Ideology Work Must Be Grasped Tightly

This Autumn Stone editorial was first published in Qiushi on 1 April.

Ideological work is extremely important work for our Party, it relates to the Party’s future fate, it relates to a long period of peace and order for the country, and it relates to the cohesion and centripetal force of the nation. We must give high regard to and realistically strengthen ideological work, we must especially grasp the leadership power, management power and discourse power tightly in our hands, we cannot let it fall to others at any moment, otherwise, we will make an irredeemable historical mistake.

The key is implementing leadership responsibilities

To do ideological work well, we must first and foremost resolve the question of leadership power. The Chinese Communist Party is the leading core of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Party leadership mainly is ideological, political and organizational leadership, and among these, ideological leadership has an extremely large significance for leadership over the country and society. Tightly grasping the leadership power in ideological work is a requirement for consolidating the dominant position of Marxism in the ideological area under new circumstances, and for consolidating the common ideological basis for the united struggle of the entire Party and the entire people, it is a requirement for perfecting and developing the institutions of Socialism with Chinese characteristics and moving forward the modernization of the country’s governance structure and governance capacity, and it is a requirement for responding to the ideological infiltration that Western hostile forces conduct against us.

To lead means to drive and to guide. Our country’s broadest popular masses believe in and support our Party, they are willing to march with the Party, and it is crucial that our Party must stand at the forefront of the times and in the front line of the struggle, and leads the masses forward; at present, the struggle ideological area is acute and complex, and it is crucial that our Party must fly its banner clearly, sing the main melody among the hubbub of the mass of voices, and guides social thinking trends. Over the past few years, some mistaken thinking trends and undercurrents have welled up, and brought chaos to the thinking of a part of the masses. At this time, all levels’ leading Party cadres must step forward and speak, firmly propagate the Party’s theories, line, principles and policies, firmly propagate the major work deployments of the Centre, firmly propagate the Centre’s major analyses and judgments concerning circumstances, determinedly maintain a high level of consistency with the Party Centre, and persist in safeguarding the authority of the Centre. They must shout loudly at and strike hard those people who have been captured by mistaken thoughts, in order to warn them.

In recent years, a strange phenomenon appeared in the Party and in society, which is that whoever publishes positive discourse, whoever publishes discourse supporting the Party and the government, whoever denounces those discourses that attack and slander the Party and the government, is besieged, and silence often reigns in our own camp, or our voices are not loud, our support and protection for positive voices is insufficient. This sort of phenomenon merits deep reflection. If we allow this sort of phenomenon to develop, that means we abandon our leadership responsibilities, and will let leadership power fall to others. In the ideological area, we do not engage in pointless disputes, but where great questions of right and wrong are concerned, or major questions about the choice of institutional model and building value systems are concerned, we can absolutely not become inattentive, and we can certainly not give way. Leading cadres must dare to stand in the teeth of the storm and conduct struggle, they cannot take a detour around great questions of right and wrong, they cannot use “not disputes”, “no sensationalism” and “let them talk” as an excuse for their own lack of action, and they cannot do the sort of “protection of their public image” thing. On the battlefield, there are no “liberal-minded gentlemen”, in questions of great right and wrong, there are also no “liberal-minded gentlemen”. In the ideological and political struggle that relates to the future fate of the Party and the country, no leading cadre can be a bystander, they must be loyal bodyguards for the Party and the people.

To see whether or not a leading cadre is politically mature or not, or whether he can take on important responsibilities, an important aspect is to see whether he pays attention to and is good at grasping ideological work or not. The main responsible comrades in all levels’ Party Committees and all leading comrades in charge of ideological work should stand in the first line of ideological work with banners flying clearly, they are duty-bound to bear their political responsibilities. Main responsible comrades in Party Committees must take the lead in grasping ideological work, take the lead in reading the content of the major media in their localities and departments, take the lead in grasping leadership over media in their localities and departments, take the lead in criticizing mistaken viewpoints and erroneous tendencies, strengthen their analysis and judgment of major question in the ideological area and the comprehensive planning of major strategic tasks. Where leadership in ideological work is weak, resulting in grave consequences, there shall be strict accountability.

The ideological area cannot be separated from management

Something closely connected to leadership power is management power. Must the ideological area be managed? Of course it must. Thoughts are intangible, but the media that carry and disseminate thoughts, battlefields, etc., are tangible, they are a part of the social undertaking, and must naturally be managed. Marx and Engels once pointed out that: “they rule also as producers of ideas, and regulate the production and distribution of the ideas of their age”. (Collected Works of Marx and Engels, vol. 1, p. 551). What is meant here by the “regulation” of the production and distribution of ideas, is management. In fact, in modern society, there is no area that does not require management, it is said that “without rules, there cannot be squares and circles”, management also is productive force.

The West boasts about its so-called freedom of speech and freedom of the press, but in fact, their control of ideology is severe. The true rulers of Western societies are capital-monopolist groups, those big Western media that control the wind and the waves in their own country and the international public opinion sphere, and exert the most power and influence over politics, economics, ideology and culture, are all controlled by the hand of capital-monopolist groups. Western media can hold politicians accountable, censure political parties and criticize governments, they can bring some politicians down, make some political parties lose elections, and let a government lose office, but they can absolutely not fundamentally challenge, criticize or oppose their capitalist bosses and the capitalist system. Western capital-monopolist groups use their huge wealth to hire a large batch of ideological and public opinion elites, who dress up capitalist ideology as so-called “universal values”, domestically, they conduct long-term propaganda and inculcation of the masses, they engage in ideological confinement, anything that does not conform to mainstream ideology is seen as “politically incorrect”; they draw ideological lines internationally, and spare no effort to export Western ideology globally they use Western standards to judge all events occurring in the world, what conforms to Western standards is seen as good, and what does not conformed is demonized. The United States often send soldiers abroad , creating so many humanitarian disasters! And Western media even act as information stations and tools for public opinion battles in these wars. The West regularly talks about “the free circulation of ideas”, but when have they ever earnestly introduced ideological theories and value views that are different from Western ideology? Why do many Americans have a narrow vision, and has their ignorance of the outside world reached such a shocking extent? Is it possible that it is the result of the long-term conduct of ideological blockades and policies to keep the population stupid?

Socialist ideology reflects the fundamental interests of the broadest people, and so it never conceals its own political positions and viewpoints. Where press and publications, radio and television, culture and art, social science and other such propaganda and culture departments, organs and media are concerned, where the Party’s propaganda work of ideology and culture is concerned, it means we must stress the Party nature. The principle of the Party nature is the fundamental principle of ideological work, and is the core of the question of management in the ideological sphere.

In stressing the Party nature, three matters are the most important. First, persisting in the leadership of the Party. Ideologically, persisting in the dominant position of Marxism; politically, persisting in the orientation of serving the people and serving Socialism, and maintaining a high degree of consistency with the Party Centre; organizationally, guaranteeing that all levels and all sorts of propaganda and culture organs’ leadership power is held tightly in the hands of persons loyal to the Party and the people. Second, persisting in the consistency of responsibility towards the Party and responsibility towards the People. The Party has wholeheartedly serving the people as its basic purpose, it is the most faithful representative of the people’s interest, it has no private interest of its own outside of the interest of the people, this has decided that responsibility towards the Party in propaganda and culture work is consistent with responsibility towards the people. Third, persisting in the Party’s propaganda discipline. Propaganda and culture work not only requires observance of the Constitution and the law, and submitting to administrative management by relevant State departments, but we must also observe the Party’s propaganda discipline, including all kinds of concrete work requirements, matters needing attention, etc. If we do not stress discipline, leadership power and management power will come to nothing.

Now, the influence of the Internet is growing ever larger. Letting the Internet be a relatively open and free public opinion environment, and letting it become a supplement to mainstream public opinion battlefields basically should be beneficial and constructive. But online rumours spread widely, chaotic phenomena of online rights infringement appear in quick succession, online negative speculation causes temporary uproars, making cyberspace become foul and chaotic, gravely harming this sort of constructivity, will it do not to manage this? Putting chaotic online phenomena in order according to the law and cleaning up cyberspace relate to the struggle in the ideological sphere, relate to the consolidation and expansion of mainstream ideology and public opinion, relate to the bigger picture of national reform, development and stability, and are great matters that must be handled well.

The management in the ideological sphere has its complexities and peculiarities. With regard to the masses’ proper, reasonable and well-intentioned criticism and supervision, regardless of how sharp it is, we welcome it, we must never be unhappy, and can certainly not suppress it; we must not only welcome it, but must also earnestly listen and realistically improve. With regard to academic questions, we should promote democracy, equal discussion, persuade people with reason, ensure that there are no forbidden zones in research, and there is discipline in propaganda. With regard to questions of ideological understanding, we should state the facts clearly, stress reason, strengthen positive propaganda, and guide matters in a focused manner. With regard to major political principles and great questions of right and wrong, on what to support and what to oppose, we must fly our banners clearly and have firm attitudes. The Party must manage the media, manage the orientation, manage teams and manage cadres, strengthen the responsibilities of controlling and sponsoring departments as well as localized management, and let mainstream ideology and public opinion firmly occupy ideological battlefields.

Winning the power of initiative with discourse power

To do ideological work well, discourse power is also of the utmost importance. We ourselves are incessantly summarizing China’s development path, but there are also people who have made other interpretations and evaluations, furthermore, they do their utmost to vie with our Party for discourse power and influence. In the past few years, the ideological and theoretical sphere has been lively, and some problems have led to great disputes. Having disputes is not a bad thing, the truth will always become clearer through more debate, the important matter is that discourse power must be firmly grasped.

Now, the achievements that China has gained in economic and social development are affirmed internationally for the most part, leaders of various countries will express admiration when they meet with the leaders of our country. At the same time, there are also an increasing number of people who begin to affirm the governance structure and governance capacity of our country, and this is exactly what is most taboo to the West. When the New China had just been founded, there were people in the West who prophesied that the Chinese Communist Party could do a revolution, but that it could not do construction, they looked upon us with ridicule. After reform and opening up, our country’s economy started to develop rapidly, and there were some people around the world who again made snide remarks, when we did well, there was the “China threat theory”, when we ran into difficulties, there was the “China collapse theory”, they never were not in our ears. In thirty years, we have undergone many storms and waves, but we have not only endured all of them, we have also developed even better after the storms and waves passed, in incessant clear contrast with the situation of chaos in a number of countries worldwide. Practice demonstrates that our country marches a successful development path that is different from the Western countries, we have formed a set of successful institutions and systems that is different from Western countries. We use facts to declare the bankruptcy of the “end of history theory”, and to declare the bankruptcy of the one-way view of history in which all countries in the end must converge to Western institutional models.

Furthermore, where in the world are there “universal values” and “ultimate models” that are applicable everywhere? Some people underestimated the superiority, resilience, vitality and potential of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, or they did see this and know it tacitly, but because of ideological reasons, they would stubbornly refuse to admit this verbally. The West’s arguments about freedom, democracy and human rights are the most typical stereotyped expression, they have talked about this stuff for two hundred years, and are still talking about it, they still have these concepts and these excuses, they are unable to talk about some new things, they just rely on that stuff that has been repeated for two hundred years to monopolize the international discourse power.

What merits vigilance is that, under the influence of Western hostile discourse and mistaken thinking trends, deviations have also emerged in the understanding of some people domestically, they blindly turn with the wind, and consciously or unconsciously criticize events occurring in our country with Western ideology and institutional models and standards. The huge achievements of reform and opening up, the successes gained in responding to major natural disasters, etc., are clearly successes obtained by our Party leading the people in marching the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, they have clearly manifested the superiority of China’s institutions, but it is said that these are the fulfilment of “universal values”, that they are “universal” and not “particular”; it is believed to be normal that the same social problems and social phenomena, such as incidents of mass resistance, etc., occur in Western countries, and even that they are reflections of freedom, democracy and human rights, but if they occur in China, it is said that they are created by “institutional abuses”, they are the manifestation of a so-called “social crisis”, some people even impute the smog to the system; some people cannot see the fact that in the present world, “China’s landscape is beyond compare” in the present world, but they are anxious about China’s prospects, and believe that China will only have a way out if it implements Western “constitutional democracy”. How deluded and ignorant this is!

Whether or not a shoe fits, one only knows when putting it on. On whether or not China’s development path is correct, only the Chinese people themselves have the most right to speak. With China’s population of 1.3 billion and 56 ethnicities, and its territory of 9.6 million square kilometres, whose model can be followed? The problem is that since reform and opening up, we have done remarkably well and been very successful in practice, but we have not been sufficiently forceful in summarizing research, propagation and elucidation, what is said is not as good as what has been done. What is truly a influential, cohesive force among the broad masses is the elucidation of patriotism and the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the nation, but this is insufficient. We must persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics, we must build a discourse system that has Chinese characteristics, Chinese styles and Chinese airs, which is strongly influential, persuasive and cohesive, strive to forge new concepts, new categories and new expressions that circulate in China and abroad, use them to elucidate China’s basic national conditions, value concepts, development path, and domestic and foreign policies, shape a “mass discussion” on the theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, shape a “Chinese discussion” on Socialist ideology, and thereby consolidate a common ideological basis of the united struggle of the Party and the people, and gain the power of initiative in the ideological struggle.

意识形态工作要紧紧抓在手上

意识形态工作是我们党的一项极端重要的工作,事关党的前途命运,事关国家长治久安,事关民族凝聚力和向心力。我们必须高度重视和切实加强意识形态工作,尤其要把意识形态工作的领导权、管理权、话语权紧紧抓在手上,任何时候都不能旁落,否则就要犯无可挽回的历史性错误。
关键是落实领导责任
做好意识形态工作,首先要解决领导权问题。中国共产党是中国特色社会主义事业的领导核心。党的领导,主要是思想、政治和组织领导,其中思想领导对于实现党对国家和社会的领导具有极大意义。牢牢掌握意识形态工作的领导权,是新形势下巩固马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位、巩固全党全国人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础的要求,是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的要求,也是应对西方敌对势力对我进行意识形态渗透的要求。
领导,就是要领之导之。我国最广大的人民群众是相信和支持我们党的,是愿意跟党走的,关键是我们党要站在时代前列、斗争前沿,带领群众前进;当前意识形态领域斗争尖锐复杂,关键是我们党要亮明自己的旗帜,在众声喧哗中唱响主旋律,引导社会思潮。这些年,一些错误思潮暗流涌动,把部分群众的思想搞乱了。这个时候,党的各级领导干部必须站出来说话,坚定宣传党的理论和路线方针政策,坚定宣传中央重大工作部署,坚定宣传中央关于形势的重大分析判断,坚决同党中央保持高度一致,坚决维护中央权威。对那些做了错误思想俘虏的人,就是要大喝一声,猛击一掌,使之警醒。
近年来,党内和社会上出现了一种怪现象,就是谁发表正面的言论,谁发表支持党和政府的言论,谁驳斥那些攻击、污蔑党和政府的言论,谁就会受到围攻,而我们自己阵营常常是鸦雀无声或者声音不大,对正面声音支持保护不够。这种现象很值得深思。如果听任这种现象发展,那就是放弃领导责任,就是让领导权旁落。在意识形态领域,我们不搞无谓争论,但牵涉到大是大非问题,牵涉到制度模式选择、价值体系建设等重大问题,决不能左顾右盼,更不能退避三舍。领导干部要敢于站在风口浪尖进行斗争,不能对大是大非问题绕着走,不能用“不争论”、“不炒热”、“让说话”为自己的不作为开脱,不能搞“爱惜羽毛”那一套。战场上没有“开明绅士”,在大是大非问题上也没有“开明绅士”。在事关党和国家前途命运的思想政治斗争中,所有领导干部都不能作旁观者,而要作党和人民的忠诚卫士。
看一个领导干部政治上是否成熟、能否担当重任,一个重要方面就是看他重不重视、善不善于抓意识形态工作。各级党委主要负责同志和分管意识形态工作的领导同志,应该旗帜鲜明站在意识形态工作第一线,责无旁贷承担起政治责任。党委主要负责同志要带头抓意识形态工作,带头阅看本地区本部门主要媒体的内容,带头把握本地区本部门媒体的导向,带头批评错误观点和错误倾向,加强对意识形态领域重大问题的分析研判和重大战略性任务的统筹指导。对意识形态工作领导不力、造成严重后果的,应当严肃问责。
意识形态领域离不开管理
与领导权紧密关联的是管理权。意识形态领域要不要管理?当然要。思想无形,但承载和传播思想的媒体、阵地等等是有形的,是社会事业的一部分,当然需要管理。马克思恩格斯曾指出:“作为思想的生产者进行统治,他们调节着自己时代的思想的生产和分配”。(《马克思恩格斯文集》第1卷第551页)这里所说的对思想的生产和分配进行“调节”,就是管理。其实,现代社会,没有哪个领域不需要管理,所谓“没有规矩,不成方圆”,管理也是生产力。
西方标榜所谓言论自由、新闻自由,其实他们对意识形态的管制是很厉害的。西方社会真正的统治者是垄断资本集团,那些在本国及国际舆论场上呼风唤雨,对政治、经济和思想文化施加着巨大影响的最有权势的西方大媒体,都掌控在垄断资本集团手中。西方媒体可以问责政客、指摘政党、批评政府,可以让某位政客落马、某个政党败选、某届政府下台,但它们绝对不会从根本上去质疑、批评、反对资本家老板和资本主义制度。西方垄断资本集团重金雇佣大批思想舆论精英,把资本主义意识形态包装成所谓“普世价值”,在国内向民众长期宣传灌输,搞意识形态禁锢,凡不符合主流意识形态的就被视为“政治不正确”;在国际上按意识形态划线,不遗余力向世界输出西方意识形态,用西方标准评判世界上发生的一切事情,符合西方标准的就被视为好的,不符合的就加以妖魔化。美国打着自由民主的旗号频繁对外用兵,制造了多少人道主义灾难!而西方媒体在这些战争中甚至充当了信息战、舆论战的工具。西方经常讲“思想的自由流动”,可是他们何曾认真地介绍过不同于西方意识形态的别的思想理论和价值观?为什么很多美国人眼界狭窄,对外部世界的无知到了令人吃惊的程度?难道不是长期实行思想封锁、愚民政策的结果吗?
社会主义意识形态反映的是最广大人民的根本利益,所以从来不隐瞒自己的政治立场和观点。对于新闻出版、广播电视、文化艺术、社会科学等宣传文化部门、机构和媒体来说,对于党的宣传思想文化工作者来说,就是要讲党性。党性原则是意识形态工作的根本原则,也是意识形态领域管理问题的核心。
讲党性,有三条最重要。一是坚持党的领导。思想上,坚持马克思主义的指导地位;政治上,坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的方向,同党中央保持高度一致;组织上,确保各级各类宣传文化机构的领导权掌握在忠于党和人民的人手里。二是坚持对党负责和对人民负责的一致性。党以全心全意为人民服务为根本宗旨,是人民利益最忠实的代表者,除了人民的利益没有自己的私利,这就决定了宣传文化工作对党负责和对人民负责是一致的。三是坚持党的宣传纪律。宣传文化工作不仅要遵守宪法、法律,服从国家有关部门的行政管理,而且必须遵守党的宣传纪律,包括各种具体工作要求、注意事项等。不讲纪律,领导权、管理权都会落空。
现在,互联网的影响越来越大。让互联网有一个相对开放自由的舆论环境,作为对主流舆论阵地的一种补充,本该是有益的、建设性的。但网络谣言大行其道、网络侵权乱象纷呈、网上负面炒作甚嚣尘上,使网络空间变得污浊混乱,严重损害了这种建设性,不管行吗?依法治理网络乱象,让网络空间清朗起来,关系意识形态领域斗争,关系巩固壮大主流思想舆论,关系国家改革发展稳定大局,是一件必须办好的大事。
意识形态领域的管理有其复杂性、特殊性。对群众正常、合理、善意的批评和监督,不管多么尖锐,我们都欢迎,都不要不高兴,更不能压制;不仅要欢迎,而且要认真听取、切实改正。对学术问题,应该发扬民主,平等讨论,以理服人,做到研究无禁区、宣传有纪律。对思想认识问题,应该摆事实、讲道理,加强正面宣传,有针对性地加以引导。对重大政治原则和大是大非问题,支持什么、反对什么,必须旗帜鲜明、态度坚定。党要管媒体、管导向、管队伍、管干部,强化主管主办和属地管理职责,让主流思想舆论牢牢占领意识形态阵地。
以话语权赢得主动权
做好意识形态工作,话语权也至关紧要。对中国的发展道路,我们自己在不断总结,但也有人作出别样的解读和评说,并且竭力同我们党争夺话语权和影响力。这些年,思想理论领域很热闹,有些问题引起很大争论。有争论并不是坏事,真理总是越辩越明,重要的是必须牢牢掌握话语权。
现在,国际上对中国取得的经济社会发展成就大都是肯定的,各国领导人在与我国领导人见面时都会对我国发展成就表示钦佩。同时,也有越来越多的人开始肯定我们国家的治理体系和治理能力,而这恰恰是西方最忌讳讲的。新中国刚成立的时候,西方就有人预言,中国共产党搞革命还行,搞建设不行,等着看我们的笑话。改革开放以后,我国经济迅速发展起来了,世界上又有人说风凉话,搞得好就是“中国威胁论”,遇到困难就是“中国崩溃论”,一直不绝于耳。30多年来,我们经历了多少风浪,不仅都挺过来了,而且每场风雨过后都发展得更好,同世界上一些国家乱局不断形成了鲜明对照。实践证明,我国走出来一条不同于西方国家的成功发展道路,形成了一套不同于西方国家的成功制度体系。我们用事实宣告了“历史终结论”的破产,宣告了各国最终都要以西方制度模式为归宿的单线式历史观的破产。
其实,世界上哪有什么放之四海而皆准的“普世价值”、“终极模式”?有些人低估了中国特色社会主义制度的优势、韧性、活力和潜能,或者是也看到了,心知肚明,但出于意识形态原因,口头上就是死不认账。西方对自由、民主、人权的演绎是最典型的套话,他们讲那一套讲了一二百年,现在还在讲,还是那些概念、那套说辞,讲不出什么新东西,就是凭借着重复了一二百年的那些套话垄断了国际话语权。
值得警惕的是,在西方强势话语和错误思潮影响下,国内一些人的认识也发生了偏差,盲目跟风,对我国发生的事情自觉不自觉地以西方意识形态和制度模式为标准来评判。改革开放的巨大成就,应对重大自然灾害取得的胜利等,明明是我们党带领人民走中国特色社会主义道路取得的成功,分明彰显了中国的制度优势,却被说成是“普世价值”的兑现,在“普”不在“特”;同样的社会问题、社会现象,如群体性抗议事件等,发生在西方国家就被认为是正常的,甚至是自由、民主、人权的体现,发生在中国就被说成是“体制弊端”造成的,是所谓“社会危机”的表现,有人甚至把雾霾也归咎于体制;有些人看不到当今世界上中国“风景这边独好”的事实,却在为中国的前途忧心忡忡,认为中国只有实行西方“宪政民主”才有出路。这是怎样的迷思与蒙昧!
鞋子合不合脚,自己穿了才知道。中国的发展道路对不对,中国人自己才最有发言权。中国13亿多人口、56个民族、960万平方公里土地,能照谁的模式办?问题在于,改革开放以来我们在实践中干得很漂亮、很成功,但在总结研究、宣传阐释上却不够给力,说的不如干的。真正在广大民众中有影响力凝聚力的是爱国主义、民族复兴中国梦的论述,但这是不够的。我们要坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,必须构建起具有中国特色、中国风格、中国气派,具有强大吸引力、说服力、凝聚力的话语体系,着力打造融通中外的新概念、新范畴、新表述,用以解读中国的基本国情、价值理念、发展道路、内外政策,形成中国特色社会主义理论体系的“大众论述”,形成社会主义意识形态的“中国论述”,从而巩固党和人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础,赢得意识形态斗争的主动权。

 

 

Cybersecurity and Informatization Leading Group: Names and Documents

Following the establishment of the Central Leading Group for Cybersecurity and Informatization, the independent website Guancha.cn circulated a name list of the group’s members and the institutions they represent. In total, the group reportedly has 22 members. The first three of these had been announced by Xinhua: the Group is chaired by Xi Jinping, with Premier Li Keqiang and Standing Committee member Liu Yunshan as vice-chairs. These are joined by 8 other Politburo members and senior leaders: Ma Kai (Vice-Premier), Wang Huning (Central Policy Research Office Director), Liu Qibao (Central Propaganda Committee Director), Fan Changlong (Central Military Commission, Vice-Director), Meng Jianzhu (Central Political-Legal Committee Secretary), Li Zhanshu (Central Committee General Office Director), Yang Jing (Central Secretariat, Secretary) and Zhou Xiaochuan (Vice-Chair of the CPPCC and Governor of the People’s Bank of China). With the exception of Yang Jing, all of these are also members of the new Central Leading Group of the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform. Furthermore, the group contains 11 ministarial-level officials, representing the State bureaucracies involved with informatization and cybersecurity. They include Lu Wei (SCIO Vice-Director and SIIO Director) who will also be in charge of the Leading Group’s Office, Guo Shengkun (Minister of Public Security), Fang Fenghui (Chief of the General Staff), Wang Yi (Minister of Foreign Affairs), Xu Shaoshi (NDRC, Director), Yuan Guiren (Minister of Education), Wang Zhigang (Ministry of Science and Technology, Party Secretary), Lou Jiwei (Minister of Finance), Miao Wei (Minister of Industry and Information Technology), Cai Wu (Minister of Culture) and Cai Fuchao (State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television,Director).

This new leading group largely merges the membership of the previous two leading bodies for online governance, the State Informatization Leading Group (SILG) and the State Network and Information Security Coordination Small Group (SNISCSG). One interesting addition is the governor of the central bank, who had hitherto not been involved in cybergovernance matters. It passed a work plan for 2014 at its first meeting, was well as internal rules for its functioning. None of these documents has been made public so far, but Guancha indicates that broad policy pronouncements can be expected in the wake of the plenary meetings of the National People’s Congress and the Political Consultative Conference, which ended today and yesterday respectively.

Central Leading Group for Internet Security and Informatization Established

On Thursday, the establishment of a new Central Committee leading group for Internet and information technology matters, the Central Leading Group for Cybersecurity and Informatization was announced. The group is chaired by Xi Jinping, with Premier Li Keqiang and the ex-head of the Central Propaganda Department, Liu Yunshan as vice directors.

According to a Xinhua analysis, this move reflects the Centre’s determination at the highest levels of Chinese politics do deepen reform and strengthen top-level design, as well as to protect national security, safeguard national interests and promote the development of information technology. 20 years after the arrival of the Internet in China, there are now more than 600 million users, more than 80% of which use mobile technology; furthermore, there are 18.44 million domestic domain names and nearly 4 million websites, three of which are among the ten largest Internet sites in the world. 300 million netizens shop online, and the total scale of e-commerce exceeds 10 trillion Yuan. Conversely, in Xinhua’s view, this scale does not translate in strength. There is a lack of indigenous information, a great urban-rural digital divide and low levels of broadband connectivity. Furthermore, it claims that China is the main victim of online attacks, with Trojans and botnets controlling nearly 900.000 host IPs, and regular infringement of personal privacy and citizens’ lawful rights and interests. In terms of governance, Xinhua argues that for historical reasons, administrative management power over the Internet has been fragmented, a problem earmarked for resolution at last year’s 3rd Plenum. Furthermore, other measures have been taken to expand control over online security and informatization, including measures to broaden domestic demand.

In Xinhua’s view, various countries have taken initiatives to strengthen Internet security and top-level design. It indicates that more than 40 countries have published cybersecurity strategies, while the United States has published more than 40 documents concerning cybersecurity and set up a cybersecurity office within the White House. Germany and France are seen to discuss the establishment of an independent European Internet in order to avoid U.S. interference and protect data security, while a new data protection bill lies in front of EU lawmakers. Japan and India have also published cybersecurity strategies in 2013. It follows that the establishment of a national cybersecurity structure is a necessary move by the Chinese leadership.

From Xi Jinping’s speech (excerpts translated hereunder), it seems that this new leading group will have comprehensive powers over the entire online sector, including economic, political, cultural, social and military matters, and it can be expected that it will start formulating strategies and policy objectives relatively soon. Xinhua expects particular moves to be made in formulating development plans for information and network technology research, development and industrialization, structures combining military and civil structures, even stronger online information content management rules, regulations to protect core information infrastructure, etc. There will also be increasing support for professional training programmes.

According to an article published in the Overseas Edition of the People’s Daily, Internet governance is taking a clear turn for the better. While in the past, online rumours and online crime had proliferated, the recent crackdown on Internet and social media, the judicial interpretation on online content, and the recent plans for cyberspace reform are creating a new, sophisticated governance structure with a range of tools to control cyberspace. Furthermore, it claims that Internet security has become inseparable from national security, particularly mentioning the PRISM programme as one of the reasons for China’s concerns.

The general tone of the press releases mirrors earlier evolutions in fields including innovation and culture, where China is moving from a position that it defines from “large” to “strong”. In international terms, this means that it will most likely try to weigh more heavily on international Internet governance and the development of bilateral and multilateral protocols for particular areas, such as data protection. It may aim to enhance its control of the Internet infrastructure, including the construction of more root servers. Conversely, it may look to attenuate its reliance on foreign hardware and software suppliers, and substitute them with home grown products.

Xinhua also published some excerpts from Xi Jinping’s speech at the opening ceremony:

In his speech, Xi Jinping pointed out that in the present world, in which the information technology revolution changes every day, which profoundly influences developments in international political, economic, cultural, social, military and other areas. Informatization and economic globalization mutually stimulate each other, the Internet has already penetrated into every aspect of social life, and profoundly changed the people’s ways of production and life. Our country is in the middle of this great wave, and the influence it experiences grows ever deeper. Our country’s Internet and informatization work has seen remarkable development achievements, the network has marched into millions of households, it is the global number one in terms of netizen numbers, our country has become a large cyber country. At the same time, we must also consider that we are considerably backward in the area of indigenous innovation, there are relatively clear discrepancies between regions, and between urban and rural areas, and especially the difference with international advanced levels of per capita broadband is relatively large, domestic Internet development bottlenecks remain relatively prominent.

Xi Jinping stressed that cybersecurity and informatization can affect the whole situation in many areas of one country with one slight move, we must clearly understand the circumstances and tasks that we face, fully understand the importance and urgency of doing work well, plan matters according to trends, move in response to trends, and act in line with trends. Cybersecurity and informatization are two wings of one bird, two wheels of one cart, we must uniformly plan, uniformly deploy, uniformly move forward, and uniformly implement matters. To do cybersecurity and informatization work well, we must deal well with the relationship between security and development, ensure coordination and consistency, move forward across the board, protect development with security, stimulate security with development, strive to build a long trend of peace and order.

Xi Jinping pointed out that doing public opinion work well is a long-term task, we must innovate and improve online propaganda, use the laws of network dissemination, carry the main melody forward, arouse positive energy, forcefully foster and practice the Socialist core value system, grasp the timing, degree and effect of online public opinion guidance, and ensure that cyberspace becomes clean and crisp.

Xi Jinping stressed that network information circulates across national borders, information flows guide technology flows, finance flows and talent flows, information resources become more important production factors and social assets every day, the amount of information control has become an important symbol for national soft power and competitiveness. The extent of information technology and industry development decide the level of informatization development, we must strengthen indigenous innovation of core technologies and the construction of infrastructure, increase capacity for information collection, processing, dissemination, use and security, and extend them to the people’s livelihoods even better.

Xi Jinping pointed out that without cybersecurity, there is no national security, and without informatization, there is no modernization. To build a strong cyber country, we must have our own technology and have technology that is up to scratch; we must have rich and complete information services, and a flourishing and developing online culture; we must have a good information infrastructure, and shape a powerful and solid information economy; we must have high-quality cybersecurity and informatization talent teams; we must vigorously launch bilateral and multilateral international cooperation and exchange concerning the Internet. The strategic deployment of building a strong cyber country must be moved forward in step with the “Two Centuries” struggle objective, and incessantly progress in the direction of the objectives of the fundamental dissemination of network infrastructure, a clear strengthening of indigenous innovation capacity, the comprehensive development of the information economy, and powerful cybersecurity protection.

Xi Jinping stressed that we must formulate complete information technology and network technology research and development plans, and spend great efforts to resolve the problem of transforming the fruits of scientific research. We must roll out policies to support enterprise development, let them become new pillars for technological innovation, and become the mainstays of information industry development. We must grasp the formulation of legislative plans, perfect laws and regulations on Internet information content management and crucial information infrastructure, etc., govern cyberspace according to the law, and safeguard citizens’ lawful rights and interests.

Xi Jinping stressed that to build a strong cyber country, we must concentrate talent resources, and build a line of formidable teams that are strong politically, excellent professionally, and have a good work style. “A thousand troops are easy to raise, one general is hard to find”, we must foster and train word-class scientists, pioneering network technology talents, brilliant engineers, and high-level innovation teams.

Xi Jinping stressed that the Central Leading Group for Cybersecurity and Informatization must play a concentrated and uniform leadership role, comprehensively coordinate major issues in all areas of cybersecurity and informatization, formulate and implement national cybersecurity and informatization development strategies, macro-level plans and major policies, and incessantly strengthen capacity for security protection.

Minister of Culture: Deepen cultural structural reform (again)

This article by Minister of Culture Cai Wu was published in Seeking Truth on 16 January. In this article, Cai Wu rehashes a number of standard measures for cultural structural reform that have been touted for years, with varying degrees of success. In general, they can be reduced to one central observation: that cultural structural reform is greatly concerned with the forms and trappings of a successful cultural industry, and not with the essence: the creation of cultural goods and services that actually meet with market success. In this article, as in many policy documents in the past, much attention is given to the creation of particular financial products, trading platforms, cultural infrastructure, administrative streamlining and the training of specialist personnel. It does not mention, however, the stifling creative environment in which Chinese artists, writers and filmmakers live. Also, this article returns to the theme of national cultural soft power, by which the cultural administration hopes to enhance China’s image abroad. It suffices here to say that, however many efforts are made to foster China’s “discourse power”, the national image will continue to suffer from matters ranging from the recent Xu Zhiyong case to pollution and its stance in the East and South China Seas. The important bit in the article, as always, are the first few paragraphs, which frame the proposed measures in terms of the political line set at the recent 3rd Plenum and the follow-up meetings. In other words, it is the political signalling (biaotai ) that counts here, not the substance. Continue reading

New Paper: The Privilege of Speech and New Media

Even though Article 35 of the Chinese Constitution theoretically guarantees the freedom of speech and of the press, it is a well-known fact that in reality, speech in China can be very costly indeed. In the massive body of laws and regulations promulgated in the area of culture after 1979, there are ample provisions imposing severe punishment for many speech or press-related activities, while few provisions protect expression against State. The majority of rules governing expression only permit specific actors to engage in specific activities within a specific scope, on a conditional basis. In other words, Chinese communications law aims to harness particular forms of speech in order to pursue specific objectives, and delegitimize other forms. Speech, therefore, is not a right but a privilege; it is not an entitlement granted on the basis of equality before the law and pluralist philosophy, but a power granted on the basis of particularity and monism. Until recently, this structure was buttressed a regulatory model that fragmented communication flows in an environment with a relatively small and manageable number of players. The advent of the Internet has upset this pattern. Now, the Party is confronted with the fact that hundreds of millions of individual citizens have gained easy access to tools of communication that allow them to publish information and organize in ways that had been nearly impossible earlier. This has fuelled a wave of new legislation, regulation and institution-building at different levels and across different sectors, aimed at imposing new means of control, against the background of continued political imperatives of stability and development, in order to preserve the privileged speech model.

This paper surveys and conceptualises these legal evolutions in the light of evolving political, social and technological contexts. First, it provides a brief outline of Chinese media regulation as it had been constructed in the Nineties, and develops the concept of privileged speech. Second, it maps and analyses the different initiatives that have been taken by the Party leadership with regards to Internet communication, against the background of technological, commercial and social evolutions that changed the political imperatives that form the context for Party leadership. Third, it outlines how recent evolutions in the pattern of communications regulations are connected with broader questions of political reform in China.

The full paper can be downloaded on SSRN.

Party Centre publishes new promotion and appointment criteria for senior officials.

On 15 January, the People’s Daily published a revised version of the “Work Regulations for the Promotion and Appointment of Leading and Party Government Cadres”, dating from 2002. This document provides the specific norms required for appointment to senior positions in the government and the CCP. A translation is underway and will be posted on this website in due course. According to an explanatory article, also in the People’s Daily, there are ten major updates from the previous version:

First, the document now requires that leading cadres must “put virtue first” if they wish to rise in rank. According to the People’s Daily, this stems from drive developing in recent years to ensure that cadres combine ability with integrity. It refers to a document that the Central Organization Department published in 2011, the “Opinions concerning Strengthening Assessment of Cadres’ Virtue” (a full background website on this topic is available via the Party magazine Seeking Truth, in Chinese). The PD also quotes Tsinghua University professor Cheng Wenhao, who heads a research centre on clean government, who states that public officials can only serve society and benefit the people if they have sufficient moral integrity, and that lack of integrity would bring ruin to society.

Second, changes will be made to the cadre evaluation structures. These will come to include indicators connected to people’s livelihoods, including employment, income, technological innovation, education, healthcare and social security, on top of factors that had been stressed before, such as social harmony, economic development, environmental preservation, etc. According to professor Zhu Lijia of the National School of Administration, cited by the PD, this would change the trend to “only look at GDP”, and implement the policies set out at the third plenum.

Third, detailed provisions are made limiting the range of candidates who are eligible for assessment. Persons who are not subject to assessment, cannot be promoted or appointed to higher positions. Specifically, this affects cadres under the following circumstances (1) not being generally recognized by the masses, (2) not being evaluated well enough in annual examinations, (3) “running around for titles” or canvassing votes,  (4) having a spouse migrating abroad or, if not having a spouse, having children migrating abroad, (5) having been subject to administrative or disciplinary punishment and (6) other reasons.

Fourth, there will be additional procedures for candidates undergoing assessment. More specifically, Party organization bodies must obtain information from discipline supervision bodies concerning candidates’ corruption situation. Also, auditing departments must provide input on candidates for positions with economic responsibilities.

Fifth, a clause is added to the list of criteria for promotion eligibility, which requires that candidates conform to the qualifications of relevant laws and regulations. According to Cheng Wenhao, this allows for more specific rules for appointments in specific departments or regions where this is necessary.

Sixth, the scope for open appointments and competitive selections is defined. According to the People’s Daily, a number of regions had started to use these methods to avoid domination by “number one leaders” (yibashou 一把手) and backroom politics. The 2002 rules only stated that open appointments were to be carried out facing society, and competitive elections were internal to specific work units or systems. The new regulations provide further details, by allowing for open appointments in cases where a particular locality or department cannot find suitable candidates internally and competitive selections might be conducted in circumstances where many candidates vie for the same position, and consensus cannot easily be found. Furthermore, the new rules stipulate that  open appointments and competitive selections must survey and measure the process according to scientific standards, give prominence to the characteristics of the position, give prominence to prominent achievement, and stress the combination of ability and personal qualities, so that persons are not merely selected on the basis of grades and marks. Lastly, open appointments for county-level or lower officials should not be carried out across provinces. According to Cheng Wenhao, this last point might originate from the fact that this would bring organizational difficulties, as well as from the fact that it might be better for grass roots officials to have local experience.

Seventh, the conditions for removing cadres from their position are updated. On the one hand, three new conditions are implemented: (1) being subject to an investigation for liability, (2) resignation or transfer to a different position; or leaving a position for study for more than a year, if that has not been arranged organizationally. One condition has been deleted, not passing the annual evaluation or the cadre assessment, being found unqualified by more than one third of votes in a democratic survey, and being found unqualified by the organizational department. The reason for the latter, according to a vice-director of a county organization department in Jiangsu cited by the PD, is that these requirements were too easy to manipulate. Claiming that no completely scientific and reasonable method to evaluate cadres has been developed anywhere in the world, he stated that there were problems with the extent to which democratic surveys were truthful and scientific in nature, with the fact that it was difficult to evaluate different kinds of officials in different places, which meant that the previous rules did not result in the effects hoped for.

Eighth, with regards to term limits, the new rules provide that officials who have held the same position for two terms of office, can no longer be recommended or nominated for the same position. Furthermore,  the new rules stipulate that young cadres with few diverse experiences, or who lack experience in working at the grass roots, should be sent to work at the grass roots, poor and remote regions or complex and environments.

Ninth, cadres who “take the blame and resign” (yinjiucizhi 引咎辞职) cannot hold positions for a year, and may not hold a positions that are higher than their previous position for two years. That period can be lengthened for those also subject to Party discipline punishment, in view of the circumstances. Furthermore, organizational punishment has become an explicit ground for demotion.

Tenth, with regard to cases of neglect of supervisory duty or malpractices in the appointment process where grave consequences result, the new rules explicitly impose responsibility on the main leading members of the Party Committee involved, relevant leading persons, relevant leading members the organization department and the discipline supervision committee involved, as well as other responsible persons.

These rules mark another step in the continuing efforts of the leadership to bring lower-level officials into line and curb incentives for corruption. Some of the new initiatives are not new, the push towards stronger moral requirements on senior officials had been initiated under the previous leadership. However, what merits attention is that these rules send another strong signal that Xi’s assertion of strict discipline, as well as his repeated taking aim at abuses and malpractices are no mere rhetoric. He is, literally, rewriting the rules.

Update: another take by the always excellent Chris Buckley can be found here.

Justice and fairness with Chinese characteristics: Seeking Truth on the rule of law

Another New Year, another article calling for the implementation of the Constitution and the law in China. But in contrast with last year, this article isn’t published in Southern Weekend, Yanhuang Chunqiu or other outlets known for their political outspokenness, but in the Party’s chief theoretical journal, Seeking Truth. It is written by Chen Jiping, the Party Secretary and Vice-Chairman of the Law Society of China, one of the many front organisations under the leadership of the Party that are used to connect different areas of society, including the professions, to the policymaking and implementation process. Chen summarises a number of speeches that Xi Jinping has made since his accession in late 2012 in the field of law, and identifies four central focus form for further legal reform towards a “rule of law China” (法治中国).

First, Chen argues that, in order to foster rule of law in China, a belief in the rule of law must be fostered among the people. In other words, Chinese citizens must identify with and internalise the notion of the rule of law. This, in turn, must be based on practicing the rule of law by judicial and other law enforcement bodies. Second, Chen discusses the problems in law enforcement. He takes aim at favouritism and corruption that takes place within law enforcement bodies, and stresses that laws must be strictly enforced, particularly in the administrative area. Third, Chen proposes a larger role for the people in legal processes, both in legislation and enforcement. He links judicial reform with the “Fengxiao experience” and the current Mass Line campaign, stressing that increased popular participation and a stronger focus on popular satisfaction are necessary. Lastly, Chen calls upon leading cadres at all levels to support the rule of law, vituperating against privilege and corruption.

These arguments sound admirable, but contain many points that have been repeatedly made by observers inside and outside of China in the past. In its ideological perfectionism and its tradition of avoiding public disagreements about policy, Chinese policy programmes often read like the Santa Claus list of a materialist five-year old: it wants it all. It does not choose or prioritiseneither does it clearly outline trade-offs that are inevitable in political and legal decision making. Everyone must be satisfied, therefore everything must be done. There are, however, intractable tensions between ideas and concepts that are central to the notion of the rule of law on the one hand and the current structuring of China’s political structure on the other. These tensions, if anything, are exacerbated under Xi’s new approach exacerbate.

It is, of course, quite difficult to explain exactly what the rule of law is, and it is often best recognised in its absence. But it is possible to point at a number of ideas which could conceivably constitute the concept, and a fundamental assumption should be that, in principle, the law on the books should be applied. Naturally, some discretion and leeway is necessary in view of specific facts in particular cases, and there are always questions about interpretation of particular provisions, but even so, it remains possible to draw some sort of boundary between decisions or outcomes that can be justifiably seen as an acceptable interpretation of the law, and instances of clear abuse. To a certain degree, this means that the rule of law implies a reduction of political control and capacity to shape events, as potential outcomes are constrained by mandatory procedures. In Party ideology, however, law is justified through its outcomes: laws and their application must make people happy, support modernisation and development policy, and ensure that no violation of law occurs. Equally, it must be flexible enough for creative use in maintaining continued Party rule. It seems that there is a paradox, therefore, between a process which arrives at (politically) indeterminate outcomes through predetermined procedure, and a political tradition in which procedures are often applied ex post, to justify a political conclusion that has already been reached. Also, law can impose obligations, such as the obligation to resign when ministerial responsibility requires so. In a system where personnel appointments are, however, more the result of continuous jostling and negotiations, and where you lose if you’re not winning, such obligations would mean an utter reversal of practice and custom.

A second pillar of the rule of law is the publicity of legal norms. It is perhaps needless to say that for people to obey the law, or base their actions on it, they must know what the law is. This question, which norms are applicable to a particular situation, is governed by what HLA Hart called rules of recognition. These rules identify what counts as law within a given system, and can, in Hart’s view, be discovered through the practice of legal officials. When we turn to the Chinese legal structure, we see that there is no lack of written rules of recognition, starting with the statement in the Constitution that it is the highest norm for behaviour. In reality, however, it is clear that outcomes are governed as much, if perhaps not more, by unwritten rules, the qian guize 潜规则. These tacit codes are sometimes connected to Party discipline (and the tension between Party discipline and State law deserves a monograph of itself), but equally often to what insiders in the system can get away with before unpleasant things happen to them. It sounds almost Daoist: the rule that says it’s the rule, is not the rule.

A last aspect of the rule of law is the relationship that law has with society, and how the presence and enforcement of certain rules can fulfil social objectives. Certainly, a large part of the function of law is that it should provide a deterrent against undesired behaviour. But in the Chinese conception, this deterrent does not remain limited to individual cases. Rather, good law results in the dissolution of social contradictions at the collective level. The epistemological basis for this seems to be the hypothesis of the optimal answer: for every problem, a response can be found that is not only acceptable for everyone, but generates outcomes in which all sides end up better off. This approach has deleterious consequences for the use of law, as it does not recognise that there may be cases in which two legitimate values conflict and a zero-sum decision imposes itself. In other words, where law often legitimises social conflict by providing a procedural channel for it to be addressed in a measured manner, the Chinese case seems to delegitimise these tensions, by assuming that the existence of tensions themselves means something is wrong in the state of Denmark.

