’ strong points to offset weaknesses, stimulate each other and develop jointly. Even more State-owned economies and economies under other ownership systems are permitted to develop into mixed ownership economies. It is permitted that non-State-owned capital holds shares in State-owned capital investment programmes. It is permitted that mixed ownership economies implement enterprise personnel shareholding, to shape integrated interests among capital owners and labourers.

Perfect State-owned asset management systems, strengthen State-owned asset supervision with managing capital at the core, reform Stat-owned capital authorization and operation systems, build some State-owned capital operations companies, support that State-owned enterprises meeting conditions reorganize into State-owned asset investment companies. State-owned capital investment operations must serve national strategic objectives, invest more into important sectors and key areas relating to national security or key branches of the national economy, focus on providing public services, develop important and forward-looking strategic industries, protect the ecology and the environment, support scientific and technological progress and guarantee national security.

Transfer a portion of State-owned capital to replenish social security funds. Perfect State-owned capital operations and budgeting systems, raise the proportion of income from State-owned capital that is turned over to public finance, raise this to 30% by 2020, use this more to guarantee and improve people’s livelihoods.

(7) Promote the perfection of modern enterprise systems in State-owned enterprises. State-owned enterprises fall under the ownership of the entire people, and are an important force to move forward national modernization and protect the common interest of the people. State-owned enterprises generally have assimilated to the market economy, they must adapt to new trends of marketization and internationalization, and further deepen State-owned enterprise reform with standardizing commercial policymaking, protecting and increasing the value of assets, fair participation in competition, raising enterprise efficiency, strengthening enterprise vitality and bearing social responsibility as focus points.

Correctly define the functions of different State-owned enterprises. State-owned capital is to expand input into public interest enterprises, and make greater contributions to providing public services. State-owned capital is to continue to control and manage sectors with natural monopolies, is to implement reform with separating government and enterprises, separating government and capital, specially-permitted operations and government supervision and main content, implement separation of networks and operations on the basis of the characteristics of different sectors, set competitive business free, move the marketization of public resource allocation forward. Further eliminate all sorts of sector monopolies.

Complete company and legal person governance structures with coordinated operations and effective checks and balances. Establish professional manager systems, to give rein to the role of entrepreneurs even better. Deepen reform of systems concerning enterprises’ internal management personnel’s upward and downward mobility, personnel hiring and firing and salary increase or decrease. Establish long-lasting incentive and restraint mechanisms, strengthen responsibility investigations for State-owned enterprise operations and investment. Explore moving forward with openness of State-owned enterprise finance and budgeting, and other such important information.

State-owned enterprises must reasonably increase the proportion of marketized hiring and appointments, reasonably determine and strictly standardize state-owned enterprise management personnel salary standards, duty remuneration, duty expenses and professional expenses.

(8) Support the healthy development of the non-public economy. The non-public economy has an important role in supporting growth, stimulating innovation, broadening employment, enhancing fiscal income and other such areas. Persist in equality of rights, equality of opportunity and equality of regulations, eliminate all kinds and forms of unreasonable provisions affecting the non-public economy, eliminate all sorts of hidden barriers, formulate concrete rules for non-public enterprises to enter into specially-permitted areas of business.

Non-public enterprises are supported to participate in State-owned enterprise reform, the development of a mixed ownership economy with non-public capital shareholding is encouraged, privately-run enterprises meeting conditions are encouraged to establish modern enterprise systems.

III, Accelerating the perfection of modern market systems

Establishing a unified and open, competitive and orderly market system is the basis for the market to have a decisive function in the allocation of resources. We must accelerate the formation of modern market systems with enterprises’ autonomous operations, fair competition, free consumer choice, autonomous consumption, free circulation of products and production factors, and fair exchange, strive to eliminate market barriers, raise the efficiency and fairness of resource allocation.

(9) Establish fair and transparent market regulations. Implement unified market access systems, on the basis of formulating negative lists, all sorts of market subjects may enter into areas outside of the list on an equal basis and according to the law. Explore the implementation of a management model for foreign investment with pre-entry national treatment plus the negative list. Move forward with making industry and enterprise registration systems more convenient, reduce qualification accreditation programmes, change from certification before licensing to licensing before certification, progressively change the paid-in registered capital registration system into a subscribed capital registration system. Move forward with domestic commodity distribution structure reform, build a commercial environment under the rule of law.

Reform market supervision and management systems, implement uniform market supervision and management, tidy up and arrange all sorts of regulations and methods that impede national unified markets and fair competition, strictly punish and penalize all sorts of unlawful acts of extending preferential policies, oppose local protection, oppose monopolies and unfair competition. Establish and complete social credit system, and commend honesty. Complete a marketized withdrawal system where the fittest survive, perfect enterprise bankruptcy systems.

(10) Perfect mechanism in which prices are mainly determined by markets. All prices that can be formed by markets should be submitted to the market, governments are not to carry out improper interventions. Move forward with pricing reform in water, oil, natural gas, electricity, traffic, telecommunications and other such areas, set competitive market prices free. The government pricing scope is mainly limited to important public utilities, public interest-type services and network-type natural monopolies, raise transparency and accept social supervision. Perfect price-formation mechanisms for agricultural products, pay attention to giving rein to the function of markets in forming prices.

(11) Establish uniform urban and rural construction land markets. Under the precondition of conforming to regulations and managing the purpose of use, it is to be permitted that rural collective and construction land use is sold, rented or leased, and it is to be implemented that this equally enters the market, with equal rights and at equal prices as State-owned land. Reduce the scope of land expropriation, standardize land expropriation procedures, perfect reasonable, standardized and plural guarantee mechanisms for peasants whose land is requisitions. Broaden the scope of compensated use of State-owned land, reduce assignment of non-public interest land use. Establish mechanisms to allocate the profit from increased land values that simultaneously cater to the State, the collective and the individual, reasonably raise individual profit. Perfect secondary markets for land rents, transfers and mortgages.

(12) Perfect financial market systems. Expand domestic and international financial openness, under the precondition of strengthening supervision and management, non-governmental capital meeting conditions is permitted to sponsor the establishment of small and mid-size banks and other such financial organs according to the law. Move forward with policy-type financial organ reform. Complete multi-level capital market systems, move forward with stock distribution and registration system reform, promote many channels for equity capital, develop and standardize bond markets, raise the proportion of direct finance. Perfect compensation mechanisms in the insurance industry, establish insurance systems for huge disasters. Develop generalized preferential treatment for finance. Encourage financial innovation, enrich financial market levels and products.

Perfect mechanisms for the formation of Renminbi exchange marketization, accelerate with moving interest rate marketization forward, complete national debt yield curves that reflect the relation between market supply and demand. Promote bidirectional openness for capital markets, raise the extent of convertibility of cross-border capital and financial trading, establish and complete foreign debt and capital flow management systems under prudential macro-level management frameworks, accelerate the realization of the convertibility of Renminbi capital accounts.

Implement financial supervision and management reform measures and stability standards, perfect supervision, management and coordination mechanisms, demarcate central and local financial supervision and management duties, and risk management responsibilities. Establish deposit insurance systems, perfect marketized withdrawal mechanisms for financial organs. Strengthen financial infrastructure construction, guarantee that financial markets are operated securely and with high-efficiency, and are stable overall.

(13) Deepen science and technology structure reform. Establish and complete systems and mechanisms to encourage original creation and innovation, integrated innovation, import, absorption and re-innovation, complete market-oriented technological innovation mechanisms, give rein to the guiding functions of markets in the direction of technological research and development, the choice of paths, production factor prices, and the allocation of all sorts of innovation factors. Establish innovation mechanisms that coordinate industry, schools and research, strengthen the dominant position of enterprises in technological innovation, give rein to the innovation backbone function of large enterprises, arouse the innovation vitality of small and mid-size enterprises, move forward with marketization and industrialization reform of applied technology research and development organs, and build a national innovation structure.

Strengthen intellectual property rights use and protection, complete technological innovation incentive mechanisms, explore the establishment of intellectual property rights courts. Smash administrative dominance and departmental fragmentation, establish mechanisms in which mainly the market decides on technological innovation programmes, funding allocation and valuation of achievements. Develop technology markets, complete technology transfer mechanisms, improve funding conditions for science and technology-type small and mid-size enterprises, perfect risk investment mechanisms, innovate commercial models, stimulate the capitalization and industrialization of scientific and technological achievements.

Integrate science and technology plans and resources, perfect government support mechanisms for basic, strategic and pioneering scientific research and general technological research. Major State scientific research infrastructure that should be opened up according to regulations is to be opened up to society without exception. Establish innovation survey systems and innovation reporting systems, build open and transparent State scientific research resource management and programme appraisal mechanisms.

Reform selection and management systems for academics, optimize the structure of discipline, raise the proportion of young and middle-aged talents, implement academics’ retirement and pension systems.

IV, Accelerate the transformation of government functions

Scientific macro-level regulation and effective governance by governments are immanent needs to give rein to the superiority of the Socialist market economy system. We must realistically transform government functions, deepen administrative structural reform, innovate administrative management methods, strengthen government credibility and governance power, and build a rule of law government and a service-type government.

(14) Complete macro-level regulation systems. The main tasks of macro-level regulation are maintaining the general economic balance, stimulating coordination between major economic structures and the optimization of the structure of productive forces, attenuating the influence of the fluctuations of the economic cycle, preventing regional or systemic risks, stabilizing market expectations, and realizing sustained and healthy economic development. Complete macro-level regulation systems with State development strategies and plans as guidance, and financial policies and monetary policies as main method, move forward with formulating macro-level regulation targets and mechanizing the application of policy methods, strengthen the coordination of financial policies and monetary policies with industrial, pricing and other such policy measures, raise the levels of choosing opportunities, strengthen the forward looking nature, focus and coordination of macro-level regulation. Shape mechanisms to participate in international macro-economic policy coordination, promote the perfection of international economic governance structures.

Deepen reform of investment structures, establish the dominant position of enterprises in investment. Apart from where enterprise investment programmes relate to national security and ecological security, involve the structure of major production forces nationwide, strategic resource exploitation and major matters of public interest, etc., enterprises are to make autonomous decisions according to regulations without exception, and government is no longer to examine and approve this. Strengthen market access in energy saving, land saving, water saving, environmental, technological,  security and other such markets, establish and complete long-term mechanisms to prevent and resolve overcapacity.

Perfect assessment and appraisal systems for development achievements, correct the tendency of evaluating officials’ achievements merely by the speed of economic growth, expand the power of targets concerning resource depletion, environmental damage, ecological benefits, overcapacity, scientific and technological innovation, save production, debt growth, etc., pay more attention to the situation of labour and employment, residents’ incomes, social security and the people’s health. Accelerate the establishment of national uniform economic accounting systems, compile national and local asset balance sheets, establish uniform platforms for housing, credit and other basic data for the entire society, move departmental information sharing forward.

(15) Completely and correctly implement government functions. Further streamline the administration and decentralize powers, deepen administrative examination and approval structure reform, reduce central government management over micro-level matters to the broadest extent, examination and approval is to be cancelled without exception for economic activities that market mechanisms can effectively regulate, the retained administrative examination and approval matters must be managed in a standardized manner, and efficiency must be raised; economic and social manners that directly concern the grass roots, that are large in quantity and extensive in coverage, that can be more conveniently and effectively managed by the localities, are to be transferred to local and grass roots levels for management without exception.

Government must strengthen the formulation and implementation of development strategies, planning, policies, standards, etc., strengthen supervision and management over market activities, and strengthen all sorts of public service provision. Strengthen macro-level regulation duties and capacities of the central government, strengthen public service, market supervision and management, social management, environmental protection and other such duties of local governments. Extend government procurement services, all routine management matters must in principle be brought under competitive mechanism, and purchased from society through contracts, contracting and other such methods.

Accelerate the categorization and reform of undertaking work units, expand the public service strength of government procurement, promote that publicly run undertaking work units rationalize their relationships with their controlling departments and get rid of administrativization, create conditions to progressively remove the administrative levels of schools, scientific research institutes, hospitals and other such work units. Establish legal person governance structures for undertaking work units, moving forward with transforming undertaking work units meeting conditions into enterprises or social organizations. Establish uniform registration and management systems for all categories of undertaking work units.

(16) Optimize the structure of government organizations. To transform the functions of government, organic reform must be deepened. Optimize government organ establishment, functional deployment and workflows, perfect administrative operation mechanisms that both mutually restrain and mutually coordinate policymaking power, government power and supervision power. Straiten result management, give prominence to the implementation of duties, guarantee consistency of power and responsibility.

Comprehensively plan Party, government and mass organ reform, rationalize relationships of responsibility between departments. Vigorously and reliably implement a large department system. Optimize administrative delineation setups, localities meeting conditions are to explore moving forward with structural reform in which provinces directly manage counties (cities). Strictly control organs’ personnel allotments, allocate leading cadres strictly according to the provided post numbers, reduce the quantity of organs and the quantity of leaders, strictly control the total amount of personnel supported by the financial administration. Move forward with the scientization, standardization and legalization of organs’ personnel allotments.

V, Deepening fiscal structural reform

Finance is the basis and an important pillar for governing the nation, a scientific fiscal structure is an institutional guarantee for optimizing resource allocation, safeguarding market unity, stimulating social fairness and realizing a long period of peace and order for the country. We must perfect legislation, clarify duties and responsibilities, reform the tax system, stabilize tax burdens, make budgets transparent, raise efficiency, establish modern financial administration systems and give rein to the vigour of both the Centre and the localities.

(17) Improve budget management systems. Implement completely standardized, open and transparent budget systems. The focus of budget verification is to be expanded from the situation of balance and the extent of red numbers to appropriation budgets and policy. Tidy up the coupling of standardized focus payments with the growth rates of financial revenue and expenditure or the overall growth rate, generally, the coupling method is not to be used. Establish carry-over budget balancing mechanisms, establish a comprehensive governmental financial affairs reporting system with a power and responsibility structure, establish standardized and rational debt management and risk warning mechanisms for Central and local governments.

Perfect general transfer payment growth mechanisms, focus on increasing transfer payments to old revolutionary regions, ethnic regions, border regions and poor regions. Local financial shortcomings shaped because of transfer payment policies published by the Centre, are to be adjusted in principle through general transfer payments. Tidy up, integrate and standardize special transfer payment programmes, progressively abolish earmarks for competitive areas and local funding supplements, strictly control guidance, relief and emergency response programmes, re-examine retained earmarks, matters falling under local affairs are to be brought under general transfer payments.

(18) Perfect the tax revenue system. Deepen tax revenue system reform, perfect local taxation systems, progressively raise the proportion of direct taxation. Move forward with value-added tax reform, appropriately reduce rates. Adjust the collection scope, segments and rates of consumption tax collection, bring high-energy consumption and high-pollution products and a part of high-end consumption goods into the scope of tax collection. Progressively establish an individual income tax system that integrates being comprehensive and categorized. Accelerate real estate tax legislation and move reform forward in a timely manner, accelerate resource tax reform, promote the change of environmental protection fees into taxes.

