Xi Jinping’s Talks at the Beijing Forum on Literature and Art

The original text of the speech has not been published. This summary was published by Xinhua on 15 October.

Xi Jinping Chairs Forum on Literature and Art Work and Stresses

Persisting in the Creative Orientation of Putting the People Central

Creating Ever More Excellent Works Living Up to the Times

Liu Yunshan in Attendance

CCP General Secretary, State President and CMCC Chairman Xi Jinping chaired the Forum on Literature and Art Work organized in Beijing on the morning of the 15th, and gave an important speech. He stressed that literature and art are the bugle call for the advance of the times, are most able to represent the spirit of an era, and are most able to guide the mood of an era. To realize the “Two Centuries” struggle objective and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the role of literature and art is irreplaceable, and there is great promise from literature and art workers. The broad literature and art workers must understand the position and role of literature and art from this height, understand the historical mission and responsibility they bear, persist in the creative orientation of putting the people central, strive to create ever more excellent works living up to the times, carry forward the Chinese spirit, concentrate Chinese strengths, and encourage the people of all ethnicities in the entire country to march toward the future full of vigour and vitality.

Standing Committee member and Central Committee General Office Secretary Liu Yunshan attended the Forum.

At the forum, China Writer’s Association Chairwoman Tie Ning, China Peking Opera Association Chairman and Shanghai Peking Opera Theatre and Art Director Shang Changrong, Kongzheng Song and Dance Ensemble First-Level Playwright Yan Su, China Association of Fine Arts Vice-Chairman and China Academy of Fine Arts Director Chang Xuhong, China Association of Dance Chairwoman and National Theatre Dance Art Chief Inspector Zhao Rusu, China Writer’s Association Vice Chairman and Shanghai Municipal Writer’s Association Vice Chairman Ye Xin, China Film Association Chairman and China Drama Academy First-Level Performer Li Xuejian gave successive addresses.

After earnestly listening to everyone’s speeches, Xi Jinping made an important speech. First, he indicated that the literature and art undertaking is an important undertaking of the Party and the people, the literature and art battlefront is an important battlefront for the Party and the people. For a long period, the broad literature and art workers have devoted themselves to literature and art creation, performance, research and dissemination, and in their respective areas, have been diligent and hardworking, served the people, obtained clear achievements, and made important contributions. Through everyone’s joint efforts, a hundred flowers are growing in our literature and art garden and there are countless great fruits, presenting a vivid picture of flourishing and development. Xi Jinping extended his sincere respects to literature and art workers nationwide.

Xi Jinping pointed out that promoting the flourishing and development of literature and art, in the end, requires the creation and production of excellent works that can live up to this great nation and these great times. Literature and art workers should firmly keep in mind that creation is their central task, work is the root of their being, they must engage in their creation with calm hearts and a spirit of improvement, and present the best spiritual nourishment to the people. The creation and production of excellent works must be made into a central link of our literature and art work, and we must strive to produce even more excellent works that disseminate the value views of present-day China, reflect the spirit of Chinese culture, mirror the aesthetic pursuits of Chinese people, which organically integrate ideology, artistry and enjoyability.

Xi Jinping stressed that, since reform and opening up, our country’s literature and art creation has welcomed a new springtime, and produced large amounts of universally appreciated excellent works. At the same time, it cannot be denied that, in the area of literature and art creation, the phenomena that there is quantity but no quality, and there are “high plateaus” but no “high peaks” exist, the problem of plagiarism, imitation and stereotypes exist, and the problems of mechanistic production and fast-food-style consumption exist. Literature and art cannot lose its direction as it is absorbed into the market economy, it cannot accept deviations on the question for whom they are, otherwise, literature and art will not have life force. Vulgarity is not popularity, passion does not represent hope, and naive sensual amusement is not equal to spiritual cheer. The reason excellent works are “excellent”, lies in their ideological profundity, artistic exquisiteness and product superiority. [Translator's note, these three adjectives all contain the character 精, "excellent"]. Literature and art workers must hold high ideals, live and create in step with the times, and innovate through the individuality of their art. We must persist in the principle of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend, carry forward academic and artistic democracy, construct a vigorous, healthy, tranquil and harmonious atmosphere, advocate discussion between different viewpoints and schools of thought, advocate that styles, themes, forms and methods fully develop, and promote mutual praise and reflection in group discussion on ideas, content, styles and schools.

Xi Jinping pointed out that, to make literature and art creation flourish and promote literature and art innovation, we must have a large batch of distinguished literators and artists skilled in virtue and art. Our country’s writers and artists should become prophets, trailblazers, and pioneers of the spirit of the times, write and record the magnificent practice of the people and the demands for progress of the times through ever more literature and art works that have strong fibre, virtue and a warm temperature, display the beauty of faith and the beauty of the sublime. Literature and art workers must consciously persist in literature and art ideals, incessantly raise their scholarship, self-control and self-cultivation, strengthen their ideological accumulation, knowledge stores, cultural accomplishments and artistic training, earnestly and solemnly consider the social effect of their works, stress quality, place weight on artistic virtue, save righteousness for history, present beauty and virtue to the people of the world, strive to win people’s love and welcome with noble professional integrity, a fine social image, and beauty both in writing and quality.

Xi Jinping stressed that Socialist literature and art, essentially speaking, is the people’s literature and art. Literature and art must reflect well the people’s wishes; it must persist in the fundamental orientation of serving the people and serving Socialism. This is a basic requirement of the Party for the literature and art front, and is the crux that decides the future destiny of our country’s literature and art undertaking. We must make satisfying the people’s spiritual and cultural needs into a starting point and checking point for literature and art and literature and art workers, make the people into the centre of literature and art expressions, make the people into connoisseurs and critics of literature and art aesthetics, and make serving the people into the vocation of literature and art workers.

Xi Jinping pointed out that, following the incessant rise in people’s living standards, the people’s demands on quality, status and style of cultural products, including literature and art works, have risen. Literature, theatre, film, television, music, dance, fine arts, photography, calligraphy, folksong, acrobatics as well as folk literature and art, mass literature and art and other areas must follow the developments of the times, grasp the demands of the people, and create and produce excellent works that the people love to see and hear with full fervour, vivid brush strokes, graceful melodies and moving forms, to let the people’s spiritual and cultural lives incessantly climb towards new heights.

Xi Jinping stressed that the people are the sources of flowing water for literature and art creation, whenever they are removed from the people, literature and art will change into rootless duckweeds, baseless groaning, and soulless bodies. Whether or not we can produce excellent works fundamentally depends on whether or not we are able to write for the people, express emotions for the people, and express the compassion of the people. We must modestly learn from the people and learn from life, derive nutrients from the people’s magnificent practices and rich and varied lives, incessantly accumulate life and artistic experiences, incessantly discover the beautiful and create the beautiful. We must consistently keep the people’s daily lives and the people’s happiness in our hearts, pour the people’s range of emotions into our own brushstrokes, eulogize the struggling human life, portray the most beautiful characters, and persist in people’s yearning for and belief in beautiful lives.

Xi Jinping pointed out that if literature and art workers want to achieve success, they must consciously breathe together with the people, share their fate, link their hearts with the people’s hearts, fell joy for the joy of the people, suffer for the suffering of the people, and be servants of the people. They must love the people sincerely, love them profoundly, love them lastingly, and must deeply understand the rationale that the people are the creators of history, go deep among the masses, go deep into life, earnestly and sincerely be the little students of the people. Art may give wings to imagination, but it must absolutely have its feet on terra firma. There are a hundred, a thousand ways of creating art, but the most fundamental, the most crucial, and the most reliable method is taking root among the people and taking root in life. We should use realist spirits and romantic feelings to contemplate real life, use light to disperse darkness, use the beautiful and the good to vanquish the ugly and the evil, let the people see that beauty, hope and dreams are ahead.

Xi Jinping stressed that a good work should put social effect first, and at the same time should be a work that integrates social effect and economic effect. Literature and art cannot become slaves of the market, and must not be stained with the stink of money. Excellent literature and art works, at best, can gain ideological and artistic successes, and can receive a welcome on the market.

Xi Jinping pointed out that every age has a spirit of the age. Literature and art are the engineering project of casting souls, literature and art workers are engineers of the souls. Good literature and art work should be like sunlight in a blue sky, like a cool spring breeze, they should be able to enlighten thoughts, caress spirits and mould people’s lives, they should be able to clear away the wind of despair. The broad literature and art workers must carry forward the banner of the Socialist core value system, reflect the Socialist core value system in their literature and art creation vividly, vigorously and in a lifelike manner, use true-to-life images to tell people what they should affirm and praise, and what they must oppose and deny, ensure that the salutary effect of education, like a spring breeze, noiselessly touches all. We must make patriotism into the main melody of literature and art creation, guide the people to establish and uphold correct views of history, views of the nation, views of the country and views of culture, and strengthen their fortitude and resolve to be Chinese.

Xi Jinping stressed that pursuing the true, the good and the beautiful is the eternal value of literature and art. The highest boundary of literature and art is moving people, letting the spirits of people experience baptisms, letting the people discover the beauty of nature, the beauty of life and the beauty of the spirit. We must, through literature and art works, spread the true, the good and the beautiful, spread upward and charitable value views, guide the people in strengthening their powers of moral judgment and their sense of moral honour, yearn for and pursue a life of stressing morals, respecting morals and abiding morals. As long as the Chinese nation pursues the moral plane of the true, the good and the beautiful generation by generation, our nation will be eternally healthy and upward, and will for always be full of hope.

Xi Jinping pointed out that China’s excellent traditional culture is the spiritual lifeline of the Chinese nation, is an important source nourishing the Socialist core value system, and is a firm basis for us to get a firm foothold within the global cultural surge. We must integrate the conditions of new times with inheriting and carrying forward China’s excellent traditional culture, and inheriting and carrying forward a Chinese aesthetic spirit. For our Socialist literature and art to flourish and develop, we must earnestly study and learn from the excellent literature and art created by people in all countries worldwide. Only if we persist in using the foreign to serve the Chinese, exploration and innovation, ensuring combinations of the Chinese and the Western, and mastery through comprehensive study, will our country’s literature and art be able to flourish and develop better.