It is, perhaps, more appropriate at the moment to consider Chinese law as a body of standing orders. They outline standard accepted practices for specific activities, which are to be followed until someone who has the political standing to do so, decides otherwise. Certainly, Xi has amassed considerable authority, and seems to still focus on enhancing discipline. It is, perhaps, in this sense that this article is best understood: the power that must, according to Xi, be locked up in a body of rules is the power of subaltern officials to disobey, not his own. Plus ça change…

Studying Comrade Xi Jinping’s Important Elucidations on the Rule of Law

Since the 18th Party Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping has stood on the strategic heights of the future fate of the Party and the country, put forward the struggle objective of building a rule of law China, and has published a series of important elucidations on building the rule of law, which further clarified the direction of and the path for accelerating the building of a Socialist rule of law country. The content of the speeches was profound, pragmatic and innovative, and contained a large amount of sincere feelings of putting people first and linking hearts up with the people, it provided strong theoretical guidance for moving the construction of a rule of law China forward, and symbolized the entry of the construction of a Socialist rule of law country into a new historical stage.

I, Let rule of law become a sort of belief for the whole people

In January 2013, Comrade Xi Jinping gave important instructions on political-legal work under new circumstances, and put forward the magnificent objective of building a rule of law China for the first time. The formation of the Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics generally resolved the question of having laws to rely on, but rule of law construction remained a matter of arduous work along a long path. Laws cannot just be articles on paper, but they must be written into the hearts of citizens, ensuring that rule of law becomes a sort of belief for the whole people. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that we must establish the authority of the law among the broad cadres and masses, ensure that the people fully believed in the law and consciously used the law, shape a belief in the law in the entire society, carry forward a rule of law spirit, foster a rule of law culture, and shape a good atmosphere of studying the law, respecting the law, abiding by the law and using the law in all of society. This has had a major and profound significance for the acceleration of building a Socialist rule of law country.

Belief in the rule of law leads the construction of a rule of law China. Belief in the rule of law means identifying with the law, trusting in the law, abiding by and defending the law from the heart. Whenever rule of law becomes a sort of belief, the people will consciously and voluntarily abide by the law with perseverance for the long term, and make handling affairs according to the law into their life habit. Only if the law is believed in, and it becomes a form conviction, can it be internalized as a standard for people’s actions. Following the deepening of the construction of national rule of law, our legal texts have become ever more perfect, the people’s knowledge and understanding of the law have become ever more rich, but why are there still so many profound problems in legislation, law enforcement, the judiciary and observance of the law? Why does the phenomenon that laws are divorced from reality, and institutions are divorced from reality, still exist? The reason lies in the fact that a belief in the law has not been truly established. With regards to those in government, a belief in the rule of law is the basis for rule of law thinking and role of law methods. Only by believing in the rule of law from the heart, will it be possible to shape rule of law thoughts, and will it be possible to actively, consciously and adeptly use rule of law methods. Where the common citizen is concerned, the basis for the rule of law lies in the support of the people from their heart, the majesty of the rule of law lies in the sincere belief of the people. Only by striving to cast the rule of law spirit and the concept of the rule of law into people’s minds, and form habits where affairs are handled according to the law, the law is sought when problems occur, the law is used to resolve problems, and the law is relied on to dissolve contradictions, can the rule of law release the positive energy of norms in an uninterrupted stream. Comrade Xi Jinping put the rule of law at the height of belief, and so grasped the most central issue in building a rule of law China, this gave prominence to the guiding function that belief in the rule of law has in building a role of law China, and has clear characteristics of the times as well as a major significance in realities.

Foster a rule of law belief in practicing the rule of law. Belief in the rule of law requires gradual accumulation and formulation in the concrete practice of scientific law-making, strict law enforcement, a fair judiciary and complete observance of the law. The popular masses’ belief in the rule of law cannot come out of nothing, to let the popular masses believe in the rule of law, it is first necessary to let them really feel that the law is able to play an effective role, and believe that the rule of law can bring concrete benefits to them. Comrade XI Jinping stressed that: “We must, through unwavering efforts, establish the authority of the Constitution and the law in the entire society, that the broad popular masses fully believe in the law and consciously use the law, make the broad popular masses understand that the Constitution is not only a norm for action that must be observed by the whole body of citizens, but is also a legal weapon that guarantees citizens’ rights”. This requires that legislation must truly reflect the masses’ interests and appeals; it requires that law enforcement organs and judicial organs are able to handle affairs according to the law when the populace needs the protection of their lawful rights and interests, and that fairness is upheld for them. Thus, people are made to believe that as long as something is a reasonable and lawful appeal, a reasonable and lawful result can be obtained through legal procedure. When people feel fairness and justice in one law enforcement or judicial procedure after another, and obtain real assistance, the belief in the rule of law will naturally be built in people’s hearts and in the entire society. Only when the rule of law becomes a universal belief in the entire society, can a rule of law country be realized.

II, Completely move the implementation of the law forward with strict law enforcement as focus point

Comrade Xi Jinping gave high regard to the question of law enforcement, stressing that “the vitality of the law lies in its implementation”, he clearly pointed out the position and role of legislative organs, administrative organs, judicial organs and the broad citizens in the implementation of the law, required that administrative organs take the lead in strictly enforcing the law, raising the capacity of leading bodies and leading cadres at all levels to use rule of law thinking and rule of law methods, strengthening supervision over law enforcement activities, and persisting in eradicating all illegal interference with law enforcement activities.

The implementation of law has become the main contradiction in building a rule of law China. To implement the basic plan of governing the country according to the law and accelerating the construction of a Socialist rule of law country, the complete and effective implementation of the Constitution and the law must be guaranteed. Safeguarding the authority of the Constitution and the law means safeguarding the authority of the Party and the common will of the people. Guaranteeing the implementation of the Constitution and the law means the guaranteeing the realization of the people’s fundamental interests. The great majority of the main problems that our country’s rule of law construction faces exist in the area of legal implementation, such as the fact that supervisory organs and concrete institutions guaranteeing the implementation of the Constitution and the law are not complete; law enforcement and judicial problems that relate to the personal interests of the popular masses are still relatively prominent; a number of public servants abuse their power, neglect their duty and engage in malpractice, break the law during law enforcement and even bend the law for relatives and friends, which gravely harms the authority of the State legal system; the constitutional and legal consciousness of citizens, including a number of leading cadres, remains to be further raised. In this regard, Comrade Xi Jinping requires that “we must strengthen the implementation of the Constitution and the law, safeguard the unity, dignity and authority of the Socialist legal system, shape a rule of law environment in which people do not want to break the law, cannot beak the law and do not dare to break the law, and ensure that there are laws to rely on, law enforcement must be strict, and violations of law must be prosecuted.” Through the complete implementation of the Constitution and the law, a shift from a “system of laws” to “a system of rule of law” is to be realized.

Strict law enforcement is the heaviest of heavies in the implementation of the law. In our country, more than 80 per cent of laws and regulations are enforced by administrative organs. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that: “administrative organs are the main bodies for the implementation of laws and regulations, they must take the lead in strictly enforcing the law, safeguarding the public interest, the people’s interests and social order. Law enforcers must be faithful to the law, they cannot suppress the law with power, and personally defy the law, neither can they bestow favours outside of the law or bend the law for relatives and friends. All levels’ leading organs and leading cadres must raise their ability to use legal thinking and legal methods, strive to concentrate a consensus for reform, standardize development activities, stimulate the dissolution of contradictions, and guarantee social harmony through the rule of law”. The requirements on law enforcers has risen from the pure strict enforcement of the law, to loyalty to the law and raising the ability to use legal thinking and legal methods, this grasps the crux of the problem. A number of prominent problems that currently exist in the area of law enforcement, such as coercive law enforcement, for-profit law enforcement, selective law enforcement, wilful law enforcement, etc., spring from the fact that a number of law enforces lack reverence for and loyalty to the law and the rule of law in their hearts. Only if loyalty to the law is established, can the problem of legal violations in law enforcement be thoroughly resolved from the ideological source. At the same time, it is also necessary to strengthen supervision over law enforcement activities, determinedly eliminate illegal interference in law enforcement activities, determinedly prevent and overcome local protectionism and departmental protectionism, determinedly prevent and overcome law enforcement work being driven by interests, determinedly punish corrupt phenomena, and ensure that power comes with responsibility, the use of power us supervised, and violations of the law must be prosecuted.

III, Pay even more attention to the core position of the people in building the rule of law

The popular masses are the core of building a rule of law China, the satisfaction of the popular masses is the final norm to measure the building of a rule of law China. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that the people’s yearning for beautiful lives, is our struggle objectives; we must listen to the calls of the people at all times, respond to the people’s expectations, guarantee the people’s rights of equal participation and equal development, and safeguard social justice and fairness; we must, with the interests of the broadest people in mind, persist in a judiciary for the people. These important elucidations reflect the governance concept of putting people first, and ensure that the building of a rule of law China has a broad and profound popular basis.

Realizing, safeguarding and developing the fundamental interests of the broadest people are the objectives of rule of law building. Persisting in and respecting the core position of the people is first and foremost reflected in realistically guaranteeing the people’s constitutional and legal rights. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that “only by guaranteeing that the people are all equal in the face of the law, respecting and guaranteeing human rights, and guaranteeing the rights and liberties that the people enjoy according to the law, can the Constitution deeply enter into people’s hearts and march into the popular masses, and can the implementation of the Constitution truly become a conscious act of the whole body of the people”. We must raise the scientific and democratic levels of legislation, perfect legislative work mechanisms and procedures, broaden orderly participation by the masses, fully listen to opines from all sides, ensure that the law correctly reflects the demands of economic and social development, and coordinate relationships of interests even better. We must persist in a judiciary for the sake of the people, improving judicial work styles, serve through enthusiasm, and realistically resolve the problem that it is difficult for the common people to file lawsuits. This requires that we establish a work orientation that puts the people central, put the people in the highest position in our hearts from beginning to end, implement the Party’s mass line in every segment of legislation, law enforcement and judicial work, and persist in linking up with the masses, sticking close to the masses, relying on the masses and serving the masses.

Make relying on popular participation into the basic method for building the rule of law. The masses are most concerned about their personal interests, they are most clear about the reasons why contradictions and disputes come into being, and the crux of problems that exist, and they have the most wisdom to resolve them. Comrade Xi Jinping requires that we must persist in and develop the “Fengqiao Experience”, be good at using rule of law thinking and rule of law methods to resolve contradictions and problems that affect the masses’ personal interests. We must innovate work methods, integrate the Mass Line and rule of law thinking, firmly rely on grass-roots organizations and the broad masses to prevent and dissolve social contradictions, and let the masses themselves team up to resolve their own problems through rule of law methods. Persist in scientific policymaking and democratic policymaking, make the process of policy formulation into a process that listens to the popular will, removes the people’s worries, and wins the support of the masses. We must fully rely on the popular masses, consciously accept supervision by the popular masses, realize the integration of specialized organs and mass participation, and persist in marching the Mass line. We must expand judicial openness strength, increase law enforcement transparency to the largest extent, guarantee parties’ and the popular masses’ right to know and right to supervise, and respond to the popular masses’ attention on and expectations about judicial fairness and openness. Perfect people’s assessor and people’s supervisor systems, and expand channels for the orderly participation of the popular masses in the judiciary. We must form effective restraint and supervision mechanisms for the use of judicial power through the endowment by institutional design and the guaranteeing of procedural rights of parties and their counsel.

Make the satisfaction of the people into the fundamental standard to test the results of the building of rule of law. Legislative, law enforcement and judicial organs must persist in making the satisfaction of the people into an objective, and incessantly raise the sense of identification and the level of trust of the popular masses. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that what is called judicial fairness means that rights that are infringed certainly will be protected and granted relief, and that law-breaking and criminal activities must absolutely be sanctioned and punished. Only if the popular masses are able to guarantee their own lawful rights and interests through judicial procedures, can the judiciary have credibility, can the popular masses trust the judiciary, can the law truly play the role in defining a persons’ status and ceasing disputes, and can the final function of judicial adjudication be realized. The people pass the final judgment on the complete value of judicial work. Comrade Xi Jinping stressed that: “We must strive to let the popular masses feel that they have received fairness and justice in every case” Implementing this judicial work objective, on one hand, requires a focus on fairness and justice in individual cases. Starting from raising the case-handling quality in every concrete case, and through dealing fairly with thousands upon thousands of cases, can complete trust of the people in judicial fairness be accumulated. Persist in preventing unjust, falsified and mistaken cases, unfair dealing in every concrete case means concrete injury to justice and fairness. On the other hand, we must focus on making fairness and justice felt, completely implement judicial openness, expand the enforcement strength of procedural law, and ensure that judicial fairness is realized in a such a manner that the popular masses can feel it. We must further raise mass work capacity, the law should not be icy cold, judicial work is also mass work. Judicial workers must closely link up with the masses, if they do not understand the language of the masses, do not understand the hardships of the masses, and are not aware of the appeals of the masses, it will be difficult to grasp correct work methods, and it will be difficult for them to play their due role. Mass work capacity is an important component part of judicial capacity, it is necessary to establish mechanisms for legislative officials and prosecutorial officials to go to the grass roots and link up with the masses, to ensure that judicial personnel incessantly raises its horizon in practicing for the sake of the people, derive strength, raise their abilities, and truly perform judicial work to the bottoms of their hearts.

The Law Society of China is a people’s organization under Party leadership, it is a bridge and node for the Party and the government to link up with the broad legal scholars and legal workers, and it bears important responsibility in letting legal research flourish, moving ruling the country according to the law forward, and building a rule of law China. The work of the Law Society equally must establish a correct mass view, realizing the protection and development of the fundamental interests of the broadest people is to become a starting point and a stopover point in all work, ensuring “three serves”: serving the bigger picture of Party and State work, serving the grass roots and the masses, and serving the broad legal scholars and legal workers. We must closely revolve around the issues that correspond to the popular masses’ interests in rule of law building, organize legal scholars and legal workers to research these deeply and put forward counter-policy advice to the Centre. We must fully give rein to the advantages of broad connections and the galaxy of talent, organize and mobilize the broad legal scholars and legal workers to vigorously participate in the work to prevent and dissolve contradictions and disputes, and participate in risk assessments for major policy decisions of the government. We must strengthen communication and contact with grass-roots common legal scholars and legal workers, listen to their aspirations, understand their opinions and demands, and grasp their implementation one by one.

IV, Leading cadres taking the initiative is crucial

Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that all levels’ leading cadres must take the lead in handing affairs according to the law, take the lead in respecting the law, and keeping reverential mind towards the Constitution and the law, and closely establish the concept that the red line cannot be touched and the legal baseline cannot be transgressed. All levels’ organization departments must make their ability to handle matters according to the law and to respect the law into important conditions for observing and distinguishing cadres. It is necessary to strengthen restraints and supervision on the use of power, to lock up power into a cage of rules, and to shape punitive institutions that don’t dare to be corrupt, preventive mechanisms that cannot be corrupt, and guarantee mechanisms that are not easily corrupted. No person has absolute power outside of the law, any person must serve the people, be responsible towards the people and consciously accept the supervision of the people when exercising power. These important elucidations stressed the crucial function of leading cadres in taking the lead in rule of law building, they have revealed the basic path to restrain and supervise power, and indicate new heights and new frontiers for our Party’s governance concepts.

Leading cadres taking the lead in respecting the law is the key to build a rule of law China. “Taking the lead” is reflected in even higher standards, even stricter requirements and even more practical work styles. All levels’ leading cadres are the concrete implementers of Party and State policies and laws, represent the image of the Party and the country, and their every word has a huge demonstrative effect on common cadres and the masses. Only if State organs and their work personnel, and especially leading cadres, take the lead in abiding by the law, and use the law to restrain their own activities, can it be possible for the law to be enforced equally, for the spirit of the rule of law to manifest itself, and can a belief in the rule of law be moulded. The thing that is most likely to have a guiding rule towards the masses, are the real actions of State organs and leading cadres. The eyes of the masses are bright as snow, when the use of power is not consistent with legal provisions, what people respect is not the law that is written on paper, but the real rules of the use of power. Regardless of however perfect legal provisions are, as long as power overrides the law in reality, the people will believe in power and not believe in the law. We must earnestly rethink and thoroughly correct places where the acts of officials and the provisions of the law are inconsistent, and strictly control power to remain on the track of the law. Only in this way can the people emulate their betters, and must they not be warned to follow a bad example.

Persist in opposing and overcoming privileged thinking and phenomena of privilege. Privilege is the ideological source and an important condition for engendered by corruption. Many leading cadres who break the law and believe that their own is related to the fact that they don’t understand the law, but in fact, what they lack isn’t knowledge about the law, but reference for the law. In their hearts, power is bigger than the law, and they didn’t think that these laws, one day, might truly be used on themselves, they mistakenly believed that as long as one has power in one’s hand, that once can decide whether or not the law is enforced. Comrade Xi Jinping stressed that anti-corruption and clean government construction must oppose thoughts and appearances of privilege. Strict punishment of corruption not only requires “hitting tigers” and “hitting flies” one by one, it is even more necessary to destroy the privileged thoughts behind corruption. Communist Party members eternally are ordinary members of the labouring people, apart from individual interests and work duties within the scope provided by laws and regulations, all Communist Party members are forbidden to seek any private interests and privileges. To prevent that a number of cadres change their public power into privilege and the abuse of power for personal gain, we must strengthen norms and restraints for the use of power, restrain power with power, restrain power with rights, and expand punishment strength for acts of privilege. At the same time as perfecting institutional construction, leaders must also firmly establish a consciousness that there are no exceptions in the face of rules deep in their heart, and not let power “avoid seniors”, before it is possible to eradicate the soil in which thoughts of privilege breed, guarantee that those in high position do not usurp power, and those with great power do not seek private gain.

(The author is the Party Secretary and Standing Vice-Director of the Law Society of China)

谈谈法治中国建设
——学习习近平同志关于法治的重要论述
党的十八大以来,习近平总书记站在党和国家前途命运的战略高度,提出建设法治中国的奋斗目标,并就法治建设发表了一系列重要论述,为加快建设社会主义法治国家进一步指明了方向和道路。讲话内涵深刻、务实创新,饱含着以人为本、心系人民的真挚情感,为推进法治中国建设提供了强大的理论指导,标志着社会主义法治国家建设迈入了新的历史阶段。
一、让法治成为一种全民信仰
2013年1月,习近平同志就做好新形势下政法工作做出重要指示,首次提出建设法治中国的宏伟目标。中国特色社会主义法律体系的形成,总体上解决了有法可依的问题,但法治建设依然任重道远。法律不能只是纸上的条文,而要写在公民的心中,使法治成为一种全民信仰。习近平同志指出,要在广大干部群众中树立法律的权威,使人们充分相信法律、自觉运用法律,形成全社会对法律的信仰,弘扬法治精神,培育法治文化,在全社会形成学法尊法守法用法的良好氛围。这对于加快建设社会主义法治国家具有重大而深远的意义。
法治信仰引领法治中国建设。法治信仰,是发自内心地认同法律、信赖法律、遵守和捍卫法律。一旦法治成为一种信仰,人们就会长期持续、自觉自愿地遵守法律,把依法办事当成自己的生活习惯。法律只有被信仰,成为坚定的信念,才能内化为人们的行为准则。随着国家法治建设的深入,我们的法律条文越来越完善,人们对法律知识的了解越来越丰富,但为什么立法、执法、司法、守法中还有许多深层次的问题?为什么法律悬空、制度空转现象依然存在?原因就在于对法治的信仰没有真正树立。对于执政者来说,法治信仰是法治思维和法治方式的基础。只有对法治有着发自内心的信仰,才有可能形成法治思维,才能主动、自觉和善于运用法治方式。对于一般公民来说,法治的根基在于人民发自内心的拥护,法治的伟力在于人民真诚的信仰。只有努力把法治精神、法治观念熔铸到人们的头脑中,形成办事依法、遇事找法、解决问题用法、化解矛盾靠法的习惯,法治才能源源不断地释放出规则的正能量。习近平同志把法治上升到信仰的高度,抓住了法治中国建设的最核心问题,凸显了法治信仰在法治中国建设中的引领作用,具有鲜明的时代特色和重大的现实意义。
在法治实践中培育法治信仰。对法治的信仰需要在科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全面守法的具体实践中逐渐积累形成。人民群众对法治的信仰不会凭空而来,让人民群众信仰法治,首先要让他们切实感受到法律能够有效地发挥作用,信仰法治能够给他们带来实实在在的好处。习近平同志强调:“我们要通过不懈努力,在全社会牢固树立宪法和法律的权威,让广大人民群众充分相信法律、自觉运用法律,使广大人民群众认识到宪法不仅是全体公民必须遵循的行为规范,而且是保障公民权利的法律武器”。这就要求立法必须真正反映公众的利益和诉求;要求执法机关、司法机关在老百姓需要保护他们合法权益的时候,能够依法办事,为他们主持公道。从而使人们相信,只要是合理合法的诉求,通过法律程序就能得到合理合法的结果。当人们从一个又一个的执法、司法过程中感受到了公平正义,获得了切实帮助,对法律的信仰自然就会在人们心中、在全社会建立起来。当法治成为全社会的普遍信仰时,法治国家才能实现。
二、以严格执法为重点全面推进法律实施
习近平同志高度重视执法问题,强调“法律的生命力在于实施”,明确指出立法机关、行政机关、司法机关和广大公民在法律实施中的地位和作用,要求行政机关带头严格执法,提高各级领导机关和领导干部运用法治思维和法治方式的能力,加强对执法活动的监督,坚决排除对执法活动的非法干预。
法律实施成为法治中国建设的主要矛盾。落实依法治国基本方略,加快建设社会主义法治国家,必须保证宪法和法律的全面有效实施。维护宪法和法律的权威,就是维护党和人民共同意志的权威。捍卫宪法和法律的尊严,就是捍卫人民共同意志的尊严。保证宪法和法律的实施,就是保证人民根本利益的实现。目前我国法治建设中面临的主要问题,大多数存在于法律实施领域,如保证宪法和法律实施的监督机制和具体制度还不健全;关系人民群众切身利益的执法司法问题还比较突出;一些公职人员滥用职权、失职渎职、执法犯法甚至徇私枉法严重损害国家法制权威;公民包括一些领导干部的宪法和法律意识还有待进一步提高。对此,习近平同志要求,“必须加强宪法和法律实施,维护社会主义法制的统一、尊严、权威,形成人们不愿违法、不能违法、不敢违法的法治环境,做到有法必依、执法必严、违法必究。”通过宪法和法律的全面实施,实现从“法律体系”向“法治体系”的转变。
严格执法是法律实施的重中之重。在我国,有80%的法律法规是由行政机关执行的。习近平同志指出:“行政机关是实施法律法规的重要主体,要带头严格执法,维护公共利益、人民权益和社会秩序。执法者必须忠于法律,既不能以权压法、以身试法,也不能法外开恩、徇情枉法。各级领导机关和领导干部要提高运用法治思维和法治方式的能力,努力以法治凝聚改革共识、规范发展行为、促进矛盾化解、保障社会和谐。”对执法者的要求从单纯地严格执法,上升到对法律的忠诚和运用法治思维、法治方式能力的提高上,这就抓住了问题的关键。目前执法领域存在的一些突出问题,如强势执法、趋利执法、选择性执法、随意执法等,根源就在于一些执法者对法律、法治缺乏发自内心的尊崇和忠诚。只有确立了对法律的忠诚,执法犯法的问题才能从思想源头上得到彻底解决。同时,还要加强对执法活动的监督,坚决排除对执法活动的非法干预,坚决防止和克服地方保护主义和部门保护主义,坚决防止和克服执法工作中的利益驱动,坚决惩治腐败现象,做到有权必有责、用权受监督、违法必追究。
三、更加重视人民在法治建设中的主体地位
人民群众是法治中国建设的主体,人民群众满意是衡量法治中国建设的最终标准。习近平同志指出,人民对美好生活的向往,就是我们的奋斗目标;要随时随刻倾听人民呼声、回应人民期待,保证人民平等参与、平等发展权利,维护社会公平正义;要以最广大人民利益为念,坚持司法为民。这些重要论述,体现了以人为本的执政理念,也使法治中国建设拥有广泛而深厚的群众基础。
把实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益作为法治建设的目标。坚持和尊重人民的主体地位,首先体现在切实保障人民的宪法、法律权利上。习近平同志指出:“只有保证公民在法律面前一律平等,尊重和保障人权,保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,宪法才能深入人心,走入人民群众,宪法实施才能真正成为全体人民的自觉行动。”要提高立法科学化、民主化水平,完善立法工作机制和程序,扩大公众有序参与,充分听取各方面意见,使法律准确反映经济社会发展要求,更好协调利益关系。要坚持司法为民,改进司法工作作风,通过热情服务,切实解决好老百姓打官司难问题。这就要求我们树立以人民为中心的工作导向,始终把人民放在心中最高位置,将党的群众路线贯彻到立法、执法、司法的各个环节中去,坚持联系群众、贴近群众、依靠群众、服务群众。
把依靠人民参与作为法治建设的基本方式。群众对自身利益最关切,对矛盾纠纷产生的原因、存在的症结最清楚,解决起来最有智慧。习近平同志要求,要把“枫桥经验”坚持好、发展好,善于运用法治思维和法治方式解决涉及群众切身利益的矛盾和问题。要创新工作方法,把群众路线和法治思维结合起来,紧紧依靠基层组织和广大群众预防化解社会矛盾,让群众自己组织起来通过法治方式解决自己的问题。坚持科学决策、民主决策,使政策制定的过程成为倾听民意、化解民忧、赢得群众支持的过程。要充分依靠人民群众,自觉接受人民群众监督,实行专门机关和群众参与相结合,坚持走群众路线。要加大司法公开力度,最大限度地增加执法透明度,保障当事人和人民群众的知情权、监督权,回应人民群众对司法公正公开的关注和期待。完善人民陪审员、人民监督员制度,拓展人民群众有序参与司法的途径。要通过制度设计赋予并切实保障当事人及其代理人充分的程序权利,对司法权力运行形成有效的制约监督机制。
把人民满意作为检验法治建设成效的根本标准。立法、执法、司法机关必须坚持以人民满意为目标,不断提高人民群众的认同感和信任度。习近平同志指出,所谓公正司法,就是受到侵害的权利一定会得到保护和救济,违法犯罪活动一定要受到制裁和惩罚。只有人民群众通过司法程序能够保证自己的合法权利,司法才有公信力,人民群众才会相信司法,法律才能真正发挥定分止争的作用,司法裁判的终局性作用才能实现。人民是司法工作全部价值的最终评判者。习近平同志强调:“要努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。”落实这一司法工作目标,一方面,要注重个案的公平正义。从提高每一个具体案件的办案质量做起,通过成千上万个个案的公正处理,积攒起人们对司法公正的整体信赖。坚决防止冤假错案,一个具体案件的不公正处理就是对公平正义的一次具体伤害。另一方面,要注重公平正义的可感受性,全面落实司法公开,加大程序法律的执行力度,使司法公正以人民群众感受得到的方式得以实现。要进一步提高群众工作能力,法律不应该是冷冰冰的,司法工作也是做群众工作。司法工作者要密切联系群众,如果不懂群众语言、不了解群众疾苦、不熟知群众诉求,就难以掌握正确的工作方法,难以发挥应有的作用。群众工作能力是司法能力的重要组成部分,要建立法官、检察官深入基层、联系群众机制,使司法人员在为民实践中不断提高境界、汲取力量、提升能力,真正把司法工作做到群众心坎上。
中国法学会作为党领导的人民团体,是党和政府联系广大法学法律工作者的桥梁和纽带,肩负着繁荣法学研究、推进依法治国、建设法治中国的重要职责。法学会的工作同样要树立正确的群众观,把实现好维护好发展好最广大人民根本利益作为一切工作的出发点和落脚点,做到“三个服务于”:服务于党和国家的工作大局,服务于基层和群众,服务于广大法学法律工作者。要紧紧围绕法治建设中与人民群众利益息息相关的问题,组织法学法律工作者深入调研,向中央提出对策建议。要充分发挥联系面广、人才荟萃的优势,组织动员广大法学法律工作者积极参与矛盾纠纷预防化解工作,参与政府重大决策法律风险评估。要加强与基层普通法学法律工作者的沟通联系,倾听他们的心声,了解他们的意见和要求,并一项一项地抓好落实。
四、领导干部带头是关键
习近平同志强调,各级领导干部要带头依法办事,带头遵守法律,对宪法和法律保持敬畏之心,牢固确立法律红线不能触碰、法律底线不能逾越的观念。各级组织部门要把能不能依法办事、遵守法律,作为考察识别干部的重要条件。要加强对权力运行的制约和监督,把权力关进制度的笼子里,形成不敢腐的惩戒机制、不能腐的防范机制、不易腐的保障机制。任何人都没有法律之外的绝对权力,任何人行使权力都必须为人民服务、对人民负责并自觉接受人民监督。这些重要论述,强调了领导干部带头在法治建设中的关键作用,揭示了制约监督权力的基本路径,表明我们党治国理念的新高度新境界。
领导干部带头守法是建设法治中国的关键。“带头”体现的是更高的标准、更严的要求、更实的作风。各级领导干部是党和国家政策法律的具体执行者,代表着党和国家的形象,其一言一行对一般干部和群众有着巨大的示范效应。只有国家机关及其工作人员特别是领导干部带头遵守法律,用法律约束自己的行为,法律才有可能得到平等执行,法治精神才能得以彰显,法治信仰才能得以塑造。最有可能对公众产生引导作用的,是国家机关和领导干部的实际行动。群众的眼睛是雪亮的,当权力运行与法律的规定不一致时,人们注重的不是写在纸上的法律,而是权力运行的实际规则。不管法律规定得有多么完备,只要权力实际上凌驾于法律,人们就会信奉强权、不信法律。要认真反思和彻底改正官方行为与法律规定不一致的地方,把权力严格控制在法律的轨道上。只有这样,人们才会见贤思齐,而不是以儆效尤。
坚决反对和克服特权思想、特权现象。特权是腐败产生的思想根源和重要条件。许多违法犯罪的领导干部认为自己犯罪与不懂法有关,事实上,他们缺乏的不仅是法律知识,而且是对法律的敬畏。在他们心中,权比法大,没有想到这些法律有一天会真的用到自己身上,以为只要自己手中有权就可以决定法律是否执行。习近平同志强调,反腐倡廉建设,必须反对特权思想、特权现象。惩治腐败不仅要一个一个地“打老虎”、“打苍蝇”,更要打掉腐败背后的特权思想。共产党员永远是劳动人民的普通一员,除了法律和政策规定范围内的个人利益和工作职权以外,所有共产党员都不得谋求任何私利和特权。要防止一些干部把公共权力异化为以权谋私的特权,必须加强权力运行的规范和制约,以权力制约权力、以权利制约权力,加大对特权行为的惩罚力度。在完善制度建设的同时,也需要领导者在内心深处牢固树立制度面前无例外的意识,不让权力“为尊者讳”,才能从源头上铲除滋生特权思想的土壤,保证位高不擅权、权重不谋私。
(作者:中国法学会党组书记、常务副会长)

Establishment of New Internet Leading Group Reported

According to news reports that as yet remain to be verified, the CCP Central Committee will establish a “Small Leading Group for Informatization and Internet Information Security”. This Small Group would be chaired by Xi Jinping personally, with Li Keqiang and the ex-head of the Central Propaganda Department (CPD) Liu Yunshan as vice-directors. Lu Wei, the director of the State Internet Information Office, would be the director of the Small Group’s administrative office.

Small leading groups sit at the top of China’s administrative hierarchies. They provide close connection between the top leadership and the administrative departments that are to implement policy, and allow for coordination across bureaucratic lines. Currently, there are two small groups directly dealing with the Internet: the State Informatization Leading Group (SILG) and the State Network and Information Security Coordination Small Group (SNISCSG) The former was established in 2001, has mainly been working under the auspices of MIIT (the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology). It is chaired by the Premier, currently Li Keqiang, who is assisted by Zhang Gaoli and Ma Kai, both vice premiers and economic experts; CPD director Liu Qibao; General Fan Changlong, a vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission, and Guo Shengkun, the Minister of Public Security. The Minister of Industry and Information Technology, Miao Wei, heads the SILG’s administrative office. The SNISCSG is more secretive. It was established in 2010 by expanding the remit of MIIT’s Information Security Coordination Department, and was headed by Li Keqiang, who was Vice-Premier at that time. Its administrative office is run by MIIT vice-minister Yang Xueshan, further staffing details have not been made public. It seems to have been involved in a 2012 campaign to “launch focus domain website and information security inspections“. Its membership is not known, but membership lists of similar groups at the local level show list deputy heads of propaganda, secrecy preservation, economy and trade, education, science and technology, public security, finance, information industry, culture, telecommunications and radio and television management departments. To further complicate matters, there is also a National Information Security Ranking and Protection Coordination Small Group, that is headed by Zhang Xinfeng, Vice-Minister of Public Security and Vice-Director of the State Internet Information Office.

If true, this move would indicate a further concentration of power in the hands of Xi Jinping after the recent announcement that he would also chair the Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform. This new Leading Small Group would have tremendous power over the control and circulation of information at all levels, from the protection of infrastructure and industrial information networks to the management of social media and microblogs. It is reported that the publication of this move caused the share prices of information security companies to rise. Currently, corresponding news reports are being censored.

 

Rectifying words with the Sinica podcast

This week, CC&M editor Rogier Creemers was a guest on the Sinica podcast, which discusses rectifying names, or are terms often used to describe particular aspects of China justified? Many thanks to hosts Kaiser Kuo and Jeremy Goldkorn for the invitation, and to David Moser for the enlightening conversation. You can download the podcast here.

Correctly Deal With Both Historical Periods Before and After Reform and Opening Up

This article was originally published by People’s Daily on 8 November 2013.

Study General Secretary Xi Jinping’s Important Elaboration concerning the “Two Cannot Denies”

CCP Central Committee Party History Research Department

General Secretary Xi Jinping profoundly pointed out that there are two historical periods in our Party leading the people in conducting Socialist construction, before the Revolution and after the Revolution, these are two periods that are mutually connected and have major differences, but essentially they are both the exploration in practice of the Party leading the people in conducting Socialist construction. He stressed that the historical period before reform and opening up must be correctly evaluated, the historical period after reform and opening up cannot be used to deny the historical period before reform and opening up, neither can the period before reform and opening up be used to deny the historical period after reform and opening up (hereafter, this sis simply called the “Two cannot denies”. This major elaboration by General Secretary Xi Jinping has profoundly reflected the fundamental position and clear attitude of our Party concerning these major questions. Studying General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important elaboration, has an important guiding significance in correctly understanding and grasping both historical periods before and after reform and opening up, and even the entire history of the Party, in further strengthening self-confidence about the path, self-confidence about the theory and self-confidence about the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics through strengthening self-confidence about the Party’s history, and in resolutely continuing to push forward with the magnificent undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Continue reading

Establish and Complete a Modern Cultural Market System

This article by Jiang Jianguo, the Party Secretary of the State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television was first published in Seeking Truth on 16 December 2013.

The “CCP Central Committee Decision concerning Some Major Issues in the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform” (hereafter simply named “Decision”) has made the establishment of a modern cultural market system into an important task that closely revolves around the building of the Socialist core value system and a strong Socialist culture country, and deepening cultural structural reform, it has also made major deployments.

Following the incessant perfection of the Socialist market economy, cultural resource allocation as well as the production, distribution and consumption of cultural products are increasingly inseparable from the market. Building a unified, open, competitive and orderly modern cultural market system has become an important content and decisive factor of cultural reform and development under the conditions of the Socialist market economy. Since the 16th Party Congress, the Centre has given high regard to the establishment of a modern cultural market system, and forcefully moved the linkage of cultural resources and the market forward, pluralized investment structures for the cultural industry began to be formed, the organization of modern logistics for cultural products began to take shape, markets for capital, property rights, copyright, talent, technology, information and other such cultural production factors have rapidly developed, a beginning has been made with breaking through the barriers of horizontal and vertical fragmentation, regional barriers, and the urban-rural divide in the traditional cultural market structure, and the positive role of the market in cultural resource allocation has begun to take prominence. However, in comparison with the demands of the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture, the comprehensive levels of modern cultural market system construction are not yet high, the development of cultural product and factor markets is not yet perfect, cultural product logistics and service channels are not yet smooth, cultural consumption potential has not yet been fully aroused. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that: “Reform and opening up are boundless, there is only a progressive tense, no perfect tense”, “In responding to the series of contradictions and challenges that our country’s development faces at present, the crux lies in comprehensively deepening reform.” According to the 18th Party congress’ deployment that firmly move the construction of a strong Socialist culture country forward, the crux lies in comprehensively deepening cultural structural reform, breaking through the traditional system in which cultural resources are allocated along departments, administrative regional and administrative hierarchical lines, and building and strengthening a uniform, open, competitive and orderly modern cultural market system. Continue reading

Propaganda chief Liu Qibao hopes foreign Sinologists become ambassadors for Chinese culture

This article was published in People’s Daily today.

On 4 December, CCP Central Committee Politburo Member and Central Propaganda Department Director Liu Qibao attended a conference of Sinologists from various countries on “Sinologists and Sino-Foreign Cultural Exchange”, he hopes that Sinologists from various countries deeply research and disseminate Chinese culture, promote the research, flourishing and development of Sinology, become vigorous disseminators of Chinese culture and become friendly emissaries in Sino-foreign cultural exchange.

At the conference, Liu Qibao respectively listened to speeches by Sinologists from countries such as Kazakhstan, Israel, Russia, the United Kingdom, Singapore, India, the United States and Turkey, and engaged in frank, honest and profound exchange with everyone, he also thanked the Sinologists from the various countries for the important contributions they have made in disseminating Chinese culture.

Liu Qibao pointed out that Chinese culture is a common spiritual treasury of human kind, researching and disseminating Chinese culture well not only benefits the Chinese people, but also benefits the people of the world. Liu Qibao hopes that Sinologists from various countries strengthen research on Chinese culture, deeply unearth and elucidate Chinese culture, vigorously promote and disseminate Chinese culture, to let the people of all countries experience the unique charm of Chinese culture even better. He hopes that a continued interest in and broad introduction of the Chinese Dream will let international society understand China and comprehend China even better, and understand that realizing Chinese dream is an opportunity for all countries in the world. He also hopes for vigorous translation and introduction of contemporary excellent Chinese works, to translate excellent literature, film and television works, and books and introduce them to the people of all countries.

Liu Qibao welcomes Sinologists from all countries to come to China, take a stroll and look around often, to have exchanges and collaborations often, to experience the ancient Chinese civilization by themselves, and profoundly experience the China of today, which changes every day. He required all relevant departments to vigorously create conditions and provide assistance to Sinologists of all countries, to develop their academic research and exchange.

12月4日,中共中央政治局委员、中宣部部长刘奇葆与来华参加“汉学家与中外文化交流”活动的各国汉学家座谈,希望各国汉学家深入研究和传播中华文化,推动汉学研究繁荣发展,做中华文化的积极传播者,做中外文化交流的友好使者。

座谈会上,刘奇葆先后听取了哈萨克斯坦、以色列、俄罗斯、英国、新加坡、印度、美国、土耳其等国汉学家的发言,与大家坦诚深入交流,感谢各国汉学家为传播中华文化作出的重要贡献。

刘奇葆指出,中华文化是人类的共同精神财富,研究好、传播好中华文化,不仅有益于中国人民,而且有益于世界人民。刘奇葆希望各国汉学家加强中华文化研究,深入挖掘和阐释中华文化,积极推介和传播中华文化,让各国人民更好地感受中华文化的独特魅力。希望持续关注、广泛介绍中国梦,让国际社会更好地了解中国、理解中国,认识到实现中国梦是世界各国的机遇。希望积极翻译和推介中国当代优秀作品,把优秀文学、电影电视作品和图书翻译推介给各国人民。

刘奇葆欢迎各国汉学家到中国多走走看看、多交流合作,亲身感受古老的中华文明,深切体验日新月异的当代中国。他要求有关部门积极创造条件,为各国汉学家开展学术研究和交流提供帮助。

 

Xi Jinping: Promote the Entire Party’s Study and Grasping of Historical Materialism

This speech by Xi Jinping was originally published by Xinhua on 3 December

The CCP Central Committee Politburo conducted the 11th collective study session on the basic theories and methodologies of historical materialism in the afternoon of 3 December. When  he chaired the study session, CCP Central Committee General Secretary, Xi Jinping, stressed that promoting the entire Party’s study of the basic theories and methodologies of historical materialism, would lead to a better understanding of national circumstances, a better understanding of the larger development trends of the undertaking of the Party and the State, a better understanding of the laws of historical development, and greater ability to dynamically move work in all areas forward.

Professor Guo Zhan from the Renmin University of China and Professor Han Qingxiang from the Central Party School lectured on this issue, and discussed their opinions and suggestions. Continue reading

Explanation concerning the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform”

According to Xinhua, this is the speech Xi Jinping gave at the 3rd Plenum, providing a background to the Draft Resolution.

Xi Jinping

With the entrustment of the Politburo, now, I will explain the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform” to the Plenum.

I, Concerning the drafting process of the Plenum Resolution

Since reform and opening up, which topics successive 3rd Plenums have researched, which decisions they have made, which measures they have adopted and which signals they have given, have been important bases for our determining the governance policies and focus work points of Central leadership collectives, and have had a major significance for doing work well five years into the future and even ten years into the future.

After the 18th Party Congress, the Centre has set to considering the topics for the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress. The 18th Party Congress has put forward unified objectives on comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society and comprehensively deepening reform and opening up, it has stressed that we must waste no time in deepening reform in important areas with even greater political courage and wisdom, firmly do away with all ideological concepts, structural and mechanistic abuses that hamper scientific development, built institutions and systems that are systematic and complete, scientific and standardized, and effective in operations, to ensure that institutions in all areas become even more mature and finalized. We believe that, in order to complete all strategic objectives and work deployments put forward by the 18th Party Congress, we must firmly grasp moving forward with comprehensive reform.

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress made the historical policy decisions to shift the centre of Party and State work to economic construction, and to implement reform and opening up, 35 years have passed. That such profound changes could occur in the appearance of the Chinese people, the appearance of Socialist China and the appearance of the Chinese Communist Party, and that our country could gain a decisive position in international society, has relied on unwaveringly moving reform and opening up forward.

In 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping said in his talks in the South that: “not persisting in socialism, not reforming or opening up, not developing the economy and not improving the people’s livelihoods, can only be a dead-end road.” Looking back, we have an even more profound understanding of these words of Comrade Deng Xiaoping. Therefore, we say that only Socialism can save China, only reform and opening up makes it possible to develop China, develop Socialism and develop Marxism.

Exactly form the heights of historical experience and real needs, since the 18th Party Congress, the Centre has repeatedly stressed that reform and opening up are crucial in deciding the destiny of contemporary China, and are crucial in deciding the “two centuries” struggle objective as well as realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the development of practice is boundless, liberated thoughts are boundless, reform and opening up are boundless as well, there is no way out in pausing and withdrawing, reforming and opening up only has a progressive tense, it does not have a perfect tense. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, we must, through completely deepening reform, strive to resolve a series of prominent contradictions and problems that our country’s development faces, and incessantly move the self-perfection and development of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics forward.

At present, extremely broad and profound changes are occurring both domestically and abroad, our country’s development faces a series of prominent contradictions and challenges, there are quite a few difficulties and problems on the road ahead. For example, the problems that development is imbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable remains prominent, science and technology innovation capacities are not strong, industrial structuring is not rational, development methods remain extensive, the difference in urban and rural development and the difference between residents’ income allocation remains relatively large, social contradictions are clearly increasing, education, employment, social security, healthcare, housing, ecology and the environment, food and drug safety, production safety, social order, law enforcement and other such problems that relate to the personal interests of the masses are relatively many, a part of the masses lead difficult lives, formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagant work styles remain prominent issues, negative and corrupt phenomena happen easily and often in a number of areas, the anti-corruption struggle situation remains grim, etc. The key in resolving these problems lies in deepening reform.

In April of this year, the Politburo engaged in deep reflection and research, it broadly listened to opinions from all sides within and outside of the Party, and decided that the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress would research the question of comprehensively deepening reform and make decisions.

On 29 April, the Centre issued the “Notice concerning Soliciting Opinions on Comprehensively Deepening Reform to Be Researched at the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress”. All localities and departments unanimously believed that the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress would focus on researching the question of comprehensive deepening reform, would comply with the desires of the broad Party members, cadres and masses, and would grasp the issues that society is most concerned about, and they universally expressed praise.

3rd Plenums since reform and opening up have all researched and discussed questions of deepening reform, they all sent out an important signal, which was that our Party persists unwaveringly in holding high the banner of reform and opening up, and firmly and unwaveringly persisted in the theory, line, principles and policies since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress. In the final analysis, they had to answer the question of holding high which banner and marching which path under new historical conditions.

The 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress has comprehensively deepening reform as its main theme, which means that our Party persists in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, and the scientific development view as guidance, persists in unwaveringly implementing the Party’s basic line, basic programme, basic experiences and basic requirements under new circumstances, and persists in the important declaration and important reflection of holding high the banner of reform and opening up.

After the topics were decided, the Politburo decided to establish a document drafting group, of which I was the head, and Comrades Liu Yunshan and Zhang Gaoli where the vice-heads, responsible comrades from relevant departments and a number of provincial and municipal leading comrades participated in drafting the draft version of the Plenum Resolution under the leadership of the Politburo Standing Committee.

After the document-drafting group was composed, in nearly seven months of time, it broadly solicited opinion, launched topical argumentation, conducted investigation and research, and repeatedly discussed revisions. In that time, the Politburo Standing Committee met three times and the Politburo met two times to deliberate the Resolution, the Resolution opinion-seeking draft was also sent out in a certain scope within the party in order to solicit opinions, the opinions of intra-Party old comrades were solicited, and the opinions of all democratic parties’ central committees, responsible people from the National Industry and Commerce Association and non-party persons were specially heard as well.

Looking from the feedback situation, all sides unanimously believe that the Plenum Resolution profoundly analysed the major theoretical and practical issues that our country faces in terms of reform, development and stability, it elaborated the major significance and future orientation of comprehensively deepening reform, it put forward guiding ideologies, objectives and tasks, and the major principles of comprehensively deepening reform, it described new blueprints, new prospects and new objectives for comprehensively deepening reform, it concentrate new thoughts, new arguments and new measures concerning comprehensively deepening reform, it reflected the calls of society, the appeals of society and the expectations of society, and concentrated an ideological consensus and the active wisdom  of the entire Party and the entire society concerning comprehensively deepening reform.

All sides unanimously believed that the Plenum Resolution rationally deployed the strategic focus points, order of priority, direction of the main attack, work mechanism, means of moving forward, schedules and routes for the comprehensive deepening of reformed, that it shaped a series of major new breakthroughs in reform theory and policy, that it is another general deployment and general mobilization for the comprehensive deepening of reform, and that it inevitably will engender a major and profound influence on promoting the development of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

In the process of soliciting opinions, all sides jointly put forward many good opinions and suggestions. The Centre has tasked the document-drafting group with earnestly arranging and researching these opinions and suggestions, and the document-drafting group has made major revisions to the Plenum Resolution.