According to the principles of a uniform fiscal system, fair tax burdens, and stimulating fair competition, strengthen standardization and management over preferential taxation and especially over regional preferential taxation policies. Preferential taxation policies are to be uniformly provided through special taxation laws and regulations, tidy up and standardize preferential taxation policies. Perfect national taxation and local taxation collection and control mechanisms.

(19) Establish systems in which duties and payment responsibilities are mutually adapted. Appropriately strengthen Central duties and payment responsibilities, national defence, foreign affairs, national security and regulation and management involving national uniform markets, etc., are Central duties; a part of social security, cross-regional major programme construction safeguards, etc., are joint duties of the Centre and the localities, and duty responsibilities are to be progressively rationalized; regional public services are local duties. Payment responsibilities are to be borne and divided between the Centre and the localities according to their duties. The Centre may entrust the localities with a number of payment responsibilities through arranging transfer payments. With regard to cross-regional public services or those that have a relatively large influence on other regions, the Centre is to bear a number of local duties and payment responsibilities through transfer payments.

Maintain the existing general stability of the Central and local financial resource structure, combine this with tax system reform, consider the properties of taxation categories, further rationalize the income division between the Centre and the localities.

VI, Complete systems and mechanisms for unified urban and rural development.

The binary structure of town and country is a main obstacle restraining unified urban and rural development. We must complete systems and mechanisms, shape new types of relationships between industry, agriculture, cities and the countryside in which industry stimulates agriculture, cities drive the countryside, and industry and agriculture are mutually beneficial, let the broad peasants equally participate in the process of modernization, and jointly share the fruits of modernization.

(20) Accelerate the building of new forms of agricultural operations systems. Persist in the basic position of household operations in agriculture, move forward with agricultural operational method innovation that jointly develops household operations, collective operations, cooperative operations and enterprise operations. Persist in the collective ownership of rural land, safeguard the land contracting and operational rights of peasants according to the law, develop and expand the collective economy. Stabilize rural land contraction relationships and maintain them unchanged for a long time, under the precondition of persisting in and perfecting the strictest arable land protection systems, endow peasants with the powers of possession, use, profit, transmission, mortgage and guarantee of contracting and operational powers with regards to their contracted land, peasants are permitted to develop industrialized agricultural operations with the income from contracting operational rights. It is encouraged that contracting and operational rights are transferred to specialized large households, household farms, peasants’ collectives and agricultural enterprises on the open market, develop operations in many kinds, forms and scales.

Villages are encouraged to develop the cooperative economy, support the development of upscaled, specialized and modernized operations, financial programme funds are permitted to directly invest in cooperatives meeting conditions, it is permitted that the assets formed with financial subsidies are transferred to cooperatives for possession and management, it is permitted that cooperatives launch credit cooperations. Industrial and commercial capital is to be encouraged and guided to go to villages and develop modern types of cultivation sectors with suitable modernized operations, and to bring modern production factors and operational models into agriculture.

(21) Endow peasants with more property rights. Guarantee the membership rights of peasants in collective economic organizations, vigorously develop peasant shareholding cooperation, endow peasants with rights of possession of shares in collective assets, profit, compensated withdrawal as well as mortgage, guarantee and inheritance rights. Guarantee peasants’ usufruct rights over their homestead land, reform and perfect village homestead land systems, select some trial points, cautiously and reliably move forward with peasant housing property right mortgage, guarantee and transfer, explore the expansion of property-type income channels for peasants. Establish village property rights transfer and trade markets, promote the open, fair and standardized operation of village property rights transfer and trade.

(22) Move forward with equal exchange of production factors between town and country and balanced allocation of public resources. Safeguard peasants’ production factor rights and interests, guarantee that peasants and labourers receive equal pay for equal work, guarantee that peasants fairly share in the increased value of land, guarantee that financial organs’ village deposits are mainly used for agricultural villages. Complete agricultural support and protection systems, reform agricultural subsidy systems, perfect profit compensation mechanisms for main grain producing areas. Perfect agricultural insurance systems. Social capital is encouraged to invest in village construction, enterprises and social organizations are permitted to set up all sorts of undertakings in villages. Comprehensively plan urban and rural infrastructure construction and community construction, move forward with the equalization of basic public services in town and country.

(23) Perfect healthy development systems and mechanisms for urbanization. Persist in marching the path of a new type of urbanization with Chinese characteristics, move forward with an urbanization that puts people at the centre, promote  the coordinated development of small and mid-size cities and small towns, and the integrated development of industries and cities, stimulate a coordinated push towards urbanization and new village construction. Optimize urban space structuring and management structures, strengthen comprehensive urban carrying capacity.

Move forward with urban construction and management innovation. Establish transparent and standardized urban construction investment mechanisms, local governments are permitted to broaden urban construction financing channels through issuing debt and many other methods, social capital is permitted to participate in urban infrastructure investment and operations through special permission operations, etc., research the establishment of urban infrastructure and housing policy-type financial organ. Perfect urban planning standards, straiten examination and approval procedures, counties meeting conditions for division into administrative districts may change into cities in an orderly manner. Towns that attract a large population, with strong economic power, may be endowed with management powers suited to the scale of their population and economy. Establish and perfect cross-regional coordinated urban development mechanisms.

Move forward with changing people transferred away from agriculture into townspeople, progressively change people transferred away from agriculture who meet conditions into urban residents. Innovate population management, accelerate household registration system reform, completely lift restrictions on settling in administrative townships and small cities, lift restrictions on settling into mid-size cities in an orderly manner, rationally determine settlement conditions for large cities, strictly control the scale of the population in especially large cities. Steadily move forward with a complete coverage of the permanent population of cities and towns with basic urban public services, bring peasants who settled in cities into urban housing and social security systems, link up old-age insurance and medical insurance standards joined in villages with urban social security systems. Establish mechanisms to couple financial transfer payments with peasants transferring into townspeople, strictly and rationally provide urban construction land, raise the use rate of urban land.

VII, Build new and open economic structures

To adapt to the new trends of economic globalization, we must promote a mutual stimulation of domestic and foreign openness, integrate bringing things in and marching out even better, stimulate the orderly and free flow of international and domestic production factors, high-efficiency deployment of resources and deep market integration, accelerate the fostering of, participating in and leadership of new competitive advantages in international cooperation, in order to make opening up stimulate reform.

(24) Broaden investment input. Unify domestic and foreign capital laws and regulations, maintain foreign capital policy stability, transparency and predictability. Move forward with the orderly opening up of finance, education, culture, healthcare and other service areas, lift limits on foreign investment in childcare, care for the elderly, architectural design, accounting and auditing, commerce and logistics, electronic commerce and other such service areas, further open up the general manufacturing industry. Accelerate the integration and optimization of Customs Special Supervision and Management Zones.

Establishing the China Shanghai Free Trade Trial Zone is a major measure to move reform and opening up forward under new circumstances, it must be realistically built well and managed well, and explore new channels for and accumulate new experiences of deepening reform and broadening openness. On the basis of moving existing trials forward, select some localities meeting conditions to develop free trade park (port) zones.

Broaden enterprise and individual foreign investment, establish the dominant position of enterprises and individuals in foreign investment, they are permitted to give rein to their own advantages, go abroad and launch investment cooperation, they are permitted to go to all countries and all regions, taking their own risks, to freely contract projects and business cooperation programmes, they are permitted to innovate methods of marching out and launching green-field investment, merger and acquisition investment, negotiable security investment, joint investment, etc.

Accelerate the signing of investment agreements with relevant countries and regions, reform examination and approval systems for foreign-related investment, perfect consular protection systems, provide rights and interests guarantees, investment stimulation, risk prevention and many other services, broaden the space for investment cooperation.

(25) Accelerate the construction of free trade zones. Persist in the rules of the global trading system, persist in launching bilateral, multilateral and regional cooperation, broaden points of converging interests with all countries and all regions, accelerate the implementation of the free trade strategy with the periphery as the basis. Reform market access, Customs supervision and management, inspection and quarantine and other such management systems, accelerate negotiations on environmental protection, investment protection, government procurement, electronic commerce and other such new topics, form high-level free trade zone networks faced to the entire world.

Broaden openness towards and cooperation with the Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR and the Taiwan region.

Broaden inland border openness. Support inland cities to build international passenger and freight air lines, develop many kinds of through transport, form foreign economic corridors traversing the East, the Centre and the West, and link up the South and the North. Promote coordinated customs clearance inland, along the costs and along borders, realize information exchange, mutual supervision and management recognition and mutual law enforcement assistance between port management and corresponding departments.

Accelerate the pace of opening borders, it is permitted that focus border posts, border towns and economic cooperation zones implement special methods and policies in personal travel, processing and logistics, tourism and other such area. Establish open financial organs, accelerate joint construction of infrastructure with surrounding countries and regions, move forward with the construction of the Silk Road economic belt and the Sea Silk Road, form new structures that are open on all sides.

VIII, Strengthen the construction of the Socialist democratic political system.

To develop Socialist democratic politics, we must make guaranteeing the fact that the people master their own affairs into the basis, persist in and perfect the People’s Congress system, the system of multi-party cooperation under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the political consultative conference system, the ethnic region autonomy system as well as the grass routs masses’ autonomy system, pay more attention to completing democratic institutions and enrich democratic forms, broaden citizens’ orderly political participations at all levels and in all areas, and fully give rein to the superiorities of our country’s Socialist political system.

(27) Promote that the People’s Congress system progresses with the times. Persist in the dominant position of the people, move forward with theoretical and practical innovation of the People’s Congress system, give rein to the basic political institutional function of the People’s Congress system. Perfect a Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, complete legislative drafting, argumentation, coordination and deliberation mechanisms, raise the quality of legislation, prevent the legalization of local protection and departmental interests. Complete the “one government, two houses” [the People's Governments, the People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates] system, which is generated by People’s Congresses, are responsible to People’s Congresses and accept the supervision of People’s Congresses. Complete systems for People’s Congresses to discuss and decide on major affairs, all levels’ governments are to report to the same level’s People’s Congress before publishing major policy decisions. Strengthen People’s Congress budget and accounting inspection and supervision functions, and State-owned asset supervision functions. Implement statutory tax collection principles. Strengthen the link of People’s Congress Standing Committees with People’s Congress representatives, fully give rein to their representative function. Tighten the relationship between representatives and the popular masses through establishing and completing representative contact organs, network platforms and other such forms.

Perfect People’s Congress work mechanisms, broaden citizens’ orderly participation in the legislative process through forums, hearings, assessments, publication of legal drafts, etc., vigorously respond to social concerns through inquiries, interpellations, investigations on designated issues, file examination, etc.

(28) Move forward with the broad, multi-level and institutionalized development of consultative democracy. Consultative democracy is a special form and unique superiority of our country’s Socialist democratic politics, and is a major reflection of the Party’s mass line in the political area. Under the leadership of the Party, and with major issues in economic and social development as well as real issues that involve the masses’ personal interests as content, launch broad consultation in the whole society, persist in consulting before policy decisions and during the implementation of policy decisions.

Build an orderly and rational consultative democracy system with integrated segments, broaden coordination channels between State organs, consultative organizations, party organizations, grass roots organizations and social organizations. Deeply launch legislative consultation, administrative consultation, democratic consultation, participatory consultation and social consultation. Strengthen the construction of new think tanks with Chinese characteristics, establish and complete policymaking consultancy systems.

Give rein to the important role of the united front in consultative democracy. Perfect political consultation between the Chinese Communist Party and all democratic parties, earnestly listen to the opinions of the democratic parties and non-party individuals. The CCP Central Committee puts forwards plans on the basis of annual focus work points, and conducts consultation through consultative meetings, heart-to-heart talks and forums. Perfect systems for democratic parties’ central committees to directly put suggestions to the CCP Central Committee. Implement the Party’s ethnic policies, guarantee the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities, consolidate and develop Socialist ethnic relations of mutual assistance and harmony.

Give rein to the important channelling function of People’s Political Consultative Conferences in consultative democracy. Focus on moving the institutionalization, standardization and proceduralization of political consultation, democratic supervision and participation in government affairs forward. All levels’ Party Committees, governments and Consultative Conferences are to formulate and organize the implementation of annual work plans, and listen to the opinions of Consultative Conferences on a number of important policy decisions. Perfect People’s Political Consultative Conference systems, standardize the content and procedures of consultation. Expand the forms of consultative democracy, organize topical consultations, specialized consultation, consultation with different sectors and consultation on dealing with motions in an even more dynamic and orderly manner, increase the density of consultation, raise the effect of consultation. Complete contact organs for committee members in Consultative Conferences, perfect contact systems for Consultative Conference members.

(29) Develop grass roots democracy. Smoothen democratic channels, complete grass roots election, political discussion, openness, reporting, accountability and other such mechanisms. Launch grass roots democratic consultation in many forms, move forward with the institutionalization of grass roots coordination, establish and perfect residents’ and villagers’ supervision mechanisms, stimulate the masses’ self-management, self=service, self-education and self-supervision in urban and rural community governance, grass-roots public affairs and public interest undertakings, according to the law. Complete democratic management systems in enterprise and undertaking work units with employees’ representative committees as the basic form, strengthen the construction of democratic mechanisms in social organizations, guarantee the democratic rights of staff to participate in management and supervision.

IX, Moving the construction of a rule of law China forward

To construct a rule of law China, we must persist in moving governing the country according to the law, governance according to the law and administration according to the law forward jointly, and persist in the integrated construction of a rule of law country, a rule of law government and a rule of law society. Deepen judicial structural reform, accelerate the construction of a fair, high-efficiency and authoritative Socialist judicial system, safeguard the people’s rights and interests, let the popular masses feel fairness and justice in every judicial case.

(30) Safeguard the authority of the Constitution and the laws. The Constitution is the basic law that guarantees that the Party and the country flourish and grow, and will know a long period of peace and order, and has the highest authority. We must further complete mechanisms and procedures for constitutional implementation and supervision, and raise the comprehensive implementation of the Constitution to a new level. Establish and complete systems by which the entire society is faithful to, respects, safeguards and utilizes the Constitution. Persist in the fact that everyone is equal in the face of the law, that no organization or individual may exceed the authority of the Constitution and the law, and that all acts violating the Constitution and the law must be punished.

Universally establish legal advice systems. Perfect mechanisms for examining the legality of normative documents and major policy decisions. Establish scientific rule of law construction indicator systems and assessment standards. Complete filing and inspection systems for laws, regulations and normative documents. Complete social law popularization and education mechanisms, strengthen the rule of law conception of the entire population. Progressively increase the quantity of relatively large cities that have local legislative powers.