Xi Jinping stressed that all levels’ Party Committees must bring literature and art work onto the important matters agenda, implement the Party’s literature and art principles and policies well, and grasp the correct orientation of literature and art development. We must choose good leadership ranks for strong literature and art work units, put cadres who have both ability and integrity, and who are able to be on the same page as literature and art workers into leading positions in literature and art work. We must respect the creative individuality and creative labour of literature and art workers, have full confidence in political matters, provide enthusiastic support in creative matters, and create a good environment for the benefit of literature and art creation. We must, through deepening reform, perfecting policies and completing structures, shape a vivid picture of incessant production of excellent work and talents. We must give high attention to and realistically strengthen literature and art criticism work, use the viewpoints of history, the people, art and aesthetics to judge and appreciate works, advocate telling the truth, stressing virtue, and create a good atmosphere to develop literature and art criticism.

Wang Huning, Liu Yandong, Lu Qibao, Xu Qiliang and Li Zhanshu attended the Forum.

Persons in charge from relevant Party and State departments, and the Liberation Army General Political Department, as well as representatives of literature and art workers from all sectors participated in the Forum.

 

 

spirit of the times, write an nd social media. It will particularly reflect on the development of frameworks for user-generate

Strive to Foster and Practice the Socialist Core Value View

This revised version of a speech given on 4 January 2014 was published in Seeking Truth on 16 January 2014.

Liu Yunshan

Not long ago, the CCP Central Committee Secretariat issued the “Opinions concerning Fostering and Practicing the Socialist Core Value View” (hereafter simply named “Opinions), this is an important measure of our Party to move the construction of the Socialist value system forward. We must earnestly implement the spirit of the series of speeches by General Secretary Xi Jinping, realistically grasp the implementation of the “Opinions”, strive to build a common spiritual garden for the Chinese people, and promote the formation of strong forces that exert themselves for progress, worship virtue and seek the good.

I, Grasping the relationship between the core value view and the core value system well. Continue reading

Liu Qibao: Some Points of Understanding concerning the Theoretical Structure of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics.

This article by Central Propaganda Department director Liu Qibao was published in today’s People’s Daily.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics is composed of a path, a theoretical structure and an institutional system, it is the basic achievement for which the Party and the people have struggled, and that they have created and accumulated over more than ninety years. The theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics is an important component part, it is the newest achievement of the Sinification of Marxism, and is the guidebook for action in persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the China of the present, persisting in the theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics means persisting in Marxism and persisting in scientific Socialism. We must earnestly study the Report of the 18th Party Congress and the series of important speeches by comrade Xi Jinping, earnestly study Party history and national history, incessantly deepen understanding of the theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in self-confidence about Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and struggle even better for the complete construction of a moderately prosperous society, and for realizing the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the nation. Continue reading

Providing a Powerful Theoretical Basis for Realizing the Chinese Dream

Qiushi, 1 June 2013

Letting  philosophy and social science flourish is a necessary requirement for persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is a strong call for realizing the country’s wealth and strength, the vitalization of the nation and the happiness of the people. Since 16th Party Congress, under the determined leadership of the Party Centre, the philosophy and social science front has closely grasped the correct political orientation, has closely revolved around the larger picture of Party and State work, has forcefully moved all work forward, has obtained clear advances, and has made important contributions to consolidating mainstream ideology and public opinion, letting academic theory flourish, and for promoting reform, opening up and modernization construction. In the magnificent journey of realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, philosophy and social science are as broad as heaven and earth, and are very promising. Continue reading

Speech at the Capital Conference Commemorating the 30th Anniversary of the Promulgation and Entry Into Force of the Current Constitution

Xi Jinping

Comrades, friends:

On 4 December 1982, the 5th Meeting of the 5th National People’s Congress passed the “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China”. Already thirty years have passed since our country’s current constitution was promulgated and came into force. Today, we have ceremoniously gathered to commemorate this event, which has a major historical significance and real significance, which is the guarantee of the complete and effective implementation of the Constitution, and the promotion of the complete implementation of the spirit of the 18th Party Congress.

History can always bring profound enlightenment to people. Looking back at the development process of our country’s constitutional system, we feel ever more that our country’s Constitution is closely connected with the arduous struggle conducted by the Party and the people, and the glorious achievements that they have accomplished, and it is closely connected with the path forward opened up by the Party and the people, and the precious experiences that they have accumulated.

Our country’s current Constitution can be traced back to the “Common Programme of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference” that played the role of a provisional constitution, and the “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” that was passed in 1954 at the first meeting of the first People’s Congress. These documents both have the form of the basic law of the country, they affirmed the heroic struggle of more than a century of modernity by the Chinese people against domestic and foreign enemies and for the independence of the nation and the freedom and happiness of the people, and affirmed the historical change of the Chinese Communist Party leading the people to seize victory in the New Democratic revolution, in which the Chinese people grasped State power.

In 1978, our Party convened the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, which had a major historical significance, it heralded a new historical period of reform and opening up, and the development of Socialist democracy and the completion of a Socialist legal system became an unswerving basic policy of the Party and the country. It was at this meeting that Comrade Deng Xiaoping profoundly pointed out that: “In order to guarantee the people’s democracy, we must strengthen the legal system. We must ensure that democracy becomes institutionalized and legalized, and ensure that these institutions and laws do not change because leaders change, or that they do not change because the viewpoints and attention of leaders change”. On the basis of the line, principles and policies determined at the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, summarizing both positive and negative experiences in our country’s Socialist construction, drawing profound and bitter lessons from the decade of the “Cultural Revolution”, learning from the successes and failures of global Socialism, adapting to the demands of our country’s reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction, as well as strengthening the construction of a Socialist democratic legal system, we have formulated our country’s current Constitution. At the same time, the constitution can only have lasting vitality if it is incessantly adapted to new circumstances, takes in new experiences and recognizes new results. In 1988, 1993, 1999 and 2004, the NPC respectively made necessary and extremely important revisions to individual articles and a part of the content of our country’s Constitution, ensuring that our country’s Constitution, on the basis of maintaining stability and authority, follows in the footsteps of the progress of the age, and incessantly moves ahead with the times.

Our country’s Constitution takes the form of the basic law of the country, which established the development achievements of the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, the theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics and the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and reflected the common will and fundamental interest of the people of all ethnicities in our country, it became the highest reflection in the national legal system of the central work, basic principles, major guidelines and important policies of the Party and the country in a new historical period.

In thirty years, our country’s Constitution, its supreme position in the legal system and its strong legal force have powerfully guaranteed that the people are the masters of their own affairs, have powerfully stimulated reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction, have powerfully promoted the process of Socialist rule of law, have powerfully stimulated the development of the cause of human rights, and have powerfully safeguarded national unity, ethnic unity and social stability, they have had an extremely profound influence on our country’s political, economic, cultural and social life.

The process of development of thirty years fully demonstrates that our country’s Constitution is a good constitution that conforms to our national conditions, conforms to reality and conforms to the development demands of the times, it is a good constitution that fully reflects the people’s common will, fully guarantee’s the people’s democratic rights, and fully safeguards the people’s fundamental interests, it is a good constitution that promotes the process of national development, guarantees the people’s creation of happy lives, and guarantees that the Chinese nation will realize its great rejuvenation, and it is the fundamental legal system guarantee for our country and people to undergo all sorts of difficulties, dangers and trials, and advance along the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics from beginning to end.

When we go further back, and trace back the development process of our country’s constitutional system in the sixty years since the establishment of the New China, we can clearly see that the Constitution, the prospects of the country and the fate of the people are closely connected. Safeguarding the authority of the Constitution means safeguarding the authority of the common will of the Party and the people. Defending the dignity of the Constitution means defending the dignity of the common will of the Party and the people. Guaranteeing the implementation of the Constitution means guaranteeing the realization of the fundamental interests of the people. As long as we realistically respect and effectively implement the Constitution, will it be guaranteed that the people are masters of their own affairs, and will it be possible for the cause of the Party and the country to develop smoothly. Conversely, if the Constitution is ignored, weakened or even destroyed, it is impossible to guarantee the people’s rights and liberties, and the cause of the Party and the country will meet with setbacks. These precious enlightenments have been obtained through a long time of practice, and must be doubly cherished. We must even more consciously abide by the principles of the Constitution, carry forward the spirit of the Constitution, and implement the mission of the Constitution.

At the same time as fully affirming achievements, we must also look at shortcomings that exist, and which mainly manifest themselves as: the fact that supervisory mechanisms and concrete structures for supervising the implementation of the constitution are not yet complete, that the problems that there are laws that are not followed, law enforcement is not strict and law-breaking is not prosecuted still exist in a number of localities and departments; problems in law enforcement and the judiciary that relate to interests directly affecting the popular masses are still quite prominent; a number of civil servants abuse their power and position, neglect their duty or engage in malpractice, break the law in law enforcement and even bend the law for relatives and friends, gravely harming the authority of the State legal system; the constitutional consciousness of citizens, including a number of leading cadres, remains to be further raised. We must give these problems high importance, and realistically resolve them.

Comrades, friends!

The 18th Party Congress stressed that ruling the country according to the law is the basic strategy of the Party’s leading the people in governing the country, the rule of law is the basic method to rule the country according to the law, and more attention must be paid to giving full rein to the important role of the rule of law in governing the country and managing society, completely move ruling the country according to the law forward and accelerate the construction of a Socialist rule of law country. To realize this objective, we must completely implement the Constitution.

Completely implementing the Constitution is the first task and basic work in building a Socialist rule of law country. The Constitution is the basic law of the country, it is the general charter to administer state affairs and ensure national security, it has the highest legal position, legal authority and legal effect, it has a fundamental nature, comprehensive nature, stable nature and long-term nature. The people of all ethnicities in the entire country, all State organs and armed forces, all political parties and social organizations, all enterprise and undertaking work units, must take the Constitution as the fundamental norm for action, and bear responsibility for safeguarding the dignity of the constitution and guaranteeing the implementation of the constitution. No organization or individual may have privileges that exceed the Constitution of the law. All acts violating the Constitution and the law must be punished.