II, Concerning the general framework and focus issues of the Plenum Resolution

The Politburo believes that in the face of new circumstances, new tasks and new demands, the crux of comprehensively deepening reform is that we must further shape a development environment with fair competition, further strengthen the development vitality of the economy and the society, further raise government effectiveness and efficiency, further realize social fairness and justice, further stimulate social harmony and stability, and further raise the Party’s leadership levels and governance capacity.

Revolving around these major topics, we stress that we must have a strong consciousness about problems, take major issues as guidance, grasp key issues in further research and consideration, strive to promote the resolution of a series of prominent contradictions and problems that our country’s development faces. Us Chinese Communist Party members doing the revolution, doing construction and grasping reform always has been for the sake of resolving China’s real problems. It may be said that reform has been engendered by reversing problems, and it is deepened by incessantly resolving problems.

Over 35 years, we have used the methods of reform to resolve a series of problems in the development of the undertaking of the Party and State. At the same time, in the process of understanding the world and transforming the world, old problems have been resolved, but new problems could emerge, the system is always in need of incessant perfection, and therefore, reform cannot succeed at the first try, and things cannot be done once and for all.

The Plenum Resolution Draft gives prominence to considerations in five areas. The first is adapting to the new development needs of the undertaking of the Party and the country, and implementing the strategic task of comprehensively deepening reform put forward by the 18th Party Congress. The second is making reform into the main line, giving prominence to new measures to comprehensively deepen reform, it does not talk about general measures, it does not talk about repetitive measures, and it does not talk about purely developmental measures. The third is grasping focus points, revolving around resolving issues that the masses react strongly against, respond to the calls and expectations of the popular masses, give prominence to important areas and key segments, give prominence to a pulling function in economic structural reform. The fourth is persisting in vigorousness and reliability, reform measure design must be bold, and the pace must be steady. The fifth is time planning for the year 2020, according to the reform tasks put forward for this time period, decisive results are to be obtained in the reform of important areas and crucial segments by the year 2020.

In terms of frameworks and structures, the Plenum Resolution has urgently resolving current major problems as priority, and plants structures article by article. Apart from the introduction of the conclusion, it contains 16 parts in total, divided in three large sections. The first part composes the first section, and is a general introduction, which mainly elaborates on the important significance, guiding ideology and general thinking of comprehensively deepening reform. The second until the fifteenth parts compose the second section, which are separate arguments, that mainly provide concrete deployments for the main tasks and important measures in comprehensively deepening reform in the six areas of the economy, politics, culture, society, the ecological civilization, national defence and the military. Among these, the economic aspect contains six parts (the second until the seventh), the political part contains three parts (the eighth until the tenth), the cultural aspect contains one part (the eleventh), the social aspect contains two parts (the twelfth and thirteenth), the ecological aspect contains one part (the fourteenth), and national defence and the military aspect contains one part (the fifteenth part). The sixteenth part constitutes the third section, which stresses organizational leadership and mainly elaborates on strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership over the comprehensive deepening of reform.

Here, I’d like to present the Centre’s considerations concerning some major issues and important measures touched upon in the Plenum Resolution.

First, concerning ensuring that the market has a decisive function in resource allocation and giving better rein to the functions of government. This is a major theoretical viewpoint in this Plenum Resolution. This is because economic structural reform still is the focus point of comprehensively deepening reform, and the core issue of economic structural reform still lies in handling the relationship between the government and the market well.

In 1992, the 14th Party Congress put forward that the objective of our country’s economic structural reform was establishing the Socialist market economy system, and put forward that we must ensure that the market has a fundamental function in resource allocation under the macro-level control of the State. This major theoretical breakthrough has had an extremely important effect on our reform, opening up, economic and social development. This also illustrates the major guiding role of theoretical innovation on practical innovation, to comprehensively deepen reform, theoretical innovation must be the guide.

With over twenty years of practice, the beginnings of our country’s Socialist market economy system have been established, but quite a few problems remain, these mainly are the fact that market order is not standardized, and that the phenomenon of seeking economic gain through improper means exists broadly; development of the production factor market is lagging behind, production factor idleness coexists with large-quantity effective demand that cannot be satisfied; market regulations are not uniform, departmental protectionism and local protectionism exist in large quantities; market competition is not full, survival of the fittest and restructuring are impeded, etc. If these problems are not resolved well, it will be difficult to shape a perfect Socialist market economy system.

In the two decades since the 14th Party Congress, we have consistently sought new scientific positions concerning the relationship between government and market, on the basis of exploration in practice and deepening understanding. The 15th Party Congress put forward to “use the fundamental position of the market in resource allocation under State macro-level control”, the 16th Party Congress put forward “giving rein to the fundamental function of the market in allocating resources to an even greater extent”, the 17th Party Congress put forward “giving better institutional rein to the fundamental function of the market in allocating resources”, the 18th Party Congress put forward “give rein to the fundamental function of the market in resource allocation to an even greater extent and on an even broader scale”. It can be seen that our understanding of the relationship between government and market is incessantly deepening as well.

In this process of discussion and soliciting opinions, it has been pointed out by many sides that we should further orient the relationship between government and market in theoretical terms, and that this has an extremely important effect on comprehensively deepening reform. Considering the opinions from all sides and the real development needs, and after repeated discussion and research, the Centre believes that the theoretical conditions for creating a new expression concerning this issue have become mature, and the “fundamental function” of the market in resource allocation has been changed into “decisive function”.

Now, our country’s Socialist market economic system has basically been established, and the extent of marketization has risen substantially, our understanding of market laws and our ability to control them is incessantly rising, macro-level control systems have become more complete, objective conditions are ready and we should strive forward at a new pace in completing the Socialist market economy system.

To further deal with the relationship between government and market well, we must, in fact, deal well with this question of whether the market has the decisive function in resource allocation or whether the government has this decisive function. Economic development must increase the allocation efficiency of resources and especially scarce resources, in order to produce as many products with as few resources as possible, and gain the highest possible efficiency. Theory and practice have bother demonstrated that market allocation of resources is the most efficient form. The market deciding on resource allocation is a common rule of market economies, and the market economy essentially is an economy in which the market decides on resource allocation. To complete the Socialist market economy system, we must respect this law, and strive to resolve the problem that market systems are imperfect, government intervention is excessive and supervision and management are unsatisfactory. Bringing the orientation towards “ensuring that the market has the decisive function in resource allocation” benefits the establishment of correct concepts concerning government-market relations in the entire Party and the entire society, it benefits the transformation of economic development methods, benefits the transformation of government functions and benefits the restraint of negative and corrupt phenomena.

Naturally, what our country implements is the Socialist market economy system, we still must persist in giving rein to the superiorities of our country’s Socialist system, and give rein to the positive role of the Party and the government. The market has a decisive function in resource allocation, but it does not have the total function.

To develop the Socialist market economy, we must give rein to both the functions of the market and the government, but the roles of the functions of market and government are different. The Plenum Resolution has put forward clear requirements concerning giving better rein to the function of government, it stresses that scientific macro-level regulation and effective governmental governance are the inherent requirements for giving rein to the superiorities of the Socialist market economy system. The Plenum Resolution has provided deployments concerning completing macro-level regulation systems, comprehensively and correctly implementing the functions of government and optimizing government’s organizational structures, it stresses that the functions and the role of government must be to maintain macro-level economic stability, strengthening and optimizing public services, guaranteeing fair competition, strengthening market supervision and management, safeguarding market procedures, promoting sustainable development, stimulating common prosperity and remedying market failures .

Second, concerning persisting in and perfecting basic economic structures. Persisting in and perfecting the basic economic system with public ownership and the core, jointly developing with many ownership systems, relates to an important pillar for the consolidation and development of the Socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

Since reform and opening up, our country’s ownership structures have been progressively adjusted, the proportion of the public economy and the non-public economy in economic development, stimulating employment and other such areas have incessantly changed, which strengthened the vitality of economic and social development. Under these circumstances, how to reflect and persist in the central position of public ownership even better, and further explore effective real forms for the basic economic system, is a major topic in front of us.

The Plenum Resolution stresses that we must unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public economy, persist in the central function of the public economy, give rein to the guiding role of the State-owned economy, incessantly strengthen tie vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy.

The Plenum Resolution persists in and develops the relevant elaborations from since the 15th Party Congress, it puts forward that we must vigorously develop a mixed ownership economy, it stresses that a mixed ownership economy with cross-shareholding and mutual blending between State-owned capital, collective capital and non-public capital is an important real form for the basic economic system, which benefits the amplification of the role of State-owned capital, maintaining and increasing its value and raising competitiveness. This is an effective channel and necessary choice to persist in the core function of public capital under new circumstances, and to strengthen the vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward [that we must] perfect state-owned asset management systems, strengthen State-owned asset supervision and management mainly through capital management, and reform State-owned capital authorization and operation structures; State-owned capital investment operations must serve the strategic objectives of the State, and invest more in important sectors and key areas relating to national security and the lifelines of the national economy, it must focus on providing public services, developing important forward looking and strategic industries, protecting the ecology and the environment, supporting scientific and technological progress and guaranteeing national security; it must plan to transfer a portion of State-owned capital to replenish social security funds; raise the proportion of State-owned capital income that is turned over to public finance, to be used more for social security and improving peoples’ livelihoods.

State-owned enterprises are an important force in moving national modernization forward and guaranteeing the common interest of the people. Through many years of reform, State-owned enterprises generally have assimilated to the market economy. At the same time, State-owned enterprises have also accumulated a number of problems, some malpractices exist, which require further reform. The Plenum Resolution puts forward a series of focused reform measures, including expansion of State-owned capital investment in public interest enterprises; State-owned capital is to continue to control the operations of natural monopoly sectors, reforms with government-enterprise separation, government-capital separation, special permission for operations, and government supervision and management as main content are to be implemented, network and operations separation and free competition in operations are to be implemented on the basis of the characteristics of different sectors; a corporate legal person governance structure  with coordinated operations and effective checks and balances is to be completed; professional manager systems are to be established, to give better rein to the function of entrepreneurs; long-term incentive and restraint mechanisms are to be established, to strengthen responsibility investigation in State-owned enterprise operations and investment; major information openness matters concerning State-owned enterprises’ finances and budgets are to be explored and moved forward; State-owned enterprises must rationally increase the proportion of marketized selection and appointment, rationally determine and strictly standardize State owned enterprise management personnel remuneration levels, professional treatment, professional expenses and business expenses. These measures will promote the perfection of modern enterprise systems in State-owned enterprises, raise operational efficiency, [so that they] reasonably bear social responsibility and give rein to their functions better.

To persist in and perfect basic economic systems, we must persist in the “two unwaverings”. The Plenum Resolution puts forward reform measures at many levels to encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public economy, and arouse the vitality and creativity of the non-public economy. In terms of functions and positions, it clarifies that the public economy and the non-public economy are both important component parts of the Socialist market economy, and are both important bases of our country’s economic and social development; in terms of property protection, they clearly put forward that property rights in the public economy may not be violated, and property rights in the non-public economy may equally not be violated; in terms of policy treatment, it stresses persisting in rights equality, equality of opportunity and equality of rules, and implements uniform market access systems; it encourages non-publicly owned enterprises to participate in the reform of State-owned enterprises, it encourages the development of mixed ownership enterprises in which non-public capital controls shares, and encourages privately-run enterprises meeting conditions to establish modern enterprise systems. This will promote the healthy development of the non-public economy.

Third, concerning deepening reform of financial and fiscal structures. The financial administration is the basis and an important pillar for national governance, scientific financial and fiscal systems are institutional guarantees for the optimization of resource allocation, safeguarding market unity, stimulating social fairness and realizing a long period of peace and order for the country. Current financial and fiscal structures have been perfected and formed progressively on the basis of the fiscal reforms of 1994, and has had an important effect on realizing the win-win objective of strengthening the government’s financial strength and rapid economic development.

Following the changes in trends and developments, the current financial and fiscal structures are not completely suited to the objective requirements of rationally dividing central and local duties and responsibilities, and perfecting State governance, they are not completely suited to the real demands of transforming economic development methods and stimulating sustained and healthy economic and social development, there are also some prominent contradictions and problems in our country’s economic and social development that are related to the fact that our financial and fiscal structures are incomplete.

In this comprehensive deepening of reform, financial and fiscal structural reform is one of the focus points. It mainly involves improving budget management systems, perfecting fiscal revenue systems, establishing systems in which duties, powers and payment responsibilities are mutually corresponding, etc.

This Plenum Resolution puts forward that we must implement completely standardized budgeting systems that are open and transparent, appropriately strengthen the Centre’s duties, tasks and payment responsibilities, national defence, foreign relations, national security, rules and management relating to national unified markets, etc. are to be Central duties; a part of social security, cross-regional and major programme construction and maintenance, etc., are to be joint responsibilities of the centre and the localities, and relationships of duties and responsibilities are to be progressively rationalized; the Centre may arrange transfer payments, to entrust the localities with duties, powers and payment responsibilities; with regard to cross-regional public services and those public services that have a relatively large influence on other regions, the Centre is to bear a portion of local duties, powers and payment responsibilities through transfer payments.

The main objective of these reform measures is clarifying duties and powers, reforming the fiscal system, stabilizing tax burdens, making budgeting transparent and raising efficiency, accelerating the formation of modern financial institutions that are beneficial for the transformation of economic development methods, that benefit the establishment of a fair an unified market, and that benefit moving forward with the equalization of basic public services, shaping a financial and fiscal system in which the financial resources of the Centre and the localities are matched to their duties and powers, to give better rein to the vigour of both the Centre and the localities.

Financial and fiscal structural reform requires a process and gradual completion. The Centre has already clarified that it is necessary to maintain the current stability of the general situation of Central and local financial resources, and further rationalize the income division between the Centre and the localities.

Fourth, concerning completing integrated systems and mechanisms for urban and rural development. The lack of balance and coordination between urban and rural development are a prominent contradiction existing in our country’s economic and social development, and it is a major problem that must be resolved in order to comprehensively construct a moderately prosperous society and accelerate moving forward with Socialist modernization. Since reform and opening up, earth-shattering changes have occurred in the appearance of our country’s countryside. But the binary structure of town and country has not fundamentally changed, and the trend of an incessantly expanding difference between urban and rural development has not been fundamentally reversed. In order to fundamentally resolve these problems, we must move the integration of urban and rural development forward.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward that we must complete structures and mechanisms, and shape new types of relationships between industry, agriculture, town and country in which industry stimulates agriculture, cities drive the countryside, agriculture and industry are mutually beneficial, and town and country are integrated, in order to let the broad peasants equally participate in the process of modernization and jointly share the fruits of modernization.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward reform measures for the completion of integrated structures and mechanisms for urban and rural development. The first is accelerating the construction of new agricultural business systems. This mainly means persisting in the basic position of household operations in agriculture, encouraging the transfer land contracting and operation rights on the open market to specialized large households, household farms, peasant cooperatives and agricultural enterprises, encouraging villages to develop the cooperative economy, encouraging and guiding industrials and commercial capital to go to the countryside and develop a modern plantation industry that conforms to enterprise-type operations, it is permitted that peasants become shareholders with their land contracting and operation rights to develop industrialized agricultural operations, etc. The second is endowing the peasants with more property rights. This means safeguarding peasants’ land contracting and operation rights according to the law, guaranteeing the rights of members of peasants’ collective economic organizations, guaranteeing usufruct rights of peasant households over their homesteads, cautiously and reliably moving forward with trials for peasant housing property right mortgaging, guaranteeing and transfer. The third is moving forward with equal production factor exchange between town and country, and equal allocation of public resources. This mainly means guaranteeing equal pay for equal work for agricultural workers, and guaranteeing that peasants fairly share in the income from the increase in the value of land; perfecting agricultural insurance systems; encouraging social capital to invest in village construction, it is permitted for enterprises and social organizations to set up all sorts of undertakings in the countryside; comprehensively planning the equal allocation of urban and rural compulsory education resources, integrating basic systems for old-age insurance and basic healthcare insurance in town and country, moving forward with the comprehensive development of minimum living standard guarantees in town and country, steadily moving the overall coverage of basic social services for permanent urban residents forward, and completely bringing peasants who moved into cities into urban housing and social security systems.

Fifth, concerning moving forward with consultative democracy and the broad, multi-level development of institutionalization. Consultative democracy is a particular form and unique advantage of our country’s Socialist democratic politics, and is an important reflecting of the Party’s mass line in the political area. Moving consultative democracy forward benefits the perfection of the people’s orderly participation ion politics, tightening the flesh-and-blood relationship of the Party and the popular masses, and stimulating the scientization and democratization of policy.

The Plenum Resolution makes moving the development of broad, multi-level and institutionalized consultative democracy forward into important content for political structural reform, it stresses that under the leadership of the Party and with major issues of economic and social development and real issues that affect the direct interests of the masses as content, broad consultations are to be launched across all of society, persisting in consultation before policymaking and during the implementation of policy decisions. We must build consultative democratic systems with rational procedures and complete segments, and broaden consultation channels for national organs of State power, Consultative Conference organizations, political party groups, grass roots organizations and social organizations; we must deeply launch legislative consultation, administrative consultation, democratic consultation, participatory consultation and social consultation; we must give rein to the important function of the united front in consultative democracy, give rein to the important channelling function of Consultative Conferences in consultative democracy, perfect Consultative Conference institutions and systems, standardize the content and procedures of consultation, expand the forms of consultative conferences, organize topical consultations, specialized consultations, sectoral consultations and consultations on handling motions in a more dynamic and orderly manner, increase the density of consultation and raise the effect of consultation.

Sixth, concerning judicial structural reform and operational mechanisms. The judicial system is an important component part of the political system. In the past few years, the masses’ opinion that the judiciary is unjust has been concentrating, the fact that judicial credibility is insufficient, is to a large extent related to the fact that hat judicial systems and work mechanisms are not rational.

Judicial reform is one of the focus points of this comprehensive deepening of reform. The Plenum Resolution put forward a series of new, interrelated measures, which include reforming judicial management systems, promoting the united management of assets of local courts and procuratorates at provincial levels and lower, and exploring the establishment of judicial jurisdiction systems that are appropriately separated from administrative divisions; completing operational mechanisms for judicial power, perfecting case handling responsibility systems for presiding judges and collegiate benches, and letting those who hear cases judge, and those who judge, be responsible; strictly standardizing sentence commutation, parole and medical bail procedures; completing mechanisms to prevent and correct misjudged cases, and investigate responsibility, and strictly implementing rules to eliminate illegal evidence; establishing mechanisms to end letters and petitions relating to the law or to lawsuits according to the law; abolishing the re-education through labour system, perfecting punishment and correction laws for unlawful and criminal acts, etc.

These reform measures have an important significance for guaranteeing that judicial organs exercise judgment powers and prosecutorial powers independently and according to the law, completing operational mechanisms for judicial power in which powers and responsibilities are clear, raising the transparency and credibility of the judiciary, and guaranteeing human rights better.

Seventh, concerning completing anti-corruption leadership systems and work mechanisms. The anti-corruption issue has consistently been an issue that was widely discussed inside and outside of the Party. The current problem mainly is that anti-corruption organs’ functions are scattered, their forms are not rational, some cases are difficult to investigate and handle, and while corruption cases happen often, responsibility is insufficiently investigated.

The Plenum Resolution has conducted focus deployments concerning strengthening the innovation of and institutional guarantees for anti-corruption systems and mechanisms. These mainly are strengthening the Party’s unified leadership over the construction of a clean Party work style and anti-corruption work, clarifying the fact that Party Committees bear the main responsibility and Discipline Inspection Committees bear a supervisory responsibility, formulating and implementing realistic and feasible responsibility investigation systems; completing anti-corruption leadership systems and work mechanisms, reforming and perfecting the functions of anti-corruption small coordination groups at all levels, providing that the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee takes the lead in investigating and handling corruption cases; reflecting and strengthening the leadership of higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees over lower-level Discipline Inspection Committees, providing that clue management and case investigation must be reported to the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee at the same time as being reported to the Discipline Inspection Committee of the same level; completely implementing that the Central Discipline Inspection Committee assigns Discipline Inspection Organs in Central first-level Party and State organs, improving Central and provincial, regional and municipal inspection patrol systems, and ensuring complete coverage over localities, departments, enterprise and undertaking work units.

These measures have all been put forward on the basis of summarizing real experiences and attracting opinions from all sides.

Eighth, concerning accelerating the perfection of leadership systems for Internet management. Network and information security involve national security and social stability, and this is a new comprehensive challenge that we face.

From the point of view of practice, and in the face of the flying development of Internet technology and applications, clear malpractices exist in the current management system, which mainly are multi-headed management, overlapping of functions, lack of unity of powers and responsibility and low efficiency. At the same time, following the fact that the media nature of the Internet becomes ever stronger, online media management and sector management can by far not catch up with the developments and changes of the situation Especially in the face  microblogs, WeChat and other such social media that have rapid dissemination, great influence, broad coverage and a strong capacity for social mobilization, as well as the rapid growth of instant telecommunication tool users, how to strengthen the construction of an online legal system and public opinion guidance, and ensuring the online information dissemination order, national security and social stability, have become current prominent issues put in front of us.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward persisting in the principles of positive use, scientific development, management according to the law and guaranteeing security, expanding power to manage the network according to the law and perfecting leadership systems for Internet management. The objective is to integrate the functions of related organs, shape joint forces for Internet management from technology to content, from daily security to attacking crime, and guaranteeing the correct use and security of the network.

Ninth, concerning establishing a National Security Committee. National security and social stability are the preconditions for reform and development. Only if there is national security and social stability can reform and development be pushed forward incessantly. At present, our country faces a double pressure, to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests externally, and maintain political security and social stability domestically, all sorts of risks and factors that are predictable or difficult to predict are clearly increasing. And our security work systems and mechanisms cannot yet adapt to the needs of safeguarding national security, it is necessary to build a strong and powerful platform to comprehensively plan national security work. Establishing a National Security Committee and strengthening concentrated and unified leadership over national security work has become an urgent task.

The National Security Committee’s main task is formulating and implementing national security strategies, moving national security rule of law construction forward, formulating national security work principles and policies, and researching and resolving major issues in national security work.

Tenth, concerning completing national natural resource and asset management systems and perfecting natural resource supervision and management systems. Completing national natural resource and asset management systems are major reforms in order to complete natural resource property right systems, and are immanent requirements of establishing systematic and integrated ecological civilization systems.

Some prominent problems exist in our country’s ecological and environmental protection, to a certain degree, these are related with the fact that structures are not complete, one of the causes is that the property rights of the entire people over natural resource assets is unsatisfactory, and the rights and interests of proprietors are not implemented. Focusing on this issue, the Plenum Resolution puts forward the requirement of completing national natural resource asset management systems. The general line of thinking, according to the principle of separating proprietors from managers and ensuring that the same matters are managed by the same department, implementing the property rights of the entire people over natural resource assets and establishing uniform systems to exercise the entire people’s duties as proprietors of natural resource assets.

The State exercising management over the exercise of the whole people’s property rights over natural resource assets is not the same as the State exercising supervision and management over natural resources on a territorial scope, the former concerns the rights in the sense of ownership, the latter concerns power in the sense of managers. This requires the perfection of natural resource supervision and management systems, the uniform exercise of land use control responsibilities, and ensuring that the proprietors of State-owned natural resource assets and the State natural resource managers are mutually independent, mutually coordinating and mutually supervising.

We must understand that mountains, water, forests, fields and lakes are a living community, the lifeline of people lies in the fields, the lifeline of fields lies in water, the lifeline of water lies in mountains, the lifeline of mountains lies in land, the lifeline of land lies in trees. Use management and ecological restoration must abide by the laws of nature, if only tree-planting is managed in tree- planting, if only water control is managed in water control, if protecting fields is purely protecting fields, it is easy to lose sight of one thing because of attending to something else, which in the end creates systemic ecological destruction. One department is to be responsible for all land use management responsibilities on a territorial scope, this is extremely necessary to implement uniform protection and uniform restoration of mountains, water, trees, fields and lakes.

Eleventh, concerning the Centre establishing a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform. Completely deepening reform is a complex and systematic project, only relying or one or some departments often results in ability not being equal to ambition, this requires the establishment of a higher-level leadership mechanism.

The Plenum Resolution points out that the Centre will establish a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, to be responsible for general reform design, comprehensive coordination, moving matters forward in an integrated manner and supervising implementation. This is for the sake of giving better rein to the leading core function of the Party in assuming responsibility for the entire picture and coordinating all aspects, and to guarantee that reform is smoothly pushed forward, and that all reform tasks are implemented. The main duties of the Leading Small Group are: uniformly deploying major nationwide policies, comprehensively moving reform in all areas forward, coordinating forces on all sides in shaping joint forces to move reform forward, strengthening supervision and examination, and promoting the comprehensive implementation of reform objectives and tasks.

III, Concerning some issues that must be given attention in discussions

The task of this Plenum is to discuss the thinking and plans on comprehensively deepening reform put forward in the Plenum Resolution. Here, I’d like to put forward a few demands to everyone.

First, strengthen convictions and courage to move reform forward. Reform and opening up are a new magnificent revolution conducted by our Party leading the people under new historical circumstances, they are the clearest characteristic of contemporary China and the clearest banner of our Party. On what has our Party relied to inspire people’s hearts, unite thoughts and concentrate forces? On what has it relied to arouse the pioneering spirits and creative vitality of the whole body of the people? On what has it relied to realize the rapid development of our country’s economy and society, and to gain comparative advantages in the competition with capitalism? It relied on reform and opening up.

In the face of the future, we must analyse and explain all difficulties faced in development, dissolve risks and challenges coming from all sides, give even better rein to the superiorities of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and promote sustained and healthy economic and social development, and apart from deepening reform, there is no other way.

At present, much attention is paid to the issue of reform and opening up inside and outside of the Party, and inside and outside of the country, up and down the entire Party and in all areas of society, expectations are high. Reform and opening up has reached a new important juncture. We can absolutely not waver in the slightest with regard to reform and opening up, the banner of reform and opening up must continue to be held high, the correct orientation of the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics must be firmly persisted in. The entire Party must firm up their belief in reform, and move reform forward with even greater political courage and wisdom, even more powerful measures and methods.

Second, persist in liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts. Hold high the banner of reform and opening up, it will not do to only have standpoints and attitudes, there must also be real measures. Actions are the most persuasive. The Centre has decided to use this advantageous juncture of the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress to create deployments for the comprehensive deepening of reform, this is a strategic choice. We must grasp this opportunity and strive to achieve new breakthroughs in the comprehensive deepening of reform. We must make new breakthroughs, and so must further liberate thoughts.

To breach ideological and conceptual obstacles and breach the defence lines of vested interests, liberating thoughts is of the highest importance. On the issue of deepening reform, some ideological and conceptual barriers often do not come from outside of the system but come from inside the system. If thoughts are not liberated, it will be difficult for us to get a clear few of where the crux of the problem of vested interests lies, it will be difficult to find the correct direction and focus points for breakthroughs, and it will be difficult to produce creative reform measures. Because of this, we absolutely must have the courage and mind for self-renewal, jump beyond the fetters of red tape, overcome the impediments of departmental interests, and research and put forward reform measures with a vigorous and active spirit.

Naturally, we must be cautious in putting forward reform measures, we must repeatedly research and repeatedly expound them, but we can absolutely not be overcautious or hesitant to move forward, not dare anything or not dare to try anything because of this. In doing reform, it cannot be the case that not a single bit of existing work structures, systems and operation is broken, it cannot be the case that everything is steady and well organized, or that there is not any risk. As long as something has undergone full elucidation and appraisal, as long as something conforms to reality, it must be done, things that should be done must still be done boldly.

Third, persist in starting from the big picture in considering issues. Comprehensively deepening reform relates to the major strategic deployments for the entire picture of the undertaking and development of the Party and the country, it is not an individual reform plan in a certain area or aspect. “If the entirety is not considered, specific areas cannot be considered”. Everyone comes from different departments and work units, and must all look at problems from the entire picture, you must first look at whether or not major reform measures that are put forward conform to the needs of the overall picture, and whether or not they benefit the long-term development of the undertaking of the Party and the state. You must truly look ahead, think ahead, and consider matters in advance. Only in this way can the document formed in the end truly conform to the development needs of the undertaking of the Party and the people.

To comprehensively deepen reform, we must strengthen top-level design and overall planning, and strengthen research on the connectedness, systemicness and feasibility of all matters of reform. When we say we must have great nerve, and stable steps, the stability of steps means that we must comprehensively consider matter, expound them completely, and make scientific policy decisions. reform in all economic, political cultural, social, ecological civilization areas and Party building reform are closely linked and mutually connected, reform in any area may affect other areas, and at the same time, they require close coordination with other areas. If reform in all areas are not supplementary, reform measures in all areas will hinder each other, it will be very difficult to move reform and opening up forward, even if they are forced forward, the outcome will come with significant discounts.

关于《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》的说明
习近平
受中央政治局委托,现在,我就《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》向全会作说明。
一、关于全会决定起草过程
改革开放以来,历届三中全会研究什么议题、作出什么决定、采取什么举措、释放什么信号,是人们判断新一届中央领导集体施政方针和工作重点的重要依据,对做好未来5年乃至10年工作意义重大。
党的十八大之后,中央即着手考虑十八届三中全会的议题。党的十八大统一提出了全面建成小康社会和全面深化改革开放的目标,强调必须以更大的政治勇气和智慧,不失时机深化重要领域改革,坚决破除一切妨碍科学发展的思想观念和体制机制弊端,构建系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟更加定型。我们认为,要完成党的十八大提出的各项战略目标和工作部署,必须抓紧推进全面改革。
从党的十一届三中全会作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策以来,已经35个年头了。中国人民的面貌、社会主义中国的面貌、中国共产党的面貌能发生如此深刻的变化,我国能在国际社会赢得举足轻重的地位,靠的就是坚持不懈推进改革开放。
1992年,邓小平同志在南方谈话中说:“不坚持社会主义,不改革开放,不发展经济,不改善人民生活,只能是死路一条。”回过头来看,我们对邓小平同志这番话就有更深的理解了。所以,我们讲,只有社会主义才能救中国,只有改革开放才能发展中国、发展社会主义、发展马克思主义。
正是从历史经验和现实需要的高度,党的十八大以来,中央反复强调,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键一招,也是决定实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的关键一招,实践发展永无止境,解放思想永无止境,改革开放也永无止境,停顿和倒退没有出路,改革开放只有进行时、没有完成时。面对新形势新任务,我们必须通过全面深化改革,着力解决我国发展面临的一系列突出矛盾和问题,不断推进中国特色社会主义制度自我完善和发展。
当前,国内外环境都在发生极为广泛而深刻的变化,我国发展面临一系列突出矛盾和挑战,前进道路上还有不少困难和问题。比如:发展中不平衡、不协调、不可持续问题依然突出,科技创新能力不强,产业结构不合理,发展方式依然粗放,城乡区域发展差距和居民收入分配差距依然较大,社会矛盾明显增多,教育、就业、社会保障、医疗、住房、生态环境、食品药品安全、安全生产、社会治安、执法司法等关系群众切身利益的问题较多,部分群众生活困难,形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风问题突出,一些领域消极腐败现象易发多发,反腐败斗争形势依然严峻,等等。解决这些问题,关键在于深化改革。
今年4月,中央政治局经过深入思考和研究、广泛听取党内外各方面意见,决定党的十八届三中全会研究全面深化改革问题并作出决定。
4月20日,中央发出《关于对党的十八届三中全会研究全面深化改革问题征求意见的通知》。各地区各部门一致认为,党的十八届三中全会重点研究全面深化改革问题,顺应了广大党员、干部、群众的愿望,抓住了全社会最关心的问题,普遍表示赞成。
改革开放以来历次三中全会都研究讨论深化改革问题,都是在释放一个重要信号,就是我们党将坚定不移高举改革开放的旗帜,坚定不移坚持党的十一届三中全会以来的理论和路线方针政策。说到底,就是要回答在新的历史条件下举什么旗、走什么路的问题。
党的十八届三中全会以全面深化改革为主要议题,是我们党坚持以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,在新形势下坚定不移贯彻党的基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验、基本要求,坚定不移高举改革开放大旗的重要宣示和重要体现。
议题确定后,中央政治局决定成立文件起草组,由我担任组长,刘云山、张高丽同志为副组长,相关部门负责同志、部分省市领导同志参加,在中央政治局常委会领导下进行全会决定起草工作。
文件起草组成立以来,在将近7个月的时间里,广泛征求意见,开展专题论证,进行调查研究,反复讨论修改。其间,中央政治局常委会会议3次、中央政治局会议2次分别审议决定,决定征求意见稿还下发党内一定范围征求意见,征求党内老同志意见,专门听取各民主党派中央、全国工商联负责人和无党派人士意见。
从反馈情况看,各方面一致认为,全会决定深刻剖析了我国改革发展稳定面临的重大理论和实践问题,阐明了全面深化改革的重大意义和未来走向,提出了全面深化改革的指导思想、目标任务、重大原则,描绘了全面深化改革的新蓝图、新愿景、新目标,汇集了全面深化改革的新思想、新论断、新举措,反映了社会呼声、社会诉求、社会期盼,凝聚了全党全社会关于全面深化改革的思想共识和行动智慧。
各方面一致认为,全会决定合理布局了全面深化改革的战略重点、优先顺序、主攻方向、工作机制、推进方式和时间表、路线图,形成了改革理论和政策的一系列新的重大突破,是全面深化改革的又一次总部署、总动员,必将对推动中国特色社会主义事业发展产生重大而深远的影响。
在征求意见过程中,各方面共提出了许多好的意见和建议。中央责成文件起草组认真整理研究这些意见和建议,文件起草组对全会决定作出重要修改。
二、关于全会决定的总体框架和重点问题
中央政治局认为,面对新形势新任务新要求,全面深化改革,关键是要进一步形成公平竞争的发展环境,进一步增强经济社会发展活力,进一步提高政府效率和效能,进一步实现社会公平正义,进一步促进社会和谐稳定,进一步提高党的领导水平和执政能力。
围绕这些重大课题,我们强调,要有强烈的问题意识,以重大问题为导向,抓住关键问题进一步研究思考,着力推动解决我国发展面临的一系列突出矛盾和问题。我们中国共产党人干革命、搞建设、抓改革,从来都是为了解决中国的现实问题。可以说,改革是由问题倒逼而产生,又在不断解决问题中得以深化。
35年来,我们用改革的办法解决了党和国家事业发展中的一系列问题。同时,在认识世界和改造世界的过程中,旧的问题解决了,新的问题又会产生,制度总是需要不断完善,因而改革既不可能一蹴而就、也不可能一劳永逸。
全会决定起草,突出了5个方面的考虑。一是适应党和国家事业发展新要求,落实党的十八大提出的全面深化改革开放的战略任务。二是以改革为主线,突出全面深化改革新举措,一般性举措不写,重复性举措不写,纯属发展性举措不写。三是抓住重点,围绕解决好人民群众反映强烈的问题,回应人民群众呼声和期待,突出重要领域和关键环节,突出经济体制改革牵引作用。四是坚持积极稳妥,设计改革措施胆子要大、步子要稳。五是时间设计到2020年,按这个时间段提出改革任务,到2020年在重要领域和关键环节改革上取得决定性成果。
在框架结构上,全会决定以当前亟待解决的重大问题为提领,按条条谋篇布局。除引言和结束语外,共16个部分,分三大板块。第一部分构成第一板块,是总论,主要阐述全面深化改革的重大意义、指导思想、总体思路。第二至第十五部分构成第二板块,是分论,主要从经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明、国防和军队6个方面,具体部署全面深化改革的主要任务和重大举措。其中,经济方面开6条(第二至第七部分),政治方面开3条(第八至第十部分),文化方面开1条(第十一部分),社会方面开2条(第十二至第十三部分),生态方面开1条(第十四部分),国防和军队方面开1条(第十五部分)。第十六部分构成第三板块,讲组织领导,主要阐述加强和改善党对全面深化改革的领导。
这里,我想就全会决定涉及的几个重大问题和重大举措介绍一下中央的考虑。
第一,关于使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。这是这次全会决定提出的一个重大理论观点。这是因为,经济体制改革仍然是全面深化改革的重点,经济体制改革的核心问题仍然是处理好政府和市场关系。
1992年,党的十四大提出了我国经济体制改革的目标是建立社会主义市场经济体制,提出要使市场在国家宏观调控下对资源配置起基础性作用。这一重大理论突破,对我国改革开放和经济社会发展发挥了极为重要的作用。这也说明,理论创新对实践创新具有重大先导作用,全面深化改革必须以理论创新为先导。
经过20多年实践,我国社会主义市场经济体制已经初步建立,但仍存在不少问题,主要是市场秩序不规范,以不正当手段谋取经济利益的现象广泛存在;生产要素市场发展滞后,要素闲置和大量有效需求得不到满足并存;市场规则不统一,部门保护主义和地方保护主义大量存在;市场竞争不充分,阻碍优胜劣汰和结构调整,等等。这些问题不解决好,完善的社会主义市场经济体制是难以形成的。
从党的十四大以来的20多年间,对政府和市场关系,我们一直在根据实践拓展和认识深化寻找新的科学定位。党的十五大提出“使市场在国家宏观调控下对资源配置起基础性作用”,党的十六大提出“在更大程度上发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”,党的十七大提出“从制度上更好发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”,党的十八大提出“更大程度更广范围发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”。可以看出,我们对政府和市场关系的认识也在不断深化。
在这次讨论和征求意见过程中,许多方面提出,应该从理论上对政府和市场关系进一步作出定位,这对全面深化改革具有十分重大的作用。考虑各方面意见和现实发展要求,经过反复讨论和研究,中央认为对这个问题从理论上作出新的表述条件已经成熟,应该把市场在资源配置中的“基础性作用”修改为“决定性作用”。
现在,我国社会主义市场经济体制已经初步建立,市场化程度大幅度提高,我们对市场规律的认识和驾驭能力不断提高,宏观调控体系更为健全,主客观条件具备,我们应该在完善社会主义市场经济体制上迈出新的步伐。
进一步处理好政府和市场关系,实际上就是要处理好在资源配置中市场起决定性作用还是政府起决定性作用这个问题。经济发展就是要提高资源尤其是稀缺资源的配置效率,以尽可能少的资源投入生产尽可能多的产品、获得尽可能大的效益。理论和实践都证明,市场配置资源是最有效率的形式。市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,市场经济本质上就是市场决定资源配置的经济。健全社会主义市场经济体制必须遵循这条规律,着力解决市场体系不完善、政府干预过多和监管不到位问题。作出“使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用”的定位,有利于在全党全社会树立关于政府和市场关系的正确观念,有利于转变经济发展方式,有利于转变政府职能,有利于抑制消极腐败现象。
当然,我国实行的是社会主义市场经济体制,我们仍然要坚持发挥我国社会主义制度的优越性、发挥党和政府的积极作用。市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,并不是起全部作用。
发展社会主义市场经济,既要发挥市场作用,也要发挥政府作用,但市场作用和政府作用的职能是不同的。全会决定对更好发挥政府作用提出了明确要求,强调科学的宏观调控,有效的政府治理,是发挥社会主义市场经济体制优势的内在要求。全会决定对健全宏观调控体系、全面正确履行政府职能、优化政府组织结构进行了部署,强调政府的职责和作用主要是保持宏观经济稳定,加强和优化公共服务,保障公平竞争,加强市场监管,维护市场秩序,推动可持续发展,促进共同富裕,弥补市场失灵。
第二,关于坚持和完善基本经济制度。坚持和完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,关系巩固和发展中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱。
改革开放以来,我国所有制结构逐步调整,公有制经济和非公有制经济在发展经济、促进就业等方面的比重不断变化,增强了经济社会发展活力。在这种情况下,如何更好体现和坚持公有制主体地位,进一步探索基本经济制度有效实现形式,是摆在我们面前的一个重大课题。
全会决定强调必须毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,坚持公有制主体地位,发挥国有经济主导作用,不断增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力。
全会决定坚持和发展党的十五大以来有关论述,提出要积极发展混合所有制经济,强调国有资本、集体资本、非公有资本等交叉持股、相互融合的混合所有制经济,是基本经济制度的重要实现形式,有利于国有资本放大功能、保值增值、提高竞争力。这是新形势下坚持公有制主体地位,增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力的一个有效途径和必然选择。
全会决定提出,完善国有资产管理体制,以管资本为主加强国有资产监管,改革国有资本授权经营体制;国有资本投资运营要服务于国家战略目标,更多投向关系国家安全、国民经济命脉的重要行业和关键领域,重点提供公共服务、发展重要前瞻性战略性产业、保护生态环境、支持科技进步、保障国家安全;划转部分国有资本充实社会保障基金;提高国有资本收益上缴公共财政比例,更多用于保障和改善民生。
国有企业是推进国家现代化、保障人民共同利益的重要力量。经过多年改革,国有企业总体上已经同市场经济相融合。同时,国有企业也积累了一些问题、存在一些弊端,需要进一步推进改革。全会决定提出一系列有针对性的改革举措,包括国有资本加大对公益性企业的投入;国有资本继续控股经营的自然垄断行业,实行以政企分开、政资分开、特许经营、政府监管为主要内容的改革,根据不同行业特点实行网运分开、放开竞争性业务;健全协调运转、有效制衡的公司法人治理结构;建立职业经理人制度,更好发挥企业家作用;建立长效激励约束机制,强化国有企业经营投资责任追究;探索推进国有企业财务预算等重大信息公开;国有企业要合理增加市场化选聘比例,合理确定并严格规范国有企业管理人员薪酬水平、职务待遇、职务消费、业务消费。这些举措将推动国有企业完善现代企业制度、提高经营效率、合理承担社会责任、更好发挥作用。
坚持和完善基本经济制度必须坚持“两个毫不动摇”。全会决定从多个层面提出鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,激发非公有制经济活力和创造力的改革举措。在功能定位上,明确公有制经济和非公有制经济都是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,都是我国经济社会发展的重要基础;在产权保护上,明确提出公有制经济财产权不可侵犯,非公有制经济财产权同样不可侵犯;在政策待遇上,强调坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,实行统一的市场准入制度;鼓励非公有制企业参与国有企业改革,鼓励发展非公有资本控股的混合所有制企业,鼓励有条件的私营企业建立现代企业制度。这将推动非公有制经济健康发展。
第三,关于深化财税体制改革。财政是国家治理的基础和重要支柱,科学的财税体制是优化资源配置、维护市场统一、促进社会公平、实现国家长治久安的制度保障。现行财税体制是在1994年分税制改革的基础上逐步完善形成的,对实现政府财力增强和经济快速发展的双赢目标发挥了重要作用。
随着形势发展变化,现行财税体制已经不完全适应合理划分中央和地方事权、完善国家治理的客观要求,不完全适应转变经济发展方式、促进经济社会持续健康发展的现实需要,我国经济社会发展中的一些突出矛盾和问题也与财税体制不健全有关。
这次全面深化改革,财税体制改革是重点之一。主要涉及改进预算管理制度,完善税收制度,建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度等。
全会决定提出,要实施全面规范、公开透明的预算制度,适度加强中央事权和支出责任,国防、外交、国家安全、关系全国统一市场规则和管理等作为中央事权;部分社会保障、跨区域重大项目建设维护等作为中央和地方共同事权,逐步理顺事权关系;中央可通过安排转移支付将部分事权支出责任委托地方承担;对于跨区域且对其他地区影响较大的公共服务,中央通过转移支付承担一部分地方事权支出责任。
这些改革举措的主要目的是明确事权、改革税制、稳定税负、透明预算、提高效率,加快形成有利于转变经济发展方式、有利于建立公平统一市场、有利于推进基本公共服务均等化的现代财政制度,形成中央和地方财力与事权相匹配的财税体制,更好发挥中央和地方两个积极性。
财税体制改革需要一个过程,逐步到位。中央已经明确,要保持现有中央和地方财力格局总体稳定,进一步理顺中央和地方收入划分。
第四,关于健全城乡发展一体化体制机制。城乡发展不平衡不协调,是我国经济社会发展存在的突出矛盾,是全面建成小康社会、加快推进社会主义现代化必须解决的重大问题。改革开放以来,我国农村面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化。但是,城乡二元结构没有根本改变,城乡发展差距不断拉大趋势没有根本扭转。根本解决这些问题,必须推进城乡发展一体化。
全会决定提出,必须健全体制机制,形成以工促农、以城带乡、工农互惠、城乡一体的新型工农城乡关系,让广大农民平等参与现代化进程、共同分享现代化成果。
全会决定提出了健全城乡发展一体化体制机制的改革举措。一是加快构建新型农业经营体系。主要是坚持家庭经营在农业中的基础性地位,鼓励土地承包经营权在公开市场上向专业大户、家庭农场、农民合作社、农业企业流转,鼓励农村发展合作经济,鼓励和引导工商资本到农村发展适合企业化经营的现代种养业,允许农民以土地承包经营权入股发展农业产业化经营等。二是赋予农民更多财产权利。主要是依法维护农民土地承包经营权,保障农民集体经济组织成员权利,保障农户宅基地用益物权,慎重稳妥推进农民住房财产权抵押、担保、转让试点。三是推进城乡要素平等交换和公共资源均衡配置。主要是保障农民工同工同酬,保障农民公平分享土地增值收益;完善农业保险制度;鼓励社会资本投向农村建设,允许企业和社会组织在农村兴办各类事业;统筹城乡义务教育资源均衡配置,整合城乡居民基本养老保险制度、基本医疗保险制度,推进城乡最低生活保障制度统筹发展,稳步推进城镇基本公共服务常住人口全覆盖,把进城落户农民完全纳入城镇住房和社会保障体系。
第五,关于推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展。协商民主是我国社会主义民主政治的特有形式和独特优势,是党的群众路线在政治领域的重要体现。推进协商民主,有利于完善人民有序政治参与、密切党同人民群众的血肉联系、促进决策科学化民主化。
全会决定把推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展作为政治体制改革的重要内容,强调在党的领导下,以经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,在全社会开展广泛协商,坚持协商于决策之前和决策实施之中。要构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,拓宽国家政权机关、政协组织、党派团体、基层组织、社会组织的协商渠道;深入开展立法协商、行政协商、民主协商、参政协商、社会协商;发挥统一战线在协商民主中的重要作用,发挥人民政协作为协商民主重要渠道作用,完善人民政协制度体系,规范协商内容、协商程序,拓展协商民主形式,更加活跃有序地组织专题协商、对口协商、界别协商、提案办理协商,增加协商密度,提高协商成效。
第六,关于改革司法体制和运行机制。司法体制是政治体制的重要组成部分。这些年来,群众对司法不公的意见比较集中,司法公信力不足很大程度上与司法体制和工作机制不合理有关。
司法改革是这次全面深化改革的重点之一。全会决定提出了一系列相互关联的新举措,包括改革司法管理体制,推动省以下地方法院、检察院人财物统一管理,探索建立与行政区划适当分离的司法管辖制度;健全司法权力运行机制,完善主审法官、合议庭办案责任制,让审判者裁判、由裁判者负责;严格规范减刑、假释、保外就医程序;健全错案防止、纠正、责任追究机制,严格实行非法证据排除规则;建立涉法涉诉信访依法终结制度;废止劳动教养制度,完善对违法犯罪行为的惩治和矫正法律,等等。
这些改革举措,对确保司法机关依法独立行使审判权和检察权、健全权责明晰的司法权力运行机制、提高司法透明度和公信力、更好保障人权都具有重要意义。
第七,关于健全反腐败领导体制和工作机制。反腐败问题一直是党内外议论较多的问题。目前的问题主要是,反腐败机构职能分散、形不成合力,有些案件难以坚决查办,腐败案件频发却责任追究不够。
全会决定对加强反腐败体制机制创新和制度保障进行了重点部署。主要是加强党对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作统一领导,明确党委负主体责任、纪委负监督责任,制定实施切实可行的责任追究制度;健全反腐败领导体制和工作机制,改革和完善各级反腐败协调小组职能,规定查办腐败案件以上级纪委领导为主;体现强化上级纪委对下级纪委的领导,规定线索处置和案件查办在向同级党委报告的同时必须向上级纪委报告;全面落实中央纪委向中央一级党和国家机关派驻纪检机构,改进中央和省区市巡视制度,做到对地方、部门、企事业单位全覆盖。
这些措施都是在总结实践经验、吸收各方面意见的基础上提出来的。
第八,关于加快完善互联网管理领导体制。网络和信息安全牵涉到国家安全和社会稳定,是我们面临的新的综合性挑战。
从实践看,面对互联网技术和应用飞速发展,现行管理体制存在明显弊端,主要是多头管理、职能交叉、权责不一、效率不高。同时,随着互联网媒体属性越来越强,网上媒体管理和产业管理远远跟不上形势发展变化。特别是面对传播快、影响大、覆盖广、社会动员能力强的微客、微信等社交网络和即时通信工具用户的快速增长,如何加强网络法制建设和舆论引导,确保网络信息传播秩序和国家安全、社会稳定,已经成为摆在我们面前的现实突出问题。
全会决定提出坚持积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,加大依法管理网络力度,完善互联网管理领导体制。目的是整合相关机构职能,形成从技术到内容、从日常安全到打击犯罪的互联网管理合力,确保网络正确运用和安全。
第九,关于设立国家安全委员会。国家安全和社会稳定是改革发展的前提。只有国家安全和社会稳定,改革发展才能不断推进。当前,我国面临对外维护国家主权、安全、发展利益,对内维护政治安全和社会稳定的双重压力,各种可以预见和难以预见的风险因素明显增多。而我们的安全工作体制机制还不能适应维护国家安全的需要,需要搭建一个强有力的平台统筹国家安全工作。设立国家安全委员会,加强对国家安全工作的集中统一领导,已是当务之急。
国家安全委员会主要职责是制定和实施国家安全战略,推进国家安全法治建设,制定国家安全工作方针政策,研究解决国家安全工作中的重大问题。
第十,关于健全国家自然资源资产管理体制和完善自然资源监管体制。健全国家自然资源资产管理体制是健全自然资源资产产权制度的一项重大改革,也是建立系统完备的生态文明制度体系的内在要求。
我国生态环境保护中存在的一些突出问题,一定程度上与体制不健全有关,原因之一是全民所有自然资源资产的所有权人不到位,所有权人权益不落实。针对这一问题,全会决定提出健全国家自然资源资产管理体制的要求。总的思路是按照所有者和管理者分开和一件事由一个部门管理的原则,落实全民所有自然资源资产所有权,建立统一行使全民所有自然资源资产所有权人职责的体制。
国家对全民所有自然资源资产行使所有权并进行管理和国家对国土范围内自然资源行使监管权是不同的,前者是所有权人意义上的权利,后者是管理者意义上的权力。这就需要完善自然资源监管体制,统一行使所有国土空间用途管制职责,使国有自然资源资产所有权人和国家自然资源管理者相互独立、相互配合、相互监督。
我们要认识到,山水林田湖是一个生命共同体,人的命脉在田,田的命脉在水,水的命脉在山,山的命脉在土,土的命脉在树。用途管制和生态修复必须遵循自然规律,如果种树的只管种树、治水的只管治水、护田的单纯护田,很容易顾此失彼,最终造成生态的系统性破坏。由一个部门负责领土范围内所有国土空间用途管制职责,对山水林田湖进行统一保护、统一修复是十分必要的。
第十一,关于中央成立全面深化改革领导小组。全面深化改革是一个复杂的系统工程,单靠某一个或某几个部门往往力不从心,这就需要建立更高层面的领导机制。
全会决定提出,中央成立全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。这是为了更好发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,保证改革顺利推进和各项改革任务落实。领导小组的主要职责是:统一部署全国性重大改革,统筹推进各领域改革,协调各方力量形成推进改革合力,加强督促检查,推动全面落实改革目标任务。
三、关于讨论中要注意的几个问题
这次全会的任务就是讨论全会决定提出的全面深化改革的思路和方案。这里,我给大家提几点要求。
第一,增强推进改革的信心和勇气。改革开放是我们党在新的时代条件下带领人民进行的新的伟大革命,是当代中国最鲜明的特色,也是我们党最鲜明的旗帜。35年来,我们党靠什么来振奋民心、统一思想、凝聚力量?靠什么来激发全体人民的创造精神和创造活力?靠什么来实现我国经济社会快速发展、在与资本主义竞争中赢得比较优势?靠的就是改革开放。
面对未来,要破解发展面临的各种难题,化解来自各方面的风险和挑战,更好发挥中国特色社会主义制度优势,推动经济社会持续健康发展,除了深化改革开放,别无他途。
当前,在改革开放问题上,党内外、国内外都很关注,全党上下和社会各方面期待很高。改革开放到了一个新的重要关头。我们在改革开放上决不能有丝毫动摇,改革开放的旗帜必须继续高高举起,中国特色社会主义道路的正确方向必须牢牢坚持。全党要坚定改革信心,以更大的政治勇气和智慧、更有力的措施和办法推进改革。
第二,坚持解放思想、实事求是。高举改革开放的旗帜,光有立场和态度还不行,必须有实实在在的举措。行动最有说服力。中央决定用党的十八届三中全会这个有利契机就全面深化改革进行部署,是一个战略抉择。我们要抓住这个机遇,努力在全面深化改革上取得新突破。要有新突破,就必须进一步解放思想。
冲破思想观念的障碍、突破利益固化的藩篱,解放思想是首要的。在深化改革问题上,一些思想观念障碍往往不是来自体制外而是来自体制内。思想不解放,我们就很难看清各种利益固化的症结所在,很难找准突破的方向和着力点,很难拿出创造性的改革举措。因此,一定要有自我革新的勇气和胸怀,跳出条条框框限制,克服部门利益掣肘,以积极主动精神研究和提出改革举措。
提出改革举措当然要慎重,要反复研究、反复论证,但也不能因此就谨小慎微、裹足不前,什么也不敢干、不敢试。搞改革,现有的工作格局和体制运行不可能一点都不打破,不可能都是四平八稳、没有任何风险。只要经过了充分论证和评估,只要是符合实际、必须做的,该干的还是要大胆干。
第三,坚持从大局出发考虑问题。全面深化改革是关系党和国家事业发展全局的重大战略部署,不是某个领域某个方面的单项改革。“不谋全局者,不足谋一域。”大家来自不同部门和单位,都要从全局看问题,首先要看提出的重大改革举措是否符合全局需要,是否有利于党和国家事业长远发展。要真正向前展望、超前思维、提前谋局。只有这样,最后形成的文件才能真正符合党和人民事业发展要求。
全面深化改革需要加强顶层设计和整体谋划,加强各项改革的关联性、系统性、可行性研究。我们讲胆子要大、步子要稳,其中步子要稳就是要统筹考虑、全面论证、科学决策。经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明各领域改革和党的建设改革紧密联系、相互交融,任何一个领域的改革都会牵动其他领域,同时也需要其他领域改革密切配合。如果各领域改革不配套,各方面改革措施相互牵扯,全面深化改革就很难推进下去,即使勉强推进,效果也会大打折扣。