(31)  Deepen administrative law enforcement structure reform. Integrate law enforcement subjects, concentrate related law enforcement powers, move comprehensive law enforcement forward, strive to resolve issues of overlapping responsibilities and many-headed law enforcement, and establish administrative law enforcement systems with unified powers and high-efficiency authority. Reduce administrative law enforcement levels, strengthen grass roots law enforcement strength in food, drugs, production safety, environmental protection, labour protection, maritime islands and other such focus areas. Rationalize urban management law enforcement systems, raise law enforcement and service levels.

Perfect administrative law enforcement procedures, standardize free discretionary law enforcement powers, strengthen supervision over administrative law enforcement, comprehensively implement administrative law enforcement responsibility systems and systems to ensure that law enforcement expenses are guaranteed by the financial administration, ensure that law enforcement is strict, standardized, fair and civilized. Perfect mechanisms to link administrative law enforcement with the criminal judiciary.

(32) Guarantee  that judicial powers and prosecutorial powers are exercised according to the law, independently and fairly. Reform judicial management systems, promote the unified management of human resources in courts and procuratorates at the provincial level and lower, explore the establishment of judicial jurisdiction systems that are suitably separated from administrative areas, guarantee the uniform and correct implementation of State laws.

Establish judicial personnel management systems that conform to professional characteristics, complete mechanisms for the uniform recruitment, orderly circulation and gradual selection of judges, prosecutors and People’s Police, perfect categorized judicial personnel management systems, complete professional guarantee systems for judges, prosecutors and People’s Police.

(33) Complete operational mechanisms for judicial power. Optimize the allocation of judicial powers, complete mechanisms for division of work responsibilities, mutual coordination and mutual restraint of judicial powers, strengthen and standardize legal supervision and social supervision over judicial activities.

Reform the trial committee system, perfect case handling responsibility systems for presiding judges and collegiate benches, let those hearing the case judge, and those judging the case be responsible. Clarify the functions and positions of all levels’ courts, standardize the hierarchical trial supervision relationship between higher and lower courts.

Move forward with open trials and open prosecutions, record and maintain materials from the entire court process. Strengthen the rationality of legal documents, promote openness of valid court judgment documents. Straiten and standardize punishment commutation, parole and medical bail procedures, strengthen supervision systems. Broadly implement the people’s assessor and people’s supervisor systems, broaden channels for the popular masses to participate in the judiciary in an orderly manner.

(34) Perfect structures for the judicial protection of human rights. The State respects and protects human rights. Further standardize judicial procedures for  detention, custody, asset freezing and dealing with assets involved in cases. Complete mechanisms to prevent and correct misjudged cases, and to pursue responsibility, it is strictly prohibited to extort confession by torture, engage in corporal punishment or abuse, strictly implement the rule that illegal evidence is thrown out. Progressively reduce the use of charges carrying the death penalty.

Abolish the re-education through labour system, perfect punishment and execution laws for unlawful and criminal acts, complete community correction institutions.

Complete State judicial aid systems, perfect legal assistance systems. Perfect mechanisms to guarantee lawyers’ professional rights and structures to punish legal businesses violating laws and regulations, strengthen professional moral construction, give rein to the important function of lawyers in safeguarding citizens’ and legal persons’ lawful rights and interests according to the law.

X, Strengthening restraining and supervision systems for the operationalization of power

Persist in using structures to manage power, manage affairs and manage people, letting the people supervise power and letting power be exercised in the sunlight are basic policies to ensure that power is locked up in a cage of rules. We must build power exercise structures with scientific policymaking, firm implementation and powerful supervision, complete corruption punishment and prevention structures, build clean politics, and strive to realize that cadres are just, government is clean and politics are clear.

(35) Shape scientific and effective power restraint and coordination mechanisms. Perfect Party and State leadership mechanisms, persist in the democratic centralism system, fully give rein to the leading core role of the Party. Standardize the limits to the power of main leading cadres at all levels of Party and government, scientifically deploy the powers and functions of Party and government departments and their internal organs, clarify responsibilities, positions and work tasks.

Strengthen and improve restraints of and supervision over main leading cadres’ exercise of power, strengthen administrative supervision and auditing supervision.

Implement a system in which all local levels of governments and their work departments’ powers are clearly listed, open up power exercise procedures according to the law. Perfect openness systems for Party affairs, government affairs and conducting work in all areas, move forward with open policymaking, open management, open service and open results.

(36) Strengthen anti-corruption structure and mechanism innovation and institutional guarantees. Strengthen the Party’s unified leadership over a clean and honest Party work style construction and anti-corruption work. Reform the Party’s discipline inspection system, complete leadership structures and work mechanisms for anti-corruption work, reform and perfect the functions of anti-corruption coordination groups at all levels.

Implement a responsibility system for the construction of a clean and honest Party work style, Party Committees bear the main responsibility, Discipline Inspection Committees bear a supervisory responsibility, formulate and implement realistic and feasible responsibility investigation mechanisms. All levels’ Discipline Inspection Committees must implement their duties of assisting Party Committees with strengthening Party work style construction and organizing coordinated anti-corruption work, strengthen supervision over Party Committees at the same level and especially the members of Standing Committees, and give better rein to their function as the specialized intra-Party supervision organs.

Promote the concretization, proceduralization and institutionalization of double-headed leadership systems over Party discipline inspection work, strengthen the leadership of higher levels’ Discipline Inspection Committees over lower-level Discipline Inspection Committees. First place is to be given to higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees in handling corruption cases, handling clues and investigating cases must be reported to higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees at the same time when they are reported to the same level’s Discipline Inspection Committee. First place is to be given to the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee and Organization Department in the nomination and assessment of all levels’ Discipline Inspection Committee secretaries and vice-secretaries.

Comprehensively implement the posting of Central Discipline Inspection Committee staff to Central first-level Party and State organs, to inspect the discipline in those organs, implement uniform designations and uniform management. The organ where they are posted is responsible to the organ sending them out for implementing the supervisory duties. Implement Central, provincial and city inspection systems, ensure complete coverage over localities, departments, enterprise and undertaking work units.

Complete anti-corruption and pro-honesty law and regulation institutions and systems, perfect laws and regulations to punish and prevent corruption, guard against risks for clean government, prevent conflicts of interest, for leading cadres to report relevant personal matters, position avoidance and other such areas, implement trials for openness in relevant matters of newly-promoted leading cadres. Complete democratic supervision, legal supervision and public opinion supervision mechanisms, utilize and standardize Internet supervision.

(37) Completely improve normalized work style institutions. Revolve around opposing formalist, bureaucratist, hedonist and extravagant tendencies, accelerate the reform and construction of structures and mechanisms. Complete mechanisms for leading cadres to take the lead in improving work styles and go deeply into the grass roots for inspection and observation, perfect systems to directly contact and serve the masses. Reform meeting document systems, set the example in reducing meetings and documents starting from the Centre, strive to improve meeting styles and writing styles. Complete strict financial budgeting, verification and auditing systems, strive to control the “three officials'” expenses and payments, and the construction of official buildings. Perfect special inspection and responsibility investigation systems to select and appoint people, strive to correct the unhealthy tendencies of craving important positions. Reform officials’ achievement appraisal mechanisms, strive to resolve issues such as “image projects”, “officials’ achievement projects” as well as lack of accomplishments, chaotic activities, etc.

Standardize and strictly implement leading cadres’ work and life guarantee systems, it is not permitted to occupy many houses and office rooms, it is not permitted to allocate office rooms and living rooms in excess of quota, it is not permitted to allocate public cars in violation of regulations, it is not permitted to allocate secretaries in violation of regulations, it is not permitted to retain security guards in excess of quota, it is not permitted to conduct public receptions in excess of standards, strictly investigate and prosecute issues such as enjoying treatment in violation of regulations or in excess of standards, etc. Explore the implementation of an official residence system.

Perfect and strictly implement rules and regulations concerning leading cadres’ relatives engaging in business, holding public positions or duties in social organizations, going to live abroad and other such matters, to prevent that leading cadres use public power or their own influence to provide personal gains to their relatives or other specific related persons, firmly oppose privileged thinking and work styles.

XI, Move cultural structural and mechanisms innovation forward

To build a strong Socialist culture country and strengthen national cultural soft power, we must persist in the progressive orientation of advanced Socialist culture, persist in the cultural development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, foster and practice the Socialist core value system, consolidate the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area, and consolidate a common ideological basis of the united struggle of the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country. Persist in the work orientation of putting people central, persist in putting social effect first, and in the organic integration of social effects and economic effects, make arousing the entire nation’s cultural creative vitality into a central link, further deepen cultural structural reform.

(38) Perfect cultural management structures. According to the principles of separating government and enterprises, and separating government and undertakings, promote that government departments shift from running culture to managing culture, promote that Party and government relations further rationalize relations with their subordinate cultural enterprise and undertaking work units. Establish  organs for Party Committees and government to supervise and manage the management of State-owned cultural assets, implement the integration of managing people, managing affairs, managing assets and managing orientations.

Complete structures and mechanisms to persist in the correct public opinion orientation. Complete joint mechanisms for basic management, content management, sector management as well as prevention of and attack against unlawful and criminal acts online, and other such work, complete mechanisms to deal with sudden incidents online, shape an online public opinion structure that integrates positive guidance with management according to the law. Integrate news media resources, promote the converged development of traditional media and new media. Promote the institutionalization of news dissemination. Straiten news workers’ professional qualification systems, pay high regard to the operation and management of new media, and standardize communication order.

(39) Establish and complete modern cultural market systems. Perfect cultural market access and exit mechanisms, encourage all sorts of market subjects to compete fairly, with the fittest surviving, stimulate that cultural resources circulate across the entire country. Continue moving forward with transforming State-owned commercial cultural work units into enterprises, accelerate transformation of corporate systems and shareholding systems. Explore the implementation of special management and share systems for important State-owned media enterprises that transform according to regulations. Promote cross-regional, cross-sectoral and cross-ownership mergers and acquisitions of cultural enterprises, raise the level of scale, intensification and specialization of cultural industries.

Non-public cultural enterprises are encouraged to develop, lower access thresholds for social capital, participation in foreign-oriented publishing and online publishing is permitted, participation in the transformation and operation of State-owned film and television production organs and literature and art troupes is permitted through the form of share control. The development of sorts of micro-culture enterprises is supported.

Under the precondition of persisting in the operation of publishing powers and broadcasting power under special permission, it is permitted to separate production and publishing, and production and broadcast. Establish a multi-level cultural product and production factor market, the integration of financial capital, social capital and cultural resources is encouraged. Perfect cultural economic policies, broaden government subsidies for culture and cultural procurement, strengthen copyright protection. Complete cultural product appraisal systems, reform award, push out even more excellent cultural products.

(40) Build modern public cultural service systems. Establish coordination mechanisms for the construction of a public cultural service system, comprehensively plan the construction of service facilities and networks, and stimulate the standardization and equalization of basic public cultural services. Establish mass appraisal and feedback mechanisms, promote the effective linkage of public welfare cultural programmes and the masses’ cultural demands. Integrate grass roots propaganda and culture, Party member education, science dissemination, physical education and other facilities, to build comprehensive cultural service centres.

Clarify the functions and positions of different cultural undertaking work units, establish legal person governance structures, perfect outcome assessment mechanisms. Promote that public libraries, museums, cultural centres, science and technology institutes, etc., organize councils, attract representatives from all sides, specialists and masses from all walks of life to participate in management.

Introduce competition mechanisms, promote the socialized development of public cultural services. Social forces and social capital are encouraged to participate in the construction of public cultural service systems, and foster non-profit cultural organizations.

(41) Raise cultural openness levels. Persist in government guidance, enterprise in the main role, market operations and social participation, broaden foreign cultural exchange, strengthen the construction of international communication capacity and foreign-oriented discourse systems, promote that Chinese culture marches towards the world. Rationalize domestic and foreign propaganda systems, support focus media in facing domestic and international developments. Foster foreign-oriented cultural enterprises, support cultural enterprises in going abroad and expanding markets. Social organizations, intermediary organs, etc., are encouraged to participate in the construction of Confucius Institutes and overseas cultural centres, and to undertake humanities exchange programmes.

XII, Move forward with social undertaking reform and innovation

To realize that the fruits of development are extended to the whole body of the people in ever greater numbers and more fairly, we must accelerate the reform of social undertakings, resolve questions of the interests that concern the people most, are most direct and most real well, strive to provide diversified services to society, and satisfy the people’s needs even better.

(42) Deepening comprehensive reform in the educational area. Completely implement the Party’s educational policies, persisting in cultivating the young to achieve virtue, strengthen education about the Socialist core value system, perfect education about China’s excellent traditional culture, shape effective forms and long-term mechanisms for activities of loving learning, loving work and loving the motherland, strengthen students’ sense of social responsibility, pioneering spirits and practical abilities. Strengthen physical education classes and extracurricular exercise, stimulate the young to be healthy in mind and body, and have a strong physique. Improve aesthetics education, raise students’ aestheticism and accomplishment in the humanities. Forcefully stimulate fairness in education, complete student subsidy systems for households in difficulties, build effective mechanisms to utilize informatized methods to broaden the coverage of excellent educational resources, progressively reduce the differences between regions, between town and country and between schools. Comprehensively plan the balanced deployment of compulsory education resources across town and country, implement the standardized construction of state-run schools and rotational headmaster and teacher exchanges, do not set up focus schools and focus classrooms, reduce difficulties in choosing schools, lighten students’ schoolwork burdens by both treating symptoms and root causes. Accelerate the construction of modern vocational education systems, deepen the mixing of education and industry, and cooperation between schools and enterprises, and foster high-quality workers and skilled talents. Innovate higher education talent fostering mechanisms, stimulate higher education to produce their characteristics and strive to become first-rate. Promote the reform and development of preschool education, special education and continuous education.

Move forward with the reform of the examination admissions system, explore operational mechanisms in which student admissions and examinations are relatively separated, with multiple choice student examinations, in which schools autonomously admit students according to the law, where special organs organize implementation, with macro-level government management and social participation and supervision. Fundamentally resolve the abuse of one examination determining one’s whole life. Allow entry without examinations in compulsory education, try out school districting systems and specialized student recruitment all along nine years. Implement lower middle school proficiency tests and comprehensive quality appraisal. Accelerate moving forward with categorized admissions and applications for vocational schools or for study registration. Progressively implement comprehensive appraisal and plural recruitment mechanisms for common higher education based on results in the uniform higher education exams and proficiency tests in higher middle school. Explore the reduction of courses in the nationwide uniform examinations, do not distinguish humanities and sciences, foreign languages and other disciplines, organize socialized exams multiple times per year. Try out credit transfer between general higher education schools, higher vocational schools and adult higher education, broaden life long learning channels.