The life of the Constitution lies in its interpretation, the authority of the Constitution also lies in its interpretation. We must unwaveringly persist in grasping the work to implement the Constitution, and raise the complete implementation of the Constitution to a new level.

First, persist in the correct political orientation, unwaveringly persist in marching the political development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since reform and opening up, our Party has made great progress in uniting and leading the people to develop Socialist democratic politics, it successfully opened up and persisted in the political development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and determined the correct orientation for realizing the broadest popular democracy. The core ideology of this political development path, its central content and basic requirements have all been affirmed and reflected in the Constitution, their spiritual essences are closely connected, mutually linked and mutually stimulating. The basic systems and basic tasks of the country, the leading core and guiding ideology of the country, the national system of the people’s democratic dictatorship in which the working class leads and which is based on the alliance between workers and peasants, the political structure of the People’s Congress system, the multi-party cooperation and political consultative conference system under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, the ethnic autonomous region system as well as the grass roots mass autonomy system, the patriotic united front, the principles of the Socialist legal system, the principles of the democratic centralism system, the principles of respecting and guaranteeing human rights, etc., these systems and principles determined in the constitution are matters that we must persist in for the long-term, completely implement and incessantly develop.

The key to persist in the political development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics is persisting in the organic unity of the leadership of the Party, the people mastering their own affairs and ruling the country according to the law, making guaranteeing the fact that the people master their own affairs into the basis, making strengthening the vitality of the Party and the country and mustering the vigour of the people into the objective, broadening Socialist democracy, and developing a Socialist political civilization. We must persist in the constitutional concept that all State power belongs to the people, mobilize and organize the people to the broadest extent,  to exercise State power through People’s Congresses at all levels,  to manage State and social affairs and manage economic and cultural matters through various channels and forms, construct together, enjoy together and develop together, and become the masters of the country, the society and their own fate. We must, according to the principle of democratic centralism and the principle of State power structures and activities determined in the Constitution, ensure that People’s Congresses uniformly exercise State power, ensure that policymaking power, implementation power and supervision power are both subject to rational division of work and are mutually coordinated, guarantee that State organs exercise their powers and carry out their duties according to their statutory competences and procedures, and guarantee that State organs uniformly and effectively organize undertakings in all areas. We must, on the basis of the structures and principles determined in the Constitution, correctly handle the relationship between the Centre and the localities, correctly handle the relationship between the ethnicities, correctly handle the relationships between interests on various sides, mobilize all positive factors, consolidate and develop a political picture of democratic unity, vigour and dynamism, stability and harmony. We must adapt to the new demands of broadening the people’s democracy and stimulating economic and social development, vigorously and reliably move political structural reform forward, develop an even broader, fuller and more complete people’s democracy, fully give rein to the superiority of out country’s Socialist political system, and incessantly move the self-perfection and development of Socialist political institutions forward.

Second, implement the basic strategy of ruling the country according to the law, and accelerate the construction of a Socialist rule of law country. The Constitution has determined the basic principles of the Socialist legal system, and has clearly provided that the People’s Republic of China implements ruling the country according to the law, that a Socialist rule of law country is to be built, and that the State safeguards the unity and dignity of the Socialist legal system. To implement the basic strategy of ruling the country according to the law and accelerate the construction of a Socialist rule of law country, we must comprehensively move the process of scientific legislation, strict law enforcement, fair administration of justice and the entire population abiding by the law forward.

We must make the Constitution into the highest legal norm, continue to perfect the legal system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics with the Constitution in command, bring all State affairs and all areas of work onto the tracks of the legal system, realize that there are laws to rely on, that laws must be relied on where they exist, that law enforcement must be strict and law-breaking must be prosecuted, safeguard social fairness and justice, realize the institutionalization and legalization of State and social life. The NPC and its Standing Committee must strengthen legislation in focus areas, expand channels for the people’s orderly participation in legislation, promote the implementation of the Constitution through perfect laws, and guarantee that the institutions and principles determined in the Constitution are implemented. The State Council, local People’s Congress with legislative powers and their Standing Committees must grasp the formulation and revision of administrative regulations and local regulations that supplement laws, guaranteeing that the Constitution and the laws are effectively implemented. All levels’ administrative State organs, judicial organs and prosecutorial organs must persist in administration according to the law and judicial fairness, accelerate moving the construction of rule of law government forward, and incessantly raise judicial credibility. The State Council and all local levels’ People’s Governments are the executive organs of organs of State power, as administrative State organs, they bear an important responsibility in strictly implementing the Constitution and the laws, government acts must be standardized, realistically ensuring strict standards, and fair and civilized law enforcement. We must deepen judicial structural reform, guarantee the fair and independent exercise of judicial power and prosecutorial power according to the law. The NPC, its Standing Committee and relevant State supervision organs must take responsibility for constitutional and legal supervision, strengthen supervision over and inspection of the implementation of the Constitution and the law, complete supervision mechanisms and procedures, and persist in rectifying acts violating the Constitution and the law. All local levels’ People’s Congresses and their Standing Committees must exercise their powers according to the law, and guarantee that the  Constitution and the laws are respected and implemented in their administrative areas.

Third, persist in the dominant position of the people, realistically guarantee that the people enjoy rights and carry out their obligations. The basic rights and obligations of the people are the core content of the Constitution, the Constitution is the fundamental guarantee for every citizen to enjoy rights and carry out obligations. The basis of the Constitution lies in the people endorsing it from within their hearts, the majesty of the Constitution lies in the people’s sincere belief. Only by guaranteeing that citizens are equal before the law without exception, respecting and guaranteeing human rights, and guaranteeing that the people enjoy broad rights and liberties according to the law, is it possible for the Constitution to deeply enter people’s hearts and walk into the popular masses, and is it possible for implementing the Constitution to truly become a conscious act of the whole body of the people.

We must guarantee that the whole body of citizens enjoys broad rights according to the law, guarantee that citizens’ personal rights, property rights, basic political rights and all other rights are not infringed, guarantee that citizens’ economic social and other rights are implemented, strive to safeguard the fundamental interest of the broadest people, and guarantee the people’s aspiration and pursuit of beautiful lives. We must treat the popular masses’ appeals fairly and according to the law, and strive to let the popular masses feel fairness and justice in every judicial case, we can absolutely not let unfair judgments harm the feelings of the popular masses and damage the rights and interest of the popular masses. We must strengthen propaganda and education about the Constitution in the entire society, raise the constitutional consciousness and ideas about the legal consciousness of the whole body of the people and especially leading cadres at all levels and State organs’ work personnel, carry forward the spirit of Socialist rule of law, strive to foster a Socialist rule of law culture, let the Constitution be known to every household, and shape a good atmosphere to study the law, respect the law and abide by the law in the entire society. We must, through unwavering efforts, establish the authority of the Constitution and the laws n the entire society, let the broad popular masses fully believe in the law and consciously use the law, ensure that the broad popular masses understand that the Constitution is not only a norm for action that the whole body of citizens must respect, but is also a legal arm to guarantee citizens’ rights. We must make education about the Constitution into an important content of Party member and cadre education, ensure that all levels’ leading cadres and State organs’ work personnel grasp a basic understanding of the Constitution, and establish a conscious mentality of loyalty to the Constitution, respect for the Constitution and upholding the constitution. The law is written morality, morality is the law in our hearts. We must persist in integrating ruling the country according to the law with ruling the country according to morality, give high regard to the normative role of morality in people’s activities, guide citizens to both safeguard their lawful rights and interests according to the law, and consciously carry out their statutory obligations, ensuring consistency between enjoying rights and carrying out obligations.

Fourth, persist in the leadership of the Party, pay even more attention to improving the Party’s leadership methods and governance methods. To rule the country according to the law, we must first and foremost rule the country according to the Constitution; to govern according to the law, governing according to the Constitution is crucial. Under new circumstances, our Party must carry out its major duties of governance and rejuvenating the country well, the Party must be strictly governed according to the Party Constitution, and the country must be ruled according to the Constitution. The Party led the people in formulating the Constitution and the laws, the Party leads the people in implementing the Constitution and the laws, the Party must itself act within the scope of the Constitution and the law, truly achieving that the Party leads legislation, guarantees law enforcement, and takes the lead in abiding by the law.

We must persist in the core leading role of the Party, which assumes responsibility for the entire picture and coordinates al aspects, persist in the basic strategy of governing the country according to the law and the basic method of holding power according to the law, be good at ensuring that the Party’s standpoints become the will of the nation through legal procedures, be good at ensuring that the candidates recommended by Party organizations become leading persons in organs of State power, be good at implementing Party leadership over the country and society through the organs of State power, persist in the fact that organs of State power, administrative organs, judicial organs and prosecutorial organs bear independent responsibility according to the Constitution and the law, and launch their work in a coordinated and consistent manner. All levels’ Party organizations and leading Party cadres must take the lead in rigorously enforcing the rule of law, incessantly raise their ability for and level of administration according to the law, and incessantly enhance the institutionalization and legalization of all sorts of activities of administration and governance. All levels’ leading cadres must raise their ability to use rule of law thinking and rule of law methods to deepen reform, promote development, dissolve contradictions and maintain stability, strive to promote the formation of a good rule of law environment in which affairs are handled according to the law, the law is sought when problems are encountered, the law is used to resolve problems, and the law is relied upon in resolving contradictions, and promote all areas of work to proceed along the tracks of rule of law. We must complete systems to restrain and supervise the use of power, those having power must have responsibility, the use of power must be supervised, neglect of duty must lead to accountability, and violations of the law must be prosecuted, guaranteeing that the power endowed by the people is used for the interest of the people throughout.

Comrades, friends!