CCP Central Committee Resolution concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform

(Passed at the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on 12 November 2013)

I, The major significance of and guiding ideology for comprehensively deepening reform

(1) Reform and opening up is a new magnificent revolution that the people of all ethnicities in the entire country undertake under the leadership of the Party and under new conditions of the times, and it is the clearest characteristic of contemporary China. In the 15 years since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress was convened, our Party has, with huge political courage, tenaciously moved forward reform of economic structures, political structures, cultural structures, social structures, ecological civilization structures and Party building structures, it has incessantly broadened openness, its determination was great, reform was deep, and its influence broad in an unprecedented manner, and its achievements have attracted worldwide attention.

The most important fruit of reform and opening up is that it initiated and developed Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and provided strong drivers and forceful guarantees for Socialist modernization construction. Facts demonstrate that reform and opening up is the crucial decision that decided the destiny of contemporary China, and is an important talisman for the undertaking of the Party and the people to catch up with the times in big strides.

Practice and development are boundless, liberating thoughts is boundless, reform and opening up are boundless. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, in order to completely construct a moderately prosperous society, and thereby construct a wealthy, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious Socialist modernized country, realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation, we must comprehensively deepen reform from a new historical starting point, incessantly strengthen self-confidence about the path, self-confidence about theory and self-confidence about the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

(2) To comprehensively deepen reform, we must hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, strengthen self-confidence, concentrate a consensus, comprehensively plan matters, move forward in a coordinated manner, persist in the reform orientation of the Socialist market economy, make stimulating social fairness and justice, and enhancing the people’s welfare as starting point and stopover point, further liberate thoughts, liberate and develop social productive forces, liberate and strengthen social vitality, resolutely eliminate systemic and mechanistic abuses in all areas, and strive to open an even broader prospect for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The overall objective of comprehensively deepening reform is perfecting and developing the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and moving the modernization of the country’s governance structure and governance ability forward. We must pay even more attention to the systemic nature, overall nature and coordinated nature of reform, accelerate the development of the Socialist market economy, democratic politics, advanced culture, a harmonious society and ecological civilization, let all vitality in labour, knowledge, technology, management and capital compete and burst forth, let all sources creating social wealth fully gush forth, and let the fruits of development be extended to the whole body of the people in greater numbers and more fairly.

Closely revolve around ensuring that the market has a decisive role in allocating resources in deepening economic structural reform, persist in and perfect basic economic systems, accelerate the perfection of modern market systems, macro-economic regulation systems and open economic systems, accelerate the transformation of economic development methods, accelerate the construction of an innovative country, promote an even more efficient, fair and sustainable development of the economy.

Closely revolve around persisting in the organic integration of the leadership of the Party, the people mastering their own affairs and governing the country according to the law in deepening political structural reform, accelerate moving forward with the institutionalization, standardization and proceduralization of Socialist democratic politics, build a Socialist rule of law country, develop a broader, fuller and completer Socialist democracy.

Closely revolve around constructing the Socialist core value system and a strong Socialist culture country in deepening cultural structural reform, accelerate the perfection of cultural management systems and cultural production and commercial mechanisms, establish and complete modern cultural service systems and modern cultural market systems, promote the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture.

Closely revolve around guaranteeing and improving the people’s livelihood even better, and stimulating social fairness and justice in deepening social structural reform, reform income allocation systems, stimulate common prosperity, move institutional innovation in the social area forward, move basic public service equalization forward, accelerate the formation of scientific and effective social governance mechanisms, guarantee the society is both full of vitality, as well as harmonious and orderly.

Closely revolve around building a beautiful China in deepening ecological civilization structural reform, accelerate the establishment of ecological civilization systems, complete land space exploitation, resource use reduction, and ecology and environment protection systems, promote the formation of the construction of new and modernized structures for the harmonious development of human and nature.

Closely revolve around raising the levels of scientific governance, democratic governance and governance according to the law in deepening Party building structure reform, strengthen democratic centralism system construction, perfect Party leadership mechanisms and governance mechanisms, persist in the Party’s advanced nature and purity, and provide strong political guarantees for reform and opening up, and for Socialist modernization construction.

(3) In comprehensive deepening reform, we must base ourselves on the reality that our country will remain in the preliminary stage of Socialism for a long time, persist in the major strategic judgment that development still is the key to resolve all or our country’s problems, put economic construction at the centre, give rein to the pulling function of economic structural reform, promote the adaption of relationships of production with productivity, and of the superstructure with the economic base, promote the sustained and healthy development of the economy and society.

Economic structural reform is the focus of deepening reform, the core issues are dealing with the relationship between the government and the market well, ensuring that the market has a decisive function in resource allocation, and giving better rein to the function of government. The market deciding resource allocation is a common law of market economics, to complete the Socialist market economy system, we must respect this law, and strive to resolve the problems of imperfect market systems, excessive government intervention and unsatisfactory supervision and management.

We must vigorously and reliably move marketization reform forward in breadth hand depth, substantially reduce direct government allocation of resources, promote that resource allocation is based on market principles, market prices and market competition, to realize productivity maximization and efficiency optimization. The duties and functions of governments are mainly to maintain macro-economic stability, strengthen and optimize public services, guarantee fair competition, strengthen market supervision and management, safeguard market order, promote sustainable development,

(4) The successful practice of reform and opening up has provided important experiences for completely deepening reform, and must be persisted in for a long time. The most important matter is persisting in the leadership of the Party, implementing the Party’s basic line, not marching the old path of feudalism and closedness, nor marching the evil path of changing banners, persisting in marching the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and guarantee the correct direction of reform from beginning to end; persisting in liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts, progressing with the times, being pragmatic, starting from reality in everything, summarize successful domestic methods, learn from beneficial foreign experiences, dare to move theoretical and practical innovation forward; persist in putting people firs, respecting the dominant position of the people, giving rein to the pioneering spirit of the masses, firmly rely on the people in moving reform forward, and stimulate people’s comprehensive development; persist in correctly dealing with the relationship between reform and development, we must be bold, our pace must be steady, we must strengthen the integration of top-level design and crossing the river by feeling the stones, of mutually stimulating broad moves forward and making focus breakthroughs, raise the scientific nature of reform and policymaking, broadly concentrate consensus, and form joint forces for reform.

At present, our country’s development has entered a new phase, and reform has entered a period of storming fortifications and an area of deep water. We must, with a strong sense of historical commitment, concentrate the wisdom of the entire Party and the entire society to the broadest extent, muster all positive factors to the broadest extent, dare to be gnaw through hard bones, dare to ford dangerous rapids, breach through fetters of ideological concepts with even greater resolution, surmount the barriers of solidified interests, and promote the self-perfection and development of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

By 2020, decisive results are to be obtained in reform of important areas and crucial segments, the reform tasks put forward in this Resolution are to be completed, institutions and systems that are structurally complete, scientifically standardized and effective in operation are to be formed, to ensure that institutions in all areas become ever more mature and finalized.

II, Persist in and perfect basic economic institutions

The basic economic system with public ownership at the centre, jointly developing with many kinds of ownership systems, is a major pillar of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is the foundation of the Socialist market economy system. The public economy and the non-public economy are both important component parts of the Socialist market economy, and are both important bases of China’s economic and social development. We must unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public economy, persist in the dominant position of the public ownership, give full rein to the guiding function of the State-owned economy, incessantly strengthen the vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy. We must unwaveringly encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public economy, and arouse the vitality and creativity of the non-public economy.

(5) Perfect property rights protection systems. Property rights are the core of ownership systems. Complete a modern property rights system with clear attribution, clear-cut powers and responsibilities, strict protection and smooth transfer. Property rights in the public economy may not be violated, property rights in the non-public economy may equally not be violated.

The State protects economic property rights and legal interests in all sorts of ownership systems, it guarantees that economies under all ownership systems can equally use production factors according to the law, participate in market competition in an open, just and fair manner, and equally receive legal protection, and supervises economies under all ownership systems according to the law.

(6) Vigorously develop a mixed ownership economy. A mixed ownership economy with shareholding that overlaps or mutually blends State-owned capital, collective capital, non-public capital, etc., is an important real form of the basic economic system, it benefits the enlargement of the function of State-owned capital, maintaining and increasing its value and raising competitiveness, it benefits that capital under all sorts of ownership draw on each others’ strong points to offset weaknesses, stimulate each other and develop jointly. Even more State-owned economies and economies under other ownership systems are permitted to develop into mixed ownership economies. It is permitted that non-State-owned capital holds shares in State-owned capital investment programmes. It is permitted that mixed ownership economies implement enterprise personnel shareholding, to shape integrated interests among capital owners and labourers.

Perfect State-owned asset management systems, strengthen State-owned asset supervision with managing capital at the core, reform Stat-owned capital authorization and operation systems, build some State-owned capital operations companies, support that State-owned enterprises meeting conditions reorganize into State-owned asset investment companies. State-owned capital investment operations must serve national strategic objectives, invest more into important sectors and key areas relating to national security or key branches of the national economy, focus on providing public services, develop important and forward-looking strategic industries, protect the ecology and the environment, support scientific and technological progress and guarantee national security.

Transfer a portion of State-owned capital to replenish social security funds. Perfect State-owned capital operations and budgeting systems, raise the proportion of income from State-owned capital that is turned over to public finance, raise this to 30% by 2020, use this more to guarantee and improve people’s livelihoods.

(7) Promote the perfection of modern enterprise systems in State-owned enterprises. State-owned enterprises fall under the ownership of the entire people, and are an important force to move forward national modernization and protect the common interest of the people. State-owned enterprises generally have assimilated to the market economy, they must adapt to new trends of marketization and internationalization, and further deepen State-owned enterprise reform with standardizing commercial policymaking, protecting and increasing the value of assets, fair participation in competition, raising enterprise efficiency, strengthening enterprise vitality and bearing social responsibility as focus points.

Correctly define the functions of different State-owned enterprises. State-owned capital is to expand input into public interest enterprises, and make greater contributions to providing public services. State-owned capital is to continue to control and manage sectors with natural monopolies, is to implement reform with separating government and enterprises, separating government and capital, specially-permitted operations and government supervision and main content, implement separation of networks and operations on the basis of the characteristics of different sectors, set competitive business free, move the marketization of public resource allocation forward. Further eliminate all sorts of sector monopolies.

Complete company and legal person governance structures with coordinated operations and effective checks and balances. Establish professional manager systems, to give rein to the role of entrepreneurs even better. Deepen reform of systems concerning enterprises’ internal management personnel’s upward and downward mobility, personnel hiring and firing and salary increase or decrease. Establish long-lasting incentive and restraint mechanisms, strengthen responsibility investigations for State-owned enterprise operations and investment. Explore moving forward with openness of State-owned enterprise finance and budgeting, and other such important information.

State-owned enterprises must reasonably increase the proportion of marketized hiring and appointments, reasonably determine and strictly standardize state-owned enterprise management personnel salary standards, duty remuneration, duty expenses and professional expenses.

(8) Support the healthy development of the non-public economy. The non-public economy has an important role in supporting growth, stimulating innovation, broadening employment, enhancing fiscal income and other such areas. Persist in equality of rights, equality of opportunity and equality of regulations, eliminate all kinds and forms of unreasonable provisions affecting the non-public economy, eliminate all sorts of hidden barriers, formulate concrete rules for non-public enterprises to enter into specially-permitted areas of business.

Non-public enterprises are supported to participate in State-owned enterprise reform, the development of a mixed ownership economy with non-public capital shareholding is encouraged, privately-run enterprises meeting conditions are encouraged to establish modern enterprise systems.

III, Accelerating the perfection of modern market systems

Establishing a unified and open, competitive and orderly market system is the basis for the market to have a decisive function in the allocation of resources. We must accelerate the formation of modern market systems with enterprises’ autonomous operations, fair competition, free consumer choice, autonomous consumption, free circulation of products and production factors, and fair exchange, strive to eliminate market barriers, raise the efficiency and fairness of resource allocation.

(9) Establish fair and transparent market regulations. Implement unified market access systems, on the basis of formulating negative lists, all sorts of market subjects may enter into areas outside of the list on an equal basis and according to the law. Explore the implementation of a management model for foreign investment with pre-entry national treatment plus the negative list. Move forward with making industry and enterprise registration systems more convenient, reduce qualification accreditation programmes, change from certification before licensing to licensing before certification, progressively change the paid-in registered capital registration system into a subscribed capital registration system. Move forward with domestic commodity distribution structure reform, build a commercial environment under the rule of law.

Reform market supervision and management systems, implement uniform market supervision and management, tidy up and arrange all sorts of regulations and methods that impede national unified markets and fair competition, strictly punish and penalize all sorts of unlawful acts of extending preferential policies, oppose local protection, oppose monopolies and unfair competition. Establish and complete social credit system, and commend honesty. Complete a marketized withdrawal system where the fittest survive, perfect enterprise bankruptcy systems.

(10) Perfect mechanism in which prices are mainly determined by markets. All prices that can be formed by markets should be submitted to the market, governments are not to carry out improper interventions. Move forward with pricing reform in water, oil, natural gas, electricity, traffic, telecommunications and other such areas, set competitive market prices free. The government pricing scope is mainly limited to important public utilities, public interest-type services and network-type natural monopolies, raise transparency and accept social supervision. Perfect price-formation mechanisms for agricultural products, pay attention to giving rein to the function of markets in forming prices.

(11) Establish uniform urban and rural construction land markets. Under the precondition of conforming to regulations and managing the purpose of use, it is to be permitted that rural collective and construction land use is sold, rented or leased, and it is to be implemented that this equally enters the market, with equal rights and at equal prices as State-owned land. Reduce the scope of land expropriation, standardize land expropriation procedures, perfect reasonable, standardized and plural guarantee mechanisms for peasants whose land is requisitions. Broaden the scope of compensated use of State-owned land, reduce assignment of non-public interest land use. Establish mechanisms to allocate the profit from increased land values that simultaneously cater to the State, the collective and the individual, reasonably raise individual profit. Perfect secondary markets for land rents, transfers and mortgages.

(12) Perfect financial market systems. Expand domestic and international financial openness, under the precondition of strengthening supervision and management, non-governmental capital meeting conditions is permitted to sponsor the establishment of small and mid-size banks and other such financial organs according to the law. Move forward with policy-type financial organ reform. Complete multi-level capital market systems, move forward with stock distribution and registration system reform, promote many channels for equity capital, develop and standardize bond markets, raise the proportion of direct finance. Perfect compensation mechanisms in the insurance industry, establish insurance systems for huge disasters. Develop generalized preferential treatment for finance. Encourage financial innovation, enrich financial market levels and products.

Perfect mechanisms for the formation of Renminbi exchange marketization, accelerate with moving interest rate marketization forward, complete national debt yield curves that reflect the relation between market supply and demand. Promote bidirectional openness for capital markets, raise the extent of convertibility of cross-border capital and financial trading, establish and complete foreign debt and capital flow management systems under prudential macro-level management frameworks, accelerate the realization of the convertibility of Renminbi capital accounts.

Implement financial supervision and management reform measures and stability standards, perfect supervision, management and coordination mechanisms, demarcate central and local financial supervision and management duties, and risk management responsibilities. Establish deposit insurance systems, perfect marketized withdrawal mechanisms for financial organs. Strengthen financial infrastructure construction, guarantee that financial markets are operated securely and with high-efficiency, and are stable overall.

(13) Deepen science and technology structure reform. Establish and complete systems and mechanisms to encourage original creation and innovation, integrated innovation, import, absorption and re-innovation, complete market-oriented technological innovation mechanisms, give rein to the guiding functions of markets in the direction of technological research and development, the choice of paths, production factor prices, and the allocation of all sorts of innovation factors. Establish innovation mechanisms that coordinate industry, schools and research, strengthen the dominant position of enterprises in technological innovation, give rein to the innovation backbone function of large enterprises, arouse the innovation vitality of small and mid-size enterprises, move forward with marketization and industrialization reform of applied technology research and development organs, and build a national innovation structure.

Strengthen intellectual property rights use and protection, complete technological innovation incentive mechanisms, explore the establishment of intellectual property rights courts. Smash administrative dominance and departmental fragmentation, establish mechanisms in which mainly the market decides on technological innovation programmes, funding allocation and valuation of achievements. Develop technology markets, complete technology transfer mechanisms, improve funding conditions for science and technology-type small and mid-size enterprises, perfect risk investment mechanisms, innovate commercial models, stimulate the capitalization and industrialization of scientific and technological achievements.

Integrate science and technology plans and resources, perfect government support mechanisms for basic, strategic and pioneering scientific research and general technological research. Major State scientific research infrastructure that should be opened up according to regulations is to be opened up to society without exception. Establish innovation survey systems and innovation reporting systems, build open and transparent State scientific research resource management and programme appraisal mechanisms.

Reform selection and management systems for academics, optimize the structure of discipline, raise the proportion of young and middle-aged talents, implement academics’ retirement and pension systems.

IV, Accelerate the transformation of government functions

Scientific macro-level regulation and effective governance by governments are immanent needs to give rein to the superiority of the Socialist market economy system. We must realistically transform government functions, deepen administrative structural reform, innovate administrative management methods, strengthen government credibility and governance power, and build a rule of law government and a service-type government.

(14) Complete macro-level regulation systems. The main tasks of macro-level regulation are maintaining the general economic balance, stimulating coordination between major economic structures and the optimization of the structure of productive forces, attenuating the influence of the fluctuations of the economic cycle, preventing regional or systemic risks, stabilizing market expectations, and realizing sustained and healthy economic development. Complete macro-level regulation systems with State development strategies and plans as guidance, and financial policies and monetary policies as main method, move forward with formulating macro-level regulation targets and mechanizing the application of policy methods, strengthen the coordination of financial policies and monetary policies with industrial, pricing and other such policy measures, raise the levels of choosing opportunities, strengthen the forward looking nature, focus and coordination of macro-level regulation. Shape mechanisms to participate in international macro-economic policy coordination, promote the perfection of international economic governance structures.

Deepen reform of investment structures, establish the dominant position of enterprises in investment. Apart from where enterprise investment programmes relate to national security and ecological security, involve the structure of major production forces nationwide, strategic resource exploitation and major matters of public interest, etc., enterprises are to make autonomous decisions according to regulations without exception, and government is no longer to examine and approve this. Strengthen market access in energy saving, land saving, water saving, environmental, technological,  security and other such markets, establish and complete long-term mechanisms to prevent and resolve overcapacity.

Perfect assessment and appraisal systems for development achievements, correct the tendency of evaluating officials’ achievements merely by the speed of economic growth, expand the power of targets concerning resource depletion, environmental damage, ecological benefits, overcapacity, scientific and technological innovation, save production, debt growth, etc., pay more attention to the situation of labour and employment, residents’ incomes, social security and the people’s health. Accelerate the establishment of national uniform economic accounting systems, compile national and local asset balance sheets, establish uniform platforms for housing, credit and other basic data for the entire society, move departmental information sharing forward.

(15) Completely and correctly implement government functions. Further streamline the administration and decentralize powers, deepen administrative examination and approval structure reform, reduce central government management over micro-level matters to the broadest extent, examination and approval is to be cancelled without exception for economic activities that market mechanisms can effectively regulate, the retained administrative examination and approval matters must be managed in a standardized manner, and efficiency must be raised; economic and social manners that directly concern the grass roots, that are large in quantity and extensive in coverage, that can be more conveniently and effectively managed by the localities, are to be transferred to local and grass roots levels for management without exception.

Government must strengthen the formulation and implementation of development strategies, planning, policies, standards, etc., strengthen supervision and management over market activities, and strengthen all sorts of public service provision. Strengthen macro-level regulation duties and capacities of the central government, strengthen public service, market supervision and management, social management, environmental protection and other such duties of local governments. Extend government procurement services, all routine management matters must in principle be brought under competitive mechanism, and purchased from society through contracts, contracting and other such methods.

Accelerate the categorization and reform of undertaking work units, expand the public service strength of government procurement, promote that publicly run undertaking work units rationalize their relationships with their controlling departments and get rid of administrativization, create conditions to progressively remove the administrative levels of schools, scientific research institutes, hospitals and other such work units. Establish legal person governance structures for undertaking work units, moving forward with transforming undertaking work units meeting conditions into enterprises or social organizations. Establish uniform registration and management systems for all categories of undertaking work units.

(16) Optimize the structure of government organizations. To transform the functions of government, organic reform must be deepened. Optimize government organ establishment, functional deployment and workflows, perfect administrative operation mechanisms that both mutually restrain and mutually coordinate policymaking power, government power and supervision power. Straiten result management, give prominence to the implementation of duties, guarantee consistency of power and responsibility.

Comprehensively plan Party, government and mass organ reform, rationalize relationships of responsibility between departments. Vigorously and reliably implement a large department system. Optimize administrative delineation setups, localities meeting conditions are to explore moving forward with structural reform in which provinces directly manage counties (cities). Strictly control organs’ personnel allotments, allocate leading cadres strictly according to the provided post numbers, reduce the quantity of organs and the quantity of leaders, strictly control the total amount of personnel supported by the financial administration. Move forward with the scientization, standardization and legalization of organs’ personnel allotments.

V, Deepening fiscal structural reform

Finance is the basis and an important pillar for governing the nation, a scientific fiscal structure is an institutional guarantee for optimizing resource allocation, safeguarding market unity, stimulating social fairness and realizing a long period of peace and order for the country. We must perfect legislation, clarify duties and responsibilities, reform the tax system, stabilize tax burdens, make budgets transparent, raise efficiency, establish modern financial administration systems and give rein to the vigour of both the Centre and the localities.

(17) Improve budget management systems. Implement completely standardized, open and transparent budget systems. The focus of budget verification is to be expanded from the situation of balance and the extent of red numbers to appropriation budgets and policy. Tidy up the coupling of standardized focus payments with the growth rates of financial revenue and expenditure or the overall growth rate, generally, the coupling method is not to be used. Establish carry-over budget balancing mechanisms, establish a comprehensive governmental financial affairs reporting system with a power and responsibility structure, establish standardized and rational debt management and risk warning mechanisms for Central and local governments.

Perfect general transfer payment growth mechanisms, focus on increasing transfer payments to old revolutionary regions, ethnic regions, border regions and poor regions. Local financial shortcomings shaped because of transfer payment policies published by the Centre, are to be adjusted in principle through general transfer payments. Tidy up, integrate and standardize special transfer payment programmes, progressively abolish earmarks for competitive areas and local funding supplements, strictly control guidance, relief and emergency response programmes, re-examine retained earmarks, matters falling under local affairs are to be brought under general transfer payments.

(18) Perfect the tax revenue system. Deepen tax revenue system reform, perfect local taxation systems, progressively raise the proportion of direct taxation. Move forward with value-added tax reform, appropriately reduce rates. Adjust the collection scope, segments and rates of consumption tax collection, bring high-energy consumption and high-pollution products and a part of high-end consumption goods into the scope of tax collection. Progressively establish an individual income tax system that integrates being comprehensive and categorized. Accelerate real estate tax legislation and move reform forward in a timely manner, accelerate resource tax reform, promote the change of environmental protection fees into taxes.

According to the principles of a uniform fiscal system, fair tax burdens, and stimulating fair competition, strengthen standardization and management over preferential taxation and especially over regional preferential taxation policies. Preferential taxation policies are to be uniformly provided through special taxation laws and regulations, tidy up and standardize preferential taxation policies. Perfect national taxation and local taxation collection and control mechanisms.

(19) Establish systems in which duties and payment responsibilities are mutually adapted. Appropriately strengthen Central duties and payment responsibilities, national defence, foreign affairs, national security and regulation and management involving national uniform markets, etc., are Central duties; a part of social security, cross-regional major programme construction safeguards, etc., are joint duties of the Centre and the localities, and duty responsibilities are to be progressively rationalized; regional public services are local duties. Payment responsibilities are to be borne and divided between the Centre and the localities according to their duties. The Centre may entrust the localities with a number of payment responsibilities through arranging transfer payments. With regard to cross-regional public services or those that have a relatively large influence on other regions, the Centre is to bear a number of local duties and payment responsibilities through transfer payments.

Maintain the existing general stability of the Central and local financial resource structure, combine this with tax system reform, consider the properties of taxation categories, further rationalize the income division between the Centre and the localities.

VI, Complete systems and mechanisms for unified urban and rural development.

The binary structure of town and country is a main obstacle restraining unified urban and rural development. We must complete systems and mechanisms, shape new types of relationships between industry, agriculture, cities and the countryside in which industry stimulates agriculture, cities drive the countryside, and industry and agriculture are mutually beneficial, let the broad peasants equally participate in the process of modernization, and jointly share the fruits of modernization.

(20) Accelerate the building of new forms of agricultural operations systems. Persist in the basic position of household operations in agriculture, move forward with agricultural operational method innovation that jointly develops household operations, collective operations, cooperative operations and enterprise operations. Persist in the collective ownership of rural land, safeguard the land contracting and operational rights of peasants according to the law, develop and expand the collective economy. Stabilize rural land contraction relationships and maintain them unchanged for a long time, under the precondition of persisting in and perfecting the strictest arable land protection systems, endow peasants with the powers of possession, use, profit, transmission, mortgage and guarantee of contracting and operational powers with regards to their contracted land, peasants are permitted to develop industrialized agricultural operations with the income from contracting operational rights. It is encouraged that contracting and operational rights are transferred to specialized large households, household farms, peasants’ collectives and agricultural enterprises on the open market, develop operations in many kinds, forms and scales.

Villages are encouraged to develop the cooperative economy, support the development of upscaled, specialized and modernized operations, financial programme funds are permitted to directly invest in cooperatives meeting conditions, it is permitted that the assets formed with financial subsidies are transferred to cooperatives for possession and management, it is permitted that cooperatives launch credit cooperations. Industrial and commercial capital is to be encouraged and guided to go to villages and develop modern types of cultivation sectors with suitable modernized operations, and to bring modern production factors and operational models into agriculture.

(21) Endow peasants with more property rights. Guarantee the membership rights of peasants in collective economic organizations, vigorously develop peasant shareholding cooperation, endow peasants with rights of possession of shares in collective assets, profit, compensated withdrawal as well as mortgage, guarantee and inheritance rights. Guarantee peasants’ usufruct rights over their homestead land, reform and perfect village homestead land systems, select some trial points, cautiously and reliably move forward with peasant housing property right mortgage, guarantee and transfer, explore the expansion of property-type income channels for peasants. Establish village property rights transfer and trade markets, promote the open, fair and standardized operation of village property rights transfer and trade.

(22) Move forward with equal exchange of production factors between town and country and balanced allocation of public resources. Safeguard peasants’ production factor rights and interests, guarantee that peasants and labourers receive equal pay for equal work, guarantee that peasants fairly share in the increased value of land, guarantee that financial organs’ village deposits are mainly used for agricultural villages. Complete agricultural support and protection systems, reform agricultural subsidy systems, perfect profit compensation mechanisms for main grain producing areas. Perfect agricultural insurance systems. Social capital is encouraged to invest in village construction, enterprises and social organizations are permitted to set up all sorts of undertakings in villages. Comprehensively plan urban and rural infrastructure construction and community construction, move forward with the equalization of basic public services in town and country.

(23) Perfect healthy development systems and mechanisms for urbanization. Persist in marching the path of a new type of urbanization with Chinese characteristics, move forward with an urbanization that puts people at the centre, promote  the coordinated development of small and mid-size cities and small towns, and the integrated development of industries and cities, stimulate a coordinated push towards urbanization and new village construction. Optimize urban space structuring and management structures, strengthen comprehensive urban carrying capacity.

Move forward with urban construction and management innovation. Establish transparent and standardized urban construction investment mechanisms, local governments are permitted to broaden urban construction financing channels through issuing debt and many other methods, social capital is permitted to participate in urban infrastructure investment and operations through special permission operations, etc., research the establishment of urban infrastructure and housing policy-type financial organ. Perfect urban planning standards, straiten examination and approval procedures, counties meeting conditions for division into administrative districts may change into cities in an orderly manner. Towns that attract a large population, with strong economic power, may be endowed with management powers suited to the scale of their population and economy. Establish and perfect cross-regional coordinated urban development mechanisms.

Move forward with changing people transferred away from agriculture into townspeople, progressively change people transferred away from agriculture who meet conditions into urban residents. Innovate population management, accelerate household registration system reform, completely lift restrictions on settling in administrative townships and small cities, lift restrictions on settling into mid-size cities in an orderly manner, rationally determine settlement conditions for large cities, strictly control the scale of the population in especially large cities. Steadily move forward with a complete coverage of the permanent population of cities and towns with basic urban public services, bring peasants who settled in cities into urban housing and social security systems, link up old-age insurance and medical insurance standards joined in villages with urban social security systems. Establish mechanisms to couple financial transfer payments with peasants transferring into townspeople, strictly and rationally provide urban construction land, raise the use rate of urban land.

VII, Build new and open economic structures

To adapt to the new trends of economic globalization, we must promote a mutual stimulation of domestic and foreign openness, integrate bringing things in and marching out even better, stimulate the orderly and free flow of international and domestic production factors, high-efficiency deployment of resources and deep market integration, accelerate the fostering of, participating in and leadership of new competitive advantages in international cooperation, in order to make opening up stimulate reform.

(24) Broaden investment input. Unify domestic and foreign capital laws and regulations, maintain foreign capital policy stability, transparency and predictability. Move forward with the orderly opening up of finance, education, culture, healthcare and other service areas, lift limits on foreign investment in childcare, care for the elderly, architectural design, accounting and auditing, commerce and logistics, electronic commerce and other such service areas, further open up the general manufacturing industry. Accelerate the integration and optimization of Customs Special Supervision and Management Zones.

Establishing the China Shanghai Free Trade Trial Zone is a major measure to move reform and opening up forward under new circumstances, it must be realistically built well and managed well, and explore new channels for and accumulate new experiences of deepening reform and broadening openness. On the basis of moving existing trials forward, select some localities meeting conditions to develop free trade park (port) zones.

Broaden enterprise and individual foreign investment, establish the dominant position of enterprises and individuals in foreign investment, they are permitted to give rein to their own advantages, go abroad and launch investment cooperation, they are permitted to go to all countries and all regions, taking their own risks, to freely contract projects and business cooperation programmes, they are permitted to innovate methods of marching out and launching green-field investment, merger and acquisition investment, negotiable security investment, joint investment, etc.

Accelerate the signing of investment agreements with relevant countries and regions, reform examination and approval systems for foreign-related investment, perfect consular protection systems, provide rights and interests guarantees, investment stimulation, risk prevention and many other services, broaden the space for investment cooperation.

(25) Accelerate the construction of free trade zones. Persist in the rules of the global trading system, persist in launching bilateral, multilateral and regional cooperation, broaden points of converging interests with all countries and all regions, accelerate the implementation of the free trade strategy with the periphery as the basis. Reform market access, Customs supervision and management, inspection and quarantine and other such management systems, accelerate negotiations on environmental protection, investment protection, government procurement, electronic commerce and other such new topics, form high-level free trade zone networks faced to the entire world.

Broaden openness towards and cooperation with the Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR and the Taiwan region.

Broaden inland border openness. Support inland cities to build international passenger and freight air lines, develop many kinds of through transport, form foreign economic corridors traversing the East, the Centre and the West, and link up the South and the North. Promote coordinated customs clearance inland, along the costs and along borders, realize information exchange, mutual supervision and management recognition and mutual law enforcement assistance between port management and corresponding departments.

Accelerate the pace of opening borders, it is permitted that focus border posts, border towns and economic cooperation zones implement special methods and policies in personal travel, processing and logistics, tourism and other such area. Establish open financial organs, accelerate joint construction of infrastructure with surrounding countries and regions, move forward with the construction of the Silk Road economic belt and the Sea Silk Road, form new structures that are open on all sides.

VIII, Strengthen the construction of the Socialist democratic political system.

To develop Socialist democratic politics, we must make guaranteeing the fact that the people master their own affairs into the basis, persist in and perfect the People’s Congress system, the system of multi-party cooperation under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the political consultative conference system, the ethnic region autonomy system as well as the grass routs masses’ autonomy system, pay more attention to completing democratic institutions and enrich democratic forms, broaden citizens’ orderly political participations at all levels and in all areas, and fully give rein to the superiorities of our country’s Socialist political system.

(27) Promote that the People’s Congress system progresses with the times. Persist in the dominant position of the people, move forward with theoretical and practical innovation of the People’s Congress system, give rein to the basic political institutional function of the People’s Congress system. Perfect a Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, complete legislative drafting, argumentation, coordination and deliberation mechanisms, raise the quality of legislation, prevent the legalization of local protection and departmental interests. Complete the “one government, two houses” [the People's Governments, the People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates] system, which is generated by People’s Congresses, are responsible to People’s Congresses and accept the supervision of People’s Congresses. Complete systems for People’s Congresses to discuss and decide on major affairs, all levels’ governments are to report to the same level’s People’s Congress before publishing major policy decisions. Strengthen People’s Congress budget and accounting inspection and supervision functions, and State-owned asset supervision functions. Implement statutory tax collection principles. Strengthen the link of People’s Congress Standing Committees with People’s Congress representatives, fully give rein to their representative function. Tighten the relationship between representatives and the popular masses through establishing and completing representative contact organs, network platforms and other such forms.

Perfect People’s Congress work mechanisms, broaden citizens’ orderly participation in the legislative process through forums, hearings, assessments, publication of legal drafts, etc., vigorously respond to social concerns through inquiries, interpellations, investigations on designated issues, file examination, etc.

(28) Move forward with the broad, multi-level and institutionalized development of consultative democracy. Consultative democracy is a special form and unique superiority of our country’s Socialist democratic politics, and is a major reflection of the Party’s mass line in the political area. Under the leadership of the Party, and with major issues in economic and social development as well as real issues that involve the masses’ personal interests as content, launch broad consultation in the whole society, persist in consulting before policy decisions and during the implementation of policy decisions.

Build an orderly and rational consultative democracy system with integrated segments, broaden coordination channels between State organs, consultative organizations, party organizations, grass roots organizations and social organizations. Deeply launch legislative consultation, administrative consultation, democratic consultation, participatory consultation and social consultation. Strengthen the construction of new think tanks with Chinese characteristics, establish and complete policymaking consultancy systems.

Give rein to the important role of the united front in consultative democracy. Perfect political consultation between the Chinese Communist Party and all democratic parties, earnestly listen to the opinions of the democratic parties and non-party individuals. The CCP Central Committee puts forwards plans on the basis of annual focus work points, and conducts consultation through consultative meetings, heart-to-heart talks and forums. Perfect systems for democratic parties’ central committees to directly put suggestions to the CCP Central Committee. Implement the Party’s ethnic policies, guarantee the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities, consolidate and develop Socialist ethnic relations of mutual assistance and harmony.

Give rein to the important channelling function of People’s Political Consultative Conferences in consultative democracy. Focus on moving the institutionalization, standardization and proceduralization of political consultation, democratic supervision and participation in government affairs forward. All levels’ Party Committees, governments and Consultative Conferences are to formulate and organize the implementation of annual work plans, and listen to the opinions of Consultative Conferences on a number of important policy decisions. Perfect People’s Political Consultative Conference systems, standardize the content and procedures of consultation. Expand the forms of consultative democracy, organize topical consultations, specialized consultation, consultation with different sectors and consultation on dealing with motions in an even more dynamic and orderly manner, increase the density of consultation, raise the effect of consultation. Complete contact organs for committee members in Consultative Conferences, perfect contact systems for Consultative Conference members.

(29) Develop grass roots democracy. Smoothen democratic channels, complete grass roots election, political discussion, openness, reporting, accountability and other such mechanisms. Launch grass roots democratic consultation in many forms, move forward with the institutionalization of grass roots coordination, establish and perfect residents’ and villagers’ supervision mechanisms, stimulate the masses’ self-management, self=service, self-education and self-supervision in urban and rural community governance, grass-roots public affairs and public interest undertakings, according to the law. Complete democratic management systems in enterprise and undertaking work units with employees’ representative committees as the basic form, strengthen the construction of democratic mechanisms in social organizations, guarantee the democratic rights of staff to participate in management and supervision.

IX, Moving the construction of a rule of law China forward

To construct a rule of law China, we must persist in moving governing the country according to the law, governance according to the law and administration according to the law forward jointly, and persist in the integrated construction of a rule of law country, a rule of law government and a rule of law society. Deepen judicial structural reform, accelerate the construction of a fair, high-efficiency and authoritative Socialist judicial system, safeguard the people’s rights and interests, let the popular masses feel fairness and justice in every judicial case.

(30) Safeguard the authority of the Constitution and the laws. The Constitution is the basic law that guarantees that the Party and the country flourish and grow, and will know a long period of peace and order, and has the highest authority. We must further complete mechanisms and procedures for constitutional implementation and supervision, and raise the comprehensive implementation of the Constitution to a new level. Establish and complete systems by which the entire society is faithful to, respects, safeguards and utilizes the Constitution. Persist in the fact that everyone is equal in the face of the law, that no organization or individual may exceed the authority of the Constitution and the law, and that all acts violating the Constitution and the law must be punished.

Universally establish legal advice systems. Perfect mechanisms for examining the legality of normative documents and major policy decisions. Establish scientific rule of law construction indicator systems and assessment standards. Complete filing and inspection systems for laws, regulations and normative documents. Complete social law popularization and education mechanisms, strengthen the rule of law conception of the entire population. Progressively increase the quantity of relatively large cities that have local legislative powers.

(31)  Deepen administrative law enforcement structure reform. Integrate law enforcement subjects, concentrate related law enforcement powers, move comprehensive law enforcement forward, strive to resolve issues of overlapping responsibilities and many-headed law enforcement, and establish administrative law enforcement systems with unified powers and high-efficiency authority. Reduce administrative law enforcement levels, strengthen grass roots law enforcement strength in food, drugs, production safety, environmental protection, labour protection, maritime islands and other such focus areas. Rationalize urban management law enforcement systems, raise law enforcement and service levels.

Perfect administrative law enforcement procedures, standardize free discretionary law enforcement powers, strengthen supervision over administrative law enforcement, comprehensively implement administrative law enforcement responsibility systems and systems to ensure that law enforcement expenses are guaranteed by the financial administration, ensure that law enforcement is strict, standardized, fair and civilized. Perfect mechanisms to link administrative law enforcement with the criminal judiciary.

(32) Guarantee  that judicial powers and prosecutorial powers are exercised according to the law, independently and fairly. Reform judicial management systems, promote the unified management of human resources in courts and procuratorates at the provincial level and lower, explore the establishment of judicial jurisdiction systems that are suitably separated from administrative areas, guarantee the uniform and correct implementation of State laws.

Establish judicial personnel management systems that conform to professional characteristics, complete mechanisms for the uniform recruitment, orderly circulation and gradual selection of judges, prosecutors and People’s Police, perfect categorized judicial personnel management systems, complete professional guarantee systems for judges, prosecutors and People’s Police.

(33) Complete operational mechanisms for judicial power. Optimize the allocation of judicial powers, complete mechanisms for division of work responsibilities, mutual coordination and mutual restraint of judicial powers, strengthen and standardize legal supervision and social supervision over judicial activities.