Deeply move forward with the separation of management, running and appraisal, broaden the comprehensive education planning powers of provincial-level governments and the autonomy of schools to run courses, perfect intra-school governance structures. Strengthen State education supervision, entrust social organizations with launching education evaluation and monitoring. Complete government subsidy, government procurement service, tutoring loans, funding and award, donation encouragement and other such systems, encourage social forces to set up education.

(43) Complete structures and mechanisms to stimulate employment and entrepreneurialism. Establish joint mechanisms for economic development and broad employment, complete government responsibility systems to stimulate employment. Standardize employment and appointment systems, eliminate institutional barriers and employment discrimination on the basis of town and countryside, sector, identity, sex and all other matters that influence fair employment. Perfect preferential policies to support employment, shape new mechanisms for government to support entrepreneurship, for society to support entrepreneurship, and for labourers to dare to set up businesses. Perfect public employment and entrepreneurship service systems that are equal across town and country, build lifelong professional training systems for labourers. Strengthen unemployment insurance systems, prevent unemployment, and stimulate the function of employment, perfect employment and unemployment monitoring and statistic systems. Innovate labour relation coordination mechanisms, smoothen channels for workers to express reasonable appeals.

Stimulate youth employment and employment of labourers migrated from villages, urban inhabitants in difficulties and military veterans with higher education graduates as the focus point. Integrate industrial upgrading with developing even more employment position that suit higher education graduates. Government procurement grass roots public management and social service positions are to be used more to attract higher education graduates. Complete service guarantee mechanisms to encourage higher education graduates to go and work at the grass roots, raise the proportion of directed appointment of civil servants and of preferred appointment in undertaking work units. Implement policies to encourage higher education graduates to set up autonomous businesses, develop State and provincial-level higher education graduate employment and entrepreneurship funds in an integrated manner. Implement employment stimulation plans for higher education graduates who have left schools but have no job, bring the unemployed into the scope of employment probation, technical training and other activities preparing for employment, implement services across the complete process of employment for those in special difficulties.

(44) Form rational and orderly income allocation structures. Focus on the protection of labour income, strive to realize that labour remuneration growth and labour productivity increases have the same pace, and raise the proportion of labour remuneration in primary allocation. Complete salary decision and regular increase mechanism, perfect minimum wage and wage payment guarantee systems, and perfect collective wage bargaining systems in enterprises. Reform salary, allowance and subsidy systems in organs and undertaking work units, perfect allowance growth systems for difficult and remote regions. Complete remuneration mechanisms for capital, knowledge, technology, management, etc., that are decided by the factor market. Expand investment and leasing services and other such channels, optimize mechanisms to repay investors in publicly traded companies, protect the lawful rights and interests of investors and especially small and mid-size investors, increase residents’ property-type income through many channels.

Perfect redistribution and adjustment mechanisms with tax revenue, social security and transfer payments as the main methods, expand tax revenue adjustment strength. Establish reasonable sharing mechanisms for income from the sales of public resources. Perfect structures for tax remittances for philanthropic donations, support charitable undertakings to give rein to their positive function in helping the poor and the needy.

Standardize income allocation procedures, perfect income allocation and adjustment systems and mechanisms and policy systems, establish individual income and asset information systems, protect lawful rights and interests, adjust overly high incomes, tidy up and standardize hidden income, ban illegal income, increase the income of low wage earners, broaden the proportion of middle income earners, strive to reduce the income gap in town and country, in regions and in sectors, progressively form an olive-shaped distribution structure.

(45) Establish fairer and more sustainable social security systems. Persist in the basic old-age insurance system that integrates comprehensive social planning and individual accounts, perfect individual account systems, complete incentive mechanisms so that those who pay more, get more, guarantee the rights and interests of the insured, realize comprehensive planning of basic pensions across the country, persist in the principles of accurate calculations and balance. Move forward with the reform of old-age insurance systems in organs and undertaking work units. Integrate basic old-age insurance systems and basic health insurance systems for urban and rural residents. Move the comprehensive development of minimum living guarantee systems forward. Establish and complete reasonable social security treatment standards and regular adjustment mechanisms that simultaneously deal with various categories of people. Perfect policies to continue social security relationships after migration, broaden insurance participation and fee payment coverage, reduce social security fees appropriately and timely. Research the formulation of policies to gradually raise the retirement age. Accelerate the completion of social security management systems and service systems. Complete housing support and supply systems that conform to national circumstances, establish open and standardized public housing funding systems, improve public housing funding collection, user and supervision mechanisms.

Complete financial input systems for social security, perfect social security budget systems. Strengthen social security fund investment management and supervision move marketized and pluralist investment operations of funds forward. Formulate and implement tax exemption or tax deferral policies and other such preferential policies, accelerate the development of enterprise annuities, professional annuities and commercial insurance, build multi-level social security systems.

Vigorously respond to population aging, accelerate the establishment of social service systems to care for the elderly and the development of service industries for the elderly. Complete welfare and service systems for children, women and the elderly who have remained behind in villages, complete mechanisms to guarantee the rights and interests of the disabled, and of children in difficulties.

(46) Deepen medical and hygiene structure reform. Comprehensively move forward with overall reform in healthcare security, healthcare services, public hygiene, drug provision, supervision and management structures. Deepen comprehensive reform of grass roots healthcare and hygiene organs, complete networked urban and rural grass roots healthcare and hygiene service and operation mechanisms. Accelerate reform of public hospitals, implement governmental responsibilities, establish scientific healthcare outcome appraisal mechanisms and talent fostering and human rights resource systems that are suited to the characteristics of the sector. Perfect reasonable hierarchical diagnosis and treatment models, establish service relationships with community doctors and resident charter services. Fully utilize informatized means to stimulate high-quality healthcare resources to flow up and down. Accelerate the completion of medical insurance and aid systems for major and large diseases. Perfect policies and mechanisms for the development of the Chinese medicine sector.

Society is encourage to run hospitals, optimize organs to support the running of non-commercial healthcare. Social capital may directly be invested into areas where resources are rare and it is necessary to satisfy multiple demands for services, and may participate in reform and reorganization of public hospital in many forms. Doctors are permitted to set up shop in multiple places, people-run healthcare organs are permitted to be brought into the scope of focus health insurance.

Persist in the basic national policy of birth planning, start the implementation of a policy where it is permitted to have two children if ether a husband or a wife is an only child, progressively adjust and perfect birth policies, stimulate the balanced development of the population for the long run.

XIII, Innovate social governance systems.

To innovate social governance, we must fix our eyes upon safeguarding the basic interests of the broadest people, enhancing harmonious factors to the broadest extent, strengthening social development vitality and raising social governance levels, we must completely move the construction of a peaceful China forward, safeguard national security, ensure that the people live and work in peace and contentment, and that society is stable and orderly.

(47) Improve social administration methods. Persist in systematic governance, strengthen the leadership of Party Committees, give rein to the guiding function of government, encourage and support all walks of society to participate, realize a positive interaction between government governance, social self-governance and residents’ self governance. Persist in governance according to the law, strengthen rule of law guarantees, use rule of law thinking and rule of law methods to dissolve social contradictions. Persist in comprehensive governance, strengthen moral restraint, standardize social actions, moderate relationships of interests, coordinate social relationships and resolve social problems. Persist in governing from the source, dealing with both symptoms and root causes, focus on dealing with the roots, make networked management and socialized management into the direction, complete comprehensive grass roots service management platforms, timely reflect and coordinate the interests and appeals of the popular masses in all areas and at all levels.

(48) Arouse the vitality of social organizations. Correctly deal with the relationship between government and society, accelerate the implementation of the separation between government and society, move forward with clarifying social organizations’ duties and responsibilities, their being autonomous according to the law, and giving rein to their function. Public services and matters to be resolved that are suited to be done by social organizations are to be handed over to social organizations. Support and develop volunteer service organizations. Realize a genuine disconnection between sector associations and chambers of commerce, and administrative organs, focus on fostering and give priority to developing sector associations and chamber of commerce, science and technological, public interest and philanthropy, urban and rural community service social organizations, who directly apply for registration according to the law when they are established. Strengthen management over social organizations and foreign non-governmental organizations, guide them to launch their activities according to the law.

(49) Innovate effective mechanisms to prevent and dissolve social contradictions. Complete social stability risk assessment mechanisms for major policy decisions. Establish open and orderly mechanisms to express appeals, intervene psychologically, mediate contradictions and guarantee rights and interests, ensure that the problems of the masses can be reflected, contradictions can be dissolved and rights and interests are guaranteed.

Reform administrative redress structures, complete administrative redress case trial mechanisms, correct unlawful or improper administrative acts. Perfect joint work systems with people’s mediation, administrative mediation and judicial mediation, establish comprehensive mechanisms to mediate and dissolve contradictions and disputes.

Reform letters and petitions work systems, implement systems for the online reception of letters and petitions, complete mechanisms to resolve the masses’ reasonable appeals timely and on the spot. Bring letters and petitions relating to the law and to trials onto role of law tracks and resolve them there, establish final rules for letters and petitions involving the law and trials according to the law.

(50) Complete public security systems. Perfect uniform and authoritative food and drug security organs, establish the strictest supervision rules that cover entire processes, establish traceability rules for the original production location of foodstuffs and quality symbol systems, to guarantee food and drug security. Deepen safe production management system reform, establish danger inspection and governance systems and security prevention and control systems, restrain major and large safety accidents. Complete disaster prevention, disaster reduction and disaster relief systems. Strengthen comprehensive social order governance, innovate solidified social order prevention and control systems, strictly guard against and punish all sorts of unlawful and criminal activities according to the law.

Persist in the policy of positive use, scientific development , management according to the law and ensuring safety, expand forces to manage the network according to the law, accelerate the perfection of leading structures for Internet management, guarantee the security of the national network and of information.

Establish a National Security Committee, perfect national security structures and national security strategies, guarantee national security.

XIV, Accelerate the construction of ecological civilization institutions.

To build and ecological civilization, we must establish systematic and integrated ecological civilization institutions and systems, implement the strictest source protection systems, damage compensation systems and responsibility investigation institutions, perfect environmental governance and ecological restoration institutions, and use institutions to protect the ecology and the environment.

(51) Complete natural resource property right systems and use management systems. Conduct uniform rights determination and registration for natural ecological spaces such as rivers, forests, mountain ranges, grasslands, undeveloped land, shoals, etc., shape natural resource property right systems with clear assignments [of property rights], clear duties and responsibilities and effective supervision and management. Establish spatial planning systems, draw control boundaries for production, living and ecological space exploitation, implement use management structures. Complete energy, water and land savings and intensified use structures.

Complete national natural resource management systems, uniformly exercise the duties of the entire people as owners of natural resources. Perfect natural resource supervision and management systems, uniformly exercise all land space use management and control powers.

(52) Draw red lines for ecological protection. Unwaveringly implement main function area systems, establish land space exploitation and protection rules, strictly promote development according to the position of main function areas, establish national park systems. Establish natural resource and environmental carrying capacity monitoring and warning mechanisms. Implement restrictive measures concerning water and land resources, environmental capacity and overloaded oceanic resource areas. Cancel regional GDP assessment in restricted development regions and national focus countries for poverty alleviation and development work where the environment is weak.

Explore the compilation of natural resource balance sheets, implement natural resource audits when leading cadres leave their posts. Establish lifelong ecological and environmental harm responsibility investigation systems.

(53) Implement paid-for resource use systems and ecological compensation systems. Accelerate pricing reform of natural resources and their products, to completely reflect market supply and demand, the extent of resource scarcity, costs through ecological and environmental harm and the  benefit of restoration. Persist in using resource fees  the principle of who pollutes the environment, or who destroys the ecology must pay, progressively expand resource taxes to include all sorts of natural and ecological spaces. Steadily and broadly return grain plots to forestry, and turn pastures back into grasslands, adjust the use of farmland in gravely polluted areas and areas where ground water has been overused, implement farmland, river and lake recuperation and rebuilding in an orderly manner. Establish effective mechanisms to regulate reasonable prices for industrial land and residential land, raise the price of land for industrial use. Persist in the principle of who profits, compensates, perfect ecological compensation mechanisms for focus ecology function areas, promote interregional establishment of horizontal and vertical ecological compensation structures. Develop environmental protection markets, implement energy saving, carbon emission rights, waste discharge rights and water rights trading schemes, establish marketized mechanisms to attract social capital to invest in ecological and environmental protection, implement third-party governance for environmental pollution.

(54) Reform ecological civilization protection and management systems. Establish and perfect strict environmental protection management structures to supervise and manage all pollutant emissions, and to independently conduct environmental supervision and management, and administrative law enforcement. Establish joint mechanisms for comprehensive land and sea ecosystem protection, restoration and pollution prevention regions. Complete State-owned forest regions’ operations and management systems, perfect the reform of collective forestry rights systems. Publish environmental information in a timely manner, complete reporting systems, strengthen social supervision. Perfect licence systems for pollutant emissions, implement enterprise and undertaking work unit pollutant emission quantity control systems. Implement strict compensation systems for those responsible for creating ecological or environmental damage, investigate criminal liability according to the law.

XV, Deepen national defence and military reform

Closely revolve around the strong army objective of the Party under new circumstances of building a line of people’s troops that heed the Party’s command, can be victorious and have a fine work style, strive to resolve prominent contradictions and problems that restrain the construction and development of national defence and the military, innovate theories to develop military affairs, strengthen military strategic guidance, perfect military strategies and policies for the new period, build modern military force systems with Chinese characteristics.

(55) Deepen the adjustment and reform of military structures and personnel allocation. Move leadership and management structure reform forward, optimize the deployment of leadership organ functions and the organic deployment of the Military Commission and General Headquarters, perfect leadership and management structures for all service branches. Complete joint operations organs and joint theatre operations command systems within the Military Commission, move forward with the reform of joint operations training and guarantee systems. Perfect leadership systems for new types of combat forces. Accelerate the unified management of informatized construction and centralization. Optimize the structures of Armed Police forces and command and management structures.

Optimize the scale and structure of the military, adjust and improve the proportions of the different services, the proportion of officers and their ranks and the proportion of troops and organs, reduce non-combat organs and personnel. Reform the formation of units on the basis of security needs in different directions and combat tasks. Accelerate the construction of new types of combat forces. Deepen military academy reform, complete new types of military talent fostering systems that unite military academy education, unit training practice and military professional education.

(56) Move military policy system adjustment and reform forward. Complete and perfect military humanpower resource policy systems that are suited to the needs of the functions and tasks of the military and of national policy system innovation. With establishing officer professionalization systems as driver, progressively shape scientific and standardized military cadre institutions and systems. Complete and perfect non-military personnel systems. Perfect military service systems, NCO systems, veteran arrangement systems and reform supplementary policies.