The people of all ethnicities in the entire Party and the entire country must closely unite around the Party Centre, hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, persist in jointly moving ahead with governing the country according to the law, holding power according to the law and running the administration according to the law, persist in the integrated construction of a rule of law country, rule of law government and rule of law society, firmly implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress in all areas of work, and struggle valiantly for the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society and the beginning of a new dimension for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics!

习近平:在首都各界纪念现行宪法公布施行30周年大会上的讲话
同志们,朋友们:

1982年12月4日,五届全国人大五次会议通过了《中华人民共和国宪法》。我国现行宪法公布施行至今已经30年了。今天,我们在这里隆重集会,纪念这一具有重大历史意义和现实意义的事件,就是要保证宪法全面有效实施、推动全面贯彻党的十八大精神。

历史总能给人以深刻启示。回顾我国宪法制度发展历程,我们愈加感到,我国宪法同党和人民进行的艰苦奋斗和创造的辉煌成就紧密相连,同党和人民开辟的前进道路和积累的宝贵经验紧密相连。

我国现行宪法可以追溯到1949年具有临时宪法作用的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》和1954年一届全国人大一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法》。这些文献都以国家根本法的形式,确认了近代100多年来中国人民为反对内外敌人、争取民族独立和人民自由幸福进行的英勇斗争,确认了中国共产党领导中国人民夺取新民主主义革命胜利、中国人民掌握国家权力的历史变革。

1978年,我们党召开具有重大历史意义的十一届三中全会,开启了改革开放历史新时期,发展社会主义民主、健全社会主义法制成为党和国家坚定不移的基本方针。就是在这次会议上,邓小平同志深刻指出:“为了保障人民民主,必须加强法制。必须使民主制度化、法律化,使这种制度和法律不因领导人的改变而改变,不因领导人的看法和注意力的改变而改变。”根据党的十一届三中全会确立的路线方针政策,总结我国社会主义建设正反两方面经验,深刻吸取十年“文化大革命”的沉痛教训,借鉴世界社会主义成败得失,适应我国改革开放和社会主义现代化建设、加强社会主义民主法制建设的新要求,我们制定了我国现行宪法。同时,宪法只有不断适应新形势、吸纳新经验、确认新成果,才能具有持久生命力。1988年、1993年、1999年、2004年,全国人大分别对我国宪法个别条款和部分内容作出必要的、也是十分重要的修正,使我国宪法在保持稳定性和权威性的基础上紧跟时代前进步伐,不断与时俱进。

我国宪法以国家根本法的形式,确立了中国特色社会主义道路、中国特色社会主义理论体系、中国特色社会主义制度的发展成果,反映了我国各族人民的共同意志和根本利益,成为历史新时期党和国家的中心工作、基本原则、重大方针、重要政策在国家法制上的最高体现。

30年来,我国宪法以其至上的法制地位和强大的法制力量,有力保障了人民当家作主,有力促进了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设,有力推动了社会主义法治国家进程,有力促进了人权事业发展,有力维护了国家统一、民族团结、社会稳定,对我国政治、经济、文化、社会生活产生了极为深刻的影响。

30年来的发展历程充分证明,我国宪法是符合国情、符合实际、符合时代发展要求的好宪法,是充分体现人民共同意志、充分保障人民民主权利、充分维护人民根本利益的好宪法,是推动国家发展进步、保证人民创造幸福生活、保障中华民族实现伟大复兴的好宪法,是我们国家和人民经受住各种困难和风险考验、始终沿着中国特色社会主义道路前进的根本法制保证。

再往前追溯至新中国成立以来60多年我国宪法制度的发展历程,我们可以清楚地看到,宪法与国家前途、人民命运息息相关。维护宪法权威,就是维护党和人民共同意志的权威。捍卫宪法尊严,就是捍卫党和人民共同意志的尊严。保证宪法实施,就是保证人民根本利益的实现。只要我们切实尊重和有效实施宪法,人民当家作主就有保证,党和国家事业就能顺利发展。反之,如果宪法受到漠视、削弱甚至破坏,人民权利和自由就无法保证,党和国家事业就会遭受挫折。这些从长期实践中得出的宝贵启示,必须倍加珍惜。我们要更加自觉地恪守宪法原则、弘扬宪法精神、履行宪法使命。

在充分肯定成绩的同时,我们也要看到存在的不足,主要表现在:保证宪法实施的监督机制和具体制度还不健全,有法不依、执法不严、违法不究现象在一些地方和部门依然存在;关系人民群众切身利益的执法司法问题还比较突出;一些公职人员滥用职权、失职渎职、执法犯法甚至徇私枉法严重损害国家法制权威;公民包括一些领导干部的宪法意识还有待进一步提高。对这些问题,我们必须高度重视,切实加以解决。

同志们、朋友们!

党的十八大强调,依法治国是党领导人民治理国家的基本方略,法治是治国理政的基本方式,要更加注重发挥法治在国家治理和社会管理中的重要作用,全面推进依法治国,加快建设社会主义法治国家。实现这个目标要求,必须全面贯彻实施宪法。

全面贯彻实施宪法,是建设社会主义法治国家的首要任务和基础性工作。宪法是国家的根本法,是治国安邦的总章程,具有最高的法律地位、法律权威、法律效力,具有根本性、全局性、稳定性、长期性。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。任何组织或者个人,都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,都必须予以追究。

宪法的生命在于实施,宪法的权威也在于实施。我们要坚持不懈抓好宪法实施工作,把全面贯彻实施宪法提高到一个新水平。

第一,坚持正确政治方向,坚定不移走中国特色社会主义政治发展道路。改革开放以来,我们党团结带领人民在发展社会主义民主政治方面取得了重大进展,成功开辟和坚持了中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,为实现最广泛的人民民主确立了正确方向。这一政治发展道路的核心思想、主体内容、基本要求,都在宪法中得到了确认和体现,其精神实质是紧密联系、相互贯通、相互促进的。国家的根本制度和根本任务,国家的领导核心和指导思想,工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的国体,人民代表大会制度的政体,中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度以及基层群众自治制度,爱国统一战线,社会主义法制原则,民主集中制原则,尊重和保障人权原则,等等,这些宪法确立的制度和原则,我们必须长期坚持、全面贯彻、不断发展。

坚持中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,关键是要坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,以保证人民当家作主为根本,以增强党和国家活力、调动人民积极性为目标,扩大社会主义民主,发展社会主义政治文明。我们要坚持国家一切权力属于人民的宪法理念,最广泛地动员和组织人民依照宪法和法律规定,通过各级人民代表大会行使国家权力,通过各种途径和形式管理国家和社会事务、管理经济和文化事业,共同建设,共同享有,共同发展,成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。我们要按照宪法确立的民主集中制原则、国家政权体制和活动准则,实行人民代表大会统一行使国家权力,实行决策权、执行权、监督权既有合理分工又有相互协调,保证国家机关依照法定权限和程序行使职权、履行职责,保证国家机关统一有效组织各项事业。我们要根据宪法确立的体制和原则,正确处理中央和地方关系,正确处理民族关系,正确处理各方面利益关系,调动一切积极因素,巩固和发展民主团结、生动活泼、安定和谐的政治局面。我们要适应扩大人民民主、促进经济社会发展的新要求,积极稳妥推进政治体制改革,发展更加广泛、更加充分、更加健全的人民民主,充分发挥我国社会主义政治制度优越性,不断推进社会主义政治制度自我完善和发展。

第二,落实依法治国基本方略,加快建设社会主义法治国家。宪法确立了社会主义法制的基本原则,明确规定中华人民共和国实行依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家,国家维护社会主义法制的统一和尊严。落实依法治国基本方略,加快建设社会主义法治国家,必须全面推进科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法进程。

我们要以宪法为最高法律规范,继续完善以宪法为统帅的中国特色社会主义法律体系,把国家各项事业和各项工作纳入法制轨道,实行有法可依、有法必依、执法必严、违法必究,维护社会公平正义,实现国家和社会生活制度化、法制化。全国人大及其常委会要加强重点领域立法,拓展人民有序参与立法途径,通过完备的法律推动宪法实施,保证宪法确立的制度和原则得到落实。国务院和有立法权的地方人大及其常委会要抓紧制定和修改与法律相配套的行政法规和地方性法规,保证宪法和法律得到有效实施。各级国家行政机关、审判机关、检察机关要坚持依法行政、公正司法,加快推进法治政府建设,不断提高司法公信力。国务院和地方各级人民政府作为国家权力机关的执行机关,作为国家行政机关,负有严格贯彻实施宪法和法律的重要职责,要规范政府行为,切实做到严格规范公正文明执法。我们要深化司法体制改革,保证依法独立公正行使审判权、检察权。全国人大及其常委会和国家有关监督机关要担负起宪法和法律监督职责,加强对宪法和法律实施情况的监督检查,健全监督机制和程序,坚决纠正违宪违法行为。地方各级人大及其常委会要依法行使职权,保证宪法和法律在本行政区域内得到遵守和执行。

第三,坚持人民主体地位,切实保障公民享有权利和履行义务。公民的基本权利和义务是宪法的核心内容,宪法是每个公民享有权利、履行义务的根本保证。宪法的根基在于人民发自内心的拥护,宪法的伟力在于人民出自真诚的信仰。只有保证公民在法律面前一律平等,尊重和保障人权,保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,宪法才能深入人心,走入人民群众,宪法实施才能真正成为全体人民的自觉行动。