Reform the trial committee system, perfect case handling responsibility systems for presiding judges and collegiate benches, let those hearing the case judge, and those judging the case be responsible. Clarify the functions and positions of all levels’ courts, standardize the hierarchical trial supervision relationship between higher and lower courts.

Move forward with open trials and open prosecutions, record and maintain materials from the entire court process. Strengthen the rationality of legal documents, promote openness of valid court judgment documents. Straiten and standardize punishment commutation, parole and medical bail procedures, strengthen supervision systems. Broadly implement the people’s assessor and people’s supervisor systems, broaden channels for the popular masses to participate in the judiciary in an orderly manner.

(34) Perfect structures for the judicial protection of human rights. The State respects and protects human rights. Further standardize judicial procedures for  detention, custody, asset freezing and dealing with assets involved in cases. Complete mechanisms to prevent and correct misjudged cases, and to pursue responsibility, it is strictly prohibited to extort confession by torture, engage in corporal punishment or abuse, strictly implement the rule that illegal evidence is thrown out. Progressively reduce the use of charges carrying the death penalty.

Abolish the re-education through labour system, perfect punishment and execution laws for unlawful and criminal acts, complete community correction institutions.

Complete State judicial aid systems, perfect legal assistance systems. Perfect mechanisms to guarantee lawyers’ professional rights and structures to punish legal businesses violating laws and regulations, strengthen professional moral construction, give rein to the important function of lawyers in safeguarding citizens’ and legal persons’ lawful rights and interests according to the law.

X, Strengthening restraining and supervision systems for the operationalization of power

Persist in using structures to manage power, manage affairs and manage people, letting the people supervise power and letting power be exercised in the sunlight are basic policies to ensure that power is locked up in a cage of rules. We must build power exercise structures with scientific policymaking, firm implementation and powerful supervision, complete corruption punishment and prevention structures, build clean politics, and strive to realize that cadres are just, government is clean and politics are clear.

(35) Shape scientific and effective power restraint and coordination mechanisms. Perfect Party and State leadership mechanisms, persist in the democratic centralism system, fully give rein to the leading core role of the Party. Standardize the limits to the power of main leading cadres at all levels of Party and government, scientifically deploy the powers and functions of Party and government departments and their internal organs, clarify responsibilities, positions and work tasks.

Strengthen and improve restraints of and supervision over main leading cadres’ exercise of power, strengthen administrative supervision and auditing supervision.

Implement a system in which all local levels of governments and their work departments’ powers are clearly listed, open up power exercise procedures according to the law. Perfect openness systems for Party affairs, government affairs and conducting work in all areas, move forward with open policymaking, open management, open service and open results.

(36) Strengthen anti-corruption structure and mechanism innovation and institutional guarantees. Strengthen the Party’s unified leadership over a clean and honest Party work style construction and anti-corruption work. Reform the Party’s discipline inspection system, complete leadership structures and work mechanisms for anti-corruption work, reform and perfect the functions of anti-corruption coordination groups at all levels.

Implement a responsibility system for the construction of a clean and honest Party work style, Party Committees bear the main responsibility, Discipline Inspection Committees bear a supervisory responsibility, formulate and implement realistic and feasible responsibility investigation mechanisms. All levels’ Discipline Inspection Committees must implement their duties of assisting Party Committees with strengthening Party work style construction and organizing coordinated anti-corruption work, strengthen supervision over Party Committees at the same level and especially the members of Standing Committees, and give better rein to their function as the specialized intra-Party supervision organs.

Promote the concretization, proceduralization and institutionalization of double-headed leadership systems over Party discipline inspection work, strengthen the leadership of higher levels’ Discipline Inspection Committees over lower-level Discipline Inspection Committees. First place is to be given to higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees in handling corruption cases, handling clues and investigating cases must be reported to higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees at the same time when they are reported to the same level’s Discipline Inspection Committee. First place is to be given to the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee and Organization Department in the nomination and assessment of all levels’ Discipline Inspection Committee secretaries and vice-secretaries.

Comprehensively implement the posting of Central Discipline Inspection Committee staff to Central first-level Party and State organs, to inspect the discipline in those organs, implement uniform designations and uniform management. The organ where they are posted is responsible to the organ sending them out for implementing the supervisory duties. Implement Central, provincial and city inspection systems, ensure complete coverage over localities, departments, enterprise and undertaking work units.

Complete anti-corruption and pro-honesty law and regulation institutions and systems, perfect laws and regulations to punish and prevent corruption, guard against risks for clean government, prevent conflicts of interest, for leading cadres to report relevant personal matters, position avoidance and other such areas, implement trials for openness in relevant matters of newly-promoted leading cadres. Complete democratic supervision, legal supervision and public opinion supervision mechanisms, utilize and standardize Internet supervision.

(37) Completely improve normalized work style institutions. Revolve around opposing formalist, bureaucratist, hedonist and extravagant tendencies, accelerate the reform and construction of structures and mechanisms. Complete mechanisms for leading cadres to take the lead in improving work styles and go deeply into the grass roots for inspection and observation, perfect systems to directly contact and serve the masses. Reform meeting document systems, set the example in reducing meetings and documents starting from the Centre, strive to improve meeting styles and writing styles. Complete strict financial budgeting, verification and auditing systems, strive to control the “three officials’” expenses and payments, and the construction of official buildings. Perfect special inspection and responsibility investigation systems to select and appoint people, strive to correct the unhealthy tendencies of craving important positions. Reform officials’ achievement appraisal mechanisms, strive to resolve issues such as “image projects”, “officials’ achievement projects” as well as lack of accomplishments, chaotic activities, etc.

Standardize and strictly implement leading cadres’ work and life guarantee systems, it is not permitted to occupy many houses and office rooms, it is not permitted to allocate office rooms and living rooms in excess of quota, it is not permitted to allocate public cars in violation of regulations, it is not permitted to allocate secretaries in violation of regulations, it is not permitted to retain security guards in excess of quota, it is not permitted to conduct public receptions in excess of standards, strictly investigate and prosecute issues such as enjoying treatment in violation of regulations or in excess of standards, etc. Explore the implementation of an official residence system.

Perfect and strictly implement rules and regulations concerning leading cadres’ relatives engaging in business, holding public positions or duties in social organizations, going to live abroad and other such matters, to prevent that leading cadres use public power or their own influence to provide personal gains to their relatives or other specific related persons, firmly oppose privileged thinking and work styles.

XI, Move cultural structural and mechanisms innovation forward

To build a strong Socialist culture country and strengthen national cultural soft power, we must persist in the progressive orientation of advanced Socialist culture, persist in the cultural development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, foster and practice the Socialist core value system, consolidate the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area, and consolidate a common ideological basis of the united struggle of the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country. Persist in the work orientation of putting people central, persist in putting social effect first, and in the organic integration of social effects and economic effects, make arousing the entire nation’s cultural creative vitality into a central link, further deepen cultural structural reform.

(38) Perfect cultural management structures. According to the principles of separating government and enterprises, and separating government and undertakings, promote that government departments shift from running culture to managing culture, promote that Party and government relations further rationalize relations with their subordinate cultural enterprise and undertaking work units. Establish  organs for Party Committees and government to supervise and manage the management of State-owned cultural assets, implement the integration of managing people, managing affairs, managing assets and managing orientations.

Complete structures and mechanisms to persist in the correct public opinion orientation. Complete joint mechanisms for basic management, content management, sector management as well as prevention of and attack against unlawful and criminal acts online, and other such work, complete mechanisms to deal with sudden incidents online, shape an online public opinion structure that integrates positive guidance with management according to the law. Integrate news media resources, promote the converged development of traditional media and new media. Promote the institutionalization of news dissemination. Straiten news workers’ professional qualification systems, pay high regard to the operation and management of new media, and standardize communication order.

(39) Establish and complete modern cultural market systems. Perfect cultural market access and exit mechanisms, encourage all sorts of market subjects to compete fairly, with the fittest surviving, stimulate that cultural resources circulate across the entire country. Continue moving forward with transforming State-owned commercial cultural work units into enterprises, accelerate transformation of corporate systems and shareholding systems. Explore the implementation of special management and share systems for important State-owned media enterprises that transform according to regulations. Promote cross-regional, cross-sectoral and cross-ownership mergers and acquisitions of cultural enterprises, raise the level of scale, intensification and specialization of cultural industries.

Non-public cultural enterprises are encouraged to develop, lower access thresholds for social capital, participation in foreign-oriented publishing and online publishing is permitted, participation in the transformation and operation of State-owned film and television production organs and literature and art troupes is permitted through the form of share control. The development of sorts of micro-culture enterprises is supported.

Under the precondition of persisting in the operation of publishing powers and broadcasting power under special permission, it is permitted to separate production and publishing, and production and broadcast. Establish a multi-level cultural product and production factor market, the integration of financial capital, social capital and cultural resources is encouraged. Perfect cultural economic policies, broaden government subsidies for culture and cultural procurement, strengthen copyright protection. Complete cultural product appraisal systems, reform award, push out even more excellent cultural products.

(40) Build modern public cultural service systems. Establish coordination mechanisms for the construction of a public cultural service system, comprehensively plan the construction of service facilities and networks, and stimulate the standardization and equalization of basic public cultural services. Establish mass appraisal and feedback mechanisms, promote the effective linkage of public welfare cultural programmes and the masses’ cultural demands. Integrate grass roots propaganda and culture, Party member education, science dissemination, physical education and other facilities, to build comprehensive cultural service centres.

Clarify the functions and positions of different cultural undertaking work units, establish legal person governance structures, perfect outcome assessment mechanisms. Promote that public libraries, museums, cultural centres, science and technology institutes, etc., organize councils, attract representatives from all sides, specialists and masses from all walks of life to participate in management.

Introduce competition mechanisms, promote the socialized development of public cultural services. Social forces and social capital are encouraged to participate in the construction of public cultural service systems, and foster non-profit cultural organizations.

(41) Raise cultural openness levels. Persist in government guidance, enterprise in the main role, market operations and social participation, broaden foreign cultural exchange, strengthen the construction of international communication capacity and foreign-oriented discourse systems, promote that Chinese culture marches towards the world. Rationalize domestic and foreign propaganda systems, support focus media in facing domestic and international developments. Foster foreign-oriented cultural enterprises, support cultural enterprises in going abroad and expanding markets. Social organizations, intermediary organs, etc., are encouraged to participate in the construction of Confucius Institutes and overseas cultural centres, and to undertake humanities exchange programmes.

XII, Move forward with social undertaking reform and innovation

To realize that the fruits of development are extended to the whole body of the people in ever greater numbers and more fairly, we must accelerate the reform of social undertakings, resolve questions of the interests that concern the people most, are most direct and most real well, strive to provide diversified services to society, and satisfy the people’s needs even better.

(42) Deepening comprehensive reform in the educational area. Completely implement the Party’s educational policies, persisting in cultivating the young to achieve virtue, strengthen education about the Socialist core value system, perfect education about China’s excellent traditional culture, shape effective forms and long-term mechanisms for activities of loving learning, loving work and loving the motherland, strengthen students’ sense of social responsibility, pioneering spirits and practical abilities. Strengthen physical education classes and extracurricular exercise, stimulate the young to be healthy in mind and body, and have a strong physique. Improve aesthetics education, raise students’ aestheticism and accomplishment in the humanities. Forcefully stimulate fairness in education, complete student subsidy systems for households in difficulties, build effective mechanisms to utilize informatized methods to broaden the coverage of excellent educational resources, progressively reduce the differences between regions, between town and country and between schools. Comprehensively plan the balanced deployment of compulsory education resources across town and country, implement the standardized construction of state-run schools and rotational headmaster and teacher exchanges, do not set up focus schools and focus classrooms, reduce difficulties in choosing schools, lighten students’ schoolwork burdens by both treating symptoms and root causes. Accelerate the construction of modern vocational education systems, deepen the mixing of education and industry, and cooperation between schools and enterprises, and foster high-quality workers and skilled talents. Innovate higher education talent fostering mechanisms, stimulate higher education to produce their characteristics and strive to become first-rate. Promote the reform and development of preschool education, special education and continuous education.

Move forward with the reform of the examination admissions system, explore operational mechanisms in which student admissions and examinations are relatively separated, with multiple choice student examinations, in which schools autonomously admit students according to the law, where special organs organize implementation, with macro-level government management and social participation and supervision. Fundamentally resolve the abuse of one examination determining one’s whole life. Allow entry without examinations in compulsory education, try out school districting systems and specialized student recruitment all along nine years. Implement lower middle school proficiency tests and comprehensive quality appraisal. Accelerate moving forward with categorized admissions and applications for vocational schools or for study registration. Progressively implement comprehensive appraisal and plural recruitment mechanisms for common higher education based on results in the uniform higher education exams and proficiency tests in higher middle school. Explore the reduction of courses in the nationwide uniform examinations, do not distinguish humanities and sciences, foreign languages and other disciplines, organize socialized exams multiple times per year. Try out credit transfer between general higher education schools, higher vocational schools and adult higher education, broaden life long learning channels.

Deeply move forward with the separation of management, running and appraisal, broaden the comprehensive education planning powers of provincial-level governments and the autonomy of schools to run courses, perfect intra-school governance structures. Strengthen State education supervision, entrust social organizations with launching education evaluation and monitoring. Complete government subsidy, government procurement service, tutoring loans, funding and award, donation encouragement and other such systems, encourage social forces to set up education.

(43) Complete structures and mechanisms to stimulate employment and entrepreneurialism. Establish joint mechanisms for economic development and broad employment, complete government responsibility systems to stimulate employment. Standardize employment and appointment systems, eliminate institutional barriers and employment discrimination on the basis of town and countryside, sector, identity, sex and all other matters that influence fair employment. Perfect preferential policies to support employment, shape new mechanisms for government to support entrepreneurship, for society to support entrepreneurship, and for labourers to dare to set up businesses. Perfect public employment and entrepreneurship service systems that are equal across town and country, build lifelong professional training systems for labourers. Strengthen unemployment insurance systems, prevent unemployment, and stimulate the function of employment, perfect employment and unemployment monitoring and statistic systems. Innovate labour relation coordination mechanisms, smoothen channels for workers to express reasonable appeals.

Stimulate youth employment and employment of labourers migrated from villages, urban inhabitants in difficulties and military veterans with higher education graduates as the focus point. Integrate industrial upgrading with developing even more employment position that suit higher education graduates. Government procurement grass roots public management and social service positions are to be used more to attract higher education graduates. Complete service guarantee mechanisms to encourage higher education graduates to go and work at the grass roots, raise the proportion of directed appointment of civil servants and of preferred appointment in undertaking work units. Implement policies to encourage higher education graduates to set up autonomous businesses, develop State and provincial-level higher education graduate employment and entrepreneurship funds in an integrated manner. Implement employment stimulation plans for higher education graduates who have left schools but have no job, bring the unemployed into the scope of employment probation, technical training and other activities preparing for employment, implement services across the complete process of employment for those in special difficulties.

(44) Form rational and orderly income allocation structures. Focus on the protection of labour income, strive to realize that labour remuneration growth and labour productivity increases have the same pace, and raise the proportion of labour remuneration in primary allocation. Complete salary decision and regular increase mechanism, perfect minimum wage and wage payment guarantee systems, and perfect collective wage bargaining systems in enterprises. Reform salary, allowance and subsidy systems in organs and undertaking work units, perfect allowance growth systems for difficult and remote regions. Complete remuneration mechanisms for capital, knowledge, technology, management, etc., that are decided by the factor market. Expand investment and leasing services and other such channels, optimize mechanisms to repay investors in publicly traded companies, protect the lawful rights and interests of investors and especially small and mid-size investors, increase residents’ property-type income through many channels.

Perfect redistribution and adjustment mechanisms with tax revenue, social security and transfer payments as the main methods, expand tax revenue adjustment strength. Establish reasonable sharing mechanisms for income from the sales of public resources. Perfect structures for tax remittances for philanthropic donations, support charitable undertakings to give rein to their positive function in helping the poor and the needy.

Standardize income allocation procedures, perfect income allocation and adjustment systems and mechanisms and policy systems, establish individual income and asset information systems, protect lawful rights and interests, adjust overly high incomes, tidy up and standardize hidden income, ban illegal income, increase the income of low wage earners, broaden the proportion of middle income earners, strive to reduce the income gap in town and country, in regions and in sectors, progressively form an olive-shaped distribution structure.

(45) Establish fairer and more sustainable social security systems. Persist in the basic old-age insurance system that integrates comprehensive social planning and individual accounts, perfect individual account systems, complete incentive mechanisms so that those who pay more, get more, guarantee the rights and interests of the insured, realize comprehensive planning of basic pensions across the country, persist in the principles of accurate calculations and balance. Move forward with the reform of old-age insurance systems in organs and undertaking work units. Integrate basic old-age insurance systems and basic health insurance systems for urban and rural residents. Move the comprehensive development of minimum living guarantee systems forward. Establish and complete reasonable social security treatment standards and regular adjustment mechanisms that simultaneously deal with various categories of people. Perfect policies to continue social security relationships after migration, broaden insurance participation and fee payment coverage, reduce social security fees appropriately and timely. Research the formulation of policies to gradually raise the retirement age. Accelerate the completion of social security management systems and service systems. Complete housing support and supply systems that conform to national circumstances, establish open and standardized public housing funding systems, improve public housing funding collection, user and supervision mechanisms.

Complete financial input systems for social security, perfect social security budget systems. Strengthen social security fund investment management and supervision move marketized and pluralist investment operations of funds forward. Formulate and implement tax exemption or tax deferral policies and other such preferential policies, accelerate the development of enterprise annuities, professional annuities and commercial insurance, build multi-level social security systems.

Vigorously respond to population aging, accelerate the establishment of social service systems to care for the elderly and the development of service industries for the elderly. Complete welfare and service systems for children, women and the elderly who have remained behind in villages, complete mechanisms to guarantee the rights and interests of the disabled, and of children in difficulties.

(46) Deepen medical and hygiene structure reform. Comprehensively move forward with overall reform in healthcare security, healthcare services, public hygiene, drug provision, supervision and management structures. Deepen comprehensive reform of grass roots healthcare and hygiene organs, complete networked urban and rural grass roots healthcare and hygiene service and operation mechanisms. Accelerate reform of public hospitals, implement governmental responsibilities, establish scientific healthcare outcome appraisal mechanisms and talent fostering and human rights resource systems that are suited to the characteristics of the sector. Perfect reasonable hierarchical diagnosis and treatment models, establish service relationships with community doctors and resident charter services. Fully utilize informatized means to stimulate high-quality healthcare resources to flow up and down. Accelerate the completion of medical insurance and aid systems for major and large diseases. Perfect policies and mechanisms for the development of the Chinese medicine sector.

Society is encourage to run hospitals, optimize organs to support the running of non-commercial healthcare. Social capital may directly be invested into areas where resources are rare and it is necessary to satisfy multiple demands for services, and may participate in reform and reorganization of public hospital in many forms. Doctors are permitted to set up shop in multiple places, people-run healthcare organs are permitted to be brought into the scope of focus health insurance.

Persist in the basic national policy of birth planning, start the implementation of a policy where it is permitted to have two children if ether a husband or a wife is an only child, progressively adjust and perfect birth policies, stimulate the balanced development of the population for the long run.

XIII, Innovate social governance systems.

To innovate social governance, we must fix our eyes upon safeguarding the basic interests of the broadest people, enhancing harmonious factors to the broadest extent, strengthening social development vitality and raising social governance levels, we must completely move the construction of a peaceful China forward, safeguard national security, ensure that the people live and work in peace and contentment, and that society is stable and orderly.

(47) Improve social administration methods. Persist in systematic governance, strengthen the leadership of Party Committees, give rein to the guiding function of government, encourage and support all walks of society to participate, realize a positive interaction between government governance, social self-governance and residents’ self governance. Persist in governance according to the law, strengthen rule of law guarantees, use rule of law thinking and rule of law methods to dissolve social contradictions. Persist in comprehensive governance, strengthen moral restraint, standardize social actions, moderate relationships of interests, coordinate social relationships and resolve social problems. Persist in governing from the source, dealing with both symptoms and root causes, focus on dealing with the roots, make networked management and socialized management into the direction, complete comprehensive grass roots service management platforms, timely reflect and coordinate the interests and appeals of the popular masses in all areas and at all levels.

(48) Arouse the vitality of social organizations. Correctly deal with the relationship between government and society, accelerate the implementation of the separation between government and society, move forward with clarifying social organizations’ duties and responsibilities, their being autonomous according to the law, and giving rein to their function. Public services and matters to be resolved that are suited to be done by social organizations are to be handed over to social organizations. Support and develop volunteer service organizations. Realize a genuine disconnection between sector associations and chambers of commerce, and administrative organs, focus on fostering and give priority to developing sector associations and chamber of commerce, science and technological, public interest and philanthropy, urban and rural community service social organizations, who directly apply for registration according to the law when they are established. Strengthen management over social organizations and foreign non-governmental organizations, guide them to launch their activities according to the law.

(49) Innovate effective mechanisms to prevent and dissolve social contradictions. Complete social stability risk assessment mechanisms for major policy decisions. Establish open and orderly mechanisms to express appeals, intervene psychologically, mediate contradictions and guarantee rights and interests, ensure that the problems of the masses can be reflected, contradictions can be dissolved and rights and interests are guaranteed.

Reform administrative redress structures, complete administrative redress case trial mechanisms, correct unlawful or improper administrative acts. Perfect joint work systems with people’s mediation, administrative mediation and judicial mediation, establish comprehensive mechanisms to mediate and dissolve contradictions and disputes.

Reform letters and petitions work systems, implement systems for the online reception of letters and petitions, complete mechanisms to resolve the masses’ reasonable appeals timely and on the spot. Bring letters and petitions relating to the law and to trials onto role of law tracks and resolve them there, establish final rules for letters and petitions involving the law and trials according to the law.

(50) Complete public security systems. Perfect uniform and authoritative food and drug security organs, establish the strictest supervision rules that cover entire processes, establish traceability rules for the original production location of foodstuffs and quality symbol systems, to guarantee food and drug security. Deepen safe production management system reform, establish danger inspection and governance systems and security prevention and control systems, restrain major and large safety accidents. Complete disaster prevention, disaster reduction and disaster relief systems. Strengthen comprehensive social order governance, innovate solidified social order prevention and control systems, strictly guard against and punish all sorts of unlawful and criminal activities according to the law.

Persist in the policy of positive use, scientific development , management according to the law and ensuring safety, expand forces to manage the network according to the law, accelerate the perfection of leading structures for Internet management, guarantee the security of the national network and of information.

Establish a National Security Committee, perfect national security structures and national security strategies, guarantee national security.

XIV, Accelerate the construction of ecological civilization institutions.

To build and ecological civilization, we must establish systematic and integrated ecological civilization institutions and systems, implement the strictest source protection systems, damage compensation systems and responsibility investigation institutions, perfect environmental governance and ecological restoration institutions, and use institutions to protect the ecology and the environment.

(51) Complete natural resource property right systems and use management systems. Conduct uniform rights determination and registration for natural ecological spaces such as rivers, forests, mountain ranges, grasslands, undeveloped land, shoals, etc., shape natural resource property right systems with clear assignments [of property rights], clear duties and responsibilities and effective supervision and management. Establish spatial planning systems, draw control boundaries for production, living and ecological space exploitation, implement use management structures. Complete energy, water and land savings and intensified use structures.

Complete national natural resource management systems, uniformly exercise the duties of the entire people as owners of natural resources. Perfect natural resource supervision and management systems, uniformly exercise all land space use management and control powers.

(52) Draw red lines for ecological protection. Unwaveringly implement main function area systems, establish land space exploitation and protection rules, strictly promote development according to the position of main function areas, establish national park systems. Establish natural resource and environmental carrying capacity monitoring and warning mechanisms. Implement restrictive measures concerning water and land resources, environmental capacity and overloaded oceanic resource areas. Cancel regional GDP assessment in restricted development regions and national focus countries for poverty alleviation and development work where the environment is weak.

Explore the compilation of natural resource balance sheets, implement natural resource audits when leading cadres leave their posts. Establish lifelong ecological and environmental harm responsibility investigation systems.

(53) Implement paid-for resource use systems and ecological compensation systems. Accelerate pricing reform of natural resources and their products, to completely reflect market supply and demand, the extent of resource scarcity, costs through ecological and environmental harm and the  benefit of restoration. Persist in using resource fees  the principle of who pollutes the environment, or who destroys the ecology must pay, progressively expand resource taxes to include all sorts of natural and ecological spaces. Steadily and broadly return grain plots to forestry, and turn pastures back into grasslands, adjust the use of farmland in gravely polluted areas and areas where ground water has been overused, implement farmland, river and lake recuperation and rebuilding in an orderly manner. Establish effective mechanisms to regulate reasonable prices for industrial land and residential land, raise the price of land for industrial use. Persist in the principle of who profits, compensates, perfect ecological compensation mechanisms for focus ecology function areas, promote interregional establishment of horizontal and vertical ecological compensation structures. Develop environmental protection markets, implement energy saving, carbon emission rights, waste discharge rights and water rights trading schemes, establish marketized mechanisms to attract social capital to invest in ecological and environmental protection, implement third-party governance for environmental pollution.

(54) Reform ecological civilization protection and management systems. Establish and perfect strict environmental protection management structures to supervise and manage all pollutant emissions, and to independently conduct environmental supervision and management, and administrative law enforcement. Establish joint mechanisms for comprehensive land and sea ecosystem protection, restoration and pollution prevention regions. Complete State-owned forest regions’ operations and management systems, perfect the reform of collective forestry rights systems. Publish environmental information in a timely manner, complete reporting systems, strengthen social supervision. Perfect licence systems for pollutant emissions, implement enterprise and undertaking work unit pollutant emission quantity control systems. Implement strict compensation systems for those responsible for creating ecological or environmental damage, investigate criminal liability according to the law.

XV, Deepen national defence and military reform

Closely revolve around the strong army objective of the Party under new circumstances of building a line of people’s troops that heed the Party’s command, can be victorious and have a fine work style, strive to resolve prominent contradictions and problems that restrain the construction and development of national defence and the military, innovate theories to develop military affairs, strengthen military strategic guidance, perfect military strategies and policies for the new period, build modern military force systems with Chinese characteristics.

(55) Deepen the adjustment and reform of military structures and personnel allocation. Move leadership and management structure reform forward, optimize the deployment of leadership organ functions and the organic deployment of the Military Commission and General Headquarters, perfect leadership and management structures for all service branches. Complete joint operations organs and joint theatre operations command systems within the Military Commission, move forward with the reform of joint operations training and guarantee systems. Perfect leadership systems for new types of combat forces. Accelerate the unified management of informatized construction and centralization. Optimize the structures of Armed Police forces and command and management structures.

Optimize the scale and structure of the military, adjust and improve the proportions of the different services, the proportion of officers and their ranks and the proportion of troops and organs, reduce non-combat organs and personnel. Reform the formation of units on the basis of security needs in different directions and combat tasks. Accelerate the construction of new types of combat forces. Deepen military academy reform, complete new types of military talent fostering systems that unite military academy education, unit training practice and military professional education.

(56) Move military policy system adjustment and reform forward. Complete and perfect military humanpower resource policy systems that are suited to the needs of the functions and tasks of the military and of national policy system innovation. With establishing officer professionalization systems as driver, progressively shape scientific and standardized military cadre institutions and systems. Complete and perfect non-military personnel systems. Perfect military service systems, NCO systems, veteran arrangement systems and reform supplementary policies.

Complete military expenditure management systems, establish mechanisms where needs drive planning, and where planning leads resource allocation. Complete and perfect management standard systems and structures for material expenses. Deepen budget management, concentrate income and payments, material purchases and the reform of soldiers’ healthcare, insurance, housing and other systems.

Complete military regulatory institutions and systems, explore, the improvement of scientific military management methods and means.

(57) Promote the deep development of military-civilian integration. Establish mechanisms for unified leadership, coordination between the military and localities, linking needs and resource sharing at the national level, to promote the joint development of the army and the people. Complete national defence industry systems, perfect national defence science and technology coordination and innovation systems, reform national defence research, development, production and management, and arms purchasing systems and mechanisms, guide superior people-run enterprises to enter into areas of military material research, development, production and maintenance. Reform and perfect policy systems relying on compulsory education to foster military talents. Broaden the socialized area of military guarantees. Deepen national defence education reform. Complete national defence mobilization structures and mechanisms, perfect ordinary commandeering and wartime mobilization law and regulation systems. Deepen the reform of the militia reserve system. Restructure and rationalize border, sea and air defence management systems and mechanisms.

XVI, Strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership over comprehensive deepening of reform

To completely deepen reform, we must strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership, fully give rein to the overall picture in which the Party assumes all responsibility, coordinate its leading core function in all areas, establish a study-type, service-type and innovative Marxist governing party, raise the Party’s leadership levels and governance capacity, to ensure that success is achieved in reform.

(58) The comrades in the entire Party must unite their thoughts and actions around the Centre’s major policy decisions and deployments concerning comprehensively deepening reform, correctly deal with the relationships between the Centre and the localities, the overall picture and parts of the picture, the present and the distant future, they must correctly deal with the adjustment of interest structures, fully carry intra-Party democracy forward, persist in safeguarding the authority of the Centre, guarantee that decrees are smoothly implemented, firmly and unwaveringly realize the Centre’s reform policy decisions and deployments.

The Centre establishes a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, to be responsible for the general design, comprehensive coordination, overall pushing forward and stimulating implementation of reform.

All levels’ Party Committees must realistically implement their leading responsibilities concerning reform, perfect scientific and democratic policymaking mechanisms, take major issues as guidance, and satisfactorily implement all reform measures. Strengthen the construction of leadership ranks at all levels, perfect cadre education, training and practical training systems, incessantly raise the ability of leadership ranks and leading cadres to push reform forward. Innovate grass roots Party building work, complete the Party’s basic organizational system, fully give rein to the fighting fortress function of grass roots Party organizations, guide the broad Party members to vigorously throw themselves into the undertaking of reform, carry forward a spirit of “driving nails”, let them leave traces when they grasp iron and leave marks when they tread on stones, and make vigorous contributions to the comprehensive deepening of reform.

(59) Comprehensive deepening of reform requires forceful organizational guarantees and talent support. Persist in the principle that the Party manages cadres, deepen the construction of human resource systems for cadres, and build effective and efficient, simple and convenient selection and appointment mechanisms, to ensure that excellent cadres fully emerge in large numbers from all sides. give rein to the leading and gatekeeping function of Party organizations, strengthen the power of Party Committees (Party Organizations), leaders in charge and Organization Departments in cadre selection and appointment, and their responsibility in cadre assessment, reform and perfect cadre assessment and appraisal systems, improve competitive methods for cadre selection, improve excellent young cadre fostering and selection mechanisms, implement selection systems and appointment systems as methods for cadre promotion in a differentiated manner, persist in correcting phenomena such as only appointing people on the basis of ballots or only appointing people on the basis of points, appoint cadres of all ages well, truly select good cadres with firm convictions, who serve the people, who are assiduous and pragmatic in government affairs, who dare to undertake work, are upright and just.

Break through cadre departmentalization, broaden visions and channels to select people, strengthen exchange across horizontal and vertical lines and across areas. Do away with “managing one’s own position” concepts move forward that cadres can rise and fall in position, can be appointed and can be removed. Perfect and implement leading cadre accountability systems, perfect institutions and systems to strictly manage cadre teams. Deepen civil servant classification reform, implement that civil servants’ duties and grades run parallel, and their duties and levels are coupled to their treatment, accelerate the establishment of management systems for special technological and administrative law enforcement civil servants and appointed personnel. Perfect basic civil servant employment systems, appropriately lower entry barriers in remote and difficult regions.

Establish systems and mechanisms to concentrate talent, pick outstanding talents from everywhere under heaven and appoint them. Smash institutional barriers, eliminate identity obstacles, let everyone have channels to grow into useful talents and come to the fore, let all kinds of talent have a broad space to put their talents to full use. Perfect institutions and systems for the smooth circulation of talent across Party and government organs, enterprise and undertaking work units and all sides of society. Complete incentive mechanisms for talents to move towards the grass roots, move towards difficult regions and posts, and do pioneering work on the first line. Accelerate the formation of talent system superiorities that have international competitiveness, perfect talent appraisal mechanisms, strengthen the openness of talent policy broadly attract excellent talents who are abroad to return to the country or to come to China, start an undertaking and develop.

(60) The people are the subjects of the revolution, we must persist in the Party’s mass line, establish social participation mechanisms, fully give rein to the vigour, initiative and creativity of the popular masses, fully give rein to the function of labour unions, the Communist Youth League, the Women’s Federation and other such people’s organizations, make concerted efforts to move reform forward. The localities, the grass roots and the masses are encouraged to explore boldly, strengthen major reform trial work, timely summarize experiences, pardon mistakes made in reform, strengthen propaganda and public opinion guidance, and create a good social environment for the comprehensive deepening of reform.

The comrades in the entire Party must firmly unite around the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary, forge ahead tenaciously, storm fortifications and overcome difficulties, compose a new historical chapter in the magnificent undertaking of reform and opening up, and struggle for the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society, to incessantly obtain new victories for Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!

[NOTE 18/11/13: Don Clarke provided some helpful suggestions with regards to terminology, the text has been upgraded to reflect these]

中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定

(2013年11月12日中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议通过)

  为贯彻落实党的十八大关于全面深化改革的战略部署,十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议研究了全面深化改革的若干重大问题,作出如下决定。

一、全面深化改革的重大意义和指导思想

(1)改革开放是党在新的时代条件下带领全国各族人民进行的新的伟大革命,是当代中国最鲜明的特色。党的十一届三中全会召开三十五年来,我们党以巨大的政治勇气,锐意推进经济体制、政治体制、文化体制、社会体制、生态文明体制和党的建设制度改革,不断扩大开放,决心之大、变革之深、影响之广前所未有,成就举世瞩目。

改革开放最主要的成果是开创和发展了中国特色社会主义,为社会主义现代化建设提供了强大动力和有力保障。事实证明,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键抉择,是党和人民事业大踏步赶上时代的重要法宝。

实践发展永无止境,解放思想永无止境,改革开放永无止境。面对新形势新任务,全面建成小康社会,进而建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,必须在新的历史起点上全面深化改革,不断增强中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信。

(2)全面深化改革,必须高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,坚定信心,凝聚共识,统筹谋划,协同推进,坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向,以促进社会公平正义、增进人民福祉为出发点和落脚点,进一步解放思想、解放和发展社会生产力、解放和增强社会活力,坚决破除各方面体制机制弊端,努力开拓中国特色社会主义事业更加广阔的前景。

全面深化改革的总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。必须更加注重改革的系统性、整体性、协同性,加快发展社会主义市场经济、民主政治、先进文化、和谐社会、生态文明,让一切劳动、知识、技术、管理、资本的活力竞相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的源泉充分涌流,让发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。

紧紧围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用深化经济体制改革,坚持和完善基本经济制度,加快完善现代市场体系、宏观调控体系、开放型经济体系,加快转变经济发展方式,加快建设创新型国家,推动经济更有效率、更加公平、更可持续发展。

紧紧围绕坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一深化政治体制改革,加快推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化,建设社会主义法治国家,发展更加广泛、更加充分、更加健全的人民民主。

紧紧围绕建设社会主义核心价值体系、社会主义文化强国深化文化体制改革,加快完善文化管理体制和文化生产经营机制,建立健全现代公共文化服务体系、现代文化市场体系,推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣。

紧紧围绕更好保障和改善民生、促进社会公平正义深化社会体制改革,改革收入分配制度,促进共同富裕,推进社会领域制度创新,推进基本公共服务均等化,加快形成科学有效的社会治理体制,确保社会既充满活力又和谐有序。

紧紧围绕建设美丽中国深化生态文明体制改革,加快建立生态文明制度,健全国土空间开发、资源节约利用、生态环境保护的体制机制,推动形成人与自然和谐发展现代化建设新格局。

紧紧围绕提高科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平深化党的建设制度改革,加强民主集中制建设,完善党的领导体制和执政方式,保持党的先进性和纯洁性,为改革开放和社会主义现代化建设提供坚强政治保证。

(3)全面深化改革,必须立足于我国长期处于社会主义初级阶段这个最大实际,坚持发展仍是解决我国所有问题的关键这个重大战略判断,以经济建设为中心,发挥经济体制改革牵引作用,推动生产关系同生产力、上层建筑同经济基础相适应,推动经济社会持续健康发展。

经济体制改革是全面深化改革的重点,核心问题是处理好政府和市场的关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,健全社会主义市场经济体制必须遵循这条规律,着力解决市场体系不完善、政府干预过多和监管不到位问题。

必须积极稳妥从广度和深度上推进市场化改革,大幅度减少政府对资源的直接配置,推动资源配置依据市场规则、市场价格、市场竞争实现效益最大化和效率最优化。政府的职责和作用主要是保持宏观经济稳定,加强和优化公共服务,保障公平竞争,加强市场监管,维护市场秩序,推动可持续发展,促进共同富裕,弥补市场失灵。

(4)改革开放的成功实践为全面深化改革提供了重要经验,必须长期坚持。最重要的是,坚持党的领导,贯彻党的基本路线,不走封闭僵化的老路,不走改旗易帜的邪路,坚定走中国特色社会主义道路,始终确保改革正确方向;坚持解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进、求真务实,一切从实际出发,总结国内成功做法,借鉴国外有益经验,勇于推进理论和实践创新;坚持以人为本,尊重人民主体地位,发挥群众首创精神,紧紧依靠人民推动改革,促进人的全面发展;坚持正确处理改革发展稳定关系,胆子要大、步子要稳,加强顶层设计和摸着石头过河相结合,整体推进和重点突破相促进,提高改革决策科学性,广泛凝聚共识,形成改革合力。

当前,我国发展进入新阶段,改革进入攻坚期和深水区。必须以强烈的历史使命感,最大限度集中全党全社会智慧,最大限度调动一切积极因素,敢于啃硬骨头,敢于涉险滩,以更大决心冲破思想观念的束缚、突破利益固化的藩篱,推动中国特色社会主义制度自我完善和发展。

到二0二0年,在重要领域和关键环节改革上取得决定性成果,完成本决定提出的改革任务,形成系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟更加定型。

二、坚持和完善基本经济制度

公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱,也是社会主义市场经济体制的根基。公有制经济和非公有制经济都是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,都是我国经济社会发展的重要基础。必须毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,坚持公有制主体地位,发挥国有经济主导作用,不断增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力。必须毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,激发非公有制经济活力和创造力。

(5)完善产权保护制度。产权是所有制的核心。健全归属清晰、权责明确、保护严格、流转顺畅的现代产权制度。公有制经济财产权不可侵犯,非公有制经济财产权同样不可侵犯。

国家保护各种所有制经济产权和合法利益,保证各种所有制经济依法平等使用生产要素、公开公平公正参与市场竞争、同等受到法律保护,依法监管各种所有制经济。

(6)积极发展混合所有制经济。国有资本、集体资本、非公有资本等交叉持股、相互融合的混合所有制经济,是基本经济制度的重要实现形式,有利于国有资本放大功能、保值增值、提高竞争力,有利于各种所有制资本取长补短、相互促进、共同发展。允许更多国有经济和其他所有制经济发展成为混合所有制经济。国有资本投资项目允许非国有资本参股。允许混合所有制经济实行企业员工持股,形成资本所有者和劳动者利益共同体。

完善国有资产管理体制,以管资本为主加强国有资产监管,改革国有资本授权经营体制,组建若干国有资本运营公司,支持有条件的国有企业改组为国有资本投资公司。国有资本投资运营要服务于国家战略目标,更多投向关系国家安全、国民经济命脉的重要行业和关键领域,重点提供公共服务、发展重要前瞻性战略性产业、保护生态环境、支持科技进步、保障国家安全。

划转部分国有资本充实社会保障基金。完善国有资本经营预算制度,提高国有资本收益上缴公共财政比例,二0二0年提到百分之三十,更多用于保障和改善民生。

(7)推动国有企业完善现代企业制度。国有企业属于全民所有,是推进国家现代化、保障人民共同利益的重要力量。国有企业总体上已经同市场经济相融合,必须适应市场化、国际化新形势,以规范经营决策、资产保值增值、公平参与竞争、提高企业效率、增强企业活力、承担社会责任为重点,进一步深化国有企业改革。

准确界定不同国有企业功能。国有资本加大对公益性企业的投入,在提供公共服务方面作出更大贡献。国有资本继续控股经营的自然垄断行业,实行以政企分开、政资分开、特许经营、政府监管为主要内容的改革,根据不同行业特点实行网运分开、放开竞争性业务,推进公共资源配置市场化。进一步破除各种形式的行政垄断。

健全协调运转、有效制衡的公司法人治理结构。建立职业经理人制度,更好发挥企业家作用。深化企业内部管理人员能上能下、员工能进能出、收入能增能减的制度改革。建立长效激励约束机制,强化国有企业经营投资责任追究。探索推进国有企业财务预算等重大信息公开。

国有企业要合理增加市场化选聘比例,合理确定并严格规范国有企业管理人员薪酬水平、职务待遇、职务消费、业务消费。

(8)支持非公有制经济健康发展。非公有制经济在支撑增长、促进创新、扩大就业、增加税收等方面具有重要作用。坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,废除对非公有制经济各种形式的不合理规定,消除各种隐性壁垒,制定非公有制企业进入特许经营领域具体办法。

鼓励非公有制企业参与国有企业改革,鼓励发展非公有资本控股的混合所有制企业,鼓励有条件的私营企业建立现代企业制度。

三、加快完善现代市场体系

建设统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系,是使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的基础。必须加快形成企业自主经营、公平竞争,消费者自由选择、自主消费,商品和要素自由流动、平等交换的现代市场体系,着力清除市场壁垒,提高资源配置效率和公平性。

(9)建立公平开放透明的市场规则。实行统一的市场准入制度,在制定负面清单基础上,各类市场主体可依法平等进入清单之外领域。探索对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单的管理模式。推进工商注册制度便利化,削减资质认定项目,由先证后照改为先照后证,把注册资本实缴登记制逐步改为认缴登记制。推进国内贸易流通体制改革,建设法治化营商环境。

改革市场监管体系,实行统一的市场监管,清理和废除妨碍全国统一市场和公平竞争的各种规定和做法,严禁和惩处各类违法实行优惠政策行为,反对地方保护,反对垄断和不正当竞争。建立健全社会征信体系,褒扬诚信,惩戒失信。健全优胜劣汰市场化退出机制,完善企业破产制度。

(10)完善主要由市场决定价格的机制。凡是能由市场形成价格的都交给市场,政府不进行不当干预。推进水、石油、天然气、电力、交通、电信等领域价格改革,放开竞争性环节价格。政府定价范围主要限定在重要公用事业、公益性服务、网络型自然垄断环节,提高透明度,接受社会监督。完善农产品价格形成机制,注重发挥市场形成价格作用。

(11)建立城乡统一的建设用地市场。在符合规划和用途管制前提下,允许农村集体经营性建设用地出让、租赁、入股,实行与国有土地同等入市、同权同价。缩小征地范围,规范征地程序,完善对被征地农民合理、规范、多元保障机制。扩大国有土地有偿使用范围,减少非公益性用地划拨。建立兼顾国家、集体、个人的土地增值收益分配机制,合理提高个人收益。完善土地租赁、转让、抵押二级市场。

(12)完善金融市场体系。扩大金融业对内对外开放,在加强监管前提下,允许具备条件的民间资本依法发起设立中小型银行等金融机构。推进政策性金融机构改革。健全多层次资本市场体系,推进股票发行注册制改革,多渠道推动股权融资,发展并规范债券市场,提高直接融资比重。完善保险经济补偿机制,建立巨灾保险制度。发展普惠金融。鼓励金融创新,丰富金融市场层次和产品。

完善人民币汇率市场化形成机制,加快推进利率市场化,健全反映市场供求关系的国债收益率曲线。推动资本市场双向开放,有序提高跨境资本和金融交易可兑换程度,建立健全宏观审慎管理框架下的外债和资本流动管理体系,加快实现人民币资本项目可兑换。

落实金融监管改革措施和稳健标准,完善监管协调机制,界定中央和地方金融监管职责和风险处置责任。建立存款保险制度,完善金融机构市场化退出机制。加强金融基础设施建设,保障金融市场安全高效运行和整体稳定。

(13)深化科技体制改革。建立健全鼓励原始创新、集成创新、引进消化吸收再创新的体制机制,健全技术创新市场导向机制,发挥市场对技术研发方向、路线选择、要素价格、各类创新要素配置的导向作用。建立产学研协同创新机制,强化企业在技术创新中的主体地位,发挥大型企业创新骨干作用,激发中小企业创新活力,推进应用型技术研发机构市场化、企业化改革,建设国家创新体系。

加强知识产权运用和保护,健全技术创新激励机制,探索建立知识产权法院。打破行政主导和部门分割,建立主要由市场决定技术创新项目和经费分配、评价成果的机制。发展技术市场,健全技术转移机制,改善科技型中小企业融资条件,完善风险投资机制,创新商业模式,促进科技成果资本化、产业化。

整合科技规划和资源,完善政府对基础性、战略性、前沿性科学研究和共性技术研究的支持机制。国家重大科研基础设施依照规定应该开放的一律对社会开放。建立创新调查制度和创新报告制度,构建公开透明的国家科研资源管理和项目评价机制。

改革院士遴选和管理体制,优化学科布局,提高中青年人才比例,实行院士退休和退出制度。

四、加快转变政府职能

科学的宏观调控,有效的政府治理,是发挥社会主义市场经济体制优势的内在要求。必须切实转变政府职能,深化行政体制改革,创新行政管理方式,增强政府公信力和执行力,建设法治政府和服务型政府。

(14)健全宏观调控体系。宏观调控的主要任务是保持经济总量平衡,促进重大经济结构协调和生产力布局优化,减缓经济周期波动影响,防范区域性、系统性风险,稳定市场预期,实现经济持续健康发展。健全以国家发展战略和规划为导向、以财政政策和货币政策为主要手段的宏观调控体系,推进宏观调控目标制定和政策手段运用机制化,加强财政政策、货币政策与产业、价格等政策手段协调配合,提高相机抉择水平,增强宏观调控前瞻性、针对性、协同性。形成参与国际宏观经济政策协调的机制,推动国际经济治理结构完善。

深化投资体制改革,确立企业投资主体地位。企业投资项目,除关系国家安全和生态安全、涉及全国重大生产力布局、战略性资源开发和重大公共利益等项目外,一律由企业依法依规自主决策,政府不再审批。强化节能节地节水、环境、技术、安全等市场准入标准,建立健全防范和化解产能过剩长效机制。

完善发展成果考核评价体系,纠正单纯以经济增长速度评定政绩的偏向,加大资源消耗、环境损害、生态效益、产能过剩、科技创新、安全生产、新增债务等指标的权重,更加重视劳动就业、居民收入、社会保障、人民健康状况。加快建立国家统一的经济核算制度,编制全国和地方资产负债表,建立全社会房产、信用等基础数据统一平台,推进部门信息共享。