Complete military expenditure management systems, establish mechanisms where needs drive planning, and where planning leads resource allocation. Complete and perfect management standard systems and structures for material expenses. Deepen budget management, concentrate income and payments, material purchases and the reform of soldiers’ healthcare, insurance, housing and other systems.

Complete military regulatory institutions and systems, explore, the improvement of scientific military management methods and means.

(57) Promote the deep development of military-civilian integration. Establish mechanisms for unified leadership, coordination between the military and localities, linking needs and resource sharing at the national level, to promote the joint development of the army and the people. Complete national defence industry systems, perfect national defence science and technology coordination and innovation systems, reform national defence research, development, production and management, and arms purchasing systems and mechanisms, guide superior people-run enterprises to enter into areas of military material research, development, production and maintenance. Reform and perfect policy systems relying on compulsory education to foster military talents. Broaden the socialized area of military guarantees. Deepen national defence education reform. Complete national defence mobilization structures and mechanisms, perfect ordinary commandeering and wartime mobilization law and regulation systems. Deepen the reform of the militia reserve system. Restructure and rationalize border, sea and air defence management systems and mechanisms.

XVI, Strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership over comprehensive deepening of reform

To completely deepen reform, we must strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership, fully give rein to the overall picture in which the Party assumes all responsibility, coordinate its leading core function in all areas, establish a study-type, service-type and innovative Marxist governing party, raise the Party’s leadership levels and governance capacity, to ensure that success is achieved in reform.

(58) The comrades in the entire Party must unite their thoughts and actions around the Centre’s major policy decisions and deployments concerning comprehensively deepening reform, correctly deal with the relationships between the Centre and the localities, the overall picture and parts of the picture, the present and the distant future, they must correctly deal with the adjustment of interest structures, fully carry intra-Party democracy forward, persist in safeguarding the authority of the Centre, guarantee that decrees are smoothly implemented, firmly and unwaveringly realize the Centre’s reform policy decisions and deployments.

The Centre establishes a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, to be responsible for the general design, comprehensive coordination, overall pushing forward and stimulating implementation of reform.

All levels’ Party Committees must realistically implement their leading responsibilities concerning reform, perfect scientific and democratic policymaking mechanisms, take major issues as guidance, and satisfactorily implement all reform measures. Strengthen the construction of leadership ranks at all levels, perfect cadre education, training and practical training systems, incessantly raise the ability of leadership ranks and leading cadres to push reform forward. Innovate grass roots Party building work, complete the Party’s basic organizational system, fully give rein to the fighting fortress function of grass roots Party organizations, guide the broad Party members to vigorously throw themselves into the undertaking of reform, carry forward a spirit of “driving nails”, let them leave traces when they grasp iron and leave marks when they tread on stones, and make vigorous contributions to the comprehensive deepening of reform.

(59) Comprehensive deepening of reform requires forceful organizational guarantees and talent support. Persist in the principle that the Party manages cadres, deepen the construction of human resource systems for cadres, and build effective and efficient, simple and convenient selection and appointment mechanisms, to ensure that excellent cadres fully emerge in large numbers from all sides. give rein to the leading and gatekeeping function of Party organizations, strengthen the power of Party Committees (Party Organizations), leaders in charge and Organization Departments in cadre selection and appointment, and their responsibility in cadre assessment, reform and perfect cadre assessment and appraisal systems, improve competitive methods for cadre selection, improve excellent young cadre fostering and selection mechanisms, implement selection systems and appointment systems as methods for cadre promotion in a differentiated manner, persist in correcting phenomena such as only appointing people on the basis of ballots or only appointing people on the basis of points, appoint cadres of all ages well, truly select good cadres with firm convictions, who serve the people, who are assiduous and pragmatic in government affairs, who dare to undertake work, are upright and just.

Break through cadre departmentalization, broaden visions and channels to select people, strengthen exchange across horizontal and vertical lines and across areas. Do away with “managing one’s own position” concepts move forward that cadres can rise and fall in position, can be appointed and can be removed. Perfect and implement leading cadre accountability systems, perfect institutions and systems to strictly manage cadre teams. Deepen civil servant classification reform, implement that civil servants’ duties and grades run parallel, and their duties and levels are coupled to their treatment, accelerate the establishment of management systems for special technological and administrative law enforcement civil servants and appointed personnel. Perfect basic civil servant employment systems, appropriately lower entry barriers in remote and difficult regions.

Establish systems and mechanisms to concentrate talent, pick outstanding talents from everywhere under heaven and appoint them. Smash institutional barriers, eliminate identity obstacles, let everyone have channels to grow into useful talents and come to the fore, let all kinds of talent have a broad space to put their talents to full use. Perfect institutions and systems for the smooth circulation of talent across Party and government organs, enterprise and undertaking work units and all sides of society. Complete incentive mechanisms for talents to move towards the grass roots, move towards difficult regions and posts, and do pioneering work on the first line. Accelerate the formation of talent system superiorities that have international competitiveness, perfect talent appraisal mechanisms, strengthen the openness of talent policy broadly attract excellent talents who are abroad to return to the country or to come to China, start an undertaking and develop.

(60) The people are the subjects of the revolution, we must persist in the Party’s mass line, establish social participation mechanisms, fully give rein to the vigour, initiative and creativity of the popular masses, fully give rein to the function of labour unions, the Communist Youth League, the Women’s Federation and other such people’s organizations, make concerted efforts to move reform forward. The localities, the grass roots and the masses are encouraged to explore boldly, strengthen major reform trial work, timely summarize experiences, pardon mistakes made in reform, strengthen propaganda and public opinion guidance, and create a good social environment for the comprehensive deepening of reform.

The comrades in the entire Party must firmly unite around the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary, forge ahead tenaciously, storm fortifications and overcome difficulties, compose a new historical chapter in the magnificent undertaking of reform and opening up, and struggle for the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society, to incessantly obtain new victories for Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!

[NOTE 18/11/13: Don Clarke provided some helpful suggestions with regards to terminology, the text has been upgraded to reflect these]

中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定

(2013年11月12日中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议通过)

  为贯彻落实党的十八大关于全面深化改革的战略部署,十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议研究了全面深化改革的若干重大问题,作出如下决定。

一、全面深化改革的重大意义和指导思想

(1)改革开放是党在新的时代条件下带领全国各族人民进行的新的伟大革命,是当代中国最鲜明的特色。党的十一届三中全会召开三十五年来,我们党以巨大的政治勇气,锐意推进经济体制、政治体制、文化体制、社会体制、生态文明体制和党的建设制度改革,不断扩大开放,决心之大、变革之深、影响之广前所未有,成就举世瞩目。

改革开放最主要的成果是开创和发展了中国特色社会主义,为社会主义现代化建设提供了强大动力和有力保障。事实证明,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键抉择,是党和人民事业大踏步赶上时代的重要法宝。

实践发展永无止境,解放思想永无止境,改革开放永无止境。面对新形势新任务,全面建成小康社会,进而建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,必须在新的历史起点上全面深化改革,不断增强中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信。

(2)全面深化改革,必须高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,坚定信心,凝聚共识,统筹谋划,协同推进,坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向,以促进社会公平正义、增进人民福祉为出发点和落脚点,进一步解放思想、解放和发展社会生产力、解放和增强社会活力,坚决破除各方面体制机制弊端,努力开拓中国特色社会主义事业更加广阔的前景。

全面深化改革的总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。必须更加注重改革的系统性、整体性、协同性,加快发展社会主义市场经济、民主政治、先进文化、和谐社会、生态文明,让一切劳动、知识、技术、管理、资本的活力竞相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的源泉充分涌流,让发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。

紧紧围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用深化经济体制改革,坚持和完善基本经济制度,加快完善现代市场体系、宏观调控体系、开放型经济体系,加快转变经济发展方式,加快建设创新型国家,推动经济更有效率、更加公平、更可持续发展。

紧紧围绕坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一深化政治体制改革,加快推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化,建设社会主义法治国家,发展更加广泛、更加充分、更加健全的人民民主。

紧紧围绕建设社会主义核心价值体系、社会主义文化强国深化文化体制改革,加快完善文化管理体制和文化生产经营机制,建立健全现代公共文化服务体系、现代文化市场体系,推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣。

紧紧围绕更好保障和改善民生、促进社会公平正义深化社会体制改革,改革收入分配制度,促进共同富裕,推进社会领域制度创新,推进基本公共服务均等化,加快形成科学有效的社会治理体制,确保社会既充满活力又和谐有序。

紧紧围绕建设美丽中国深化生态文明体制改革,加快建立生态文明制度,健全国土空间开发、资源节约利用、生态环境保护的体制机制,推动形成人与自然和谐发展现代化建设新格局。

紧紧围绕提高科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平深化党的建设制度改革,加强民主集中制建设,完善党的领导体制和执政方式,保持党的先进性和纯洁性,为改革开放和社会主义现代化建设提供坚强政治保证。

(3)全面深化改革,必须立足于我国长期处于社会主义初级阶段这个最大实际,坚持发展仍是解决我国所有问题的关键这个重大战略判断,以经济建设为中心,发挥经济体制改革牵引作用,推动生产关系同生产力、上层建筑同经济基础相适应,推动经济社会持续健康发展。

经济体制改革是全面深化改革的重点,核心问题是处理好政府和市场的关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,健全社会主义市场经济体制必须遵循这条规律,着力解决市场体系不完善、政府干预过多和监管不到位问题。

必须积极稳妥从广度和深度上推进市场化改革,大幅度减少政府对资源的直接配置,推动资源配置依据市场规则、市场价格、市场竞争实现效益最大化和效率最优化。政府的职责和作用主要是保持宏观经济稳定,加强和优化公共服务,保障公平竞争,加强市场监管,维护市场秩序,推动可持续发展,促进共同富裕,弥补市场失灵。

(4)改革开放的成功实践为全面深化改革提供了重要经验,必须长期坚持。最重要的是,坚持党的领导,贯彻党的基本路线,不走封闭僵化的老路,不走改旗易帜的邪路,坚定走中国特色社会主义道路,始终确保改革正确方向;坚持解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进、求真务实,一切从实际出发,总结国内成功做法,借鉴国外有益经验,勇于推进理论和实践创新;坚持以人为本,尊重人民主体地位,发挥群众首创精神,紧紧依靠人民推动改革,促进人的全面发展;坚持正确处理改革发展稳定关系,胆子要大、步子要稳,加强顶层设计和摸着石头过河相结合,整体推进和重点突破相促进,提高改革决策科学性,广泛凝聚共识,形成改革合力。

当前,我国发展进入新阶段,改革进入攻坚期和深水区。必须以强烈的历史使命感,最大限度集中全党全社会智慧,最大限度调动一切积极因素,敢于啃硬骨头,敢于涉险滩,以更大决心冲破思想观念的束缚、突破利益固化的藩篱,推动中国特色社会主义制度自我完善和发展。

到二0二0年,在重要领域和关键环节改革上取得决定性成果,完成本决定提出的改革任务,形成系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟更加定型。

二、坚持和完善基本经济制度

公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱,也是社会主义市场经济体制的根基。公有制经济和非公有制经济都是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,都是我国经济社会发展的重要基础。必须毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,坚持公有制主体地位,发挥国有经济主导作用,不断增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力。必须毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,激发非公有制经济活力和创造力。

(5)完善产权保护制度。产权是所有制的核心。健全归属清晰、权责明确、保护严格、流转顺畅的现代产权制度。公有制经济财产权不可侵犯,非公有制经济财产权同样不可侵犯。

国家保护各种所有制经济产权和合法利益,保证各种所有制经济依法平等使用生产要素、公开公平公正参与市场竞争、同等受到法律保护,依法监管各种所有制经济。

(6)积极发展混合所有制经济。国有资本、集体资本、非公有资本等交叉持股、相互融合的混合所有制经济,是基本经济制度的重要实现形式,有利于国有资本放大功能、保值增值、提高竞争力,有利于各种所有制资本取长补短、相互促进、共同发展。允许更多国有经济和其他所有制经济发展成为混合所有制经济。国有资本投资项目允许非国有资本参股。允许混合所有制经济实行企业员工持股,形成资本所有者和劳动者利益共同体。

完善国有资产管理体制,以管资本为主加强国有资产监管,改革国有资本授权经营体制,组建若干国有资本运营公司,支持有条件的国有企业改组为国有资本投资公司。国有资本投资运营要服务于国家战略目标,更多投向关系国家安全、国民经济命脉的重要行业和关键领域,重点提供公共服务、发展重要前瞻性战略性产业、保护生态环境、支持科技进步、保障国家安全。

划转部分国有资本充实社会保障基金。完善国有资本经营预算制度,提高国有资本收益上缴公共财政比例,二0二0年提到百分之三十,更多用于保障和改善民生。

(7)推动国有企业完善现代企业制度。国有企业属于全民所有,是推进国家现代化、保障人民共同利益的重要力量。国有企业总体上已经同市场经济相融合,必须适应市场化、国际化新形势,以规范经营决策、资产保值增值、公平参与竞争、提高企业效率、增强企业活力、承担社会责任为重点,进一步深化国有企业改革。

准确界定不同国有企业功能。国有资本加大对公益性企业的投入,在提供公共服务方面作出更大贡献。国有资本继续控股经营的自然垄断行业,实行以政企分开、政资分开、特许经营、政府监管为主要内容的改革,根据不同行业特点实行网运分开、放开竞争性业务,推进公共资源配置市场化。进一步破除各种形式的行政垄断。

健全协调运转、有效制衡的公司法人治理结构。建立职业经理人制度,更好发挥企业家作用。深化企业内部管理人员能上能下、员工能进能出、收入能增能减的制度改革。建立长效激励约束机制,强化国有企业经营投资责任追究。探索推进国有企业财务预算等重大信息公开。

国有企业要合理增加市场化选聘比例,合理确定并严格规范国有企业管理人员薪酬水平、职务待遇、职务消费、业务消费。

(8)支持非公有制经济健康发展。非公有制经济在支撑增长、促进创新、扩大就业、增加税收等方面具有重要作用。坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,废除对非公有制经济各种形式的不合理规定,消除各种隐性壁垒,制定非公有制企业进入特许经营领域具体办法。

鼓励非公有制企业参与国有企业改革,鼓励发展非公有资本控股的混合所有制企业,鼓励有条件的私营企业建立现代企业制度。

三、加快完善现代市场体系

建设统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系,是使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的基础。必须加快形成企业自主经营、公平竞争,消费者自由选择、自主消费,商品和要素自由流动、平等交换的现代市场体系,着力清除市场壁垒,提高资源配置效率和公平性。