我们要依法保障全体公民享有广泛的权利,保障公民的人身权、财产权、基本政治权利等各项权利不受侵犯,保证公民的经济、文化、社会等各方面权利得到落实,努力维护最广大人民根本利益,保障人民群众对美好生活的向往和追求。我们要依法公正对待人民群众的诉求,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中都能感受到公平正义,决不能让不公正的审判伤害人民群众感情、损害人民群众权益。我们要在全社会加强宪法宣传教育,提高全体人民特别是各级领导干部和国家机关工作人员的宪法意识和法制观念,弘扬社会主义法治精神,努力培育社会主义法治文化,让宪法家喻户晓,在全社会形成学法尊法守法用法的良好氛围。我们要通过不懈努力,在全社会牢固树立宪法和法律的权威,让广大人民群众充分相信法律、自觉运用法律,使广大人民群众认识到宪法不仅是全体公民必须遵循的行为规范,而且是保障公民权利的法律武器。我们要把宪法教育作为党员干部教育的重要内容,使各级领导干部和国家机关工作人员掌握宪法的基本知识,树立忠于宪法、遵守宪法、维护宪法的自觉意识。法律是成文的道德,道德是内心的法律。我们要坚持把依法治国和以德治国结合起来,高度重视道德对公民行为的规范作用,引导公民既依法维护合法权益,又自觉履行法定义务,做到享有权利和履行义务相一致。

第四,坚持党的领导,更加注重改进党的领导方式和执政方式。依法治国,首先是依宪治国;依法执政,关键是依宪执政。新形势下,我们党要履行好执政兴国的重大职责,必须依据党章从严治党、依据宪法治国理政。党领导人民制定宪法和法律,党领导人民执行宪法和法律,党自身必须在宪法和法律范围内活动,真正做到党领导立法、保证执法、带头守法。

我们要坚持党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,坚持依法治国基本方略和依法执政基本方式,善于使党的主张通过法定程序成为国家意志,善于使党组织推荐的人选成为国家政权机关的领导人员,善于通过国家政权机关实施党对国家和社会的领导,支持国家权力机关、行政机关、审判机关、检察机关依照宪法和法律独立负责、协调一致地开展工作。各级党组织和党员领导干部要带头厉行法治,不断提高依法执政能力和水平,不断推进各项治国理政活动的制度化、法律化。各级领导干部要提高运用法治思维和法治方式深化改革、推动发展、化解矛盾、维护稳定能力,努力推动形成办事依法、遇事找法、解决问题用法、化解矛盾靠法的良好法治环境,在法治轨道上推动各项工作。我们要健全权力运行制约和监督体系,有权必有责,用权受监督,失职要问责,违法要追究,保证人民赋予的权力始终用来为人民谋利益。

同志们、朋友们!

全党全国各族人民要紧密团结在党中央周围,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,坚持以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,扎扎实实把党的十八大精神落实到各项工作中去,为全面建成小康社会、开创中国特色社会主义事业新局面而努力奋斗!

Speech at “The Road to Rejuvenation”

Xi Jinping

29 November 2012

We just visited the exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation”, this exhibition reviews the yesterday of the Chinese nation, displays the today of the Chinese nation, and announces the tomorrow of the Chinese nation. After I saw it, I had many thoughts and feelings, it brings deep education and enlightenment.

The yesterday of the Chinese nation can well be called “an impregnable pass like a wall of iron”, this nation of ours suffered very gravely after the beginning of the modern era, it made enormous sacrifices, such as been rarely seen in the history of the world. But because the Chinese people have never surrendered, and incessantly rose with force and spirit to resist, we grasped hold of our own fate in the end. We began the magnificent process of arranging the construction of our own country. This has fully displayed the magnificent national spirit with nationalism at the core. Continue reading

Report concerning the Work Situation in Deepening Cultural Structural Reform and Promoting the Grand Development and Grand Flourishing of Socialist Culture

Given on 24 October 2012 at the 29th Meeting of the 11th Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress

Minister of Culture: Cai Wu

Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress,

I have been entrusted by the State Council to report to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on the work situation in deepening cultural structural reform and promoting the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture. Cultural structural reform and development work involve culture, radio, film and television, press and publications, and various other areas, and for this report, the opinions of the Central Propaganda Department as well as SARFT, the General Administration of Press and Publications, the Information Office and other departments were sought, in order to as much as possible, completely reflect the comprehensive situation of cultural structural reform and development work, please consider it. Continue reading

Liu Yunshan: Jubilantly Welcome the 18th Party Congress

There are obvious differences between the leadership transitions in the two largest economies in the world, which will take place within days from each other, in November. Most importantly China doesn’t have a presidential election, as the United States does. Its leadership transitions are organized opaquely, in backrooms filled with the smoke of Panda cigarettes and without any external input. The United States works in quite the opposite way: candidates are intensely scrutinized in the press. Every detail of their private history and public service records are put under the  spotlight. This vetting is considered to be of fundamental importance in the process, and has hobbled (Romney’s tax reviews) or ended (Herman Cain’s alleged misconduct) a number of presidential campaign bid. In China, the opposite happens. The personal life and history of top-level leaders is proclaimed to be beyond reproach and they or their families may not be investigated. Similar things happen with policy. A huge political marketing machine has been set up to market, analyze, compare and criticize the policy proposals made by candidates, whereas in China, a huge political marketing machine has been set up to flood the public sphere with a continuous message that the Party’s policy is correct.

China’s political marketing machine is faced, however, with a few problems. First, the Communist Party is obliged to take responsibility for the overall state of the country. It can’t blame a previous government for problems, as the Party has been in power for over six decades. It can’t blame stubborn opposition, as there is none, and it can’t significantly shift in basic political direction, as it has claimed over the last three decades that their policies are correct and historically determined. It can blame foreign hostility and volatile international circumstances, but then, it needs also to explain why China isn’t using its growing international clout to shape the international environment to suit it better. It can also claim that every historical phase brings along its own challenges, and does so, but this can only be a small part of its propaganda. Dealing with challenges requires political choices to be made, and may engender opportunities for dissent. Rather, the Party contends that policymaking is a scientific manner where optimal solutions to problems can be found, depoliticizing the policymaking process.

This is especially important now, as the 18th Party Congress is coming along. This transition is a delicate moment, and all stops are being pulled to ensure that no opposition can organize. One key aspect of this is propaganda. The Party believes it needs to not only tell the people that they are better off, China is getting more important and stronger internationally, and Hu Jintao’s decade of leadership has been a great success; it also believes it needs to mobilize the people to give full and enthusiastic support to the new generation of leaders. The propaganda campaign for this Congress was officially launched late in July, two days after Hu Jintao gave his valedictory speech. Liu Yunshan gave a speech to a conference of propaganda department directors outlining the measures that must be taken “to welcome the victorious convocation of the 18h Party Congress” (Available in translation).  Liu heads the Central Propaganda Department and is widely tipped to succeed his political godfather, Li Changchun, to the Standing Committee propaganda and ideology portfolio, . Most of these measures are taken directly from the standard Communist playbook. Advanced models of communist virtue and concrete examples of Communist development will be trotted out, there will be a series of books, articles, films, exhibitions and cultural activities extolling the virtues of the CCP, and closer attention will be paid to sudden incidents. Interestingly, Bo Xilai’s Red Song initiative didn’t leave the scene with him, but there are now two major events, “Everyone Sings patriotic Songs” and “Singing about China”, touring from city to city.

The most interesting remarks in the Liu speech are about foreign-oriented propaganda. Liu now seems to understand that, as the second largest economy in the world, more eyes are pointing towards China than in the past, and that there is more and more non-official interaction between the Chinese and international spheres of public communication. What Liu does not yet seem to comprehend, is the nature of the many soft power own goals that China has made in the recent past. China has often appeared petulant, in spats involving Tibet for example, has thrown its weight around regionally that has sent many smaller South-East Asian nations run towards the United States for cover, and every time it jails another dissident, another corruption case comes out or a food scandal is uncovered, it adds another bullet hole to the many it has in its foot already. Liu seems to believe that this can be rectified with patient and reasonable explanation of the facts as the Party sees it. This is exactly the same path that the Party took after Tiananmen, where it claimed that all that was needed to justify sending tanks at students to the international community, was a rational exposé about Chinese politics. Now, Liu argues that the Party must concentrate foreign attention on the Party’s claim to put people first and govern for the people, but these claims are at best misguided and at worst mendacious when we look at the endemic corruption that sustains the Party’s position in power. In this light, Liu’s contention that the Party must gain “the moral commanding heights” is risible. But there is a more fundamental problem as well. Westerners fundamentally don’t believe in the system that China proposes. Europe’s historical relationship with dictatorial regimes and powerful religious organizations has led to a relativist, postmodernist position that instinctively distrusts any claim to truth and power, while the powerful anti-government stance in US society causes a lack of trust in any overbearing regime, regardless of what political colour. In other words, CCP rule is mistrusted for what it is, even before the discussion starts about what it does. Conversely, many Chinese will instinctively distrust American and European politics for being chaotic and disorganized.

Whether or not this distrust is justified is another discussion. It certainly is the case that China does better materially than in the past, and it is equally the case that the economic, political and social crises besetting Europe and the United States indicate that many improvements there remain to be made. It is, however, undoubtedly so that these perceptions exist, and that China’s ideas on how to deal with them are often ill-informed and cack-handed. China hires foreign law firms as council in its WTO disputes, possibly it could to with a bit of foreign PR expertise as well.

Hu Jintao Says Goodbye and Starts Preparing Legacy

On 23 July, Hu Jintao gave a speech at a training seminar for high-level provincial officials, on the importance of continuing the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. He evaluated the Party’s work over the last ten years, his period in office, and set out a number of goalposts and principles for the future. According to Bill Bishop, Hu Jintao spoke for many hours, clearly outlining the problems and challenges facing China. The full text of the speech has not been made public, but since then, the Party magazine Qiushi has published a number of articles drawing from this speech and the People’s Daily has opened an entire website dedicated to it, with commentaries from Xi Jinping and a number of experts from different fields. Also, this website contains a summary of the speech, which is available in translated form hereunder.