(15)全面正确履行政府职能。进一步简政放权,深化行政审批制度改革,最大限度减少中央政府对微观事务的管理,市场机制能有效调节的经济活动,一律取消审批,对保留的行政审批事项要规范管理、提高效率;直接面向基层、量大面广、由地方管理更方便有效的经济社会事项,一律下放地方和基层管理。

政府要加强发展战略、规划、政策、标准等制定和实施,加强市场活动监管,加强各类公共服务提供。加强中央政府宏观调控职责和能力,加强地方政府公共服务、市场监管、社会管理、环境保护等职责。推广政府购买服务,凡属事务性管理服务,原则上都要引入竞争机制,通过合同、委托等方式向社会购买。

加快事业单位分类改革,加大政府购买公共服务力度,推动公办事业单位与主管部门理顺关系和去行政化,创造条件,逐步取消学校、科研院所、医院等单位的行政级别。建立事业单位法人治理结构,推进有条件的事业单位转为企业或社会组织。建立各类事业单位统一登记管理制度。

(16)优化政府组织结构。转变政府职能必须深化机构改革。优化政府机构设置、职能配置、工作流程,完善决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调的行政运行机制。严格绩效管理,突出责任落实,确保权责一致。

统筹党政群机构改革,理顺部门职责关系。积极稳妥实施大部门制。优化行政区划设置,有条件的地方探索推进省直接管理县(市)体制改革。严格控制机构编制,严格按规定职数配备领导干部,减少机构数量和领导职数,严格控制财政供养人员总量。推进机构编制管理科学化、规范化、法制化。

五、深化财税体制改革

财政是国家治理的基础和重要支柱,科学的财税体制是优化资源配置、维护市场统一、促进社会公平、实现国家长治久安的制度保障。必须完善立法、明确事权、改革税制、稳定税负、透明预算、提高效率,建立现代财政制度,发挥中央和地方两个积极性。

(17)改进预算管理制度。实施全面规范、公开透明的预算制度。审核预算的重点由平衡状态、赤字规模向支出预算和政策拓展。清理规范重点支出同财政收支增幅或生产总值挂钩事项,一般不采取挂钩方式。建立跨年度预算平衡机制,建立权责发生制的政府综合财务报告制度,建立规范合理的中央和地方政府债务管理及风险预警机制。

完善一般性转移支付增长机制,重点增加对革命老区、民族地区、边疆地区、贫困地区的转移支付。中央出台增支政策形成的地方财力缺口,原则上通过一般性转移支付调节。清理、整合、规范专项转移支付项目,逐步取消竞争性领域专项和地方资金配套,严格控制引导类、救济类、应急类专项,对保留专项进行甄别,属地方事务的划入一般性转移支付。

(18)完善税收制度。深化税收制度改革,完善地方税体系,逐步提高直接税比重。推进增值税改革,适当简化税率。调整消费税征收范围、环节、税率,把高耗能、高污染产品及部分高档消费品纳入征收范围。逐步建立综合与分类相结合的个人所得税制。加快房地产税立法并适时推进改革,加快资源税改革,推动环境保护费改税。

按照统一税制、公平税负、促进公平竞争的原则,加强对税收优惠特别是区域税收优惠政策的规范管理。税收优惠政策统一由专门税收法律法规规定,清理规范税收优惠政策。完善国税、地税征管体制。

(19)建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度。适度加强中央事权和支出责任,国防、外交、国家安全、关系全国统一市场规则和管理等作为中央事权;部分社会保障、跨区域重大项目建设维护等作为中央和地方共同事权,逐步理顺事权关系;区域性公共服务作为地方事权。中央和地方按照事权划分相应承担和分担支出责任。中央可通过安排转移支付将部分事权支出责任委托地方承担。对于跨区域且对其他地区影响较大的公共服务,中央通过转移支付承担一部分地方事权支出责任。

保持现有中央和地方财力格局总体稳定,结合税制改革,考虑税种属性,进一步理顺中央和地方收入划分。

 六、健全城乡发展一体化体制机制

城乡二元结构是制约城乡发展一体化的主要障碍。必须健全体制机制,形成以工促农、以城带乡、工农互惠、城乡一体的新型工农城乡关系,让广大农民平等参与现代化进程、共同分享现代化成果。

(20)加快构建新型农业经营体系。坚持家庭经营在农业中的基础性地位,推进家庭经营、集体经营、合作经营、企业经营等共同发展的农业经营方式创新。坚持农村土地集体所有权,依法维护农民土地承包经营权,发展壮大集体经济。稳定农村土地承包关系并保持长久不变,在坚持和完善最严格的耕地保护制度前提下,赋予农民对承包地占有、使用、收益、流转及承包经营权抵押、担保权能,允许农民以承包经营权入股发展农业产业化经营。鼓励承包经营权在公开市场上向专业大户、家庭农场、农民合作社、农业企业流转,发展多种形式规模经营。

鼓励农村发展合作经济,扶持发展规模化、专业化、现代化经营,允许财政项目资金直接投向符合条件的合作社,允许财政补助形成的资产转交合作社持有和管护,允许合作社开展信用合作。鼓励和引导工商资本到农村发展适合企业化经营的现代种养业,向农业输入现代生产要素和经营模式。

(21)赋予农民更多财产权利。保障农民集体经济组织成员权利,积极发展农民股份合作,赋予农民对集体资产股份占有、收益、有偿退出及抵押、担保、继承权。保障农户宅基地用益物权,改革完善农村宅基地制度,选择若干试点,慎重稳妥推进农民住房财产权抵押、担保、转让,探索农民增加财产性收入渠道。建立农村产权流转交易市场,推动农村产权流转交易公开、公正、规范运行。

(22)推进城乡要素平等交换和公共资源均衡配置。维护农民生产要素权益,保障农民工同工同酬,保障农民公平分享土地增值收益,保障金融机构农村存款主要用于农业农村。健全农业支持保护体系,改革农业补贴制度,完善粮食主产区利益补偿机制。完善农业保险制度。鼓励社会资本投向农村建设,允许企业和社会组织在农村兴办各类事业。统筹城乡基础设施建设和社区建设,推进城乡基本公共服务均等化。

(23)完善城镇化健康发展体制机制。坚持走中国特色新型城镇化道路,推进以人为核心的城镇化,推动大中小城市和小城镇协调发展、产业和城镇融合发展,促进城镇化和新农村建设协调推进。优化城市空间结构和管理格局,增强城市综合承载能力。

推进城市建设管理创新。建立透明规范的城市建设投融资机制,允许地方政府通过发债等多种方式拓宽城市建设融资渠道,允许社会资本通过特许经营等方式参与城市基础设施投资和运营,研究建立城市基础设施、住宅政策性金融机构。完善设市标准,严格审批程序,对具备行政区划调整条件的县可有序改市。对吸纳人口多、经济实力强的镇,可赋予同人口和经济规模相适应的管理权。建立和完善跨区域城市发展协调机制。

推进农业转移人口市民化,逐步把符合条件的农业转移人口转为城镇居民。创新人口管理,加快户籍制度改革,全面放开建制镇和小城市落户限制,有序放开中等城市落户限制,合理确定大城市落户条件,严格控制特大城市人口规模。稳步推进城镇基本公共服务常住人口全覆盖,把进城落户农民完全纳入城镇住房和社会保障体系,在农村参加的养老保险和医疗保险规范接入城镇社保体系。建立财政转移支付同农业转移人口市民化挂钩机制,从严合理供给城市建设用地,提高城市土地利用率。

七、构建开放型经济新体制

适应经济全球化新形势,必须推动对内对外开放相互促进、引进来和走出去更好结合,促进国际国内要素有序自由流动、资源高效配置、市场深度融合,加快培育参与和引领国际经济合作竞争新优势,以开放促改革。

(24)放宽投资准入。统一内外资法律法规,保持外资政策稳定、透明、可预期。推进金融、教育、文化、医疗等服务业领域有序开放,放开育幼养老、建筑设计、会计审计、商贸物流、电子商务等服务业领域外资准入限制,进一步放开一般制造业。加快海关特殊监管区域整合优化。

建立中国上海自由贸易试验区是党中央在新形势下推进改革开放的重大举措,要切实建设好、管理好,为全面深化改革和扩大开放探索新途径、积累新经验。在推进现有试点基础上,选择若干具备条件地方发展自由贸易园(港)区。

扩大企业及个人对外投资,确立企业及个人对外投资主体地位,允许发挥自身优势到境外开展投资合作,允许自担风险到各国各地区自由承揽工程和劳务合作项目,允许创新方式走出去开展绿地投资、并购投资、证券投资、联合投资等。

加快同有关国家和地区商签投资协定,改革涉外投资审批体制,完善领事保护体制,提供权益保障、投资促进、风险预警等更多服务,扩大投资合作空间。

(25)加快自由贸易区建设。坚持世界贸易体制规则,坚持双边、多边、区域次区域开放合作,扩大同各国各地区利益汇合点,以周边为基础加快实施自由贸易区战略。改革市场准入、海关监管、检验检疫等管理体制,加快环境保护、投资保护、政府采购、电子商务等新议题谈判,形成面向全球的高标准自由贸易区网络。

扩大对香港特别行政区、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区开放合作。

(26)扩大内陆沿边开放。抓住全球产业重新布局机遇,推动内陆贸易、投资、技术创新协调发展。创新加工贸易模式,形成有利于推动内陆产业集群发展的体制机制。支持内陆城市增开国际客货运航线,发展多式联运,形成横贯东中西、联结南北方对外经济走廊。推动内陆同沿海沿边通关协作,实现口岸管理相关部门信息互换、监管互认、执法互助。

加快沿边开放步伐,允许沿边重点口岸、边境城市、经济合作区在人员往来、加工物流、旅游等方面实行特殊方式和政策。建立开发性金融机构,加快同周边国家和区域基础设施互联互通建设,推进丝绸之路经济带、海上丝绸之路建设,形成全方位开放新格局。

八、加强社会主义民主政治制度建设

发展社会主义民主政治,必须以保证人民当家作主为根本,坚持和完善人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治制度,更加注重健全民主制度、丰富民主形式,从各层次各领域扩大公民有序政治参与,充分发挥我国社会主义政治制度优越性。

(27)推动人民代表大会制度与时俱进。坚持人民主体地位,推进人民代表大会制度理论和实践创新,发挥人民代表大会制度的根本政治制度作用。完善中国特色社会主义法律体系,健全立法起草、论证、协调、审议机制,提高立法质量,防止地方保护和部门利益法制化。健全“一府两院”由人大产生、对人大负责、受人大监督制度。健全人大讨论、决定重大事项制度,各级政府重大决策出台前向本级人大报告。加强人大预算决算审查监督、国有资产监督职能。落实税收法定原则。加强人大常委会同人大代表的联系,充分发挥代表作用。通过建立健全代表联络机构、网络平台等形式密切代表同人民群众联系。

完善人大工作机制,通过座谈、听证、评估、公布法律草案等扩大公民有序参与立法途径,通过询问、质询、特定问题调查、备案审查等积极回应社会关切。

(28)推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展。协商民主是我国社会主义民主政治的特有形式和独特优势,是党的群众路线在政治领域的重要体现。在党的领导下,以经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,在全社会开展广泛协商,坚持协商于决策之前和决策实施之中。

构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,拓宽国家政权机关、政协组织、党派团体、基层组织、社会组织的协商渠道。深入开展立法协商、行政协商、民主协商、参政协商、社会协商。加强中国特色新型智库建设,建立健全决策咨询制度。

发挥统一战线在协商民主中的重要作用。完善中国共产党同各民主党派的政治协商,认真听取各民主党派和无党派人士意见。中共中央根据年度工作重点提出规划,采取协商会、谈心会、座谈会等进行协商。完善民主党派中央直接向中共中央提出建议制度。贯彻党的民族政策,保障少数民族合法权益,巩固和发展平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系。

发挥人民政协作为协商民主重要渠道作用。重点推进政治协商、民主监督、参政议政制度化、规范化、程序化。各级党委和政府、政协制定并组织实施协商年度工作计划,就一些重要决策听取政协意见。完善人民政协制度体系,规范协商内容、协商程序。拓展协商民主形式,更加活跃有序地组织专题协商、对口协商、界别协商、提案办理协商,增加协商密度,提高协商成效。在政协健全委员联络机构,完善委员联络制度。

(29)发展基层民主。畅通民主渠道,健全基层选举、议事、公开、述职、问责等机制。开展形式多样的基层民主协商,推进基层协商制度化,建立健全居民、村民监督机制,促进群众在城乡社区治理、基层公共事务和公益事业中依法自我管理、自我服务、自我教育、自我监督。健全以职工代表大会为基本形式的企事业单位民主管理制度,加强社会组织民主机制建设,保障职工参与管理和监督的民主权利。

九、推进法治中国建设

建设法治中国,必须坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设。深化司法体制改革,加快建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,维护人民权益,让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都感受到公平正义。

(30)维护宪法法律权威。宪法是保证党和国家兴旺发达、长治久安的根本法,具有最高权威。要进一步健全宪法实施监督机制和程序,把全面贯彻实施宪法提高到一个新水平。建立健全全社会忠于、遵守、维护、运用宪法法律的制度。坚持法律面前人人平等,任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法法律的特权,一切违反宪法法律的行为都必须予以追究。

普遍建立法律顾问制度。完善规范性文件、重大决策合法性审查机制。建立科学的法治建设指标体系和考核标准。健全法规、规章、规范性文件备案审查制度。健全社会普法教育机制,增强全民法治观念。逐步增加有地方立法权的较大的市数量。

(31)深化行政执法体制改革。整合执法主体,相对集中执法权,推进综合执法,着力解决权责交叉、多头执法问题,建立权责统一、权威高效的行政执法体制。减少行政执法层级,加强食品药品、安全生产、环境保护、劳动保障、海域海岛等重点领域基层执法力量。理顺城管执法体制,提高执法和服务水平。

完善行政执法程序,规范执法自由裁量权,加强对行政执法的监督,全面落实行政执法责任制和执法经费由财政保障制度,做到严格规范公正文明执法。完善行政执法与刑事司法衔接机制。

(32)确保依法独立公正行使审判权检察权。改革司法管理体制,推动省以下地方法院、检察院人财物统一管理,探索建立与行政区划适当分离的司法管辖制度,保证国家法律统一正确实施。

建立符合职业特点的司法人员管理制度,健全法官、检察官、人民警察统一招录、有序交流、逐级遴选机制,完善司法人员分类管理制度,健全法官、检察官、人民警察职业保障制度。

(33)健全司法权力运行机制。优化司法职权配置,健全司法权力分工负责、互相配合、互相制约机制,加强和规范对司法活动的法律监督和社会监督。

改革审判委员会制度,完善主审法官、合议庭办案责任制,让审理者裁判、由裁判者负责。明确各级法院职能定位,规范上下级法院审级监督关系。

推进审判公开、检务公开,录制并保留全程庭审资料。增强法律文书说理性,推动公开法院生效裁判文书。严格规范减刑、假释、保外就医程序,强化监督制度。广泛实行人民陪审员、人民监督员制度,拓宽人民群众有序参与司法渠道。

(34)完善人权司法保障制度。国家尊重和保障人权。进一步规范查封、扣押、冻结、处理涉案财物的司法程序。健全错案防止、纠正、责任追究机制,严禁刑讯逼供、体罚虐待,严格实行非法证据排除规则。逐步减少适用死刑罪名。

废止劳动教养制度,完善对违法犯罪行为的惩治和矫正法律,健全社区矫正制度。

健全国家司法救助制度,完善法律援助制度。完善律师执业权利保障机制和违法违规执业惩戒制度,加强职业道德建设,发挥律师在依法维护公民和法人合法权益方面的重要作用。

十、强化权力运行制约和监督体系

坚持用制度管权管事管人,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行,是把权力关进制度笼子的根本之策。必须构建决策科学、执行坚决、监督有力的权力运行体系,健全惩治和预防腐败体系,建设廉洁政治,努力实现干部清正、政府清廉、政治清明。

(35)形成科学有效的权力制约和协调机制。完善党和国家领导体制,坚持民主集中制,充分发挥党的领导核心作用。规范各级党政主要领导干部职责权限,科学配置党政部门及内设机构权力和职能,明确职责定位和工作任务。

加强和改进对主要领导干部行使权力的制约和监督,加强行政监察和审计监督。

推行地方各级政府及其工作部门权力清单制度,依法公开权力运行流程。完善党务、政务和各领域办事公开制度,推进决策公开、管理公开、服务公开、结果公开。

(36)加强反腐败体制机制创新和制度保障。加强党对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作统一领导。改革党的纪律检查体制,健全反腐败领导体制和工作机制,改革和完善各级反腐败协调小组职能。

落实党风廉政建设责任制,党委负主体责任,纪委负监督责任,制定实施切实可行的责任追究制度。各级纪委要履行协助党委加强党风建设和组织协调反腐败工作的职责,加强对同级党委特别是常委会成员的监督,更好发挥党内监督专门机关作用。

推动党的纪律检查工作双重领导体制具体化、程序化、制度化,强化上级纪委对下级纪委的领导。查办腐败案件以上级纪委领导为主,线索处置和案件查办在向同级党委报告的同时必须向上级纪委报告。各级纪委书记、副书记的提名和考察以上级纪委会同组织部门为主。

全面落实中央纪委向中央一级党和国家机关派驻纪检机构,实行统一名称、统一管理。派驻机构对派出机关负责,履行监督职责。改进中央和省区市巡视制度,做到对地方、部门、企事业单位全覆盖。

健全反腐倡廉法规制度体系,完善惩治和预防腐败、防控廉政风险、防止利益冲突、领导干部报告个人有关事项、任职回避等方面法律法规,推行新提任领导干部有关事项公开制度试点。健全民主监督、法律监督、舆论监督机制,运用和规范互联网监督。

(37)健全改进作风常态化制度。围绕反对形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风,加快体制机制改革和建设。健全领导干部带头改进作风、深入基层调查研究机制,完善直接联系和服务群众制度。改革会议公文制度,从中央做起带头减少会议、文件,着力改进会风文风。健全严格的财务预算、核准和审计制度,着力控制“三公”经费支出和楼堂馆所建设。完善选人用人专项检查和责任追究制度,着力纠正跑官要官等不正之风。改革政绩考核机制,着力解决“形象工程”、“政绩工程”以及不作为、乱作为等问题。

规范并严格执行领导干部工作生活保障制度,不准多处占用住房和办公用房,不准超标准配备办公用房和生活用房,不准违规配备公车,不准违规配备秘书,不准超规格警卫,不准超标准进行公务接待,严肃查处违反规定超标准享受待遇等问题。探索实行官邸制。

完善并严格执行领导干部亲属经商、担任公职和社会组织职务、出国定居等相关制度规定,防止领导干部利用公共权力或自身影响为亲属和其他特定关系人谋取私利,坚决反对特权思想和作风。

十一、推进文化体制机制创新

建设社会主义文化强国,增强国家文化软实力,必须坚持社会主义先进文化前进方向,坚持中国特色社会主义文化发展道路,培育和践行社会主义核心价值观,巩固马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位,巩固全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础。坚持以人民为中心的工作导向,坚持把社会效益放在首位、社会效益和经济效益相统一,以激发全民族文化创造活力为中心环节,进一步深化文化体制改革。

(38)完善文化管理体制。按照政企分开、政事分开原则,推动政府部门由办文化向管文化转变,推动党政部门与其所属的文化企事业单位进一步理顺关系。建立党委和政府监管国有文化资产的管理机构,实行管人管事管资产管导向相统一。

健全坚持正确舆论导向的体制机制。健全基础管理、内容管理、行业管理以及网络违法犯罪防范和打击等工作联动机制,健全网络突发事件处置机制,形成正面引导和依法管理相结合的网络舆论工作格局。整合新闻媒体资源,推动传统媒体和新兴媒体融合发展。推动新闻发布制度化。严格新闻工作者职业资格制度,重视新型媒介运用和管理,规范传播秩序。

(39)建立健全现代文化市场体系。完善文化市场准入和退出机制,鼓励各类市场主体公平竞争、优胜劣汰,促进文化资源在全国范围内流动。继续推进国有经营性文化单位转企改制,加快公司制、股份制改造。对按规定转制的重要国有传媒企业探索实行特殊管理股制度。推动文化企业跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组,提高文化产业规模化、集约化、专业化水平。

鼓励非公有制文化企业发展,降低社会资本进入门槛,允许参与对外出版、网络出版,允许以控股形式参与国有影视制作机构、文艺院团改制经营。支持各种形式小微文化企业发展。

在坚持出版权、播出权特许经营前提下,允许制作和出版、制作和播出分开。建立多层次文化产品和要素市场,鼓励金融资本、社会资本、文化资源相结合。完善文化经济政策,扩大政府文化资助和文化采购,加强版权保护。健全文化产品评价体系,改革评奖制度,推出更多文化精品。

(40)构建现代公共文化服务体系。建立公共文化服务体系建设协调机制,统筹服务设施网络建设,促进基本公共文化服务标准化、均等化。建立群众评价和反馈机制,推动文化惠民项目与群众文化需求有效对接。整合基层宣传文化、党员教育、科学普及、体育健身等设施,建设综合性文化服务中心。

明确不同文化事业单位功能定位,建立法人治理结构,完善绩效考核机制。推动公共图书馆、博物馆、文化馆、科技馆等组建理事会,吸纳有关方面代表、专业人士、各界群众参与管理。

引入竞争机制,推动公共文化服务社会化发展。鼓励社会力量、社会资本参与公共文化服务体系建设,培育文化非营利组织。

(41)提高文化开放水平。坚持政府主导、企业主体、市场运作、社会参与,扩大对外文化交流,加强国际传播能力和对外话语体系建设,推动中华文化走向世界。理顺内宣外宣体制,支持重点媒体面向国内国际发展。培育外向型文化企业,支持文化企业到境外开拓市场。鼓励社会组织、中资机构等参与孔子学院和海外文化中心建设,承担人文交流项目。

积极吸收借鉴国外一切优秀文化成果,引进有利于我国文化发展的人才、技术、经营管理经验。切实维护国家文化安全。

十二、推进社会事业改革创新

实现发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,必须加快社会事业改革,解决好人民最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,努力为社会提供多样化服务,更好满足人民需求。

(42)深化教育领域综合改革。全面贯彻党的教育方针,坚持立德树人,加强社会主义核心价值体系教育,完善中华优秀传统文化教育,形成爱学习、爱劳动、爱祖国活动的有效形式和长效机制,增强学生社会责任感、创新精神、实践能力。强化体育课和课外锻炼,促进青少年身心健康、体魄强健。改进美育教学,提高学生审美和人文素养。大力促进教育公平,健全家庭经济困难学生资助体系,构建利用信息化手段扩大优质教育资源覆盖面的有效机制,逐步缩小区域、城乡、校际差距。统筹城乡义务教育资源均衡配置,实行公办学校标准化建设和校长教师交流轮岗,不设重点学校重点班,破解择校难题,标本兼治减轻学生课业负担。加快现代职业教育体系建设,深化产教融合、校企合作,培养高素质劳动者和技能型人才。创新高校人才培养机制,促进高校办出特色争创一流。推进学前教育、特殊教育、继续教育改革发展。

推进考试招生制度改革,探索招生和考试相对分离、学生考试多次选择、学校依法自主招生、专业机构组织实施、政府宏观管理、社会参与监督的运行机制,从根本上解决一考定终身的弊端。义务教育免试就近入学,试行学区制和九年一贯对口招生。推行初高中学业水平考试和综合素质评价。加快推进职业院校分类招考或注册入学。逐步推行普通高校基于统一高考和高中学业水平考试成绩的综合评价多元录取机制。探索全国统考减少科目、不分文理科、外语等科目社会化考试一年多考。试行普通高校、高职院校、成人高校之间学分转换,拓宽终身学习通道。

深入推进管办评分离,扩大省级政府教育统筹权和学校办学自主权,完善学校内部治理结构。强化国家教育督导,委托社会组织开展教育评估监测。健全政府补贴、政府购买服务、助学贷款、基金奖励、捐资激励等制度,鼓励社会力量兴办教育。

(43)健全促进就业创业体制机制。建立经济发展和扩大就业的联动机制,健全政府促进就业责任制度。规范招人用人制度,消除城乡、行业、身份、性别等一切影响平等就业的制度障碍和就业歧视。完善扶持创业的优惠政策,形成政府激励创业、社会支持创业、劳动者勇于创业新机制。完善城乡均等的公共就业创业服务体系,构建劳动者终身职业培训体系。增强失业保险制度预防失业、促进就业功能,完善就业失业监测统计制度。创新劳动关系协调机制,畅通职工表达合理诉求渠道。

促进以高校毕业生为重点的青年就业和农村转移劳动力、城镇困难人员、退役军人就业。结合产业升级开发更多适合高校毕业生的就业岗位。政府购买基层公共管理和社会服务岗位更多用于吸纳高校毕业生就业。健全鼓励高校毕业生到基层工作的服务保障机制,提高公务员定向招录和事业单位优先招聘比例。实行激励高校毕业生自主创业政策,整合发展国家和省级高校毕业生就业创业基金。实施离校未就业高校毕业生就业促进计划,把未就业的纳入就业见习、技能培训等就业准备活动之中,对有特殊困难的实行全程就业服务。

(44)形成合理有序的收入分配格局。着重保护劳动所得,努力实现劳动报酬增长和劳动生产率提高同步,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重。健全工资决定和正常增长机制,完善最低工资和工资支付保障制度,完善企业工资集体协商制度。改革机关事业单位工资和津贴补贴制度,完善艰苦边远地区津贴增长机制。健全资本、知识、技术、管理等由要素市场决定的报酬机制。扩展投资和租赁服务等途径,优化上市公司投资者回报机制,保护投资者尤其是中小投资者合法权益,多渠道增加居民财产性收入。

完善以税收、社会保障、转移支付为主要手段的再分配调节机制,加大税收调节力度。建立公共资源出让收益合理共享机制。完善慈善捐助减免税制度,支持慈善事业发挥扶贫济困积极作用。

规范收入分配秩序,完善收入分配调控体制机制和政策体系,建立个人收入和财产信息系统,保护合法收入,调节过高收入,清理规范隐性收入,取缔非法收入,增加低收入者收入,扩大中等收入者比重,努力缩小城乡、区域、行业收入分配差距,逐步形成橄榄型分配格局。

(45)建立更加公平可持续的社会保障制度。坚持社会统筹和个人账户相结合的基本养老保险制度,完善个人账户制度,健全多缴多得激励机制,确保参保人权益,实现基础养老金全国统筹,坚持精算平衡原则。推进机关事业单位养老保险制度改革。整合城乡居民基本养老保险制度、基本医疗保险制度。推进城乡最低生活保障制度统筹发展。建立健全合理兼顾各类人员的社会保障待遇确定和正常调整机制。完善社会保险关系转移接续政策,扩大参保缴费覆盖面,适时适当降低社会保险费率。研究制定渐进式延迟退休年龄政策。加快健全社会保障管理体制和经办服务体系。健全符合国情的住房保障和供应体系,建立公开规范的住房公积金制度,改进住房公积金提取、使用、监管机制。

健全社会保障财政投入制度,完善社会保障预算制度。加强社会保险基金投资管理和监督,推进基金市场化、多元化投资运营。制定实施免税、延期征税等优惠政策,加快发展企业年金、职业年金、商业保险,构建多层次社会保障体系。

积极应对人口老龄化,加快建立社会养老服务体系和发展老年服务产业。健全农村留守儿童、妇女、老年人关爱服务体系,健全残疾人权益保障、困境儿童分类保障制度。

(46)深化医药卫生体制改革。统筹推进医疗保障、医疗服务、公共卫生、药品供应、监管体制综合改革。深化基层医疗卫生机构综合改革,健全网络化城乡基层医疗卫生服务运行机制。加快公立医院改革,落实政府责任,建立科学的医疗绩效评价机制和适应行业特点的人才培养、人事薪酬制度。完善合理分级诊疗模式,建立社区医生和居民契约服务关系。充分利用信息化手段,促进优质医疗资源纵向流动。加强区域公共卫生服务资源整合。取消以药补医,理顺医药价格,建立科学补偿机制。改革医保支付方式,健全全民医保体系。加快健全重特大疾病医疗保险和救助制度。完善中医药事业发展政策和机制。

鼓励社会办医,优先支持举办非营利性医疗机构。社会资金可直接投向资源稀缺及满足多元需求服务领域,多种形式参与公立医院改制重组。允许医师多点执业,允许民办医疗机构纳入医保定点范围。

坚持计划生育的基本国策,启动实施一方是独生子女的夫妇可生育两个孩子的政策,逐步调整完善生育政策,促进人口长期均衡发展。

十三、创新社会治理体制

创新社会治理,必须着眼于维护最广大人民根本利益,最大限度增加和谐因素,增强社会发展活力,提高社会治理水平,全面推进平安中国建设,维护国家安全,确保人民安居乐业、社会安定有序。

(47)改进社会治理方式。坚持系统治理,加强党委领导,发挥政府主导作用,鼓励和支持社会各方面参与,实现政府治理和社会自我调节、居民自治良性互动。坚持依法治理,加强法治保障,运用法治思维和法治方式化解社会矛盾。坚持综合治理,强化道德约束,规范社会行为,调节利益关系,协调社会关系,解决社会问题。坚持源头治理,标本兼治、重在治本,以网格化管理、社会化服务为方向,健全基层综合服务管理平台,及时反映和协调人民群众各方面各层次利益诉求。

(48)激发社会组织活力。正确处理政府和社会关系,加快实施政社分开,推进社会组织明确权责、依法自治、发挥作用。适合由社会组织提供的公共服务和解决的事项,交由社会组织承担。支持和发展志愿服务组织。限期实现行业协会商会与行政机关真正脱钩,重点培育和优先发展行业协会商会类、科技类、公益慈善类、城乡社区服务类社会组织,成立时直接依法申请登记。加强对社会组织和在华境外非政府组织的管理,引导它们依法开展活动。

(49)创新有效预防和化解社会矛盾体制。健全重大决策社会稳定风险评估机制。建立畅通有序的诉求表达、心理干预、矛盾调处、权益保障机制,使群众问题能反映、矛盾能化解、权益有保障。

改革行政复议体制,健全行政复议案件审理机制,纠正违法或不当行政行为。完善人民调解、行政调解、司法调解联动工作体系,建立调处化解矛盾纠纷综合机制。

改革信访工作制度,实行网上受理信访制度,健全及时就地解决群众合理诉求机制。把涉法涉诉信访纳入法治轨道解决,建立涉法涉诉信访依法终结制度。

(50)健全公共安全体系。完善统一权威的食品药品安全监管机构,建立最严格的覆盖全过程的监管制度,建立食品原产地可追溯制度和质量标识制度,保障食品药品安全。深化安全生产管理体制改革,建立隐患排查治理体系和安全预防控制体系,遏制重特大安全事故。健全防灾减灾救灾体制。加强社会治安综合治理,创新立体化社会治安防控体系,依法严密防范和惩治各类违法犯罪活动。

坚持积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,加大依法管理网络力度,加快完善互联网管理领导体制,确保国家网络和信息安全。

设立国家安全委员会,完善国家安全体制和国家安全战略,确保国家安全。

十四、加快生态文明制度建设

建设生态文明,必须建立系统完整的生态文明制度体系,实行最严格的源头保护制度、损害赔偿制度、责任追究制度,完善环境治理和生态修复制度,用制度保护生态环境。

(51)健全自然资源资产产权制度和用途管制制度。对水流、森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然生态空间进行统一确权登记,形成归属清晰、权责明确、监管有效的自然资源资产产权制度。建立空间规划体系,划定生产、生活、生态空间开发管制界限,落实用途管制。健全能源、水、土地节约集约使用制度。

健全国家自然资源资产管理体制,统一行使全民所有自然资源资产所有者职责。完善自然资源监管体制,统一行使所有国土空间用途管制职责。

(52)划定生态保护红线。坚定不移实施主体功能区制度,建立国土空间开发保护制度,严格按照主体功能区定位推动发展,建立国家公园体制。建立资源环境承载能力监测预警机制,对水土资源、环境容量和海洋资源超载区域实行限制性措施。对限制开发区域和生态脆弱的国家扶贫开发工作重点县取消地区生产总值考核。

探索编制自然资源资产负债表,对领导干部实行自然资源资产离任审计。建立生态环境损害责任终身追究制。

(53)实行资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。加快自然资源及其产品价格改革,全面反映市场供求、资源稀缺程度、生态环境损害成本和修复效益。坚持使用资源付费和谁污染环境、谁破坏生态谁付费原则,逐步将资源税扩展到占用各种自然生态空间。稳定和扩大退耕还林、退牧还草范围,调整严重污染和地下水严重超采区耕地用途,有序实现耕地、河湖休养生息。建立有效调节工业用地和居住用地合理比价机制,提高工业用地价格。坚持谁受益、谁补偿原则,完善对重点生态功能区的生态补偿机制,推动地区间建立横向生态补偿制度。发展环保市场,推行节能量、碳排放权、排污权、水权交易制度,建立吸引社会资本投入生态环境保护的市场化机制,推行环境污染第三方治理。

(54)改革生态环境保护管理体制。建立和完善严格监管所有污染物排放的环境保护管理制度,独立进行环境监管和行政执法。建立陆海统筹的生态系统保护修复和污染防治区域联动机制。健全国有林区经营管理体制,完善集体林权制度改革。及时公布环境信息,健全举报制度,加强社会监督。完善污染物排放许可制,实行企事业单位污染物排放总量控制制度。对造成生态环境损害的责任者严格实行赔偿制度,依法追究刑事责任。

十五、深化国防和军队改革

紧紧围绕建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队这一党在新形势下的强军目标,着力解决制约国防和军队建设发展的突出矛盾和问题,创新发展军事理论,加强军事战略指导,完善新时期军事战略方针,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系。

(55)深化军队体制编制调整改革。推进领导管理体制改革,优化军委总部领导机关职能配置和机构设置,完善各军兵种领导管理体制。健全军委联合作战指挥机构和战区联合作战指挥体制,推进联合作战训练和保障体制改革。完善新型作战力量领导体制。加强信息化建设集中统管。优化武装警察部队力量结构和指挥管理体制。

优化军队规模结构,调整改善军兵种比例、官兵比例、部队与机关比例,减少非战斗机构和人员。依据不同方向安全需求和作战任务改革部队编成。加快新型作战力量建设。深化军队院校改革,健全军队院校教育、部队训练实践、军事职业教育三位一体的新型军事人才培养体系。

(56)推进军队政策制度调整改革。健全完善与军队职能任务需求和国家政策制度创新相适应的军事人力资源政策制度。以建立军官职业化制度为牵引,逐步形成科学规范的军队干部制度体系。健全完善文职人员制度。完善兵役制度、士官制度、退役军人安置制度改革配套政策。

健全军费管理制度,建立需求牵引规划、规划主导资源配置机制。健全完善经费物资管理标准制度体系。深化预算管理、集中收付、物资采购和军人医疗、保险、住房保障等制度改革。

健全军事法规制度体系,探索改进部队科学管理的方式方法。

(57)推动军民融合深度发展。在国家层面建立推动军民融合发展的统一领导、军地协调、需求对接、资源共享机制。健全国防工业体系,完善国防科技协同创新体制,改革国防科研生产管理和武器装备采购体制机制,引导优势民营企业进入军品科研生产和维修领域。改革完善依托国民教育培养军事人才的政策制度。拓展军队保障社会化领域。深化国防教育改革。健全国防动员体制机制,完善平时征用和战时动员法规制度。深化民兵预备役体制改革。调整理顺边海空防管理体制机制。

十六、加强和改善党对全面深化改革的领导

全面深化改革必须加强和改善党的领导,充分发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,建设学习型、服务型、创新型的马克思主义执政党,提高党的领导水平和执政能力,确保改革取得成功。

(58)全党同志要把思想和行动统一到中央关于全面深化改革重大决策部署上来,正确处理中央和地方、全局和局部、当前和长远的关系,正确对待利益格局调整,充分发扬党内民主,坚决维护中央权威,保证政令畅通,坚定不移实现中央改革决策部署。

中央成立全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。

各级党委要切实履行对改革的领导责任,完善科学民主决策机制,以重大问题为导向,把各项改革举措落到实处。加强各级领导班子建设,完善干部教育培训和实践锻炼制度,不断提高领导班子和领导干部推动改革能力。创新基层党建工作,健全党的基层组织体系,充分发挥基层党组织的战斗堡垒作用,引导广大党员积极投身改革事业,发扬“钉钉子”精神,抓铁有痕、踏石留印,为全面深化改革作出积极贡献。

(59)全面深化改革,需要有力的组织保证和人才支撑。坚持党管干部原则,深化干部人事制度改革,构建有效管用、简便易行的选人用人机制,使各方面优秀干部充分涌现。发挥党组织领导和把关作用,强化党委(党组)、分管领导和组织部门在干部选拔任用中的权重和干部考察识别的责任,改革和完善干部考核评价制度,改进竞争性选拔干部办法,改进优秀年轻干部培养选拔机制,区分实施选任制和委任制干部选拔方式,坚决纠正唯票取人、唯分取人等现象,用好各年龄段干部,真正把信念坚定、为民服务、勤政务实、敢于担当、清正廉洁的好干部选拔出来。

打破干部部门化,拓宽选人视野和渠道,加强干部跨条块跨领域交流。破除“官本位”观念,推进干部能上能下、能进能出。完善和落实领导干部问责制,完善从严管理干部队伍制度体系。深化公务员分类改革,推行公务员职务与职级并行、职级与待遇挂钩制度,加快建立专业技术类、行政执法类公务员和聘任人员管理制度。完善基层公务员录用制度,在艰苦边远地区适当降低进入门槛。

建立集聚人才体制机制,择天下英才而用之。打破体制壁垒,扫除身份障碍,让人人都有成长成才、脱颖而出的通道,让各类人才都有施展才华的广阔天地。完善党政机关、企事业单位、社会各方面人才顺畅流动的制度体系。健全人才向基层流动、向艰苦地区和岗位流动、在一线创业的激励机制。加快形成具有国际竞争力的人才制度优势,完善人才评价机制,增强人才政策开放度,广泛吸引境外优秀人才回国或来华创业发展。

(60)人民是改革的主体,要坚持党的群众路线,建立社会参与机制,充分发挥人民群众积极性、主动性、创造性,充分发挥工会、共青团、妇联等人民团体作用,齐心协力推进改革。鼓励地方、基层和群众大胆探索,加强重大改革试点工作,及时总结经验,宽容改革失误,加强宣传和舆论引导,为全面深化改革营造良好社会环境。

全党同志要紧密团结在以习近平同志为总书记的党中央周围,锐意进取,攻坚克难,谱写改革开放伟大事业历史新篇章,为全面建成小康社会、不断夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗!

Revolutionary Ideals are Higher than Heaven-Studying Comrade Xi Jinping’s Important Elaboration concerning Strengthening Ideals and Convictions

This Autumn Stone editorial was published on the Seeking Truth website on 1 November.

When he participated in the Hebei Province Party Committee Ranks Special Democratic Life Meeting, Comrade Xi Jinping told everyone that there is a rationale that must be repeatedly stressed, which is that Party cadres must never waver in belief, must vow to adhere to their chosen course and struggle for the common ideals of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Ideals and convictions are the spiritual banners for the united struggle of a country, nation and party, wavering ideals and convictions are the most harmful form of wavering. Comrade Xi Jinping pays high regard to such a major strategic issue relating to the rise, fall, success or failure of the Party and the State, and put forward a series of new thoughts, new viewpoints and new arguments. Earnestly studying this important elaboration has an extremely strong real significance to our persisting in the leadership of the Party, and persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics under the circumstances of an increasingly complex international and domestic environment.

I, An extremely important issue

The issue of ideals and convictions is an extremely important issue, and must be discussed regularly and repeatedly. Looking from the point of view of the larger picture of Party and State development, economic construction is the centre, and high regard must be paid at the same time to spiritual construction, spiritual strength and spiritual life; looking from the point of view of the Party building project, power must be locked into a cage of rules, and at the same time, this “calcium” in the spirit of Communist Party members of ideals and convictions must be replenished; looking from the point of view of the Party’s governance strategy, the popular masses are a solid basis for governance, lofty beliefs is a strong spiritual pillar of the Party, as long as we never  waver in our faith and never become separated from the masses, we will be able to gain victories wherever we go.

We must establish and strengthen clear ideals and convictions. Comrade Xi Jinping said that a country, a nation and a party must, at any time and under any circumstance, establish and strengthen clear ideals and convictions. Time has brought great changes over the 5000 years of history of the Chinese nation, closely concentrating 56 ethnicities and 1.3 billion people is the ideal and conviction that we jointly uphold. Within our Party’s history of more than ninety years, one generation of Communist Party members after another have not stinted to shed blood and sacrifice themselves, and what they relied on was a firm belief in Communism, and they did it for the sake of realizing the magnificent ideals of national wealth and strength, the rejuvenation of the nation and the happiness of the people. Against the background of the increasing complexity of all kinds of ideologies and cultures interacting, blending and clashing in the present world, the tangible economic, military, scientific and technological competition between countries is undoubtedly acute, and intangible ideological and value contests are even more hair-raising. Especially right after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when Western academics hurriedly declared that history had ended in an ideal of capitalism, the core position of spiritual values came even more clearly to light. It is difficult for a nation without spiritual strength to stand by itself and strengthen itself, and forming formidable material strength is inseparable from profound spiritual oceans. Regardless of how society develops, regardless of how the economy flourishes, if the pursuit of noble ideals and convictions is abandoned, it is impossible that our country and nation will stand tall in the world.

Ideals and convictions are the “calcium” of Communist Party members’ spirits. At the first collective study session of the 18th Central Politburo, Comrade Xi Jinping put forward this universally appreciated and splendid metaphor, which deeply revealed the intrinsic connection of ideals and convictions with Communist Party members. Without ideals and convictions, or if ideals and convictions are not firm, we will catch “calcium deficiency”, this may lead to political deterioration, spiritual rapaciousness, moral degeneration and corruption in life. A few corrupt elements have often imputed their own calamity of imprisonment on loopholes in the system, this often is an excuse to exonerate themselves. The system undoubtedly has a fundamental nature, overall nature, stable nature and long-term nature, but firm belief throughout is the firm political viewpoint of Party members and cadres, and a decisive factor in resisting all sort of seductions. The system brings people not to dare to engage in corruption, convictions lead people not to want to engage in corruption, this is spiritual strength”! “The ancients would see knives and clamps in front of them, and a cauldron to the back of them, but they saw them as empty, because the only thing they would see was the ideal”, Xia Minghan’s “Don’t fear being beheaded, as long as one’s ism is true”, Yang Chao’s “The heaven’s are full of rain, wind and worry, for the Revolution, it is unnecessary to fear losing one’s head”, Fang Zhimin’s “The enemy can only cut off our heads, but cannot shake our beliefs”!, all manifest the huge function of the “calcium” of ideals and convictions. If every Party member and cadre faced with carrots and sticks, only looks at the rationales of Communist Party members, they will train an incorruptible body of gold and steel, where do the “four styles” come from? How could the four great tests and the four great dangers not be vanquished and eliminated!

We must be vigilant against and prevent a landslide and wavering of ideals and convictions. The disintegration of a regime often starts in the ideological area, if the ideological front is broken, other fronts become difficult to hold. How could the Soviet disintegrate? How could the CPSU collapse? One important reason is that they wavered in ideals and convictions. Gorbachev one said in private that Communist thinking had become obsolete to him. When the spirit of conviction no longer exists, where is the core of a Party and a country? Because of this, wavering ideals and convictions are the most dangerous wavering, a slide of ideals and convictions is the most dangerous slide. Some people either make criticizing and sneering at Marxism into a “fad” or “fun”; or yearn for Western social institutions and value concepts, they lose confidence in the prospects of Socialism; yet others have an ambiguous attitude, are negative, hide, do not dare to bear the sword or protect their image in the face of political provocations concerning issues of principle such as the leadership of the Party, the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, etc., they even wilfully obscure standpoints, they malinger and act like “Justices of the Peace”. These are all “most dangerous waverings”. Comrade Xi Jinping stressed that in looking whether or not a cadre is qualified, the first thing is to look whether or not their ideals and convictions are firm. If their ideals and convictions are not firm, however great one’s skill is, they cannot be the good cadres that the Party needs. We must absolutely strengthen ideals and convictions from the height of the life and death of the Party and the country, to ensure piety and persistence, trustworthiness and profundity, firm positions in the face of allsorts of temptations, clear banners in the face of great mattes of right and wrong, dauntlessness in the face of storms, waves and trials, and the eternal preservation of Communist Party members’ political traits through a magnificent struggle with many new historical characteristics.

II, Hold fast to the lifeblood and soul of Communist Party members.

Revolutionary ideals are higher than heaven. Strengthening ideals and convictions, and holding fast to the spiritual pursuits of Communist Party members, is the root of Communist Party members’ settling down and getting on with their work from beginning to end. Faith in Marxism and a conviction in Socialism and Communism are the lifeblood and soul of Communist Party members.

There must always be this bright light of Communism in one’s heart. Comrade Xi Jinping discussed that the highest ideal of Communist Party members is realizing Communism. Realizing Communism requires a considerably long historical period, but our Party members and cadres must have this bright light in their hearts. When we think about problems or deal with matters, we must naturally start from the real situation in front of our eyes, and put things that are currently happening or are currently being done at the centre, but if we lose our broad objectives as Communist Party members, we may lose our direction, and become utilitarians and pragmatists. At the moment, quite a few people are too lacking in ideals and convictions, and have become too utilitarian. Idealists who become removed from reality are undoubtedly incorrect, but the ideal of conforming to the laws of historical development and complying with historical development tendencies may absolutely not be lost. Party members and cadres cannot waver in their belief at all, when they waver, they will lose their roots. Communist Party members must, under any circumstance, ensure that their political faith does not change, their political viewpoints do not shift, and their political orientation does not move, they must maintain their own political lifeline and main their own political soul.

At this time, we must march a stable path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Comrade Xi Jinping tells us that to strengthen ideals and convictions, we must learn from and understand the road that we have marched. The path decides the destiny. Our Party has extensive experience of suffering untold hardship in exploring this path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and history has proved that this is the only concrete path for the Chinese nation to march towards a great rejuvenation. Socialism with Chinese characteristics reflects the unification of the highest programme and the basic programme of the Party, and reflects the historical development laws of Chinese society; it conforms to our unique cultural traditions, unique historical destinies and unique basic national conditions, and is a scientific Socialism worthy of its name. Marching down the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, we will certainly be able to realize the Chinese Dream of national wealth and strength, the rejuvenation of the nation and the happiness of the people. We must have self-confidence about the path, self-confidence about theory and self-confidence about the system, doubly cherish this path that we have not found easily, and firmly remember that the objective in our current stage is persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Cling to the green mountain without letting go, hold unyielding, anyway the wind blows.