(9)建立公平开放透明的市场规则。实行统一的市场准入制度,在制定负面清单基础上,各类市场主体可依法平等进入清单之外领域。探索对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单的管理模式。推进工商注册制度便利化,削减资质认定项目,由先证后照改为先照后证,把注册资本实缴登记制逐步改为认缴登记制。推进国内贸易流通体制改革,建设法治化营商环境。

改革市场监管体系,实行统一的市场监管,清理和废除妨碍全国统一市场和公平竞争的各种规定和做法,严禁和惩处各类违法实行优惠政策行为,反对地方保护,反对垄断和不正当竞争。建立健全社会征信体系,褒扬诚信,惩戒失信。健全优胜劣汰市场化退出机制,完善企业破产制度。

(10)完善主要由市场决定价格的机制。凡是能由市场形成价格的都交给市场,政府不进行不当干预。推进水、石油、天然气、电力、交通、电信等领域价格改革,放开竞争性环节价格。政府定价范围主要限定在重要公用事业、公益性服务、网络型自然垄断环节,提高透明度,接受社会监督。完善农产品价格形成机制,注重发挥市场形成价格作用。

(11)建立城乡统一的建设用地市场。在符合规划和用途管制前提下,允许农村集体经营性建设用地出让、租赁、入股,实行与国有土地同等入市、同权同价。缩小征地范围,规范征地程序,完善对被征地农民合理、规范、多元保障机制。扩大国有土地有偿使用范围,减少非公益性用地划拨。建立兼顾国家、集体、个人的土地增值收益分配机制,合理提高个人收益。完善土地租赁、转让、抵押二级市场。

(12)完善金融市场体系。扩大金融业对内对外开放,在加强监管前提下,允许具备条件的民间资本依法发起设立中小型银行等金融机构。推进政策性金融机构改革。健全多层次资本市场体系,推进股票发行注册制改革,多渠道推动股权融资,发展并规范债券市场,提高直接融资比重。完善保险经济补偿机制,建立巨灾保险制度。发展普惠金融。鼓励金融创新,丰富金融市场层次和产品。

完善人民币汇率市场化形成机制,加快推进利率市场化,健全反映市场供求关系的国债收益率曲线。推动资本市场双向开放,有序提高跨境资本和金融交易可兑换程度,建立健全宏观审慎管理框架下的外债和资本流动管理体系,加快实现人民币资本项目可兑换。

落实金融监管改革措施和稳健标准,完善监管协调机制,界定中央和地方金融监管职责和风险处置责任。建立存款保险制度,完善金融机构市场化退出机制。加强金融基础设施建设,保障金融市场安全高效运行和整体稳定。

(13)深化科技体制改革。建立健全鼓励原始创新、集成创新、引进消化吸收再创新的体制机制,健全技术创新市场导向机制,发挥市场对技术研发方向、路线选择、要素价格、各类创新要素配置的导向作用。建立产学研协同创新机制,强化企业在技术创新中的主体地位,发挥大型企业创新骨干作用,激发中小企业创新活力,推进应用型技术研发机构市场化、企业化改革,建设国家创新体系。

加强知识产权运用和保护,健全技术创新激励机制,探索建立知识产权法院。打破行政主导和部门分割,建立主要由市场决定技术创新项目和经费分配、评价成果的机制。发展技术市场,健全技术转移机制,改善科技型中小企业融资条件,完善风险投资机制,创新商业模式,促进科技成果资本化、产业化。

整合科技规划和资源,完善政府对基础性、战略性、前沿性科学研究和共性技术研究的支持机制。国家重大科研基础设施依照规定应该开放的一律对社会开放。建立创新调查制度和创新报告制度,构建公开透明的国家科研资源管理和项目评价机制。

改革院士遴选和管理体制,优化学科布局,提高中青年人才比例,实行院士退休和退出制度。

四、加快转变政府职能

科学的宏观调控,有效的政府治理,是发挥社会主义市场经济体制优势的内在要求。必须切实转变政府职能,深化行政体制改革,创新行政管理方式,增强政府公信力和执行力,建设法治政府和服务型政府。

(14)健全宏观调控体系。宏观调控的主要任务是保持经济总量平衡,促进重大经济结构协调和生产力布局优化,减缓经济周期波动影响,防范区域性、系统性风险,稳定市场预期,实现经济持续健康发展。健全以国家发展战略和规划为导向、以财政政策和货币政策为主要手段的宏观调控体系,推进宏观调控目标制定和政策手段运用机制化,加强财政政策、货币政策与产业、价格等政策手段协调配合,提高相机抉择水平,增强宏观调控前瞻性、针对性、协同性。形成参与国际宏观经济政策协调的机制,推动国际经济治理结构完善。

深化投资体制改革,确立企业投资主体地位。企业投资项目,除关系国家安全和生态安全、涉及全国重大生产力布局、战略性资源开发和重大公共利益等项目外,一律由企业依法依规自主决策,政府不再审批。强化节能节地节水、环境、技术、安全等市场准入标准,建立健全防范和化解产能过剩长效机制。

完善发展成果考核评价体系,纠正单纯以经济增长速度评定政绩的偏向,加大资源消耗、环境损害、生态效益、产能过剩、科技创新、安全生产、新增债务等指标的权重,更加重视劳动就业、居民收入、社会保障、人民健康状况。加快建立国家统一的经济核算制度,编制全国和地方资产负债表,建立全社会房产、信用等基础数据统一平台,推进部门信息共享。

(15)全面正确履行政府职能。进一步简政放权,深化行政审批制度改革,最大限度减少中央政府对微观事务的管理,市场机制能有效调节的经济活动,一律取消审批,对保留的行政审批事项要规范管理、提高效率;直接面向基层、量大面广、由地方管理更方便有效的经济社会事项,一律下放地方和基层管理。

政府要加强发展战略、规划、政策、标准等制定和实施,加强市场活动监管,加强各类公共服务提供。加强中央政府宏观调控职责和能力,加强地方政府公共服务、市场监管、社会管理、环境保护等职责。推广政府购买服务,凡属事务性管理服务,原则上都要引入竞争机制,通过合同、委托等方式向社会购买。

加快事业单位分类改革,加大政府购买公共服务力度,推动公办事业单位与主管部门理顺关系和去行政化,创造条件,逐步取消学校、科研院所、医院等单位的行政级别。建立事业单位法人治理结构,推进有条件的事业单位转为企业或社会组织。建立各类事业单位统一登记管理制度。

(16)优化政府组织结构。转变政府职能必须深化机构改革。优化政府机构设置、职能配置、工作流程,完善决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调的行政运行机制。严格绩效管理,突出责任落实,确保权责一致。

统筹党政群机构改革,理顺部门职责关系。积极稳妥实施大部门制。优化行政区划设置,有条件的地方探索推进省直接管理县(市)体制改革。严格控制机构编制,严格按规定职数配备领导干部,减少机构数量和领导职数,严格控制财政供养人员总量。推进机构编制管理科学化、规范化、法制化。

五、深化财税体制改革

财政是国家治理的基础和重要支柱,科学的财税体制是优化资源配置、维护市场统一、促进社会公平、实现国家长治久安的制度保障。必须完善立法、明确事权、改革税制、稳定税负、透明预算、提高效率,建立现代财政制度,发挥中央和地方两个积极性。

(17)改进预算管理制度。实施全面规范、公开透明的预算制度。审核预算的重点由平衡状态、赤字规模向支出预算和政策拓展。清理规范重点支出同财政收支增幅或生产总值挂钩事项,一般不采取挂钩方式。建立跨年度预算平衡机制,建立权责发生制的政府综合财务报告制度,建立规范合理的中央和地方政府债务管理及风险预警机制。

完善一般性转移支付增长机制,重点增加对革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区的转移支付。中央出台增支政策形成的地方财力缺口,原则上通过一般性转移支付调节。清理、整合、规范专项转移支付项目,逐步取消竞争性领域专项和地方资金配套,严格控制引导类、救济类、应急类专项,对保留专项进行甄别,属地方事务的划入一般性转移支付。

(18)完善税收制度。深化税收制度改革,完善地方税体系,逐步提高直接税比重。推进增值税改革,适当简化税率。调整消费税征收范围、环节、税率,把高耗能、高污染产品及部分高档消费品纳入征收范围。逐步建立综合与分类相结合的个人所得税制。加快房地产税立法并适时推进改革,加快资源税改革,推动环境保护费改税。

按照统一税制、公平税负、促进公平竞争的原则,加强对税收优惠特别是区域税收优惠政策的规范管理。税收优惠政策统一由专门税收法律法规规定,清理规范税收优惠政策。完善国税、地税征管体制。

(19)建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度。适度加强中央事权和支出责任,国防、外交、国家安全、关系全国统一市场规则和管理等作为中央事权;部分社会保障、跨区域重大项目建设维护等作为中央和地方共同事权,逐步理顺事权关系;区域性公共服务作为地方事权。中央和地方按照事权划分相应承担和分担支出责任。中央可通过安排转移支付将部分事权支出责任委托地方承担。对于跨区域且对其他地区影响较大的公共服务,中央通过转移支付承担一部分地方事权支出责任。

保持现有中央和地方财力格局总体稳定,结合税制改革,考虑税种属性,进一步理顺中央和地方收入划分。

 六、健全城乡发展一体化体制机制

城乡二元结构是制约城乡发展一体化的主要障碍。必须健全体制机制,形成以工促农、以城带乡、工农互惠、城乡一体的新型工农城乡关系,让广大农民平等参与现代化进程、共同分享现代化成果。

(20)加快构建新型农业经营体系。坚持家庭经营在农业中的基础性地位,推进家庭经营、集体经营、合作经营、企业经营等共同发展的农业经营方式创新。坚持农村土地集体所有权,依法维护农民土地承包经营权,发展壮大集体经济。稳定农村土地承包关系并保持长久不变,在坚持和完善最严格的耕地保护制度前提下,赋予农民对承包地占有、使用、收益、流转及承包经营权抵押、担保权能,允许农民以承包经营权入股发展农业产业化经营。鼓励承包经营权在公开市场上向专业大户、家庭农场、农民合作社、农业企业流转,发展多种形式规模经营。

鼓励农村发展合作经济,扶持发展规模化、专业化、现代化经营,允许财政项目资金直接投向符合条件的合作社,允许财政补助形成的资产转交合作社持有和管护,允许合作社开展信用合作。鼓励和引导工商资本到农村发展适合企业化经营的现代种养业,向农业输入现代生产要素和经营模式。

(21)赋予农民更多财产权利。保障农民集体经济组织成员权利,积极发展农民股份合作,赋予农民对集体资产股份占有、收益、有偿退出及抵押、担保、继承权。保障农户宅基地用益物权,改革完善农村宅基地制度,选择若干试点,慎重稳妥推进农民住房财产权抵押、担保、转让,探索农民增加财产性收入渠道。建立农村产权流转交易市场,推动农村产权流转交易公开、公正、规范运行。

(22)推进城乡要素平等交换和公共资源均衡配置。维护农民生产要素权益,保障农民工同工同酬,保障农民公平分享土地增值收益,保障金融机构农村存款主要用于农业农村。健全农业支持保护体系,改革农业补贴制度,完善粮食主产区利益补偿机制。完善农业保险制度。鼓励社会资本投向农村建设,允许企业和社会组织在农村兴办各类事业。统筹城乡基础设施建设和社区建设,推进城乡基本公共服务均等化。

(23)完善城镇化健康发展体制机制。坚持走中国特色新型城镇化道路,推进以人为核心的城镇化,推动大中小城市和小城镇协调发展、产业和城镇融合发展,促进城镇化和新农村建设协调推进。优化城市空间结构和管理格局,增强城市综合承载能力。

推进城市建设管理创新。建立透明规范的城市建设投融资机制,允许地方政府通过发债等多种方式拓宽城市建设融资渠道,允许社会资本通过特许经营等方式参与城市基础设施投资和运营,研究建立城市基础设施、住宅政策性金融机构。完善设市标准,严格审批程序,对具备行政区划调整条件的县可有序改市。对吸纳人口多、经济实力强的镇,可赋予同人口和经济规模相适应的管理权。建立和完善跨区域城市发展协调机制。

推进农业转移人口市民化,逐步把符合条件的农业转移人口转为城镇居民。创新人口管理,加快户籍制度改革,全面放开建制镇和小城市落户限制,有序放开中等城市落户限制,合理确定大城市落户条件,严格控制特大城市人口规模。稳步推进城镇基本公共服务常住人口全覆盖,把进城落户农民完全纳入城镇住房和社会保障体系,在农村参加的养老保险和医疗保险规范接入城镇社保体系。建立财政转移支付同农业转移人口市民化挂钩机制,从严合理供给城市建设用地,提高城市土地利用率。

七、构建开放型经济新体制

适应经济全球化新形势,必须推动对内对外开放相互促进、引进来和走出去更好结合,促进国际国内要素有序自由流动、资源高效配置、市场深度融合,加快培育参与和引领国际经济合作竞争新优势,以开放促改革。

(24)放宽投资准入。统一内外资法律法规,保持外资政策稳定、透明、可预期。推进金融、教育、文化、医疗等服务业领域有序开放,放开育幼养老、建筑设计、会计审计、商贸物流、电子商务等服务业领域外资准入限制,进一步放开一般制造业。加快海关特殊监管区域整合优化。

建立中国上海自由贸易试验区是党中央在新形势下推进改革开放的重大举措,要切实建设好、管理好,为全面深化改革和扩大开放探索新途径、积累新经验。在推进现有试点基础上,选择若干具备条件地方发展自由贸易园(港)区。

扩大企业及个人对外投资,确立企业及个人对外投资主体地位,允许发挥自身优势到境外开展投资合作,允许自担风险到各国各地区自由承揽工程和劳务合作项目,允许创新方式走出去开展绿地投资、并购投资、证券投资、联合投资等。

加快同有关国家和地区商签投资协定,改革涉外投资审批体制,完善领事保护体制,提供权益保障、投资促进、风险预警等更多服务,扩大投资合作空间。

(25)加快自由贸易区建设。坚持世界贸易体制规则,坚持双边、多边、区域次区域开放合作,扩大同各国各地区利益汇合点,以周边为基础加快实施自由贸易区战略。改革市场准入、海关监管、检验检疫等管理体制,加快环境保护、投资保护、政府采购、电子商务等新议题谈判,形成面向全球的高标准自由贸易区网络。

扩大对香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区开放合作。

(26)扩大内陆沿边开放。抓住全球产业重新布局机遇,推动内陆贸易、投资、技术创新协调发展。创新加工贸易模式,形成有利于推动内陆产业集群发展的体制机制。支持内陆城市增开国际客货运航线,发展多式联运,形成横贯东中西、联结南北方对外经济走廊。推动内陆同沿海沿边通关协作,实现口岸管理相关部门信息互换、监管互认、执法互助。