This speech sets the stage for the 18th Party Congress and outlines the agenda for the new leadership generation, although, in this acrimonious transition, it is not completely certain this speech reflects a consensus between the different factions. Nonetheless, there are some things we can learn from the summary, which consists of two parts. The first part takes stock of the experience of the last few years, while the second part lists plans for the future. In evaluating the last ten years, Hu indicated that China had a bumpy ride, but that generally, the government managed to successfully fend off domestic and foreign issues. Hu unsurprisingly attributes that success to his own theoretical innovation, the scientific development concept, while paying the necessary dues to the policies of Mao, Deng and Jiang, as well as Marxism-Leninism. As a result, China is still on track to complete the objective of building a relatively well-off society (xiaokang shehui) by 2020, and complete Socialist modernization by 2050. In order to do so, the core requirement is persisting in Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Conveniently, Hu provides few details about what this may mean, but it does signal that no basic political change is on the agenda.

In setting out ideas on the future, Hu subsequently lists a number of policy areas, which may reflect the order of priority they have on the CCP agenda. In order of appearance, these are transforming economic development methods, political structural reform, building a strong Socialist culture country, improving the people’s livelihood and providing social services, and protecting the environment. On the economy, Hu Jintao reiterates that shifting development methods remains the first priority. However, thus far, little rebalancing seems to happen. On political structural reform, Hu continues the line established by Deng Xiaoping that the Party’s leadership position may not change, but that under this condition, the people are to manage their own affairs. While he also pays lip service to democratic election, decision-making, management and supervision, these refer to intra-Party structures and do not indicate that the Chinese franchise will be broadened. On culture, which may take the central space accorded to Zhou Yongkang’s coercive internal stability apparatus, Hu repeats the line established at the Plenary meeting in October last year. On ensuring the people’s livelihood, Hu indicates that it is necessary to expand China’s social services. Lastly, Hu argues that environmental protection should become an integral part of China’s economic, political, cultural and social policy in all areas.

In short, this speech avoids any contentious statement in the run-up to the 18th Party Congress, and provides a relatively blank space on which Xi can begin to establish his leadership. At the end, Hu does pay special attention to the necessity of improving Party building and fighting abuses. In the wake of the Bo scandal, and the different incidents that have battered the CCP over the last few years, and in the fact of corruption, the Party must embark on a new round of Party building. However, Hu does not go beyond calling for the strengthening of existing measures, including internal organization and supervision, campaigns and political education. Without the full text of the speech, it is difficult to assess to what extent Hu aims to push appointments or policy in a certain direction, but at least according to this speech, it seems that the key objective the Party pursues, is not to pursue any clear objective at all.

Valiantly Forge Ahead Following the Path of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

Hu Jintao pointed out that Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the banner for the development and progress of the China of today, and is the banner for the united struggle of the entire party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country, we must unwaveringly take Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thoughts as guidance, deeply implement the scientific development view, persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must grasp work, grasp implementation, and in the next five years, lay a decisive basis to completely realize the objective of a relatively well-off society, on time, by 2020, and after that, basically realize Socialist modernization by the middle of this century. We must unwaveringly march the correct path opened up by the Party and the people through a long time of practice, not fear any risk, and not be mislead by any interference. Liberating thoughts is a strong ideological weapon to promote the development of the undertaking of the Party and the people from beginning to end, reform and opening up is a strong force promoting the development of the undertaking of the Party and the people from beginning to end, we must unwaveringly move reform and opening up forward, never become fossilized, never stagnate, unite all forces that can be united, muster all vigorous factors that can be mustered, and with unbounded confidence, overcome all difficulties and risks on the path ahead.

Hu Jintao pointed out that, comprehensively analyzing present trends inside and outside the country, we face unprecedented opportunities, and also face unprecedented challenges, our country’s development is still in an important strategic period of opportunity with great potential. Whether we will be able to grasp the opportunities or calmly meet challenges, crucially depends on our ideological understanding, depends on our work strength, depends on our moving the pace of reform and development forward. We must completely examine development trends of the present world and the present China, completely grasp the new requirements for our country’s development and the new expectations of the popular masses, scientifically formulate action plans and major policies adapted to the requirements of the times and the aspirations of the people, press on more enthusiastically, work cautiously and conscientiously, continue to promote scientific development, stimulate social harmony, continue to improve the people’s lives, enhance the people’s happiness, and do all we can to complete the glorious and formidable tasks entrusted to us in these times.

Hu Jintao stressed that, since the 16th Party Congress, we have walked a very uneven path. Looking at these ten years overall, the international situation has constantly changed, the domestic tasks of reform, development and stability were grave, we have closely grasped and used our country’s important strategic period for development well, overcome a series of severe challenges, spared no effort to move the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics towards a new development phase. The reason that we are able to achieve such historical accomplishments and progress, most importantly is that we have persisted in taking Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thought as guidance, have dared to move the practical and basic theoretical innovation forward, have formed and implemented the scientific development view, and have provided powerful theoretical guidance for completely constructing a relatively well-off society and accelerating the pace of Socialist modernization. Deeply implementing the scientific development view still is a long-term, arduous task, facing a series of extremely challenging contradictions and difficulties. We must implement the scientific development view with even firmer determination, even more powerful measures and even more perfect systems, and truly make the scientific development view into a strong force promoting both strong and good development in the economy and society.

Hu Jintao stressed that, through a long period of efforts, our persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics has obtained great theoretical and practical results, the most important one is that the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics has been opened up, a theoretical structure for Socialism with Chinese characteristics has been formed, and a system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics established. This is the basic achievement of ninety years of struggle, production and accumulation by the Party and people, and must be utterly treasured, completely persisted in, and incessantly developed. Under new historical conditions, to continue to move Socialism with Chinese characteristics forward, we must incessantly enrich the practical characteristics, theoretical characteristics, ethnic characteristics and characteristics of the time, of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Hu Jintao pointed out that, the comrades in the entire Party must keep firmly in mind that the rapid development of our country over the last thirty years relied on reform and opening up, and our country’s development in the future must also resolutely rely on reform and opening up. Only through reform and opening up is it possible to develop China, develop Socialism and develop Marxism. We absolutely must persist in the line, principles and policies of the Party since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, persist in implementing the spirit of reform and opening up in all parts of governing the country, move reform and opening up forward even more consciously and even more firmly, incessantly stride forward in a new pace in areas of constructing and innovating systems, and do all we can to push reform and opening up forward.”

When discussing accelerating the transformation of economic development methods, Hu Jintao stressed that, having economic construction at the core is what is needed to rejuvenate the nation, development still is the key to resolve all problems of our country. In the China of today, the basic requirement that persisting in development is a hard principle is persisting in scientific development. Taking scientific development at the core, and taking accelerating the transformation of economic development methods as the main line, is the strategic decision of the overall picture of our country’s development. The comrades in the entire Party absolutely must unify thoughts, raise understanding and firmly implement the major policy deployments of the Centre on accelerating the transformation of economic development methods, shift the foothold of promoting development to raising quality and efficiency, firmly grasp the implementation of the strategy to have innovation drive development, move strategic readjustment of economic structures forward, promote the integration of urban and rural development, completely raise economic openness levels and other strategic tasks, strive to arouse all sorts of market subjects to develop new vitality, promote the synchronous development of industrialization, informatization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization, completely deepen economic structural reform, incessantly strengthen long-term development aftereffects.

When discussing moving political structural reform forward, Hu Jintao stressed that, since reform and opening up, we have always put political structural reform in an important position in the entire picture of reform and development, have unwaveringly moved it forward, have obtained major progress, successfully opened up and persisted in the political development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. To move political structural reform forward, we must persist in organically unifying the leadership of the Party, letting the people master their own affairs, and governing the country according to the law, develop people’s democracy even more broadly and even more fully, guarantee that the people conduct democratic elections, democratic decision-making, democratic management and democratic supervision according to the law, pay even more attention to giving rein to the important function of the rule of law in governing the State and society, safeguard the unity, dignity and authority of the national legal system, and guarantee that the people enjoy broad rights and freedoms according to the law.

When discussing the construction of a strong Socialist culture country, Hu Jintao stressed that, constructing a strong Socialist culture country is a major strategic policy decision in our Party’s grasping the developments and changes in the times and the trends, and vigorously responding to the spiritual and cultural requirements of the people of all ethnicities. We must unwaveringly march the culture development path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in the orientation of serving the people and serving Socialism, persist in the policy of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend, persist in the principle of sticking close to reality, sticking close to life, sticking close to the masses, establish high levels of cultural consciousness and cultural self-consciousness, promote the complete development of a Socialist spiritual civilization and material civilization, and construct a ethnic, scientific Socialist culture facing modernization, facing the world, facing the future, of the masses.

When discussing the improving of the people’s livelihood and strengthening social construction, Hu Jintao pointed out that progressively raising the people’s material and cultural life levels on the basis of economic development, is the basic objective of reform and opening up, and Socialist modernization construction. Since reform and opening up, and especially in the last few years, we have exerted extremely large efforts obtained clear achievements in the area of improving the people’s livelihood. At the same time, we also must consider that the popular masses’ requirements to live an even better life are also strengthening, and their expectations concerning resolving prominent problems in the area of the people’s livelihood are also rising. We must continue to strengthen work, seek the benefit of the people’s livelihood more, resolve the worries on the people’s livelihood more, resolve the problems of interests that are of the most concern, are the most direct and the most real for the people, continue to gain new progress in ensuring that there are matters to learn, there are jobs to do, there is medicine for the ill, there is care for the elderly, and there are houses in which to live, ensure that the gains of reform and development are extended to the whole body of the people even better and even more fairly, and guarantee that the people lead an even better life.”

When discussing moving the ecological civilization construction forward, Hu Jintao pointed out that, moving the construction of an ecological civilization forward, is a strategic tasks involving fundamental change production methods and life methods, we must profoundly merge and implement ecological civilization construction concepts, principles and objectives, etc., into all aspects and the complete process of our country’s economic, political, culture and social construction, persist in the basic national policy of saving energy and protecting the environment, strive to move green development, recycling development and low-carbon development forward, and create a fine production and life environment for the people.