On our shoulders, we must carry the vocation of serving the people. The popular masses are the source of the Communist Party’s strength. It is as Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out, whether or not we persist in the basic purpose of wholeheartedly serving the people, is the main standard to measure whether or not Party members and cadres have the broad ideals of Communism. Our people are magnificent people, they are the creators of history, and must be placed in a central and the highest position from beginning to end, enlightening the masses truly is the rationale of heroism. Communists’ ideals and convictions cannot be separated from this root of serving the people at any time. If this root is lost, Party members and cadres, and especially leading cadres, may have these problems. The “Four Work Styles” and all sorts of manifestations and forms are linked with worldviews, views of life and value views. If “master switch” issues are not resolved well, it is hard to avoid that that boundaries are overstepped hare and there, or there is a slow drain on funds. As Party cadres, we must make serving the people into the vocation of Communist Party members, serve the people wholeheartedly, and this means that we must sincerely and earnestly struggle for the undertaking of the Party and the people.

III, Maintain lofty ideals, be faithful in practice

There are objective standards to measure whether or not a Communist Party member or a leading cadre has broad Communist ideals. Comrade Xi Jinping summed them up in four whethers: whether or not they persist in the basic purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, whether or not they put hardship first and enjoyment second, whether or not they work diligently and are honest in performing official duties, and whether or not they dash fearlessly ahead to fight and struggle for their ideals, and contribute all of their strength and even their lives. We must take these four standards put forward by Comrade Xi Jinping as a basis, take ideological and theoretical construction as the foundation, take education about the Party nature as central, take moral construction as fundamental, and work diligently to realize ideals.

Grasp this foundation of ideological and theoretical construction well, and lay a firm historical materialist basis. The more we incessantly run into new situations and new issues, the more we must  be conscientious and earnest, and thoroughly study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and the theoretical framework of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, use Marxist viewpoints, positions and methods to observe the world, understand the essence of phenomena and development trends, and cultivate our spiritual garden. The reason why some people believe that Communism is purely imaginary, do not believe in Marxism-Leninism but in supernatural beings, hanker after fortune-telling or physiognomy, burn incense and pray, is at the rout because they have not firmly established historical materialist viewpoints. The Communism that has been derived from the scientific theory of Marxism is no pure illusion, ignorance about the laws of history and a lack of sense about the direction of history are a sort of fundamental ignorance and lack. The objective of study completely lies in building ideals and conviction on an identification with the rationale of scientific theory, which is built on a correct understanding of the laws of history, and ensures that the roots of ideals and convictions are deep and its leaves dense and evergreen.

Grasp this core about education about the Party spirit well, derive the best nutrition from China’s revolutionary history. We must study the Party’s history, carry forward the Party’s fine traditions and work styles, firmly establish correct worldviews, views on power and views on undertakings. China’s revolutionary history is the history of the Party leading the people in unwavering struggle for the sake of ideals. Comrade Xi Jinping stressed that we must deeply understand the ancient maxim of “to annihilate a country of men, you must first remove its history”, consider attitudes and questions concerning China’s revolutionary history as a major political issue, and persist in defending the Party’s history. China’s revolutionary history is the best nourishment, better revive the magnificent history of our Party leading the people in conducting the revolution, and we may increase much positive energy in hearts. The pure Party spirit may, through sincere dialogue and exchange through fiery years, be moulded and polished to become even richer and firmer.

Grasp this basis of morality construction well, ensure that everything is for the sake of the public and not the private, a separation of public and private interests, preference of public interests before private interests, and forgetting the self for the public interest. We must stress the Party spirit, stress behaviour and be examples, deal with the relationships between the “public” and the “private” well, be models for Socialist morality well,  demonstrate the human dignity and strengths of Communist Party members through real actions. The reason why leading cadres have a corrupted work style, abuse their power for personal gain, and even end up in a situation where their greed knows no bounds, the roots are the character “private”. Cadres’ reasonable and lawful interests naturally must be recognized, and must be guaranteed, but this is not the same concept as egoism, self-interest and greed, and they cannot be confused. As Party cadres, they must stress that everything is for the sake of the public and not the private, a separation of public and private interests, preference of public interests before private interests, and forget themselves for the public interest . If they don’t even stress this point, is our Party still the vanguard of China’s working class? Is it still the vanguard of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation? Only if we devote ourselves to the public interest and let everything start from the public interest, can we have a correct view of right and wrong, view of justice and interests, view of power and view of undertaking, can we bring the masses into our hearts, can we be magnanimous and benevolent, can we use power cautiously, can we be just, honourable and awe-inspiring.

Noble achievements come from magnificent ideals, great successes come from arduous labour, solid work rejuvenates the nation. If we do not have broad ideals, we are not qualified Communist Party members; if we depart from real work and engage in empty prattle about broad ideals, we are also not qualified Communist Party members. True ideals are the reality of tomorrow and are even more the actions of today. Only if ideals and convictions are tempered in practice, can they radiate with resplendent light. We must both maintain lofty ideals, and do every aspect of Party work in the basic outline of the current historical period firmly and well in a down-to-earth manner, to obtain excellent results in our stage of the “relay race”. If one does not rest in ones ideals, even difficulties will be made easy; if one does not halt one’s pace, even long distances will be completed. All beautiful ideals of humankind are inseparable from arduous struggle, enduring great hardships in pioneer work, and working hard. As long as we strengthen ideals and convictions and do not fear sacrifice, conquer all obstacles and strive for victory, the lofty ideals of humankind can certainly be realized! We must have such a most magnificent boldness of vision, and we must have such most firm convictions!

革命理想高于天

—— 学习习近平同志关于坚定理想信念的重要论述

 习近平同志在参加河北省委常委班子专题民主生活会时对大家说,有一个道理要反复讲,就是党的干部必须永不动摇信仰,矢志不渝为中国特色社会主义共同理想而奋斗。理想信念是一个国家、民族和政党团结奋斗的精神旗帜,理想信念动摇是最危险的动摇。对这样一个事关党和国家兴衰成败的重大战略问题,习近平同志高度重视,提出了一系列新思想、新观点、新论断。认真学习这些重要论述,对我们在日益复杂的国际国内环境下坚持党的领导、坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,具有极强的现实意义。

  一、一个极其重要的问题

  理想信念问题是一个极其重要的问题,必须经常讲、反复讲。从党和国家发展大局讲,经济建设是中心,同时必须高度注重精神建设、精神力量和精神生活;从党的建设工程讲,权力要被关进制度的笼子,同时必须补足理想信念这个共产党人精神上的“钙”;从党的执政方略讲,人民群众是坚实的执政基础,崇高信仰是党的强大精神支柱,只要我们永不动摇信仰、永不脱离群众,就能无往而不胜。

  必须树立和坚持明确的理想信念。习近平同志说,一个国家、一个民族、一个政党,任何时候任何情况下都必须树立和坚持明确的理想信念。中华民族5000多年沧桑岁月,把56个民族、13亿多人紧紧凝聚在一起的,就是我们共同坚守的理想信念。我们党90多年的历史中,一代又一代共产党人不惜流血牺牲,靠的就是对共产主义的坚定信仰,为的就是实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福的伟大理想。在当今世界各种思想文化交流交融交锋日益频繁的背景下,国与国之间有形的经济、军事、科技竞争固然激烈,无形的思想、价值较量更加惊心动魄。特别是当苏联解体后不久,西方学者匆匆宣布历史已经终结于资本主义的理想时,精神价值的核心地位就更加水落石出了。一个没有精神力量的民族难以自立自强,形成强大的物质力量离不开深厚的精神海洋。无论社会怎么发展,无论经济怎么繁荣,如果放弃了对崇高理想信念的追求,我们的国家和民族就不可能巍然屹立于世界。

  理想信念是共产党人精神上的“钙”。习近平同志在十八届中央政治局第一次集体学习时提出的这句脍炙人口的精彩比喻,深刻揭示出理想信念之于共产党人的内在关联。没有理想信念,理想信念不坚定,精神上就会“缺钙”,就会得“软骨病”,就可能导致政治上变质、精神上贪婪、道德上堕落、生活上腐化。一些腐败分子常常把自己的牢狱之灾归罪于制度漏洞,这往往是为自己的开脱之辞。制度固然更带有根本性、全局性、稳定性、长期性,但是坚定的信仰始终是党员、干部站稳政治立场、抵御各种诱惑的决定性因素。制度使人不敢腐败,信仰使人不愿腐败,这就是精神的力量!“古人刀锯在前,鼎镬在后,视之如无物者,盖缘只见得这道理,都不见那刀锯鼎镬。”夏明翰“砍头不要紧,只要主义真”,杨超“满天风雨满天愁,革命何须怕断头”,方志敏“敌人只能砍下我们的头颅,决不能动摇我们的信仰”!都彰显出理想信念之“钙”的巨大作用。如果我们每一名党员干部在威逼利诱面前,都只见得共产党人的道理,都炼就了金刚不坏之身,“四风”缘何而来?四大考验、四大危险又怎么不能战胜和消除呢!

  必须警惕和防止理想信念的滑坡与动摇。一个政权的瓦解往往从思想领域开始,思想防线被攻破了,其他防线就很难守住。苏联为什么会解体?苏共为什么会垮台?一个重要原因是理想信念动摇了。戈尔巴乔夫私下曾说过,共产主义思想对我已经过时。当信念之魂已经不存,党和国家之体焉在?因此,理想信念动摇是最危险的动摇,理想信念滑坡是最危险的滑坡。一些人或以批评和嘲讽马克思主义为“时尚”、为“噱头”;或向往西方社会制度和价值观念,对社会主义前途丧失信心;或在涉及党的领导和中国特色社会主义道路等原则性问题的政治挑衅面前态度暧昧、消极躲避、不敢亮剑、爱惜羽毛,甚至故意模糊立场、耍滑头、当“太平绅士”。这些都是“最危险的动摇”。习近平同志强调看一个干部是否合格,第一位的就是看理想信念是否坚定。如果理想信念不坚定,能耐再大也不是党需要的好干部。我们一定要从党和国家生死存亡的高度坚定理想信念,做到虔诚而执着、至信而深厚,在各种诱惑面前立场坚定,在大是大非面前旗帜鲜明,在风浪考验面前无所畏惧,在具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争中,永葆共产党人政治本色。

  二、坚守共产党人的命脉和灵魂

  革命理想高于天。坚定理想信念,坚守共产党人精神追求,始终是共产党人安身立命的根本。对马克思主义的信仰,对社会主义和共产主义的信念,是共产党人的命脉和灵魂。

  心中永远要有共产主义这盏明灯。习近平同志讲,共产党人的最高理想是实现共产主义。实现共产主义需要一个相当漫长的历史时期,但我们党员干部心中要有这盏明灯。我们想问题办事情,当然要从眼前的实际情况出发,以正在发生正在进行的事情为中心,但如果丢失我们共产党人的远大目标,就会迷失方向,变成功利主义、实用主义。现在不少人太缺乏理想和信仰、太功利主义了。脱离实际的理想主义固然不对,但符合历史发展规律、顺应历史发展趋势的理想万万不能丢。党员、干部首先不能动摇信仰,动摇了就会失去根本。共产党人在任何情况下都要做到政治信仰不变、政治立场不移、政治方向不偏,守住自己的政治生命线,守住自己的政治灵魂。

  脚下要走稳中国特色社会主义道路。习近平同志告诉我们,坚定理想信念,要从我们走过的道路去体会和认识。道路决定命运。我们党历尽千辛万苦探索出的这条中国特色社会主义道路,已经被历史证明是中华民族走向伟大复兴的唯一正确道路。中国特色社会主义既体现了党的最高纲领和基本纲领的统一,又体现了中国社会历史发展的规律;既符合我们独特的文化传统、独特的历史命运、独特的基本国情,又是名副其实的科学社会主义。沿着中国特色社会主义道路走下去,一定能实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福的中国梦。我们就是要有这样的道路自信、理论自信和制度自信,倍加珍惜我们好不容易才找到的这条道路,牢牢记住我们现阶段的目标就是坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。咬定青山不放松,任尔东西南北风。

  肩上要背负为人民服务的天职。人民群众是共产党的力量源泉。正如习近平同志指出的那样,是否坚持全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,是衡量党员、干部是否具有共产主义远大理想的首要标准。我们的人民是伟大的人民,是历史的创造者,要始终把人民放在心中最高的位置,悟透群众是真正的英雄这个道理。共产党人讲理想信念,任何时候都不能离开为人民服务这个根本。丢了这个根本,党员干部,特别是领导干部就会出这样那样的问题。“四风”及各种表现形式都与世界观、人生观、价值观有联系。“总开关”问题没有解决好,这样那样的出轨越界、跑冒滴漏就在所难免。作为党的干部,就是要把为人民服务当作共产党人的天职,全心全意为人民服务,就是要诚心诚意为党和人民事业奋斗。

  三、志存高远 忠实践行

  衡量一名共产党员、一名领导干部是否具有共产主义远大理想是有客观标准的。习近平同志将其归纳为四个能否:能否坚持全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,能否吃苦在前、享受在后,能否勤奋工作、廉洁奉公,能否为理想而奋不顾身去拼搏、去奋斗、去献出自己的全部精力乃至生命。我们要以习近平同志提出的这四条标准为依据,以思想理论建设为根本、以党性教育为核心、以道德建设为基础,为实现理想而努力工作。

  抓好思想理论建设这个根本,打牢历史唯物主义根基。越是不断遇到新情况新问题,越要老老实实、原原本本学习马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、中国特色社会主义理论体系,用马克思主义立场观点方法观察世界,认识事物的本质和发展趋势,培植我们的精神家园。一些人之所以认为共产主义虚无缥缈,不信马列信鬼神,热衷于算命看相、烧香拜佛,根子就出在没有牢固树立历史唯物主义的观点上。马克思主义科学理论推导出来的共产主义决不是虚无缥缈的,对历史规律的无知和历史方向感的丧失是一种根本性的无知和丧失。学习的目的,全在于把理想信念建立在对科学理论的理性认同上,建立在对历史规律的正确认识上,使理想信念之树根深叶茂、四季常青。

  抓好党性教育这个核心,从中国革命历史中汲取最好的营养剂。要学习党的历史,弘扬党的优良传统和作风,牢固树立正确的世界观、权力观、事业观。中国革命历史是党领导人民为了理想不懈奋斗的历史。习近平同志强调要深刻理解“灭人之国,必先去其史”的古训,把对中国革命史的态度问题当成一个重大的政治问题,坚决捍卫党的历史。中国革命历史是最好的营养剂,多重温我们党领导人民进行革命的伟大历史,心中就会增加很多正能量。纯洁的党性在与火红岁月的真诚对话交融中,会塑造、打磨得更加丰厚坚强。

  抓好道德建设这个基础,做到大公无私、公私分明、先公后私、公而忘私。要讲党性、重品行、作表率,处理好“公”与“私”的关系,做社会主义道德的示范者,以实际行动彰显共产党人的人格力量。有的领导干部之所以作风败坏、以权谋私、贪赃枉法,甚至到了欲壑难填的地步,根子就是一个“私”字。干部合理合法的利益当然要承认,也要保障,但这同私心、私利、私欲不是同一个概念,不能混为一谈。作为党的干部,就是要讲大公无私、公私分明、先公后私、公而忘私。如果连这一点都不讲,我们党还是中国工人阶级先锋队?还是中国人民和中华民族的先锋队吗?只有一心为公,事事出于公心,才能有正确的是非观、义利观、权力观、事业观,才能把群众装在心里,才能坦荡做人、谨慎用权,才能光明正大、堂堂正正。

  功崇惟志,业广惟勤,实干兴邦。没有远大理想,不是合格的共产党员;离开现实工作而空谈远大理想,也不是合格的共产党员。真正的理想是明天的现实,更是今天的行动。理想信念只有经过实践的砥砺才能放射出灿烂的光芒。我们既要志存高远,又要脚踏实地地为实现党在现阶段的基本纲领扎扎实实做好每一项工作,取得“接力赛”中我们这一棒的优异成绩。志无休者,虽难必易;行不止者,虽远必臻。人类的一切美好理想,都离不开筚路蓝缕、手胼足胝的艰苦奋斗。只要我们坚定理想信念,不怕牺牲,排除万难,去争取胜利,人类最崇高的理想就一定会实现!我们就是要有这样最伟大的气魄,我们就是要有这样最坚定的信念!

Communiqué of the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress

(Passed at the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party on 12 November 2013)

The 3rd Plenary Meeting of the 18th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing from 9 to 12 November.

This Plenary Meeting was attended by 204 Central Committee members and 169 alternate Central Committee members. The Central Discipline Inspection Committee Standing Committee members and responsible comrades from relevant sides attended the meeting as non-voting delegates. A number of grass-roots comrades and expert scholars from among the representatives at the 18th Party Congress also attended as non-voting delegates.

The Plenum was organized by the Politburo. Central Committee General Secretary Xi Jinping made an important speech.

The Plenum listened to and discussed the work report that the Politburo entrusted Xi Jinping with, and deliberated and passed the “CCP Central Committee Decision concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform”. Xi Jinping explained the “Decision (Discussion Draft)” to the Plenum.

The Plenum fully confirms the work of the Politburo since the 18th Party Congress. It is unanimously thought that, in the face of extremely complex international circumstances and the formidable and heavy tasks of domestic reform, development and stability, the Politburo comprehensively implemented the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 1st and 2nd Plenums of the 19th Party Congress, it held high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, took Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, it united and led the entire Party, the entire military and the people from all ethnicities in the entire country, it persisted in the general work theme of seeking progress through stability, it strove for stable growth, structural adjustment and stimulation of reform, it calmly responded to all sorts of risks and challenges, it completely moved Socialist economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction and ecological civilization construction forward, it comprehensively moved the new magnificent project of Party building forward, it soundly moved the Party’s mass line education and practice movement forward, new progress has been achieved in all areas of work, it has promoted that the fruits of developments are extended to the whole body of the people in greater quantities and more fairly, and has realized a fine beginning in the first year of implementing the spirit of the 18th Party Congress.

The Plenum gave high appraisal to the successful practices and magnificent achievements of the Party in the 35 years since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, it researched some major issues in comprehensively deepening reform, and believes that reform and opening up is a new magnificent revolution of the Party leading the people of all ethnicities in the entire country under new circumstances of the times, it is the clearest characteristic of contemporary China, it is the crucial choice that decided the fate of contemporary China, and is an important talisman for the undertaking of the Party and the people to take great strides in catching up with the times. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, in order to comprehensively construct a moderately prosperous society, and thereby create a wealthy, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious Socialist country, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, reform must be comprehensively deepened from a new historical starting point.

The Plenum stressed that to comprehensively deepen reform, we must hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, persist in beliefs, concentrate a consensus, comprehensively plan matters, move forward in a coordinated manner, persist in the reform orientation of the Socialism market economy, make stimulating social fairness and justice, and enhancing the people’s welfare into starting points and stopover points, further liberate thoughts, liberate and develop social productive forces, liberate and strengthen social vitality, firmly do away with systemic and mechanistic abuses in all areas, and strive to open up an even broader prospect for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The Plenum pointed out that the general objective of comprehensively deepening reform is perfecting and developing the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics and moving the modernization of the country’s governance structure and governance capacity forward. We must pay even more attention to the systemic nature, general nature and coordinated nature of reform, accelerate the development of the Socialist market economy, democratic politics, advanced culture, harmonious society and ecological civilization, let all vitality in labour, knowledge, technology, management and capital compete and burst forth, let all sources fur the creation of social wealth fully gush out, and let the fruits of development be extended to the whole body of the people in greater numbers and more fairly.

The Plenum pointed out that we must closely revolve around the decisive function that the market has in allocating resources. Deepen economic structural reform, accelerate the perfection of modern market systems, macroeconomic regulation systems and open economic systems, accelerate the transformation of economic development methods, accelerate the establishment of an innovative country, promote even greater economic efficiency, justice and sustainable development; closely revolve around deepening political structural reform on the basis of the organic integration of persisting in the leadership of the Party, the people mastering their own affairs and governing the country according to the law, accelerate moving forward with the institutionalization, standardization and proceduralization of Socialist democratic politics, accelerate the perfection of cultural management systems and cultural production and management systems, establish and complete modern public culture service systems and modern cultural market systems, promoting the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture; closely revolve around guaranteeing and improving people’s livelihoods even better, stimulating social fairness and justice and deepening social structural reform, reform income allocation systems, stimulate common prosperity, move forward with institutional innovation in the social area, move forward with the equalization of basic social services, accelerate the formation of a scientific and effective social governance structure, guarantee that society is full of vitality, as well as harmonious and orderly; closely revolve around the construction of a beautiful China in deepening ecological civilization structure reform, accelerate the establishment of ecological civilization systems, complete land space exploitation, energy savings and use, ecological and environmental protection systems and mechanisms, promote the formation of a new structure for harmonious development, modernization and construction between human and nature; closely revolve around raising levels of scientific governance, democratic governance and governance according to the law in deepening Party building systems and mechanisms, strengthen democratic centralism system construction, perfect the Party’s leadership systems and governance methods, maintain the Party’s advanced nature and pureness, and provide form political guarantees for reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction.

The Plenum pointed out that to comprehensively deepen reform, we must base ourselves on the largest reality that our country will remain in the preliminary stage of Socialism for a long time, persist in this major strategic judgment that development still is crucial in resolving all of our country’s problems, put economic construction central, give rein to the driving function of economic structural reform, promote relationships of production to be adapted to productive forces and the superstructure to be adapted to the economic base, promote that the economy and society develop in a sustained and healthy manner.

The Plenum pointed out that economic structural reform is the focus point for comprehensively deepening reform, the core issue is handling the relationship between government and the market well, to ensure that the market has a decisive function in resource allocation and to give fuller rein to the function of government.

The Plenum stressed that the successful practice of reform and opening up has provided important experiences for completely deepening reform, and must be persisted in for a long time. The most important matters are persisting in the leadership of the Party, implementing the Party’s basic line, not marching the old road of closedness and fossilization, not marching the evil road of changing banners and allegiances, persisting in marching the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, guaranteeing the correct direction of reform and opening up throughout; persisting in liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts, progressing with the times, seeking truth and being pragmatic, starting from reality in everything, summarizing domestic successful methods, learning from beneficial foreign experience, and daring to move theoretical and practical innovation forward; persisting in putting people first, respecting the dominant role of the people, giving rein to the pioneering spirit of the masses, closely relying on the people to promote reform, stimulating people’s comprehensive development; persisting in correctly handling the relationship between reform, development and stability, we must be bold, our pace must be steady, we must strengthen the integration of top-level design and crossing the river by feeling the stones, both stimulate overall progress and focus breakthroughs, raise the scientific nature of policymaking, broadly concentrate consensus and form joint forces for reform.

The Plenum demanded that decisive results are achieved in important areas and crucial segments by the year 2020, that an institutional structure that is systematic and complete, scientific and standardized, and effective in operation is formed, to ensure that institutions in all areas can become more mature and more finalized.

The Plenum made systematic deployments concerning comprehensively deepening reform, which stress persisting in and perfecting basic economic systems, accelerating the perfection of market economy systems, accelerating the transformation of government functions, deepening financial and fiscal structure reform, completing integrated structures and mechanisms of urban development, building open economic systems, strengthening Socialist democratic system construction, moving the construction of a rule of law country forward, strengthening restraints on the use of power and supervision systems, moving cultural structure and mechanism innovation forward, moving social undertaking reform and innovation forward, innovating social governance systems, accelerating ecological civilization system construction, deepening national defence and military reform, strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership over comprehensively deepening reform.

The Plenum pointed out that the basic economic system with public ownership at the core, jointly developing with many kinds of ownership systems is the main pillar of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is the basis for the Socialist market economy system. The publicly owned economy and the non-publicly owned economy are both important component parts of the Socialist market economy, and are an important basis for our country’s economic and social development. We must unwaveringly consolidate and develop the publicly owned economy, persist in the dominant role of the public ownership system, give rein to the leading role of the State-owned economy, incessantly strengthen the vitality, control strength and influence of the State-owned economy. We must unwaveringly encourage, support and guide the non-publicly owned economy to develop, and encourage the economic vitality and creativity of the non-publicly owned economy. We must perfect asset protection systems, vigorously develop a mixed ownership economy, promote State-owned enterprises’ perfection of modern enterprise systems, and support the healthy development of the non-publicly owned economy.

The Plenum pointed out that establishing unified, open, competitive and ordered market systems are the basis for the market’s decisive function in resource allocation. We must accelerate the formation of a modern market system in which enterprises do business autonomously, with fair competition, free consumer choice, autonomous consumption, free flow of products and factors, and equal exchange, strive to eliminate market barriers, raise the efficiency and fairness of resource allocation. We must establish fair, open and transparent market rules, perfect mechanisms in which processes are mainly decided by the market, establish a uniform construction and land use market across town and country, perfect financial market systems and deepen science and technology structure reform.

The Plenum pointed out that scientific macro-economic regulation and effective governmental governance are immanent requirements to give rein to the superiority of the Socialist market economy. We must realistically transform government functions, deepen administrative structural reform, innovate administrative management methods, strengthen government credibility and implementation, and establish a rule of law government and a service-type government. We must complete macro-economic management systems, comprehensively and correctly implement government functions, optimize government organization and structuring, and raise scientific management levels.

The Plenum pointed out that finance is the basis and an important pillar of national governance, scientific financial and fiscal structures are an institutional guarantee to optimize resource allocation, safeguard market unity, stimulate social fairness and realize a long period of peace and order for the country. We must perfect legislation, clarify duties and responsibilities, reform the fiscal system, stabilize tax burdens, have transparent budgeting, raise efficiency, establish modern financial systems, and give rein to the vigour of both the Centre and the localities. We must improve budget management systems, perfect tax revenue systems and establish systems in which duties, responsibilities and payment obligations are mutually adapted.

The Plenum pointed out that the dual structure of town and country is the main obstacle restraining the integration of urban and rural development. We must complete structures and mechanisms, shape new types of industry-agriculture and urban-rural relationships where industry stimulates agriculture, cities stimulate the countryside, industry and agriculture work in a mutually beneficial manner, and town and country become one, to let the broad peasants equally participate in the process of modernization and jointly enjoy the fruits of modernization. We must accelerate the construction of new types of agricultural management systems, endow peasants with more property rights, move forward equal exchange of urban and rural production factors and a balanced allocation of public resources, and perfect urbanized healthy development systems.

The Plenum pointed out that to adapt to the new circumstances of economic globalization, we must promote mutual stimulation of domestic and international opening up, integrate bringing things in and matching out even better, stimulate the orderly and free flow of international and domestic production factors, high-efficiency resource allocation and deep market integration, accelerate the fostering of, participation in and development of competitive advantages in international economic cooperation, so that openness stimulates reform. We must relax investment access, accelerate the construction of free trade zones and expand inland and coastal openness.

The Plenum pointed out that to develop Socialist democratic politics, we must take guaranteeing that the people master their own affairs as the root, persist in and perfect the People’s Congress system, the system in which the Chinese Communist Party leads multi-party cooperation and political consultation, the ethnic autonomous region system as well as the grass-roots masses’ autonomy system, pay more attention to completing democratic systems, enriching democratic forms and fully giving rein to the superiorities of our country’s Socialist political system. We must promote that the People’s Congress system progresses with the times, move broad multi-level institutionalization and development of consultative democracy forward, develop grass-roots democracy.

The Plenum pointed out that to construct a rule of law country, we must deepen judicial structural reform, and accelerate the construction of a fair, high-efficiency and authoritative Socialist judicial system, safeguarding the people’s rights and interests. Let the authority of the Constitution and the law be safeguarded, deepen administrative law enforcement structure reform, guarantee that judicial power and prosecutorial power is exercised according to the law, independently and fairly, perfect judicial guarantee systems for human rights.

The Plenum pointed out that persisting in using institutions to manage power, manage affairs and manage people, let the people supervise power, let power be wielded in the sunlight, which are basic policies to lock up power in a cage of rules. We must build operational systems for scientific policymaking, firm implementation and powerful supervision, complete systems for corruption punishment and prevention, construct a clean and honest government, strive to realize that cadres are upright and just, government is clean and honest, and politics are bright and clear. We must shape scientific and effective mechanisms to restrain and coordinate power, strengthen anti-corruption system and mechanism innovation and institutional guarantees, and complete regularized institutions to improve work styles.

The Plenum pointed out that to construct a strong Socialist culture country and strengthen national cultural soft power, we must persist in the progressive orientation of advanced Socialist culture, persist in the cultural development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in the work orientation of putting people central, and further deepening cultural structural reform. We must perfect cultural management systems, establish and complete modern cultural market systems, build modern public cultural systems and raise cultural openness levels.

The Plenum pointed out that to realize that the fruits of development are extended to the whole body of the people in greater numbers and more fairly, we must accelerate the reform of social undertakings, resolve issues of interests that the masses are most concerned about, are most direct and are most real, and even better satisfy the people’s demands. We must deepen comprehensive reform in the educational area, complete systems and mechanisms to stimulate employment and entrepreneurialism, shape rational and orderly income allocation structures, establish fairer and sustainable social security systems and deepen structural reform in healthcare and hygiene.

The Plenum pointed out that to innovate social governance, we must focus on safeguarding the basic interests of the broadest people, increase harmonious factors to the broadest possible extent, strengthen the vitality of social development, raise social governance levels, safeguard national security, guarantee that the people can live and work in peace and contentment, and that society is stable and orderly. We must improve social governance methods and stimulate the vitality of social organizations, innovate effective systems to prevent and resolve social contradictions, complete public security systems, establish a National Security Committee, and perfect national security systems and a national security strategy, to guarantee national security.

The Plenum pointed out that to establish an ecological civilization, we must establish systematic and integral ecological civilization institutions and systems, and use institutions to protect the ecology and the environment. We must complete natural resource property right systems and use management systems, draw red lines for ecological protection, implement paid-for resource use systems and ecological compensation systems, and reform ecological and environmental protection and management systems.

The Plenum pointed out that [we must] closely revolve around the objective of building a line of strong armies for this Party under new circumstances, people’s armies which listen to the Party’s instructions, can be victorious in battle and have a fine work style, strive to resolve prominent contradictions issues and issues that restrain national defence and military construction and development, innovate and develop military theory, strengthen military strategy and guidance, perfect new-era military strategies and policies, and build a modern military force system with Chinese characteristics. We must deepen military structural and personnel allocation adjustment and reform, move adjustment and reform of military policies and institutions forward, and promote the integrated and deep development of the military and the people.

The Plenum stressed that to completely deepen reform, we must strengthen and improve that Party’s leadership, fully give rein to the Party’s core leadership function in assuming all responsibility for the entire picture and coordinating all sides, raise the Party’s leadership levels and governance abilities, to guarantee that reform is successful. The Centre is to establish a Leading Small Group on Comprehensively Deepening Reform, which is to be responsible for general planning of reform, comprehensive coordination, overall direction, and supervision of implementation. All levels’ Party Committees must realistically implement their leadership responsibilities over reform. We must deepen cadre human resource system reform, establish structures and mechanisms to concentrate talent, fully give rein to the vigour, initiative and creativity of the popular masses, encourage the local grass roots and masses to explore boldly and summarize experiences timely.

The Plenum has analysed the present circumstances and tasks, it stressed that the comrades in the entire Party must unite their thoughts and actions around the Centre’s major policies and deployments on comprehensively deepening reform, strengthen an enterprising mentality, an awareness of opportunities and a sense of responsibility, closely grasp orientations, boldly engage in practice and exploration, stress comprehensive planning and coordination, concentrate a consensus for reform, implement leadership responsibility, and unwaveringly realize the Centre’s reform policies and deployments. We must, according to the Centre’s deployments and policies, persist in seeking progress through stability, act on the basis of stability, realistically do all work matters well, maintain economic and social development momentum, be concerned about the lives of the masses and especially the masses in difficulties, stimulate social harmony and stability, continue to soundly push forward the Party’s mass line education and practice movement, and strive to realize the expected objectives of economic and social development.

The Plenum called upon comrades in the entire Party, who must closely revolve around the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary, to forge ahead with tenacity, storm fortifications and overcome difficulties, compose a new historical chapter in the magnificent undertaking of reform and opening up, and struggle to comprehensively construct a moderately prosperous society, incessantly seize new victories for Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!

新华社北京11月12日电 中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议公报(2013年11月12日中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议通过)

中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议,于2013年11月9日至12日在北京举行。

出席这次全会的有,中央委员204人,候补中央委员169人。中央纪律检查委员会常务委员会委员和有关方面负责同志列席了会议。党的十八大代表中部分基层同志和专家学者也列席了会议。

全会由中央政治局主持。中央委员会总书记习近平作了重要讲话。

全会听取和讨论了习近平受中央政治局委托作的工作报告,审议通过了《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》。习近平就《决定(讨论稿)》向全会作了说明。

全会充分肯定党的十八大以来中央政治局的工作。一致认为,面对十分复杂的国际形势和艰巨繁重的国内改革发展稳定任务,中央政治局全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届一中、二中全会精神,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,团结带领全党全军全国各族人民,坚持稳中求进的工作总基调,着力稳增长、调结构、促改革,沉着应对各种风险挑战,全面推进社会主义经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设,全面推进党的建设新的伟大工程,扎实推进党的群众路线教育实践活动,各项工作取得新进展,推动发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,实现了贯彻落实党的十八大精神第一年的良好开局。

全会高度评价党的十一届三中全会召开35年来改革开放的成功实践和伟大成就,研究了全面深化改革若干重大问题,认为改革开放是党在新的时代条件下带领全国各族人民进行的新的伟大革命,是当代中国最鲜明的特色,是决定当代中国命运的关键抉择,是党和人民事业大踏步赶上时代的重要法宝。面对新形势新任务,全面建成小康社会,进而建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,必须在新的历史起点上全面深化改革。

全会强调,全面深化改革,必须高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,坚定信心,凝聚共识,统筹谋划,协同推进,坚持社会主义市场经济改革方向,以促进社会公平正义、增进人民福祉为出发点和落脚点,进一步解放思想、解放和发展社会生产力、解放和增强社会活力,坚决破除各方面体制机制弊端,努力开拓中国特色社会主义事业更加广阔的前景。

全会指出,全面深化改革的总目标是完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。必须更加注重改革的系统性、整体性、协同性,加快发展社会主义市场经济、民主政治、先进文化、和谐社会、生态文明,让一切劳动、知识、技术、管理、资本的活力竞相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的源泉充分涌流,让发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。

全会指出,要紧紧围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用深化经济体制改革,坚持和完善基本经济制度,加快完善现代市场体系、宏观调控体系、开放型经济体系,加快转变经济发展方式,加快建设创新型国家,推动经济更有效率、更加公平、更可持续发展;紧紧围绕坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一深化政治体制改革,加快推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化,建设社会主义法治国家,发展更加广泛、更加充分、更加健全的人民民主;紧紧围绕建设社会主义核心价值体系、社会主义文化强国深化文化体制改革,加快完善文化管理体制和文化生产经营机制,建立健全现代公共文化服务体系、现代文化市场体系,推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣;紧紧围绕更好保障和改善民生、促进社会公平正义深化社会体制改革,改革收入分配制度,促进共同富裕,推进社会领域制度创新,推进基本公共服务均等化,加快形成科学有效的社会治理体制,确保社会既充满活力又和谐有序;紧紧围绕建设美丽中国深化生态文明体制改革,加快建立生态文明制度,健全国土空间开发、资源节约利用、生态环境保护的体制机制,推动形成人与自然和谐发展现代化建设新格局;紧紧围绕提高科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平深化党的建设制度改革,加强民主集中制建设,完善党的领导体制和执政方式,保持党的先进性和纯洁性,为改革开放和社会主义现代化建设提供坚强政治保证。

全会指出,全面深化改革,必须立足于我国长期处于社会主义初级阶段这个最大实际,坚持发展仍是解决我国所有问题的关键这个重大战略判断,以经济建设为中心,发挥经济体制改革牵引作用,推动生产关系同生产力、上层建筑同经济基础相适应,推动经济社会持续健康发展。

全会指出,经济体制改革是全面深化改革的重点,核心问题是处理好政府和市场的关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。

全会强调,改革开放的成功实践为全面深化改革提供了重要经验,必须长期坚持。最重要的是,坚持党的领导,贯彻党的基本路线,不走封闭僵化的老路,不走改旗易帜的邪路,坚定走中国特色社会主义道路,始终确保改革正确方向;坚持解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进、求真务实,一切从实际出发,总结国内成功做法,借鉴国外有益经验,勇于推进理论和实践创新;坚持以人为本,尊重人民主体地位,发挥群众首创精神,紧紧依靠人民推动改革,促进人的全面发展;坚持正确处理改革发展稳定关系,胆子要大、步子要稳,加强顶层设计和摸着石头过河相结合,整体推进和重点突破相促进,提高改革决策科学性,广泛凝聚共识,形成改革合力。

全会要求,到2020年,在重要领域和关键环节改革上取得决定性成果,形成系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟更加定型。

全会对全面深化改革作出系统部署,强调坚持和完善基本经济制度,加快完善现代市场体系,加快转变政府职能,深化财税体制改革,健全城乡发展一体化体制机制,构建开放型经济新体制,加强社会主义民主政治制度建设,推进法治中国建设,强化权力运行制约和监督体系,推进文化体制机制创新,推进社会事业改革创新,创新社会治理体制,加快生态文明制度建设,深化国防和军队改革,加强和改善党对全面深化改革的领导。

全会提出,公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱,也是社会主义市场经济体制的根基。公有制经济和非公有制经济都是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,都是我国经济社会发展的重要基础。必须毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,坚持公有制主体地位,发挥国有经济主导作用,不断增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力。必须毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,激发非公有制经济活力和创造力。要完善产权保护制度,积极发展混合所有制经济,推动国有企业完善现代企业制度,支持非公有制经济健康发展。

全会提出,建设统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系,是使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的基础。必须加快形成企业自主经营、公平竞争,消费者自由选择、自主消费,商品和要素自由流动、平等交换的现代市场体系,着力清除市场壁垒,提高资源配置效率和公平性。要建立公平开放透明的市场规则,完善主要由市场决定价格的机制,建立城乡统一的建设用地市场,完善金融市场体系,深化科技体制改革。

全会提出,科学的宏观调控,有效的政府治理,是发挥社会主义市场经济体制优势的内在要求。必须切实转变政府职能,深化行政体制改革,创新行政管理方式,增强政府公信力和执行力,建设法治政府和服务型政府。要健全宏观调控体系,全面正确履行政府职能,优化政府组织结构,提高科学管理水平。

全会提出,财政是国家治理的基础和重要支柱,科学的财税体制是优化资源配置、维护市场统一、促进社会公平、实现国家长治久安的制度保障。必须完善立法、明确事权、改革税制、稳定税负、透明预算、提高效率,建立现代财政制度,发挥中央和地方两个积极性。要改进预算管理制度,完善税收制度,建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度。

全会提出,城乡二元结构是制约城乡发展一体化的主要障碍。必须健全体制机制,形成以工促农、以城带乡、工农互惠、城乡一体的新型工农城乡关系,让广大农民平等参与现代化进程、共同分享现代化成果。要加快构建新型农业经营体系,赋予农民更多财产权利,推进城乡要素平等交换和公共资源均衡配置,完善城镇化健康发展体制机制。

全会提出,适应经济全球化新形势,必须推动对内对外开放相互促进、引进来和走出去更好结合,促进国际国内要素有序自由流动、资源高效配置、市场深度融合,加快培育参与和引领国际经济合作竞争新优势,以开放促改革。要放宽投资准入,加快自由贸易区建设,扩大内陆沿边开放。

全会提出,发展社会主义民主政治,必须以保证人民当家作主为根本,坚持和完善人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治制度,更加注重健全民主制度、丰富民主形式,充分发挥我国社会主义政治制度优越性。要推动人民代表大会制度与时俱进,推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展,发展基层民主。

全会提出,建设法治中国,必须深化司法体制改革,加快建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,维护人民权益。要维护宪法法律权威,深化行政执法体制改革,确保依法独立公正行使审判权检察权,健全司法权力运行机制,完善人权司法保障制度。

全会提出,坚持用制度管权管事管人,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行,是把权力关进制度笼子的根本之策。必须构建决策科学、执行坚决、监督有力的权力运行体系,健全惩治和预防腐败体系,建设廉洁政治,努力实现干部清正、政府清廉、政治清明。要形成科学有效的权力制约和协调机制,加强反腐败体制机制创新和制度保障,健全改进作风常态化制度。

全会提出,建设社会主义文化强国,增强国家文化软实力,必须坚持社会主义先进文化前进方向,坚持中国特色社会主义文化发展道路,坚持以人民为中心的工作导向,进一步深化文化体制改革。要完善文化管理体制,建立健全现代文化市场体系,构建现代公共文化服务体系,提高文化开放水平。

全会提出,实现发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,必须加快社会事业改革,解决好人民最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,更好满足人民需求。要深化教育领域综合改革,健全促进就业创业体制机制,形成合理有序的收入分配格局,建立更加公平可持续的社会保障制度,深化医药卫生体制改革。

全会提出,创新社会治理,必须着眼于维护最广大人民根本利益,最大限度增加和谐因素,增强社会发展活力,提高社会治理水平,维护国家安全,确保人民安居乐业、社会安定有序。要改进社会治理方式,激发社会组织活力,创新有效预防和化解社会矛盾体制,健全公共安全体系。设立国家安全委员会,完善国家安全体制和国家安全战略,确保国家安全。

全会提出,建设生态文明,必须建立系统完整的生态文明制度体系,用制度保护生态环境。要健全自然资源资产产权制度和用途管制制度,划定生态保护红线,实行资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度,改革生态环境保护管理体制。

全会提出,紧紧围绕建设一支听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队这一党在新形势下的强军目标,着力解决制约国防和军队建设发展的突出矛盾和问题,创新发展军事理论,加强军事战略指导,完善新时期军事战略方针,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系。要深化军队体制编制调整改革,推进军队政策制度调整改革,推动军民融合深度发展。

全会强调,全面深化改革必须加强和改善党的领导,充分发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,提高党的领导水平和执政能力,确保改革取得成功。中央成立全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。各级党委要切实履行对改革的领导责任。要深化干部人事制度改革,建立集聚人才体制机制,充分发挥人民群众积极性、主动性、创造性,鼓励地方、基层和群众大胆探索,及时总结经验。
全会分析了当前形势和任务,强调全党同志要把思想和行动统一到中央关于全面深化改革重大决策部署上来,增强进取意识、机遇意识、责任意识,牢牢把握方向,大胆实践探索,注重统筹协调,凝聚改革共识,落实领导责任,坚定不移实现中央改革决策部署。要按照中央决策部署,坚持稳中求进、稳中有为,切实做好各项工作,保持经济社会发展势头,关心群众特别是困难群众生活,促进社会和谐稳定,继续扎实推进党的群众路线教育实践活动,努力实现经济社会发展预期目标。

全会号召,全党同志要紧密团结在以习近平同志为总书记的党中央周围,锐意进取,攻坚克难,谱写改革开放伟大事业历史新篇章,为全面建成小康社会、不断夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗!

Xi Jinping’s 19 August speech revealed? (Translation)

A few days ago, China Digital Times posted a document which purports to be an outline of Xi Jinping’s speech at the National Propaganda and Ideology Work Conference on 19 August, which had hitherto remained unpublished. Another version had been flagged up on the China Law Mail List by prof. Albert Chen (H/T). I cannot confirm the veracity of this “spirit communication outline” (精神传播提要) beyond all reasonable doubt, but the subheadings do conform with earlier reports about this speech, and the document contains a significant number of expressions and phrases which have become titles of subsequent articles in venues such as Seeking Truth and People’s Daily afterwards. A full analysis of the text will come tomorrow.

On 19 August, the National Propaganda and Ideology Work Conference was convened in Beijing. CCP Central Committee General Secretary Xi Jinping attended the Conference and made an important speech. The spirit of Comrade Xi Jinping’s important speech is mainly reflected in the following 7 areas:

I, Concerning central work and ideological work.

Economic construction is the Party’s central work, ideological work is an extremely important work of the Party. Everyone clearly understands the positions of both areas of work, but in some localities and departments, it is clear that the phenomenon exists that how to correctly grasp both areas of work in practice is clear when talking about it, but not clear when doing it. Doing propaganda and ideology work well requires first and foremost that this problem is resolved.

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, our Party has consistently persisted in putting economic construction at the centre. This is because in this country of ours with its large population, low starting points and unbalanced development, and under the basic national circumstances where our country still is and will remain for a long time in the preliminary stage of Socialism, we must incessantly consolidate and perfect the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese Socialist system, we must incessantly satisfy the people’s daily increasing materials and cultural needs, we must persist in the strategic ideology of development being a hard rationale, concentrate our energy in doing economic construction and improving people’s lives.

Basically speaking, without solid development results, without incessant improvement in people’s lives, if we prattle about ideals and convictions, prattle about the Party’s leadership, prattle about the superiority of the Socialist system, and prattle about ideological and moral construction, in the end, it will be difficult to achieve achievements in ideological work. As long as no fundamental changes occur in great domestic and foreign trends, putting economic construction central cannot and should not change. This is the basic requirement of persisting in the basic Party line, which cannot be changed for a hundred years, and it is a fundamental requirement to resolve all problems of contemporary China.

When we say that economic construction is central work, we do not say that other work is not important, and that one pretty thing can conceal a hundred ugly things. History and reality have repeatedly proven that whether or not ideological work is done well relates to the Party’s future fate, relates to a long period of peace for the country, and relates to the nation’s cohesion and centripetal force. It cannot be said that, to consolidate the Party’s mass basis and governance basis, it will do just to ensure that the masses material lives are good, this understanding is incomplete. The Party’s mass basis and governance basis includes both material and spiritual aspects. If the mass basis is lost in spiritual matters, in the end, problems must occur as well. Only if material civilization construction and spiritual civilization construction are both done well, if the country’s material strength and spiritual strength both increase, if the material lives and spiritual lives of the people of all ethnicities in the entire country all improve, can the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics be pushed ahead smoothly.

Since reform and opening up, our Party has consistently stressed that the material civilization and spiritual civilization “must be grasped with both hands, and both hands must be tight”. This requirement mainly consists of the following considerations. First, the exchange, blending and clashing between all sorts of ideologies and cultures on a global scale is increasing in frequency, the struggle in the international ideological and cultural area is profound and complex, Western countries see our country’s development and expansion as a challenge to their value views, systems and models, and intensify ideological and cultural infiltration of our country, the struggles and tests that we face in the ideological area are long-term and complex. Second, some mistaken viewpoints appear domestically every now and then, some propagate Western value views, some discuss Party history or national history, some deny reform and opening up under the name of “rethinking reform”, some deny the Four Cardinal Principles. Third, in the situation where our country’s society is changing profoundly and opening up to the outside world is incessantly expanding, all sorts of social contradictions and problems mutually generate each other, and appear in concentration, the independence, selectivity, variability and divergence of people’s thoughts and activities is clearly strengthening, and some phenomena that are not to be ignored have emerged in the ideological and moral area, some people’s ideals and convictions are not firm, some degenerate and backward ideologies and cultures are gaining the upper hand, Mammonism, hedonism and extreme individualism are somewhat on the increase, etc.