加快沿边开放步伐,允许沿边重点口岸、边境城市、经济合作区在人员往来、加工物流、旅游等方面实行特殊方式和政策。建立开发性金融机构,加快同周边国家和区域基础设施互联互通建设,推进丝绸之路经济带、海上丝绸之路建设,形成全方位开放新格局。

八、加强社会主义民主政治制度建设

发展社会主义民主政治,必须以保证人民当家作主为根本,坚持和完善人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治制度,更加注重健全民主制度、丰富民主形式,从各层次各领域扩大公民有序政治参与,充分发挥我国社会主义政治制度优越性。

(27)推动人民代表大会制度与时俱进。坚持人民主体地位,推进人民代表大会制度理论和实践创新,发挥人民代表大会制度的根本政治制度作用。完善中国特色社会主义法律体系,健全立法起草、论证、协调、审议机制,提高立法质量,防止地方保护和部门利益法制化。健全“一府两院”由人大产生、对人大负责、受人大监督制度。健全人大讨论、决定重大事项制度,各级政府重大决策出台前向本级人大报告。加强人大预算决算审查监督、国有资产监督职能。落实税收法定原则。加强人大常委会同人大代表的联系,充分发挥代表作用。通过建立健全代表联络机构、网络平台等形式密切代表同人民群众联系。

完善人大工作机制,通过座谈、听证、评估、公布法律草案等扩大公民有序参与立法途径,通过询问、质询、特定问题调查、备案审查等积极回应社会关切。

(28)推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展。协商民主是我国社会主义民主政治的特有形式和独特优势,是党的群众路线在政治领域的重要体现。在党的领导下,以经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,在全社会开展广泛协商,坚持协商于决策之前和决策实施之中。

构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,拓宽国家政权机关、政协组织、党派团体、基层组织、社会组织的协商渠道。深入开展立法协商、行政协商、民主协商、参政协商、社会协商。加强中国特色新型智库建设,建立健全决策咨询制度。

发挥统一战线在协商民主中的重要作用。完善中国共产党同各民主党派的政治协商,认真听取各民主党派和无党派人士意见。中共中央根据年度工作重点提出规划,采取协商会、谈心会、座谈会等进行协商。完善民主党派中央直接向中共中央提出建议制度。贯彻党的民族政策,保障少数民族合法权益,巩固和发展平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系。

发挥人民政协作为协商民主重要渠道作用。重点推进政治协商、民主监督、参政议政制度化、规范化、程序化。各级党委和政府、政协制定并组织实施协商年度工作计划,就一些重要决策听取政协意见。完善人民政协制度体系,规范协商内容、协商程序。拓展协商民主形式,更加活跃有序地组织专题协商、对口协商、界别协商、提案办理协商,增加协商密度,提高协商成效。在政协健全委员联络机构,完善委员联络制度。

(29)发展基层民主。畅通民主渠道,健全基层选举、议事、公开、述职、问责等机制。开展形式多样的基层民主协商,推进基层协商制度化,建立健全居民、村民监督机制,促进群众在城乡社区治理、基层公共事务和公益事业中依法自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督。健全以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度,加强社会组织民主机制建设,保障职工参与管理和监督的民主权利。

九、推进法治中国建设

建设法治中国,必须坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设。深化司法体制改革,加快建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,维护人民权益,让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。

(30)维护宪法法律权威。宪法是保证党和国家兴旺发达、长治久安的根本法,具有最高权威。要进一步健全宪法实施监督机制和程序,把全面贯彻实施宪法提高到一个新水平。建立健全全社会忠于、遵守、维护、运用宪法法律的制度。坚持法律面前人人平等,任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法法律的特权,一切违反宪法法律的行为都必须予以追究。

普遍建立法律顾问制度。完善规范性文件、重大决策合法性审查机制。建立科学的法治建设指标体系和考核标准。健全法规、规章、规范性文件备案审查制度。健全社会普法教育机制,增强全民法治观念。逐步增加有地方立法权的较大的市数量。

(31)深化行政执法体制改革。整合执法主体,相对集中执法权,推进综合执法,着力解决权责交叉、多头执法问题,建立权责统一、权威高效的行政执法体制。减少行政执法层级,加强食品药品、安全生产、环境保护、劳动保障、海域海岛等重点领域基层执法力量。理顺城管执法体制,提高执法和服务水平。

完善行政执法程序,规范执法自由裁量权,加强对行政执法的监督,全面落实行政执法责任制和执法经费由财政保障制度,做到严格规范公正文明执法。完善行政执法与刑事司法衔接机制。

(32)确保依法独立公正行使审判权检察权。改革司法管理体制,推动省以下地方法院、检察院人财物统一管理,探索建立与行政区划适当分离的司法管辖制度,保证国家法律统一正确实施。

建立符合职业特点的司法人员管理制度,健全法官、检察官、人民警察统一招录、有序交流、逐级遴选机制,完善司法人员分类管理制度,健全法官、检察官、人民警察职业保障制度。

(33)健全司法权力运行机制。优化司法职权配置,健全司法权力分工负责、互相配合、互相制约机制,加强和规范对司法活动的法律监督和社会监督。

改革审判委员会制度,完善主审法官、合议庭办案责任制,让审理者裁判、由裁判者负责。明确各级法院职能定位,规范上下级法院审级监督关系。

推进审判公开、检务公开,录制并保留全程庭审资料。增强法律文书说理性,推动公开法院生效裁判文书。严格规范减刑、假释、保外就医程序,强化监督制度。广泛实行人民陪审员、人民监督员制度,拓宽人民群众有序参与司法渠道。

(34)完善人权司法保障制度。国家尊重和保障人权。进一步规范查封、扣押、冻结、处理涉案财物的司法程序。健全错案防止、纠正、责任追究机制,严禁刑讯逼供、体罚虐待,严格实行非法证据排除规则。逐步减少适用死刑罪名。

废止劳动教养制度,完善对违法犯罪行为的惩治和矫正法律,健全社区矫正制度。

健全国家司法救助制度,完善法律援助制度。完善律师执业权利保障机制和违法违规执业惩戒制度,加强职业道德建设,发挥律师在依法维护公民和法人合法权益方面的重要作用。

十、强化权力运行制约和监督体系

坚持用制度管权管事管人,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行,是把权力关进制度笼子的根本之策。必须构建决策科学、执行坚决、监督有力的权力运行体系,健全惩治和预防腐败体系,建设廉洁政治,努力实现干部清正、政府清廉、政治清明。

(35)形成科学有效的权力制约和协调机制。完善党和国家领导体制,坚持民主集中制,充分发挥党的领导核心作用。规范各级党政主要领导干部职责权限,科学配置党政部门及内设机构权力和职能,明确职责定位和工作任务。

加强和改进对主要领导干部行使权力的制约和监督,加强行政监察和审计监督。

推行地方各级政府及其工作部门权力清单制度,依法公开权力运行流程。完善党务、政务和各领域办事公开制度,推进决策公开、管理公开、服务公开、结果公开。

(36)加强反腐败体制机制创新和制度保障。加强党对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作统一领导。改革党的纪律检查体制,健全反腐败领导体制和工作机制,改革和完善各级反腐败协调小组职能。

落实党风廉政建设责任制,党委负主体责任,纪委负监督责任,制定实施切实可行的责任追究制度。各级纪委要履行协助党委加强党风建设和组织协调反腐败工作的职责,加强对同级党委特别是常委会成员的监督,更好发挥党内监督专门机关作用。

推动党的纪律检查工作双重领导体制具体化、程序化、制度化,强化上级纪委对下级纪委的领导。查办腐败案件以上级纪委领导为主,线索处置和案件查办在向同级党委报告的同时必须向上级纪委报告。各级纪委书记、副书记的提名和考察以上级纪委会同组织部门为主。

全面落实中央纪委向中央一级党和国家机关派驻纪检机构,实行统一名称、统一管理。派驻机构对派出机关负责,履行监督职责。改进中央和省区市巡视制度,做到对地方、部门、企事业单位全覆盖。

健全反腐倡廉法规制度体系,完善惩治和预防腐败、防控廉政风险、防止利益冲突、领导干部报告个人有关事项、任职回避等方面法律法规,推行新提任领导干部有关事项公开制度试点。健全民主监督、法律监督、舆论监督机制,运用和规范互联网监督。

(37)健全改进作风常态化制度。围绕反对形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风,加快体制机制改革和建设。健全领导干部带头改进作风、深入基层调查研究机制,完善直接联系和服务群众制度。改革会议公文制度,从中央做起带头减少会议、文件,着力改进会风文风。健全严格的财务预算、核准和审计制度,着力控制“三公”经费支出和楼堂馆所建设。完善选人用人专项检查和责任追究制度,着力纠正跑官要官等不正之风。改革政绩考核机制,着力解决“形象工程”、“政绩工程”以及不作为、乱作为等问题。

规范并严格执行领导干部工作生活保障制度,不准多处占用住房和办公用房,不准超标准配备办公用房和生活用房,不准违规配备公车,不准违规配备秘书,不准超规格警卫,不准超标准进行公务接待,严肃查处违反规定超标准享受待遇等问题。探索实行官邸制。

完善并严格执行领导干部亲属经商、担任公职和社会组织职务、出国定居等相关制度规定,防止领导干部利用公共权力或自身影响为亲属和其他特定关系人谋取私利,坚决反对特权思想和作风。

十一、推进文化体制机制创新

建设社会主义文化强国,增强国家文化软实力,必须坚持社会主义先进文化前进方向,坚持中国特色社会主义文化发展道路,培育和践行社会主义核心价值观,巩固马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位,巩固全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础。坚持以人民为中心的工作导向,坚持把社会效益放在首位、社会效益和经济效益相统一,以激发全民族文化创造活力为中心环节,进一步深化文化体制改革。

(38)完善文化管理体制。按照政企分开、政事分开原则,推动政府部门由办文化向管文化转变,推动党政部门与其所属的文化企事业单位进一步理顺关系。建立党委和政府监管国有文化资产的管理机构,实行管人管事管资产管导向相统一。

健全坚持正确舆论导向的体制机制。健全基础管理、内容管理、行业管理以及网络违法犯罪防范和打击等工作联动机制,健全网络突发事件处置机制,形成正面引导和依法管理相结合的网络舆论工作格局。整合新闻媒体资源,推动传统媒体和新兴媒体融合发展。推动新闻发布制度化。严格新闻工作者职业资格制度,重视新型媒介运用和管理,规范传播秩序。

(39)建立健全现代文化市场体系。完善文化市场准入和退出机制,鼓励各类市场主体公平竞争、优胜劣汰,促进文化资源在全国范围内流动。继续推进国有经营性文化单位转企改制,加快公司制、股份制改造。对按规定转制的重要国有传媒企业探索实行特殊管理股制度。推动文化企业跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组,提高文化产业规模化、集约化、专业化水平。

鼓励非公有制文化企业发展,降低社会资本进入门槛,允许参与对外出版、网络出版,允许以控股形式参与国有影视制作机构、文艺院团改制经营。支持各种形式小微文化企业发展。

在坚持出版权、播出权特许经营前提下,允许制作和出版、制作和播出分开。建立多层次文化产品和要素市场,鼓励金融资本、社会资本、文化资源相结合。完善文化经济政策,扩大政府文化资助和文化采购,加强版权保护。健全文化产品评价体系,改革评奖制度,推出更多文化精品。

(40)构建现代公共文化服务体系。建立公共文化服务体系建设协调机制,统筹服务设施网络建设,促进基本公共文化服务标准化、均等化。建立群众评价和反馈机制,推动文化惠民项目与群众文化需求有效对接。整合基层宣传文化、党员教育、科学普及、体育健身等设施,建设综合性文化服务中心。

明确不同文化事业单位功能定位,建立法人治理结构,完善绩效考核机制。推动公共图书馆、博物馆、文化馆、科技馆等组建理事会,吸纳有关方面代表、专业人士、各界群众参与管理。

引入竞争机制,推动公共文化服务社会化发展。鼓励社会力量、社会资本参与公共文化服务体系建设,培育文化非营利组织。

(41)提高文化开放水平。坚持政府主导、企业主体、市场运作、社会参与,扩大对外文化交流,加强国际传播能力和对外话语体系建设,推动中华文化走向世界。理顺内宣外宣体制,支持重点媒体面向国内国际发展。培育外向型文化企业,支持文化企业到境外开拓市场。鼓励社会组织、中资机构等参与孔子学院和海外文化中心建设,承担人文交流项目。

积极吸收借鉴国外一切优秀文化成果,引进有利于我国文化发展的人才、技术、经营管理经验。切实维护国家文化安全。

十二、推进社会事业改革创新

实现发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,必须加快社会事业改革,解决好人民最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,努力为社会提供多样化服务,更好满足人民需求。

(42)深化教育领域综合改革。全面贯彻党的教育方针,坚持立德树人,加强社会主义核心价值体系教育,完善中华优秀传统文化教育,形成爱学习、爱劳动、爱祖国活动的有效形式和长效机制,增强学生社会责任感、创新精神、实践能力。强化体育课和课外锻炼,促进青少年身心健康、体魄强健。改进美育教学,提高学生审美和人文素养。大力促进教育公平,健全家庭经济困难学生资助体系,构建利用信息化手段扩大优质教育资源覆盖面的有效机制,逐步缩小区域、城乡、校际差距。统筹城乡义务教育资源均衡配置,实行公办学校标准化建设和校长教师交流轮岗,不设重点学校重点班,破解择校难题,标本兼治减轻学生课业负担。加快现代职业教育体系建设,深化产教融合、校企合作,培养高素质劳动者和技能型人才。创新高校人才培养机制,促进高校办出特色争创一流。推进学前教育、特殊教育、继续教育改革发展。

推进考试招生制度改革,探索招生和考试相对分离、学生考试多次选择、学校依法自主招生、专业机构组织实施、政府宏观管理、社会参与监督的运行机制,从根本上解决一考定终身的弊端。义务教育免试就近入学,试行学区制和九年一贯对口招生。推行初高中学业水平考试和综合素质评价。加快推进职业院校分类招考或注册入学。逐步推行普通高校基于统一高考和高中学业水平考试成绩的综合评价多元录取机制。探索全国统考减少科目、不分文理科、外语等科目社会化考试一年多考。试行普通高校、高职院校、成人高校之间学分转换,拓宽终身学习通道。

深入推进管办评分离,扩大省级政府教育统筹权和学校办学自主权,完善学校内部治理结构。强化国家教育督导,委托社会组织开展教育评估监测。健全政府补贴、政府购买服务、助学贷款、基金奖励、捐资激励等制度,鼓励社会力量兴办教育。