Hu Jintao stressed that, since reform and opening up, we closely revolved around the magnificent undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, completely moved the new magnificent project of Party building forward, and have gained great achievements. Under new trends, major changes have occurred in the historical bearing and governance conditions of the Party, and the composition and structuring of Party member teams, the risks coming from outside are unprecedented, the aspect of Party building and especially in Party members and cadre teams, many prominent problems that urgently need to be resolved have emerged. The entire party must strengthen a sense of urgency and a sense of responsibility, persist in the fact that the Party must manage the Party, and governing the Party strictly, completely strengthen the Party’s ideological building, organizational building, work style building, anti-corruption and clean government building, system construction, guarantee that the Party becomes a strong leading core of Socialism with Chinese characteristics from beginning to end. We must continue to move the new magnificent project of Party building forward, persist in ideals and convictions, preserve the blood-and-flesh relationship of the Party with the popular masses, vigorously develop intra-Party democracy, deepen cadres’ personnel system reform, tamp down an organizational basis for Party governance, unwaveringly oppose corruption, consciously safeguard the concentration and unity of the Party.

Lastly, Hu Jintao pointed out that, all levels’ Party Committees and government must, with a spirit of high responsibility, enthusiasm and accomplishment, do all work matters on reform, stability and development well, continue to be earnest and down to earth, firmly grasp implementation, earnestly implement the general fundamental key of seeking progress in stability, preserve the tendency of smooth and relatively rapid economic development, and establish a solid basis for the stability of the larger picture. We must realistically do well the work of caring for the masses’ production and lives, always keep the masses’ safety, danger and daily life in our hearts, and especially must do the work well to care for masses in difficulty, in all manners assist them in getting rid of worries and overcoming difficulty. We must strengthen propaganda and public opinion work, forcefully propagate our Party’s magnificent achievements in leading the people to move reform and opening up, and Socialist modernization construction forward since reform and opening up and especially since the 16th Party Congress, and strengthen the confidence of the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country in unwaveringly marching the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. The entire Party must even more closely unite around the Party Centre, firmly do work in all areas well, and welcome the victorious convocation of the 18th Party Congress with magnificent achievements.

沿着中国特色社会主义伟大道路奋勇前进
胡锦涛指出,中国特色社会主义是当代中国发展进步的旗帜,也是全党全国各族人民团结奋斗的旗帜,我们必须毫不动摇以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。我们必须抓紧工作,抓紧落实,在未来5年为到2020年如期实现全面建成小康社会目标打下具有决定性意义的基础,进而到本世纪中叶基本实现社会主义现代化。我们必须毫不动摇走党和人民在长期实践中开辟出来的正确道路,不为任何风险所惧、不为任何干扰所惑。解放思想始终是推动党和人民事业发展的强大思想武器,改革开放始终是推动党和人民事业发展的强大动力,我们必须毫不动摇推进改革开放,永不僵化、永不停滞,团结一切可以团结的力量,调动一切可以调动的积极因素,信心百倍战胜前进道路上的一切困难和风险。

胡锦涛指出,综合分析当前国内外形势,我们面临前所未有的机遇,也面对前所未有的挑战,我国发展仍处于可以大有作为的重要战略机遇期。能否牢牢把握机遇、沉着应对挑战,关键取决于我们的思想认识,取决于我们的工作力度,取决于我们推进改革发展的步伐。我们要全面审视当今世界和当代中国发展大势,全面把握我国发展新要求和人民群众新期待,科学制定适应时代要求和人民愿望的行动纲领和大政方针,更加奋发有为、兢兢业业地工作,继续推动科学发展、促进社会和谐,继续改善人民生活、增进人民福祉,奋力完成时代赋予的光荣而艰巨的任务。

胡锦涛强调,党的十六大以来,我们走过了很不平坦的道路。综观这10年,国际形势风云变幻,国内改革发展稳定任务繁重,我们紧紧抓住和用好我国发展的重要战略机遇期,战胜一系列严峻挑战,奋力把中国特色社会主义事业推进到一个新的发展阶段。我们之所以能取得这样的历史性成就和进步,最重要的就是坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想为指导,勇于推进实践基础上的理论创新,形成和贯彻了科学发展观,为全面建设小康社会、加快推进社会主义现代化提供了有力的理论指导。深入贯彻落实科学发展观仍然是一项长期艰巨的任务,面临着一系列极具挑战性的矛盾和困难。我们必须以更加坚定的决心、更加有力的举措、更加完善的制度来贯彻落实科学发展观,真正把科学发展观转化为推动经济社会又好又快发展的强大力量。

胡锦涛强调,经过长期努力,我们坚持和发展中国特色社会主义取得了重大理论和实践成果,最重要的就是,开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,形成了中国特色社会主义理论体系,确立了中国特色社会主义制度。这是党和人民90多年奋斗、创造、积累的根本成就,必须倍加珍惜、始终坚持、不断发展。新的历史条件下,我们继续推进中国特色社会主义,必须不断丰富中国特色社会主义的实践特色、理论特色、民族特色、时代特色。

胡锦涛指出,全党同志必须牢记,我国过去30多年的快速发展靠的是改革开放,我国未来发展也必须坚定不移依靠改革开放。只有改革开放才能发展中国、发展社会主义、发展马克思主义。我们一定要坚持党的十一届三中全会以来的路线方针政策,坚持把改革创新精神贯彻到治国理政各个环节,更加自觉、更加坚定地推进改革开放,不断在制度建设和创新方面迈出新步伐,奋力把改革开放推向前进。
在谈到加快转变经济发展方式时,胡锦涛强调,以经济建设为中心是兴国之要,发展仍是解决我国所有问题的关键。在当代中国,坚持发展是硬道理的本质要求就是坚持科学发展。以科学发展为主题、以加快转变经济发展方式为主线,是关系我国发展全局的战略抉择。全党同志一定要统一思想、提高认识,坚决执行中央加快转变经济发展方式的重大决策部署,把推动发展的立足点转到提高质量和效益上来,扎扎实实抓好实施创新驱动发展战略、推进经济结构战略性调整、推动城乡发展一体化、全面提高开放型经济水平等战略任务的贯彻落实,着力激发各类市场主体发展新活力,推动工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化同步发展,全面深化经济体制改革,不断增强长期发展后劲。

在谈到推进政治体制改革时,胡锦涛强调,改革开放以来,我们始终把政治体制改革摆在改革发展全局的重要位置,坚定不移加以推进,取得了重大进展,成功开辟和坚持了中国特色社会主义政治发展道路。推进政治体制改革,必须坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,发展更加广泛、更加充分的人民民主,保证人民依法实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督,更加注重发挥法治在国家和社会治理中的重要作用,维护国家法治的统一、尊严、权威,保障社会公平正义,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由。

在谈到建设社会主义文化强国时,胡锦涛强调,建设社会主义文化强国,是我们党把握时代和形势发展变化、积极回应各族人民精神文化需求作出的重大战略决策。我们要坚定不移走中国特色社会主义文化发展道路,坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的方向,坚持百花齐放、百家争鸣的方针,坚持贴近实际、贴近生活、贴近群众的原则,树立高度的文化自觉和文化自信,推动社会主义精神文明和物质文明全面发展,建设面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来的,民族的科学的大众的社会主义文化。

在谈到改善民生和加强社会建设时,胡锦涛指出,在经济发展基础上逐步提高人民物质文化生活水平,是改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的根本目的。改革开放以来特别是近些年来,我们在改善民生方面作出极大努力,取得明显成效。同时,我们也要看到,人民群众对过上更好生活的要求也在增强,对加快解决民生领域突出问题的期盼也在提高。我们必须继续加强工作,多谋民生之利,多解民生之忧,解决好人民最关心最直接最现实的利益问题,在学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居上持续取得新进展,使改革发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民,保证人民过上更好生活。

在谈到推进生态文明建设时,胡锦涛指出,推进生态文明建设,是涉及生产方式和生活方式根本性变革的战略任务,必须把生态文明建设的理念、原则、目标等深刻融入和全面贯穿到我国经济、政治、文化、社会建设的各方面和全过程,坚持节约资源和保护环境的基本国策,着力推进绿色发展、循环发展、低碳发展,为人民创造良好生产生活环境。
胡锦涛强调,改革开放以来,我们紧紧围绕中国特色社会主义伟大事业,全面推进党的建设新的伟大工程,取得了明显成效。新形势下,党所处历史方位和执政条件、党员队伍组成结构都发生了重大变化,来自外部的风险前所未有,党的建设方面特别是党员、干部队伍出现了许多亟待解决的突出问题。全党要增强紧迫感和责任感,坚持党要管党、从严治党,全面加强党的思想建设、组织建设、作风建设、反腐倡廉建设、制度建设,确保党始终成为中国特色社会主义的坚强领导核心。要继续推进党的建设新的伟大工程,坚定理想信念,保持党同人民群众的血肉联系,积极发展党内民主,深化干部人事制度改革,夯实党执政的组织基础,坚定不移反对腐败,自觉维护党的集中统一。

胡锦涛最后指出,各级党委和政府要以高度负责、奋发有为的精神做好改革发展稳定各项工作,继续脚踏实地、扎扎实实抓好落实,认真贯彻稳中求进的工作总基调,保持经济平稳较快发展势头,为大局稳定奠定坚实基础。要切实做好关心群众生产生活工作,时刻把群众安危冷暖放在心上,特别是要做好关心困难群众工作,千方百计帮助他们排忧解难。要加强宣传舆论工作,大力宣传改革开放以来特别是党的十六大以来我们党带领人民推进改革开放和社会主义现代化建设取得的伟大成就,增强全党全国各族人民坚定不移走中国特色社会主义道路的信心。全党要更加紧密地团结在党中央周围,扎扎实实做好各方面工作,以优异成绩迎接党的十八大胜利召开。

Unify Thoughts and Acts with the Spirit of General Secretary Hu Jintao’s Speech – Construct a Good Ideological and Public Sphere Climate for the Convocation of the 18th Party Congress

Liu Yunshan

On 23 and 24 July, the Central Committee organized the Provincial-Level Main Leading Cadre Specialized Research Class in Beijing, General Secretary Hu Jintao made an important speech at the beginning of the class. The propaganda, ideology and culture fronts must deeply study and understand, and earnestly implement the spirit of General Secretary Hu Jintao’s speech, soundly do all work matters according to the spirit of the speech, and promote an upsurge in propaganda and education to welcome the 18th Party Congress. Continue reading