Because of this, at the same time as concentrating our energies in conducting economic construction, we cannot even for a moment slacken and weaken ideological work. In this area, we have gained deep lessons. The disintegration of a regime often starts from the ideological area, political unrest and regime change may perhaps occur in a night, but ideological evolution is a long-term process. If the ideological defences are breached, other defences become very difficult to hold. We must closely grasp the leadership power, management power and discourse power in ideological work closely in our hands, and cannot let this fall to others at any time, otherwise, we will make irredeemable historical mistakes.

We must profoundly understand the decisive effect of the economic base on the superstructure, and profoundly understand the counter effect of the superstructure on the economic base, we must have both hard power and soft power, we must both realistically do central work well and provide a firm material basis for ideological work well, and must realistically do ideological work well and provide powerful guarantees for central work; we can neither overlook ideological work because of central work, nor can we let ideological work drift apart from central work. Ideological work must absolutely have revolving around the centre and serving the larger picture as basic tasks, keep the larger picture in mind, grasp general trends, fix eyes upon great matters, find correct work entry points and focus points, and ensure that plans are suited to trends, actions respond to trends, and moves are made according to trends.

II, Concerning broad ideals and real objectives

Our Party has, from the date of its birth, written Marxism on its banner, and established Communism as the highest ideal. Marxist and Communist beliefs are the lifeblood and soul of Communist Party members. “Revolutionary ideals are higher than heaven”, this sentence vividly reflects the huge encouragement and spurring effect of noble beliefs on us Communist Party members.

Among our Party members and cadre teams, lack of belief is a problem that needs to attract high attention. Among a few people, some have made criticism and mockery of Marxism into a “fashion”, and into a comedy; some are spiritually vapid, and believe that Communism is a purely illusory fantasy, they “don’t pay attention to common people but to ghosts and spirits”, they hanker after fortune-telling and physiognomy, they pray to Buddha for help, and fetishize “qigong masters”; some waver in their faith, migrate their spouses, sons and daughters abroad, store money abroad, and “leave a back passage” for themselves, preparing to “jump ship” at any time; some are slaves of material things, believe in the supremacy of money, the supremacy of fame and the supremacy of enjoyment, they don’t have any reverence in their hearts, and their acts don’t have any baseline at all.

I have said that ideals and convictions are the “calcium” of the spirits of Communist Party members, without ideals and convictions, or if ideals and convictions are not firm, there may be a spiritual “calcium deficiency”, which may lead to the “rickets”, and may lead to political deterioration, economic greed, moral degeneracy and corruption of life. Firm beliefs are the decisive factors for stable political standpoints among Party members and cadres, and to resist all sorts of temptations.

At the moment, the environment, targets, scope and methods of propaganda and ideology work are undergoing great change, but the fundamental task of propaganda and ideology work has not changed and cannot change. Propaganda and ideology work must consolidate the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area and consolidate the common ideological basis for the united struggle of the entire Party and the entire people.

We stress that Party members and cadres must have firm Marxist and Communist believes, but this is not to say that they must loudly cry Communist slogans every day, or do some sort of “running towards Communist” thing. We have already clearly pointed out that Communism can only be realized on the basis of a fully developed and highly developed Socialist society, and this is and extremely long lasting historical process. We must, in an earnest and down-to-earth manner, strive untiringly to realize the Party’s basic programme in the current stage, firmly do all work well, and obtain excellent achievements in our stage of the “relay race”. Lofty beliefs and firm convictions are not unattainable, Lei Feng, Jiao Yulu, Yang Shanzhou and others are clear examples of this. Their lifetimes of struggle for the Party and the people would have been impossible without lofty beliefs and firm convictions. Communist Party members should fight and struggle for their beliefs, and contribute all their energies or even their lives.

Lofty beliefs and firm convictions cannot emerge by themselves. It is necessary to foster an “incorruptible body of gold and steel”, we must use scientific theory to arm minds, and incessantly foster our spiritual garden. Where leading cadres and especially high-level cadres are concerned, they must systematically grasp basis Marxist theory as their special skill. The famous academic Wang Guowei elaborated that there are three planes in scholarship: the first is “yesterday evening, the west wind let the green trees wither, I climbed the high building alone, and looked to the far corners of the earth”; the second is “I do not regret that my belt is becoming increasingly loose, she is worth it that I’m pale and worn”; the third is “Up and down the main streets, I must have run, a thousand times or more in quest of one, who I have concluded, cannot be found; for, everywhere, no trace of her can be seen, when, all of a sudden, I turned about, that’s her, where lanterns are few and far between.”. Leading cadres studying theory must also have these three planes. First, theoretical study must be a pursuit as lofty as “looking to the far corners of the earth”, that is able to endure the cold of the “west wind that yesterday evening let the green trees wither”, and the loneliness of “climbing the high building alone”, to quietly concentrate on reading and study; furthermore, theoretical study must be diligent, assiduous and studious, true efforts, bitter efforts and meticulous efforts must be made, even if “the belt grows loose”, there must be “no regret”, becoming “wan and thin” should also make one perfectly happy, last, the value of theoretical study lies in independent thinking, integrating learning and doing, bringing understanding through learning, bringing gains to applications, running a hundred times “up and down mains streets” in study and practice, and in the end, “turning about all of a sudden”, the true essence is understood “where lanterns are few and far between”.

Party schools, cadre academies, academies of social science, higher education institutes, theoretical study centres, etc.,  must all make Marxism into mandatory courses, and become important battlegrounds for Marxist study, research and propaganda. Especially Party schools must orient themselves well. When cadres go to study at Party schools, it is because you are organizationally required to go and study, and must put strengthening ideals and convictions, and raising ideological and political levels first, be honest and conscientious, and study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and especially Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view from beginning to end. The theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the newest result of the Sinification of Marxism, it is the Marxism for the China of the present, and is a guideline for action in persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must persist in using this scientific and theoretical structure to arm the entire Party, educate the people and guide work, guide the broad cadres to deeply comprehend the Party’s theoretical innovation results, and strengthen theoretical conviction. New cadres and young cadres must especially grasp theoretical study, and through firm and unwavering study, master the use of Marxist positions, viewpoints and methods to observe and resolve problems, strengthen ideals and convictions, raise dialectical thinking abilities, and ensure that they are devoted and persistent, trustworthy and profound. It is permitted to expand Party schools appropriately with the study of some knowledge, but it cannot be the case that the secondary supersedes the primary, or the primary and secondary are reversed. Party Schools must absolutely create a thick atmosphere of theoretical study.

Education on ideals and convictions must not only be launched among Party members and cadres, but must also be launched towards the entire society. We must deeply launch propaganda and education on Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and unite and concentrate the people of all ethnicities in the entire country under the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must strengthen the construction of the Socialist core value system, and propose wealth, strength, democracy, civilization and harmony, propose freedom, equality, fairness and the rule of law, propose patriotism, respect for labour, honesty and amicability, and vigorously foster and practice the Socialist core value system, to make it become the common value pursuit of the whole body of the people. We must completely raise citizens’ moral quality, carry forward the true, the good and the beautiful, eliminate the false, the bad and the ugly, and foster a fine atmosphere of knowing honour and shame, where righteousness is stressed, contributions are made and harmony is stimulated.

After  the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation was put forward, it has gained the sincere support of the broad cadres and masses. Propaganda and ideology departments have done quite some work, and the effects are good. The masses say that the Chinese Dream is the expression of an image, and is an expression that the masses can accept easily, it has established a struggle objective that inspires people’s hearts, and has made clear the beautiful prospects of the Party and the country. The Chinese Dream has also triggered vigorous response abroad, international society is paying further attention to the glorious prospects and huge opportunities for our country’s development, Asia, Africa, Latin America and many other countries’ leaders all openly say to us that they wish that the Chinese Dream becomes reality.

Some Western forces worry that the Chinese Dream may expand China’s influence in the world, and sedulously stunt, distort and blacken the Chinese Dream, they spare no effort in using their skills to sow dissent and confuse public opinion. We must attach high importance to this, and pay attention to linking up the Chinese Dream with the people of all countries and all regions realizing their own dreams, and guide international society to completely and objectively understand the Chinese Dream through stimulating mutual interests and win-win. The moisture permeates without a sound, sincere men need not speak much, to move others and set the example. With regard to propaganda and education concerning the Chinese dream, pay attention not to conceptualize it, not to solidify it, not to vulgarize it, and not to become overambitious.

III, Concerning the Party spirit and the people’s spirit.

The relationship between the Party spirit and the people’s spirit was originally a question with a very clear answer, now, however, it has become a question that is known to be complex and sensitive. For example, some people ask “do you speak for the Party, or do you speak for the people”, “are you on the side of the Party, or on the side of the people”; some people plausibly and volubly say that the popular masses exceed Party members in quality, and therefore the people’s spirit is larger than the Party spirit. There are quite a few of such formulations that seem right but are actually wrong, but they are all incorrect and mistaken, and must be swept away and corrected.

The Party spirit and the people’s spirit have always been consistent and united. Our Party serves the people wholeheartedly, represents the fundamental interests of the broad Chinese people, and is a Marxist party that comes from the people and is for the people. Basically, persisting in the Party spirit is persisting in the people’s spirit and persisting in the people’s spirit is persisting in the Party spirit, the Party spirit resides in the people’s spirit, there is no Party spirit that is removed from the people’s spirit, and there is no people’s spirit that is removed from the Party spirit either. The Party spirit and the people’s spirit are all integral political concept, the Party spirit concerns the entire Party, and the people’s spirit concerns the whole body of the people, the Party spirit cannot simply be understood from one level’s Party organization, a group of Party members or any single Party member, and the people’s spirit can also not be simply understood from a single stratum, some groups from the masses or any concrete person. Only if we stand on the position of the entire Party and stand on the position of the whole body of the people, can we truly grasp the Party spirit and the people’s spirit well. Separating the Party spirit and the people’s spirit, opposing them or fragmenting them is mistaken in theory and is dangerous in practice as well.

To do propaganda and ideology work well, we must stress the Party spirit. The core of persisting in the Party spirit is persisting in the correct political orientation, standing firm on political positions, persisting in propagating the Party’s theories, line, principles and policies, persisting in propagating the Centre’s major work deployments, persisting in propagating the Centre’s major analyses and judgements concerning rends, persisting in maintaining a high level of consistency with the Party Centre, and persisting in safeguarding the authority of the Centre. These are great principles, in which we can absolutely not waver.

Now, in some work units and among some people, the Party mentality dimmed, and the Party spirit and principles are discussed rarely. In some cases, no heed is paid to the Party’s political discipline and propaganda discipline, these are basically not taken seriously at all; some even challenge political principles that the Party has already clearly laid down, they speak without restraint, they are completely scrupulous, they are cheered on by hostile forces, they are not ashamed of this, but even consider this honourable. Isn’t it a monstrosity that the Party’s propaganda and ideology battlefield does not serve the Party, the Party’s propaganda and ideology workers do not want to and even don’t dare to persist in the principles of the Party spirit. If they have no clear viewpoint or position on this basic issue of persisting in the Party spirit, then they do not pass political muster, and are not qualified for even the most rudimentary Party propaganda and ideology work.

All propaganda and ideology departments and work units, all Party members and all cadres on the propaganda and ideology front must persist in the principle of the Party spirit with clear banners flying. The principle of the Party spirit must not only be stressed, but it must be stressed on a large scale with big banners, it must be stressed with the assumption that justice is on our side, it must be stressed firmly and unwaveringly. We must not be evasive or bashful, or mince our words. Western countries’ flaunt “press freedom”, but in fact, they also have ideological baselines, and they are under the control of interest groups and the inclinations of political parties, there are no completely independent media.

We must unwaveringly persist in the principle that the Party manages the media, persist in politicians running newspapers, periodicals, stations and news websites, and strengthen education on the Marxist view of news. Propaganda and ideology workers must strengthen their Party mentality, and do their duty in serving the undertaking of the Party and the people. They must conform to the demands of the Party in what they persist in, what they oppose, what they say and what they do, be able to send all tests, be reliable and trustworthy, and truly achieve that “they stand firm still after a thousand hits and ten thousand strikes, regardless from where the wind blows”.

To do propaganda and ideology work well, we must stress the people’s spirit. Persisting in the people’s spirit means that we must make realizing, safeguarding and developing the basic interest of the broadest people into starting points and stopover points, and persist in putting people first. To do propaganda and ideology work well, we must resolve these basic questions of “for whose sake, relying on whom, who am I”. We must establish a work orientation with the people at the centre, integrate serving the masses with educating and guiding the masses, integrate satisfying demand with raising qualities, propagate more reports on the popular masses’ magnificent struggles and ardent lives, propagate more reports on advanced models and moving deeds emerging from among the people, enrich the people’s spiritual world, strengthen the people’s spiritual power, satisfy the people’s spiritual demands. We must resolutely overcome the problems that some propaganda and reporting has become separated from life, is not grounded, and does not stick closely enough to the people, and resolutely overcome the phenomenon of vulgarization brought about by going all the way to meet the market. A “march to the grass roots, change work styles and improve writing styles” movement was launched on the news front, which has achieved positive results, everyone went deep into the grass roots, and made quite a few reports that I all read, much content was very moving. This movement must be continued firmly, incessantly deepened and incessantly raised.

The people are concrete, not abstract. To persist in the people’s spirit, we must earnestly research the ideological and cultural needs of the different masses. Workers, peasants, the People’s Liberation Army, cadres, intellectuals, the elderly, youth, children, it must be clear where the commonalities between the demands of different masses lie, and where the individualities are, in order to launch work in a targeted manner. We must also launch work in a focused manner targeting a series of new groups emerging in society, such as the ant people, the northern floaters, those coming back from overseas, those coming back from overseas who are jobless, scattered households, etc. We must handle the relationship between points, lines and areas well, we must strengthen the broad coverage of areas and categorized guidance over lines, as well as pay attention to do every point of work well, “opening one lock with one key”.

To do propaganda and ideology work well, we must pay high attention to work concerning intellectuals. At present, intellectual teams are incessantly expanding in scale, their formation is becoming complex and plural, their self-consciousness and individual consciousness is strengthening, their interest pursuits and political pursuits are intertwined, there has been a tendency that a small number of people drifted away from the Party and the government, and it has even emerged that there are a few people harbouring dissent and discord versus the Party. With regard to the broad intellectuals, the important thing is unity, and at the same time, guidance must be strengthened, and especially political guidance and political cooperation must be strengthened, to ensure that even more intellectuals participate in real work, and to encourage them to consciously contribute their wisdom and talents to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Propaganda and ideology departments must strengthen links with intellectuals, make more friends among them, and unite and concentrate them as much as possible around the Party. We must pay attention to those intellectuals who have special characteristics, and work hard to work well with online opinion leaders, online writers, contract writers, free authors, independent performers or singers and other such groups.

Now, a number of tabloids and magazines, a small number of television columns, network and other such media are flooded with freak news, sidebar news and other such content, on where some stars, moneybags and other famous people go and live, where they eat, what car they drive, where they travel, and which clothes they wear, or who they are with, who they marry, etc., many media seek novelty, pursue pretty women, and chase them like ducks! It is not that there can be no reports about famous people, but which educational significance does reporting all day long about those bits and pieces, with that effete and sentimental writing have? It may have a negative effect on society. Many famous people have a sense of social responsibility and contribute vigorously to society, we must report those positive and vigorous things, and only in this way can we increase society’s positive energy. Mainstream media must vigorously have a guiding role in this area.

To sum up, persisting in the unity of the Party spirit and the people’s spirit means that we must persist in stressing politics, grasp the correct orientation, and unite reflecting the Party’s standpoints with reflecting the people’s wishes. Only if we persist in the Party spirit and stand on the positions of the Party, can we reflect the people’s aspirations even better and even more completely. In theoretical study, propaganda, reporting, in literature and art creation or ideological education, we must always put persisting in the correct orientation first, and consistently keep the base string of the orientation tuned well, be explicit in stressing the orientation, grasp orientation and do not let it loose.

IV, Concerning positive propaganda and the public opinion struggle

Persisting in unity, stability and encouragement, and putting positive propaganda first, are important principles that must be followed in propaganda and ideology work. We are currently conducting a magnificent struggle that has many new historical characteristics, the challenges and difficulties we face are unprecedented, we must persist in consolidating and expanding mainstream ideology and public opinion, carry the main melody forward, disseminate positive energy, and arouse the entre society’s formidable strength for united progress.

Generally speaking, our positive propaganda has achieved successes, but some problems that merit attention exist as well: some who occupy the commanding heights preach emptily, they indiscriminately copy leaders’ speeches and policy documents, they excavate and explain insufficiently, they are not vivid and lively enough, and the masses stay at a respectful distance from then; with some, the phenomenon of routinization and trickery exists, their language is stiff, their forms are mechanical, they have insufficient affinity and closeness; some people are vigorous in form, sumptuous and resplendent, but not strong in terms of actual results.

Over the past few years, all localities have paid attention to discovering, summarizing and propagating advanced models in all areas, which has had an important effect in carrying forward righteousness and promoting work. Our propaganda of models is for the sake of giving rein to the exemplary effect of models, and complete overall work, because of this, we must absolutely seek truth from facts, guarantee that models are truthful and reliable, lovable and respectable, ensure people can trust, understand and learn from models, we cannot use forged or fabricated methods to package models, we cannot use methods that are excessive in zeal to raise up models, we cannot use the methods of “giving favoured treatment” or “extending partiality” to foster models.

Persisting in putting positive propaganda first absolutely does not mean abandoning the public opinion struggle. Hostile forces are doing their utmost to propagate so-called “universal values”. Are these people really talking about “universal values”. Fundamentally not, they sell a sheep’s head as dog meat, their objective is that they want to vie with us for battlefields, for the people’s hearts and for the masses, and in the end, to overthrow the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and China’s Socialist system. If we allow this discourse to have its own way and deliberately misrepresent matters, those false efforts will lead people astray, which is bound to bring chaos to the Party’s hearts and the people’s hearts, endanger the Party’s leadership and the security of the Socialist national regime. On great rights and wrongs concerning whether to persist in or deny the Four Cardinal Principles or matters of political principle, we must strengthen the initiative, grasp the initiative, and use the initiative.

We must dare to grasp and dare to manage, dare to bare the sword, focus on uniting and contending for the absolute majority, and launch the public opinion struggle in a rational, beneficial and proper manner, to help cadres and the masses in drawing clear boundaries between right and wrong, and clarify blurred understandings. With regard to all discourse that maliciously attacks the Party’s leadership, attacks the Socialist system, distorts the Party’s history and the country’s history, or spreads rumours to create trouble, no newspapers, periodicals and magazines, platforms and forums, meetings and conferences, films, television and radio stations, theatres can provide space to them, no digital newspapers, mobile television, mobile media, mobile text messaging, WeChat, Weibo, blogs, microblogs, forums and other such new media can provide conveniences to them. With regards to these discourses, we must not only strengthen online control, we must also ensure that work touches the ground in real life. With regard to opposition to the Four Cardinal Principles, there must be education and guidance, responsibility systems must be established, localities and work units must realistically manage this; they must investigate and prosecute them according to the law, they cannot grope about in the dark like in “The Fork in the Road”, they can also not let those people comfortably spread rumours to create trouble, fish in troubled waters, inflame people and make irresponsible remarks.

Naturally, we cannot rely on administrative or legal methods to resolve common disputes and confused understandings, but must rely in the strength of Marxist truth, rely on deeply detailed ideological and political work, use truth to expose lies, and let science vanquish falsehoods.

The Internet has become the main battlefields for the public opinion struggle. Some comrades say that the Internet is the “largest variable” that we face, and if we get it wrong, it will become “a worry in our hearts and minds”. Western anti-China forces continue to vainly attempt to use the Internet to “topple China”, many years ago, there were Western governments that stated that “with the internet, there is a way to tackle China”, “Socialist countries are infused with Western ambitions, which starts from the Internet”. From the US “Prism” and “XKeyscore” and other such surveillance plans, it can be seen that their Internet activities, capabilities and scope exceed the imaginations of the people of the world by far. On this battlefield of the Internet, whether we can stand up, and gain victory, directly relates to our country’s ideological security and regime security.

According to the demands of circumstances and developments, as I see it, we must make online public opinion work into the heaviest of heavies in propaganda and ideology work. Propaganda and ideology work is working with people, the focus should be there where the people are. Our country has nearly 600 million netizens, there are 460 million mobile netizens, 300 million of which have Weibo accounts. Many people and especially the young basically do not look at mainstream media, the majority of information is obtained online. We must face this fact squarely, expand strengths and inputs, grasp the initiative on this public opinion battlefield as quickly as possible, we cannot be marginalized. We must resolve the question of “skills panic” well, and truly become experts and old hands at using modern media, new means and new methods. We must deeply launch the online public opinion struggle, closely guard against and restrain online acts of attack and infiltration, and organize forces to refute mistaken ideologies and viewpoints. We must strengthen online social management according to the law, strengthen the management of new network technologies and applications, ensure that the Internet is manageable and controllable, and ensure that our cyberspace becomes clear and crisp. Doing this work is not easy, but however difficult it is, it must be done. There are no difficulties under heaven, only a fear of people with purposes. We must not fear what other people say. Somewhat less negative discourse online only has benefits for the development of our country and society, social stability, and the people’s living and working in peace and contentment, not drawbacks. To use a peasant’s phrase from when I was in a countryside production brigade, we must not listen to the crayfish noises and fear that we’ll be unable to till the land.

Our comrades must absolutely strengthen their sense of the battlefield. If we do not go and occupy the propaganda and ideology battlefield, others will occupy it. As I see it, there are three zones in the ideology and public opinion area. The first is the red zone, which mainly consists of mainstream media and online positive forces, this is our main battlefield, we must absolutely hold it, and can certainly not lose it. The second is the black zone, which mainly consists of a series of negative discourses online and in society, and also includes all kinds of public opinion fabricated by hostile forces, this is not the main stream, but its influence must not be underestimated. The third is the grey zone, which lies between the red zone and the black zones. Different strategies must be adopted for different zones. The red zone must be consolidated and expanded, so that its social influence broadens incessantly. We must dare to enter the black zone, we must dig into the belly of the Iron Fan Princess to fight, and progressively push it to change colour. In the grey zone, we must launch large-scale work, to accelerate its transformation into a red zone and prevent it decaying into a black zone. This work must be firmly grasped, and persistently conducted, and successes will be achieved certainly.

The online struggle is a sort of new form of public opinion struggle, we must research strategies and tactics. Others fight wars of movement and mobile battles, we can also not only fight conventional wars or battlefield wars, we must be flexible, in whichever way others hit us, we will hit, we will give tit for tat, and defeat them by surprise moves, we cannot have others lead us by the nose, we cannot hold up the larger strategic picture because of tactical rigidity. This means that “Even if we are right, we will not use this at times, even if we are wrong, we must go ahead sometimes”. We must deeply analyse the characteristics and laws of online struggles, and meticulously organize online struggle forces. Concerning online opinion leaders, we must strengthen education and guidance, we must encourage the good ones and restrain the bad ones, we cannot let things slide.

In short, we have so many Party and government organizations at high and low levels, we have so many State0owned enterprises, undertaking work units and people’s organizations, we have more than 85 million Party members and more than 89 million Youth League members, as long as we organize them well, we will absolutely be able to gain superiority. We must establish a line of strong online armies, to ensure that if we face more demons, we possess a higher level of righteousness.

V, Concerning summarizing experiences, reform and innovation

Over a long time of practice, our Party’s propaganda and ideology work has accumulated extremely rich experiences. These experiences have not been won easily, which makes them all the more precious, they are important guidelines to follow for future work, and must absolutely be earnestly summarized, persisted in for a long time, and be incessantly enriched and developed in practice.

Today, the social conditions for propaganda and ideology work have become greatly different, some of our methods were effective in the past, but not necessarily in the present; some things were untimely in the past, that are, however, imperative now; some things were insurmountable in the past, that now need to be surmounted. “Who does not renew every day will decline every day”. “The Wise person changes with the times, the knowledgeable person governs according to events.” Doing propaganda and ideology work well requires more information than at any time in the past.

The focus of propaganda and ideology work innovation must be grasping conceptual innovation, method innovation and grass roots work innovation. Conceptual innovation means that we must maintain ideological acuity and openness, breakthrough traditional fixed modes of thinking, and strive to open up new areas for work through new leaps in ideological understanding. Method innovation means that we must vigorously explore new methods and new means that benefit analysing and dissolving difficulties in work, we must especially adapt to the new circumstances of the continued progress in social informatization, accelerate the converged development of traditional media and new media, fully utilize new technologies and new applications to innovate media and communications forms, and occupy the commanding heights of information and communication. Grass roots work innovation means that we must put the focus of innovation at the level of the grass roots, solidly grasp the grass roots well and do grass roots work well. The ancients said: “a huge tree that fills one’s arms grows from a tiny seeding, a nine-storied tower rises from a heap of earth”. The service targets of propaganda and ideology work are at the grass roots, the centre of work is at the grass roots, the implementation of tasks is at the grass roots. Doing propaganda and ideology work is for the sake of propagating to the masses, mobilizing the masses, serving the masses as well as educating and guiding the masses, it is not for the sake of shows to leaders or higher levels. Al levels must pay attention to the grass roots, substantiate team strengths, improve work conditions, and ensure that the situation of weak grass roots propaganda and ideology work clearly improves within a relatively short time.

To do propaganda and ideology work well, we must absolutely grasp times, extents and effects well. We must guide the broad masses in looking more towards the mainstream, and not to be dominated by the tributaries; to look more towards the brilliant side, and not to be influenced by the dark side; to look more towards the essence, and not be misled by superficial appearances. We must pay attention to not say of problems of small points that they are overall problems, we must not say that exceptional problems are general problems, we must not say that partial problems are problems of the whole. How can a society with more than 1.3 billion people not have problems? Every day, we will discover many problems, but propaganda and reporting must pay attention. The influence of our newspapers, radio stations, television stations, websites and others is very large, as soon as an event is reported, it may be expanded tens of times or hundreds of times, bringing unimaginable results. Which issues should be reported nationwide, which issues should be reported locally? Which issues should be reported for a short while, for which issues should there be follow-up reporting? Which issues should be played down in reporting, which issues should be reported strongly? Which issues should be reported at once, which issues should only be reported after looking a bit at the aftermath? For example, some issues are exceptional or occasional events in and of themselves, but if you report them for a long time in close concentration, it may bring people to engender misconceptions; some issues require timely guidance, if you report them slowly, that may trigger disputes, as it would seem that we would want to hide or cover something up; some issues may have just occurred, and the aftermath and developments remain to be surveyed, if you vie to be the first in reporting, you may end up in a passive position instead; some issues themselves are firmly opposed by the Party and the government, if you speak evasively in reporting, it may let people engender misunderstandings, as if these things and people are shielded. Gasping times, extents and effects well is not a simple thing, it requires corresponding ideological and political qualities, a consciousness about the larger picture, the ability to judge and professional levels. These must be incessantly raised in practice.

In the area of propaganda, Western countries have their own way of doing things, they oppose propaganda ostensibly, but in fact, they di it with more enthusiasm, more expertise and more by hook and crook than anyone else, it is only the case that they conceal this by every way imaginable, and make it into “invisible propaganda”. Their strategy is that top-quality propaganda looks as if it was not conducted, the best propaganda must let the target of the propaganda march in the direction that you hoped, believing that it is the path he has chosen himself.

Concerning cultural structural reform, I’ll only stress one point, which is that we must, at the same time as continuing to boldly push reform forward, promote the overall flourishing of the cultural undertaking and the rapid development of the cultural industry, and constructing a strong Socialist cultural country, we must grasp the relationship between ideological properties and industrial properties, and between social effect and economic effect well, persist in the progressive direction of advanced Socialist culture throughout, and put social effect first throughout. Regardless of what we reform or how we reform, the orientation cannot change and battlefields cannot be lost.

VI, Concerning Chinese characteristics and international comparisons

One important task in doing propaganda and ideology work under circumstances of complete openness to the outside world, is guiding people to understand contemporary China and deal with the outside world more completely and objectively.

Propaganda that elaborates on Chinese characteristics must make clear that the historical traditions, cultural achievements and basic national circumstances of all countries and nations are different, their development path inevitably has its own characteristics as well; make clear that the Chinese nation has, in its civilizational development process of 5000 years, created a wide-ranging and profound Chinese culture, China’s culture has accumulated the profound spiritual pursuits of the Chinese nation, contains the most basic spiritual genome of the Chinese nation, it represents the unique spiritual symbols of the Chinese nation, and is rich nourishments for the Chinese nation to multiply endlessly, develop and expand; make clear that China’s excellent traditional culture is a prominent superiority of the Chinese nation, and is an important spiritual pillar for the Chinese nation to constantly strive to renew itself, unite and struggle, it is our most profound cultural soft power; make clear that Socialism with Chinese characteristics is rooted in the soil of Chinese culture, reflects the wishes of the Chinese people, is suited  to the development and progress demands of China and of the times, has profound historical origins and broad bases in reality, the Chinese people have created the long-standing and well-established Chinese culture, the Chinese nation will also certainly be able to create new glories in Chinese culture.

Propaganda elaborating Chinese characteristics must pay attention to start from the historical angle of the flows, ups and downs of our country’s development since modern times, and the people’s struggle that surged like a tidal wave. The more than one hundred years from the Opium War to the establishment of the New China was the historical period in which China suffered the most unrest and was the most humiliated, it was the historical period in which the Chinese people were most miserable and most suffering. The Chinese people have awoken from suffering and risen up, they have vigorously explored this basic question of which kind of path China should march, and in which direction it should develop. The people have conducted many trials, a constitutional monarchy system, a multi-party system and a presidential system have all been tried, but the result was that they went nowhere. Only as the Chinese Communist Party lead the people and integrated the fundamental principles of Marxism with China’s reality, has the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics that realized national independence and the liberation of the people, national wealth and strength, and the happiness of the people, been found.

Unique cultural traditions, unique historical destinies and unique basic national conditions have decided that we must march a development path suited to our own characteristics. Any scientific theory and system must be indigenized before it can have true effects. This is true for Marxism and for Socialism, the key why it could obtain victories in China was that our Party incessantly moved forward their Sinification, and operationalized them in close integration with China’s reality. Doing dogmatism or bookism, “always mentioning Greece in speeches”, cannot be successful. As has been said, “learning without change, is not learning”. With regard to our country’s traditional culture and foreign things, we must persist in letting the old serve the new, letting the foreign serve the Chinese, discard the dross and pick the essence, discard the false and retain the true, and ensure that they can be of use to us through scientific sifting. Our path, theory and system have our own clear characteristics and clear superiorities, we cannot indiscriminately copy Western methods, bringing them over would only result in them failing to acclimatize in the new environment, they would be doomed to fail.

This conclusion is a fact that has been demonstrated already by history, and is a history that has already been demonstrated by facts. In comparison with the China from before the establishment of the New China, or in comparison with the China from after the Opium War, the present-day China is poles apart! In the present world, if it is asked which party, which country and which nation can be self-confident, then the Chinese Communist Party, the People’s Republic of China and the Chinese nation have reason for self-confidence, on this point, truth is on our side.

In the West, there are people who say that China should change the angle of its historical propaganda, it should no longer make propaganda about its history of humiliation, but should follow the trends of the time. As I see it, we cannot heed this, forgetting history means betrayal. History objectively exists, history is the best textbook. A nation without historical memory does not have a future.

When we conduct historical education, we do not want to keep moaning and groaning about historical difficulties, but we want to mould the nation’s spirits and the nation’s souls through history, understand and grasp the development laws of Chinese society, and encourage the people’s confidence and courage to continue to advance. Mr Lu Xun said: “only the people’s souls merit value, only when they are developed, can China truly progress.” This is not to say that our institutions and our work are perfect in every way, we still face many difficulties and issues, and the popular masses are still dissatisfied about our work in many places. These must be resolved through our work, these must be resolved through our pushing forward with the self-perfection and development of the Socialist system, and their resolution must be grasped firmly.

We must welcome the masses’ regular, reasonable and well-intended criticism and supervision, regardless of how sharp it is, we must not be unhappy, we must not suppress it, we must not just welcome it, but we must earnestly listen and realistically improve matters. At the same time, we must make one matter clear, we must maintain correct attitudes in dealing with problems, we cannot completely deny our own path, theory and system when we run into a few problems, or completely deny our own history and struggle. When dealing with this issue of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, when dealing with China’s development path and development model, a series of confused understandings and even mistaken viewpoints exist in society. Some take a part for the whole, attack one point, don’t touch upon the rest, and say that the situation is pitch black all over; some fish for fame and compliments, and make jeering and abuse into a method for becoming famous, in order to win some acclaim; some have an inferiority complex and always believe that nothing in China is good, and everything foreign is good, they have the illusion of using Western systems to transform China. Among these people, some have confused understandings, some have problems with their ways of thinking, some have problems with their political positions, circumstances are not the same. The yardstick to examine them is Marxism and is Socialism with Chinese characteristics, we can neither have “leftism” as yardstick, nor can we have rightism as yardstick. We must differentiate circumstances, do work deeply, meticulously and realistically.

Concerning changes in global circumstances and development, concerning newly emerging things and new circumstances in the world, and concerning the new ideologies, new viewpoints and new thinking that emerge from all countries, we must strengthen propaganda and reporting, for the benefit of vigorous learning from the beneficial results of the creation of human civilization, we cannot close our eyes and not look at the world. But the objective of understanding and participating in the world is for the sake of serving ourselves, and is in order to develop ourselves even better. If we lose ourselves in international comparison, or even deny ourselves, such a comparison is without meaning. Economic globalization does not equal westernization, and does certainly not equal cultural monism.

In reporting events happening in the world, we must be objective, complete and truthful, we must strengthen guidance, good things must be reported, bad things must be reported as well. Especially when we report about the situation in Western countries, we must pay attention to grasping matters well, we must not let people generate a sort of “the moon is rounder abroad than in China” feeling. Western countries’ media wear coloured spectacles when they look at us, good things are also drawn towards bad places, and they do their utmost to disseminate this inside our country through all sorts of means. The West always attacks our system, our economic circumstances, food security, human rights, social and public order, corruption and other issues, they attack and start rumours, seize the opportunity to beat their own drum, make mountains out of molehills, and whip up public opinion. Now, why must we be polite and show mercy towards their abuses and scandals? A financial crisis and a debt crisis occurred in the US and other Western countries, their economies landed in difficulties, is this then not the abuse of Western capitalist systems? The US stress freedom and democracy, and online freedom, but do they not secretly commit large-scale surveillance of citizens’ conversations and telecommunications? The US and other Western countries have a gap between rich and poor that is not small, and did “Occupy Wall Street” and other such incidents not happen? Does the phenomenon of the US massacring and slaughtering the innocent at will in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and other places not exist on a large scale? Western countries export their value systems and institutional models everywhere, in which country has this met with true success? And so on, and so forth. Concerning these matters, we must strengthen reporting and guidance, otherwise they will always be talking about what we’re doing wrong left and right, or some people will always post discourse online that blindly adulates the West. In this regard, we must have a balance, waiting for them to reach such a balance is impossible, so we must do it ourselves, if we don’t do it, others will not help us do it.

We must meticulously do foreign propaganda work well. Following our country’s economic and social development, and the rise of our international position, international society’s rational knowledge of China’s development path and development model is progressively deepening, but at the same time, there are still quite a few misunderstandings about us, the “China Threat Theory”, the “China Collapse Theory” and other such theories linger in one’s ears. In comparison with some European and American countries that have suffered from the financial crisis and the debt crisis, in comparison with some developing countries that have been bogged down in development traps, and in comparison with a number of countries in West Asia and North Africa that suffer political upheaval and social chaos, our country’ development can be said to be a landscape that only looks good on this side. But, the West still “slights” China. In the international public opinion structure, the West is strong and we are weak, Western major media control global public opinion, we often have rationales that we cannot speak out about, or once we’ve spoken about the, we can’t communicate them. This problem must be resolved with great efforts. We must strive to move international communications capacity construction forward, innovate foreign propaganda methods, strengthen discourse system construction, strive to forge new concepts, new categories and new expressions that circulate between China and the outside world, tell China’s story well, disseminate China’s voice well, and strengthen our discourse power internationally.

VII, Concerning the entire Party setting to work and the responsibility of departments

I have been pondering a question, which is: our Communist Party members can wage war, this has been made clear by the establishment of the New China; our Communist Party members can do construction and development, this has been made clear by pushing forward reform and opening up; but can our Communist Party members persist in the leadership of the Party, persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics in an increasingly complex international and domestic environment, this needs to be answered by successive generations of Communist Party members.

To do thought work well, and do propaganda and ideology work well, we must understand matters against this background. The comrades in the entire Party and especially all levels’ leading Party cadres must, according to the requirements of the Centre, solidly do ideological work well.

In doing ideological work well, propaganda and ideology departments bear an extremely important mission, they must have the responsibility to protect the territory, bear the responsibility to protect the territory and implement the responsibility to protect the territory. Propaganda and ideology departments’ work must be strengthened, which means that first and foremost, leading cadres must be strengthened and ranks must be strengthened. Those taking charge of leadership works in propaganda and ideology departments, apart from being politically reliable, must always have “a number of brushes” in theory, writing ability, eloquence or other special skills. Only if a profound rational can be explained clearly in the simplest terms, if we can rapidly integrate with the masses wherever we go, if the masses like to hear our speeches and like to read the articles we write, can there be initiatives and can we gain high proficiency. All levels’ propaganda departments’ leading comrades must strengthen study and strengthen practice, and truly become experts and old hands that are convincing to the people.

In cadre allocation to propaganda and ideology departments, we cannot just consider cadres qualifications, service records and other such factors, we must consider even more the quality demands of the position, we cannot become used to looking for candidates on the basis of “some cadre should resolve this” thinking, allocating cadres in this manner will result in them not being suited to the position, which both influences work and lets the cadre in question feel very much under pressure.

Relying only on propaganda and ideology departments to do propaganda and ideology work well is insufficient, the entire Party must set a hand to this. Now, does the problem exist that some do not want to grasp, cannot grasp or do not dare to grasp ideological work? As I see it, this exists. All levels’ Party Committees and leading cadres must realistically grasp propaganda and ideology work. In looking whether a leading cadre is mature or not, whether he can assume heavy responsibilities or not, an important aspect is to look at whether or not he pays high attention to and is good at grasping propaganda and ideology work. All levels’ Party Committees must shoulder political duties and leadership duties, strengthen analysis and judgment of major issues in the propaganda and ideology area and comprehensive guidance over major strategic tasks, and incessantly raise propaganda and ideology work leadership abilities and levels. Party Committees’ main responsible comrades must take the lead in grasping ideology work, take the lead in reading the content of main media in their regions and their departments, take the lead in guarding the orientation of media in their region or department, and take the lead in criticizing mistaken viewpoints and mistaken tendencies. We must select leading ranks well and allocate strengths, show concern for and cherish propaganda and ideology cadres, those who are unsuitable or unfit are to be firmly moved elsewhere, to ensure that propaganda and ideology work leadership power is closely grasped in the hands of people who are loyal to the Party and the people. We must pay attention to establishing good communications relationships with thinking circles, theoretical circles, knowledge circles and other areas, timely notify them about the Centre’s judgments about a number of large issues and major work policies, timely hear their opinions, and ensure that the wishes of higher authorities are known to those below, and the wishes of those below are known to higher authorities. All levels’ Party Committees may  establish this sort of work mechanism through all kinds of forms, and maintain this for a long time.

The entire Party is to set to work, it must establish a work concept of big propaganda, mobilize all fronts and departments to work together, and integrate propaganda and ideology work with administrative management, sector management and social management in all areas. Economic, educational, science, technology, political-legal and all other departments that bear social management responsibilities must strengthen communication and coordination with propaganda and ideology work departments, and consciously support work on the propaganda and ideology front. Labour unions, the Communist Youth League, the Women’s Federation and other such people’s organizations must mobilize social forces to support and participate in propaganda and ideology work.

Now, there is a strange phenomenon, which is that whoever posts positive discourse, or whoever posts discourse supporting the Party and the government, whoever refutes the sort of discourse that attacks and slanders the Party and the government, will be attacked from all sides, and furthermore, there are some attacks that are full of filthy speech, that are intolerable to the ear, and we on our side often remain silent or speak quietly. This is a very irregular phenomenon. Why do we not speak out? Why do we not jointly support correct opinions and criticize mistaken viewpoints? Party Committees must first of all support comrades who dare to confront opponents, who dare to criticize and act correctly, and they must openly support them. We must not believe that these comrades are asking for trouble for themselves, thinking like that is incorrect. We must commend these comrades, and those meeting conditions must be promoted to important positions. When we stress that positions must be firm and consistency maintained, this cannot just be an empty phrase.

In the propaganda and ideology area, we do not engage in senseless disputes, but where issues of great rights and wrongs are involved, or where issues of political principle are involved, we can absolutely not equivocate, and can certainly not give way. “Only after our repeated calls did she appear; her face still half hidden behind a pipa lute” will not do! Leading cadres must dare to stand in the teeth of the storm and conduct struggle. I have once said that leading cadres cannot be “meticulous about their appearance”. Some cadres avoid issues of great rights and wrongs, their attitude is ambiguous, they shut themselves up in ivory towers, they are afraid of losing points and fear that people call them unenlightened. This is absolutely no good! What kinds of feathers are these? What kind of image is this? Feigning an enlightened posture! If your image is good among some people, your image will be poor in the hearts of the broad Party members and cadres, and your image will be poor in the hearts of the people. There are no liberal-minded gentlemen on the battlefield, there are also no liberal-minded gentlemen with regard to great matters of right and wrong, there must be struggle. As Party cadres, we must not think about winning the acclaim of all sorts of people in society, or winning favourable opinions from all sorts of public opinion abroad. We must only stand on the position of the Party and the people and persist in principles, and such a result cannot come about. For the sake of the undertaking of the Party and the people, our Communist Party members don’t even fear shedding blood and sacrificing themselves, how could they then fear losing a little of an empty reputation? Our Party can also not evaluate cadres under that sort of false pretences. As Party cadres, we cannot use “no disputes”, “no sensational hubbubs” and “let them talk” as an excuse for someone not to act, and we can certainly not sway east and west, and pander to left and right! In the political struggle that relates to the fate of the Party and the country, no leading cadre can be a bystander. In the future, whenever someone attacks our comrades again, our propaganda and ideology departments must speak out, Party Committees must speak out, and all areas must speak out! we must send a united and clear signal, form an attitude of hundreds responding to a single call, and must not fear infamy. I often say that cadres must dare to undertake matters, this is an important test.

Sometimes, when problems appear, relevant Party Committees must rapidly analyse them and indicate standpoints. Especially concerning those events that violate the masses’ interest, and violate Party discipline or national law, once they are clearly judged, attitudes must be brought out rapidly. If Party Committees do not have attitudes, how are news and propaganda departments to discuss this? They cannot! There is one point that must be made clear, which is that all levels’ Party Committees and governments, and all levels’ leading cadres must, when events that violate the masses’ interests, violate Party discipline or national law occur, absolutely not protect this or conceal this, but must indicate an attitude of firm opposition. Some cadres commit all kinds of outrages, they take bribes and pervert the law, or tyrannize the common people, what are you doing protecting them? Many things start out very small, with the resulting chaos being very large. Some comrades may perhaps fear influencing their career scoring, or influencing their images. I make clear here that if problems occur, circumstances are clear and there are clear mistakes, relevant Party Committees must indicate attitudes at the first opportunity, and the responsibility of those who protect or conceal this must be investigated..

Finally, Comrade Xi Jinping hopes that comrades in propaganda and ideology work departments integrate the Party’s mass line propaganda, education and practice movement that is currently being launched with further reflection on a series of major issues in their own work, if they find deficiencies, they are to put forward measures for reform, and strive to do propaganda and ideology work even better.

GAPPRFT Demands that Media Learn Lessons from the Chen Yongzhou Case

This press release was published on 1 November, on the Central Government Website.

Xinhua, Beijing, 1 November, a relevant responsible person from GAPPRFT has issued a statement on the investigation and prosecution situation of the case of the “New Express’s” Chen Yongzhou case, demanding that news work units and news journalists nationwide learn lessons, and demanding that all localities administrative press, publications, radio, film and television departments investigate and prosecute news blackmail, paid-for news and other suc issues according to the law.
The said spokesperson indicated that the influence of the problems of violating laws and regulations by the “New Express” journalist was vile, it gravely harmed media credibility and the social image of news journalists, this lesson is very profound. The Guangdong Province Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television Bureau made an investigation and prosecution decision according to the law, which was a necessary measure by administrative press and publications departments to implement their duties according to the law and to safeguard newsgathering and editing order. It is hoped that news work units nationwide draw inferences from this example, take warning and further perfect newsgathering and editing procedures as well as regulatory structures, strengthen internal management and team construction. It is hoped that news journalists nationwide earnestly learn lessons from Chen Yongzhou, build firm legal baselines, scrupulously abide by their professional integrity, and consciously safeguard the social image of news journalists.
The said spokesperson stated that, with regard to the problems revealed by this case, the GAPPRFT has demanded that all levels’ administrative press, publications, radio, film and television departments continue to expand governance strength over false news, paid-for news, news blackmail and other such issues. The Administration again published reporting telephone numbers: 010-65212870 and 010-65212787, and the China Journalist Website to check journalists’ identity registration, URL: http: //press.gapp.gov.cn, all walks of society are welcomed to report all kinds of acts violating laws and regulations in news publishing.

SIIO Director outlines eight objectives for online media.

This speech by SIIO Director Lu Wei was published on the People’s Daily Online website today. It mainly rehashes earlier themes about cleaning up the online sphere, and seems to provide a clearer picture of how the leadership conceives of the future appearance of the Chinese cyberspace. In practicular, Lu claims that Internet enterprises need to set the example in eight areas:

First, setting the example in grasping orientations, meaning that they must closely grasp the correct political orientation.

Second, setting the example in grasping management, meaning that they must persist in the fact that being able to manage tightly is a firm rationale from beginning to end.

Third, setting the example in fostering healthy tendencies, meaning that they must persist in the fact that disseminating positive energy is the general requirement.

Fourth, setting the example in establishing new styles, meaning that they must greatly initiate online civilized tendencies.

Fifth, setting the example in abiding by the law and discipline, meaning that they must stick to the baselines of laws and regulations.

Sixth, setting the example in exploring laws, meaning that they must raise the effectiveness of online disseminations.

Seven, setting the example in seeking development, meaning that they must strengthen the core competitiveness of online media.

Eighth, setting the example in building teams, meaning that they must build a line of strong teams loyal to the Party and the people. Continue reading