(43)健全促进就业创业体制机制。建立经济发展和扩大就业的联动机制,健全政府促进就业责任制度。规范招人用人制度,消除城乡、行业、身份、性别等一切影响平等就业的制度障碍和就业歧视。完善扶持创业的优惠政策,形成政府激励创业、社会支持创业、劳动者勇于创业新机制。完善城乡均等的公共就业创业服务体系,构建劳动者终身职业培训体系。增强失业保险制度预防失业、促进就业功能,完善就业失业监测统计制度。创新劳动关系协调机制,畅通职工表达合理诉求渠道。

促进以高校毕业生为重点的青年就业和农村转移劳动力、城镇困难人员、退役军人就业。结合产业升级开发更多适合高校毕业生的就业岗位。政府购买基层公共管理和社会服务岗位更多用于吸纳高校毕业生就业。健全鼓励高校毕业生到基层工作的服务保障机制,提高公务员定向招录和事业单位优先招聘比例。实行激励高校毕业生自主创业政策,整合发展国家和省级高校毕业生就业创业基金。实施离校未就业高校毕业生就业促进计划,把未就业的纳入就业见习、技能培训等就业准备活动之中,对有特殊困难的实行全程就业服务。

(44)形成合理有序的收入分配格局。着重保护劳动所得,努力实现劳动报酬增长和劳动生产率提高同步,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重。健全工资决定和正常增长机制,完善最低工资和工资支付保障制度,完善企业工资集体协商制度。改革机关事业单位工资和津贴补贴制度,完善艰苦边远地区津贴增长机制。健全资本、知识、技术、管理等由要素市场决定的报酬机制。扩展投资和租赁服务等途径,优化上市公司投资者回报机制,保护投资者尤其是中小投资者合法权益,多渠道增加居民财产性收入。

完善以税收、社会保障、转移支付为主要手段的再分配调节机制,加大税收调节力度。建立公共资源出让收益合理共享机制。完善慈善捐助减免税制度,支持慈善事业发挥扶贫济困积极作用。

规范收入分配秩序,完善收入分配调控体制机制和政策体系,建立个人收入和财产信息系统,保护合法收入,调节过高收入,清理规范隐性收入,取缔非法收入,增加低收入者收入,扩大中等收入者比重,努力缩小城乡、区域、行业收入分配差距,逐步形成橄榄型分配格局。

(45)建立更加公平可持续的社会保障制度。坚持社会统筹和个人账户相结合的基本养老保险制度,完善个人账户制度,健全多缴多得激励机制,确保参保人权益,实现基础养老金全国统筹,坚持精算平衡原则。推进机关事业单位养老保险制度改革。整合城乡居民基本养老保险制度、基本医疗保险制度。推进城乡最低生活保障制度统筹发展。建立健全合理兼顾各类人员的社会保障待遇确定和正常调整机制。完善社会保险关系转移接续政策,扩大参保缴费覆盖面,适时适当降低社会保险费率。研究制定渐进式延迟退休年龄政策。加快健全社会保障管理体制和经办服务体系。健全符合国情的住房保障和供应体系,建立公开规范的住房公积金制度,改进住房公积金提取、使用、监管机制。

健全社会保障财政投入制度,完善社会保障预算制度。加强社会保险基金投资管理和监督,推进基金市场化、多元化投资运营。制定实施免税、延期征税等优惠政策,加快发展企业年金、职业年金、商业保险,构建多层次社会保障体系。

积极应对人口老龄化,加快建立社会养老服务体系和发展老年服务产业。健全农村留守儿童、妇女、老年人关爱服务体系,健全残疾人权益保障、困境儿童分类保障制度。

(46)深化医药卫生体制改革。统筹推进医疗保障、医疗服务、公共卫生、药品供应、监管体制综合改革。深化基层医疗卫生机构综合改革,健全网络化城乡基层医疗卫生服务运行机制。加快公立医院改革,落实政府责任,建立科学的医疗绩效评价机制和适应行业特点的人才培养、人事薪酬制度。完善合理分级诊疗模式,建立社区医生和居民契约服务关系。充分利用信息化手段,促进优质医疗资源纵向流动。加强区域公共卫生服务资源整合。取消以药补医,理顺医药价格,建立科学补偿机制。改革医保支付方式,健全全民医保体系。加快健全重特大疾病医疗保险和救助制度。完善中医药事业发展政策和机制。

鼓励社会办医,优先支持举办非营利性医疗机构。社会资金可直接投向资源稀缺及满足多元需求服务领域,多种形式参与公立医院改制重组。允许医师多点执业,允许民办医疗机构纳入医保定点范围。

坚持计划生育的基本国策,启动实施一方是独生子女的夫妇可生育两个孩子的政策,逐步调整完善生育政策,促进人口长期均衡发展。

十三、创新社会治理体制

创新社会治理,必须着眼于维护最广大人民根本利益,最大限度增加和谐因素,增强社会发展活力,提高社会治理水平,全面推进平安中国建设,维护国家安全,确保人民安居乐业、社会安定有序。

(47)改进社会治理方式。坚持系统治理,加强党委领导,发挥政府主导作用,鼓励和支持社会各方面参与,实现政府治理和社会自我调节、居民自治良性互动。坚持依法治理,加强法治保障,运用法治思维和法治方式化解社会矛盾。坚持综合治理,强化道德约束,规范社会行为,调节利益关系,协调社会关系,解决社会问题。坚持源头治理,标本兼治、重在治本,以网格化管理、社会化服务为方向,健全基层综合服务管理平台,及时反映和协调人民群众各方面各层次利益诉求。

(48)激发社会组织活力。正确处理政府和社会关系,加快实施政社分开,推进社会组织明确权责、依法自治、发挥作用。适合由社会组织提供的公共服务和解决的事项,交由社会组织承担。支持和发展志愿服务组织。限期实现行业协会商会与行政机关真正脱钩,重点培育和优先发展行业协会商会类、科技类、公益慈善类、城乡社区服务类社会组织,成立时直接依法申请登记。加强对社会组织和在华境外非政府组织的管理,引导它们依法开展活动。

(49)创新有效预防和化解社会矛盾体制。健全重大决策社会稳定风险评估机制。建立畅通有序的诉求表达、心理干预、矛盾调处、权益保障机制,使群众问题能反映、矛盾能化解、权益有保障。

改革行政复议体制,健全行政复议案件审理机制,纠正违法或不当行政行为。完善人民调解、行政调解、司法调解联动工作体系,建立调处化解矛盾纠纷综合机制。

改革信访工作制度,实行网上受理信访制度,健全及时就地解决群众合理诉求机制。把涉法涉诉信访纳入法治轨道解决,建立涉法涉诉信访依法终结制度。

(50)健全公共安全体系。完善统一权威的食品药品安全监管机构,建立最严格的覆盖全过程的监管制度,建立食品原产地可追溯制度和质量标识制度,保障食品药品安全。深化安全生产管理体制改革,建立隐患排查治理体系和安全预防控制体系,遏制重特大安全事故。健全防灾减灾救灾体制。加强社会治安综合治理,创新立体化社会治安防控体系,依法严密防范和惩治各类违法犯罪活动。

坚持积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,加大依法管理网络力度,加快完善互联网管理领导体制,确保国家网络和信息安全。

设立国家安全委员会,完善国家安全体制和国家安全战略,确保国家安全。

十四、加快生态文明制度建设

建设生态文明,必须建立系统完整的生态文明制度体系,实行最严格的源头保护制度、损害赔偿制度、责任追究制度,完善环境治理和生态修复制度,用制度保护生态环境。

(51)健全自然资源资产产权制度和用途管制制度。对水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然生态空间进行统一确权登记,形成归属清晰、权责明确、监管有效的自然资源资产产权制度。建立空间规划体系,划定生产、生活、生态空间开发管制界限,落实用途管制。健全能源、水、土地节约集约使用制度。

健全国家自然资源资产管理体制,统一行使全民所有自然资源资产所有者职责。完善自然资源监管体制,统一行使所有国土空间用途管制职责。

(52)划定生态保护红线。坚定不移实施主体功能区制度,建立国土空间开发保护制度,严格按照主体功能区定位推动发展,建立国家公园体制。建立资源环境承载能力监测预警机制,对水土资源、环境容量和海洋资源超载区域实行限制性措施。对限制开发区域和生态脆弱的国家扶贫开发工作重点县取消地区生产总值考核。

探索编制自然资源资产负债表,对领导干部实行自然资源资产离任审计。建立生态环境损害责任终身追究制。

(53)实行资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。加快自然资源及其产品价格改革,全面反映市场供求、资源稀缺程度、生态环境损害成本和修复效益。坚持使用资源付费和谁污染环境、谁破坏生态谁付费原则,逐步将资源税扩展到占用各种自然生态空间。稳定和扩大退耕还林、退牧还草范围,调整严重污染和地下水严重超采区耕地用途,有序实现耕地、河湖休养生息。建立有效调节工业用地和居住用地合理比价机制,提高工业用地价格。坚持谁受益、谁补偿原则,完善对重点生态功能区的生态补偿机制,推动地区间建立横向生态补偿制度。发展环保市场,推行节能量、碳排放权、排污权、水权交易制度,建立吸引社会资本投入生态环境保护的市场化机制,推行环境污染第三方治理。

(54)改革生态环境保护管理体制。建立和完善严格监管所有污染物排放的环境保护管理制度,独立进行环境监管和行政执法。建立陆海统筹的生态系统保护修复和污染防治区域联动机制。健全国有林区经营管理体制,完善集体林权制度改革。及时公布环境信息,健全举报制度,加强社会监督。完善污染物排放许可制,实行企事业单位污染物排放总量控制制度。对造成生态环境损害的责任者严格实行赔偿制度,依法追究刑事责任。

十五、深化国防和军队改革

紧紧围绕建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队这一党在新形势下的强军目标,着力解决制约国防和军队建设发展的突出矛盾和问题,创新发展军事理论,加强军事战略指导,完善新时期军事战略方针,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系。

(55)深化军队体制编制调整改革。推进领导管理体制改革,优化军委总部领导机关职能配置和机构设置,完善各军兵种领导管理体制。健全军委联合作战指挥机构和战区联合作战指挥体制,推进联合作战训练和保障体制改革。完善新型作战力量领导体制。加强信息化建设集中统管。优化武装警察部队力量结构和指挥管理体制。

优化军队规模结构,调整改善军兵种比例、官兵比例、部队与机关比例,减少非战斗机构和人员。依据不同方向安全需求和作战任务改革部队编成。加快新型作战力量建设。深化军队院校改革,健全军队院校教育、部队训练实践、军事职业教育三位一体的新型军事人才培养体系。

(56)推进军队政策制度调整改革。健全完善与军队职能任务需求和国家政策制度创新相适应的军事人力资源政策制度。以建立军官职业化制度为牵引,逐步形成科学规范的军队干部制度体系。健全完善文职人员制度。完善兵役制度、士官制度、退役军人安置制度改革配套政策。

健全军费管理制度,建立需求牵引规划、规划主导资源配置机制。健全完善经费物资管理标准制度体系。深化预算管理、集中收付、物资采购和军人医疗、保险、住房保障等制度改革。

健全军事法规制度体系,探索改进部队科学管理的方式方法。

(57)推动军民融合深度发展。在国家层面建立推动军民融合发展的统一领导、军地协调、需求对接、资源共享机制。健全国防工业体系,完善国防科技协同创新体制,改革国防科研生产管理和武器装备采购体制机制,引导优势民营企业进入军品科研生产和维修领域。改革完善依托国民教育培养军事人才的政策制度。拓展军队保障社会化领域。深化国防教育改革。健全国防动员体制机制,完善平时征用和战时动员法规制度。深化民兵预备役体制改革。调整理顺边海空防管理体制机制。

十六、加强和改善党对全面深化改革的领导

全面深化改革必须加强和改善党的领导,充分发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,建设学习型、服务型、创新型的马克思主义执政党,提高党的领导水平和执政能力,确保改革取得成功。

(58)全党同志要把思想和行动统一到中央关于全面深化改革重大决策部署上来,正确处理中央和地方、全局和局部、当前和长远的关系,正确对待利益格局调整,充分发扬党内民主,坚决维护中央权威,保证政令畅通,坚定不移实现中央改革决策部署。

中央成立全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。

各级党委要切实履行对改革的领导责任,完善科学民主决策机制,以重大问题为导向,把各项改革举措落到实处。加强各级领导班子建设,完善干部教育培训和实践锻炼制度,不断提高领导班子和领导干部推动改革能力。创新基层党建工作,健全党的基层组织体系,充分发挥基层党组织的战斗堡垒作用,引导广大党员积极投身改革事业,发扬“钉钉子”精神,抓铁有痕、踏石留印,为全面深化改革作出积极贡献。

(59)全面深化改革,需要有力的组织保证和人才支撑。坚持党管干部原则,深化干部人事制度改革,构建有效管用、简便易行的选人用人机制,使各方面优秀干部充分涌现。发挥党组织领导和把关作用,强化党委(党组)、分管领导和组织部门在干部选拔任用中的权重和干部考察识别的责任,改革和完善干部考核评价制度,改进竞争性选拔干部办法,改进优秀年轻干部培养选拔机制,区分实施选任制和委任制干部选拔方式,坚决纠正唯票取人、唯分取人等现象,用好各年龄段干部,真正把信念坚定、为民服务、勤政务实、敢于担当、清正廉洁的好干部选拔出来。

打破干部部门化,拓宽选人视野和渠道,加强干部跨条块跨领域交流。破除“官本位”观念,推进干部能上能下、能进能出。完善和落实领导干部问责制,完善从严管理干部队伍制度体系。深化公务员分类改革,推行公务员职务与职级并行、职级与待遇挂钩制度,加快建立专业技术类、行政执法类公务员和聘任人员管理制度。完善基层公务员录用制度,在艰苦边远地区适当降低进入门槛。

建立集聚人才体制机制,择天下英才而用之。打破体制壁垒,扫除身份障碍,让人人都有成长成才、脱颖而出的通道,让各类人才都有施展才华的广阔天地。完善党政机关、企事业单位、社会各方面人才顺畅流动的制度体系。健全人才向基层流动、向艰苦地区和岗位流动、在一线创业的激励机制。加快形成具有国际竞争力的人才制度优势,完善人才评价机制,增强人才政策开放度,广泛吸引境外优秀人才回国或来华创业发展。

(60)人民是改革的主体,要坚持党的群众路线,建立社会参与机制,充分发挥人民群众积极性、主动性、创造性,充分发挥工会、共青团、妇联等人民团体作用,齐心协力推进改革。鼓励地方、基层和群众大胆探索,加强重大改革试点工作,及时总结经验,宽容改革失误,加强宣传和舆论引导,为全面深化改革营造良好社会环境。

全党同志要紧密团结在以习近平同志为总书记的党中央周围,锐意进取,攻坚克难,谱写改革开放伟大事业历史新篇章,为全面建成小康社会、不断夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗!

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23 thoughts on “CCP Central Committee Resolution concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform

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