Liu Yunshan makes clear what CCP cultural policy is about

Furthering the cultural construction wave, a book has been published (electronic version) that collects important speeches and statements by all party chiefs from Mao until Hu, concerning the important position of culture in the People’s Republic. At the launch seminar, CPD chief Liu Yunshan delivered a speech on the importance of the book and the underlying theme of cultural reform in the Chinese political constellation. This speech has now been published in “Seeking Truth”, which already published Hu Jintao’s earlier culture-related address. Full translation: Continue reading

The Major Significance and Basic Experience of Shaping a Socialist Legal System with Chinese Characteristics

Wu Bangguo

I, Fully understand the important significance of shaping a Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics

Developing Socialist democracy and completing a Socialist legal system are important strategic tasks for building Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since the establishment of the new China and especially in the thirty years of reform and opening up, under the correct leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, and through the persistent and unwavering common efforts of all sides, our country’s legislation work has gained huge achievements that attracted the attention of the world. In 1982, the present Constitution was passed, after this, on the basis of the development requirements of objective circumstances, parts of the content of the Constitution were revised four times in total. By the end of 2010, our country had formulated the current 236 valid laws, more than 690 administrative regulations and more than 8600 local regulations, and completely accomplished the concentrated clean-up work of current laws and administrative regulations, as well as local regulations. At present, legal departments covering all aspects of social relationships are complete, fundamental and important laws in all legal departments have been formulated, corresponding administrative regulations and local regulations are relatively complete, and generally, the integration of science and harmony has been achieved inside the legal system. A Socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics that is based on China’s national circumstances and reality, that is suited to the requirements of reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction, that concentrates and reflects the aspirations of the Party and the people, with the Constitution as commander-in-chief, with laws related to the Constitution, civil law, commercial law and laws in other legal departments as backbone, composed of laws, administrative regulations, local regulations and laws and regulations at many other levels has been shaped, it has been realized that there are laws to follow in all aspects of national economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction as well as ecological civilization construction. This is an important milestone in the history of our country’s Socialist democratic legal system construction, and has a major practical significance and a profound historical significance. Continue reading

Speech at the Ideological and Political Work Conference

Jiang Zemin

(28 June 2000)

At the eve of the 79th anniversary of the foundation of the Chinese Communist Party, the Centre has convened an ideological and political work conference, which is of important significance. In September last year, the Centre has issued Document 17, which has made deployments on strengthening and improving ideological and political work. The objectives of this conference are further getting a clear understanding of the circumstances faced by the ideological and political work, further clarifying the position of ideological and political work in the overall work picture of Party and State, further summarize the experience of ideological and political work, putting forward requirements and measures for strengthening and improving ideological and political work suited to new situations and new circumstances, mobilize the entire Party to ensure that ideological and political work is done more vividly and dramatically, and has realistic effects. Continue reading

Concerning Some Issues in Carrying Forward the Excellent Culture of the Nation

Li Ruihuan

(10 January 1990)

The Exchange Forum on the Nationwide Culture and Art Work Situation is an important conference convened in the first spring of the Nineties by the Central Propaganda Department and the Ministry of Culture. At the beginning of the new year, inviting comrades from all localities and relevant departments to come and exchange the situations relating to Implementing the spirit of the 4th Plenum and the 5th Plenum of the 13th Party Congress, study the important works of Comrade Deng Xiaoping concerning culture and art work, summarizing the culture and art work of the previous period, and making deployments for work deployments in the future, is a good way of going about. At the time where this meeting is about to conclude, and the nationwide theatre and xiqu creation forum will begin, I’d like to discuss some opinions on carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation. Continue reading

Persisting in the Principle of Giving First Place to Positive Propaganda

Li Ruihuan

(25 November 1989)

The news work conference organized by the Central Propaganda Department is very good. Everyone earnestly studied the spirit of the 5th Plenum of the 13th Party Congress, launched discussions revolving around how to improve news work, have raised understanding of a number of important questions and have unified thoughts. This conference will inevitably give rise to a vigorous influence on the development of our country’s news undertaking. Continue reading

Speech when Receiving the Capital Martial Law Army Troop-Level or Higher Cadres

Deng Xiaoping

9 June 1989

Comrades, you’ve worked hard!

First and foremost, I express my deepest condolences with the PLA officers and men, Armed Police officers and men, Public Security and Police comrades who have given up their life heroically in this struggle! I express my intimate sympathies with the thousands of PLA officers and men, Armed Police officers and men, Public Security and Police comrades who have been wounded in this struggle! I extend intimate regards to the LA officers and men, Armed Police officers and men, Public Security and Police comrades who have participated in this struggle!

I suggest that everyone stands up in tribute to the fallen martyrs! Continue reading

Use the Constitution and the Law to Unify Thoughts

26 May 1989

Today, I have been entrusted by the Centre to invite a few old comrades-in-arms, old comrades and old friends for a chat, and to vent a little.

The motivations for these student demonstrations are good, pure, kind and constructive, the objective is to overcome flaws and mistakes in work, and to run State affairs and the Socialist system even better, this is consistent with our requirements. But the methods and means that they have adopted is not very appropriate. This is not the fault of the children. First, they do not know the law or don’t know it well. Second, they lack political experience, and are insufficiently on guard against the treacherous intentions of an extremely, extremely small number of conspirators and evildoers who seize the opportunity to cause turmoil. These old comrades of ours have a responsibility to help them and make them alert. Otherwise, we will let the children down. Continue reading

Urgent Tasks for the Party on the Organizational Front and the Ideological Front

(12 October 1983)

Deng Xiaoping

This main topic of this Plenary meeting of the Centre is Party consolidation. The Centre’s resolution concerning Party consolidation has been discussed and passed by everyone. This is a good document, I completely agree. After the meeting, we must still discuss the leadership of the Party over the ideological front. I’d like to talk about a few opinions on the two issues that we cannot go through the motions of Party consolidation and cannot engage in spiritual pollution on the ideological front.

The first problem: we cannot go through the motions of Party consolidation. Continue reading

Develop Socialist Democracy, Complete the Socialist Rule of Law

Peng Zhen
22 July 1982

I have come to attend this meeting, in order to congratulate the establishment of the Law Society of China. Old Yang (Comrade Yang Xiufeng) wants me to speak, what should I speak about?

I, I hope that the Law Society, as Old Yang said, persists in the Four Cardinal Principles and contributes to the development of Socialist democracy as well as the completion of the Socialist legal system.

Persisting in the Four Cardinal Principles is not a problem in words, but in fact, not everyone understands matters in a consistent way. Are the Four Cardinal Principles only a theory, are they only one of the “hundred schools contending”? They are not, the Four Cardinal principles have been put forward by the CCP Central Committee, but they are no baseless imaginings, they are the summary of the experiences of our country in the 20th Century, they are the basic principles that our country’s history has summarized itself, and a are a truth tested in social practice. I won’t talk about faraway things, since the 20th Century, China has seen at least four great, earth-shattering events. The first was the Xinhai Revolution, led by Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the feudal imperial system and established the Republic of China. But the fruits of the revolution were usurped by reactionary forces. The second event was the overthrow of the three large mountains [Note: imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism] that pushed down the heads of the Chinese people, and the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. Who led this event to completion? The bourgeoisie? The enlightened gentry? Or some other hero? None of those. It was under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party with Comrade Mao Zedong at the head, it was the working class that led the people in the entire country to obtain this. The third was the abolition of the exploiting system. In the early days after the foundation of the nation, bureaucratic capital was confiscated, which disposed of 80% of capitalism. Through land reform, the feudal exploiting system was abolished. The Three Great Socialist Transformations of the ownership of the means of production abolished the exploiting system in which people ate people for millennia. The fourth event was the establishment of an independent, relatively complete and Socialist industrial basis and national economic structure. Before liberation, our country was agricultural, it was a place where raw materials were produced for colonialist and imperialist countries, and a sales market for capitalist goods. At that time, it couldn’t even produce on car, it only produced 200.000 tonnes of oil and only 40-something million tonnes of coal, it could not produce accurate, large machine tools, just this was the industrial basis at that time. Regardless of how many complications we underwent in just over thirty years, now we not only can produce cars and aircraft, we have also produced guided missiles and nuclear weapons. Now, our annual production of oil is 100 million tonnes, 600 million tonnes of coal, and more than 2,8 million machine tools of a relatively complete variety, this is not a little in comparison with various countries worldwide. The fruit of our more than thirty years of arduous struggle is that we now have a firm industrial basis with which we can equip ourselves. This great event is not some proposition of an academic school, but an iron fact. The facts are most convincing and most persuasive. History and practice demonstrate that we must persist in the Four Cardinal Principles. If it would not persist in the Four Cardinal Principles, where would China go? By persisting in the Four Cardinal Principles, our path will be promising and firm, the further we march, the wider it will become, regardless of whichever difficulty we encounter, we will certainly be able to overcome it, and will certainly be able to realize the Four Modernization of Socialism. Continue reading

Talks concerning Issues on the Ideological Front

Deng Xiaoping

17 July 1981

Recently, I have discussed with Comrade Hu Yaobang, that we must call the Propaganda Department to talk about problems on the ideological front, and especially problems in literature and art. The Party’s leadership over the ideological front and the literature and art front has clear achievements, this must be confirmed. Some tendencies of simplification and crudeness also exist in the work, this can also not be denied or overlooked. But at present, the problem requiring even more attention, I believe, lies in the existence of lax and weak attitudes, not daring to criticize erroneous tendencies, and as soon as there is criticism, people say it is persecution. Now, launching criticism is not easy for us, self-criticism is even less easy. One of the Party’s three main work styles is self-criticism, this is one of the main symbols distinguishing us from other parties, but, where a lot of people are concerned, this is very hard to achieve. Continue reading