Great Qing Copyright Code

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Great Qing Copyright Code


Chapter I: General provisions

Article 1: All interests related to the exclusive reproduction of works, are named copyright. Literature and art, drawings, calligraphy books, photographs, engravings and models all are what is named works.


Article 2: It reverts to the Ministry of Civil Affairs to register and issue licences for works.


Article 3: All those petitioning for the registration of a copyright, shall prepare two samples of the work and submit them to the Ministry of Civil Affairs; those being in outer provinces, may send them to the government office having jurisdiction, which submits them to the Ministry of Civil Affairs in due course.


Article 4: All works that have been registered and for which as licence is granted, are protected by this Code.


Chapter II: Time limits of rights

Section I: Year limits

Article 5: Copyright reverts to the author for the duration of his lifetime; and when the author dies, it will be obtained by his heirs, and continued for 30 years.


Article 6: The copyright of joint works by multiple authors reverts to them together for the duration of their lifetimes, and will be obtained by their heirs after the death of the last of them for 30 years.


Article 7: Where after the death of the author, heirs want to distribute posthumous writings, the copyright will be held for 30 years.


Article 8: For all works published in the name of government offices, schools, companies, offices, monasteries or associations, the copyright will be held for 30 years.


Article 9: For all works that are not signed with a name, the copyright will be held for 30 years; but when the true and full name is added, the provisions of Article 5 apply.


Article 10: The copyright of photographs will be held for 10 years; but where they are attached to writing, this limit does not apply.


Section II: Calculation

Article 11: All copyright term limits are calculated from the date of registration.


Article 12: For works distributed in series or gradually, after registration has been agreed, time limits are calculated from the date of submitting every number or volume.


Article 13: For works distributed several times, time limits are calculated from the last time it is submitted after registration. Where not follow-up submission is made for two years after the previous submission, the already distributed edition will be considered as the last submission.


Article 14: For the provisions of Article 5, time limits are calculated from the day the heir’s petition for registry is approved.


Article 15: For the provisions of Article 6, time limits are calculated from the day the petition for registry of the heir of the last author to die is approved.


Chapter III: Submission duties.

Article 16: All those applying for copyright registration, must use their name at the time of submission; when submitting works that have not been signed, shall also record their true and full names.


Article 17: All works published in the name of schools, companies, offices, monasteries or associations shall use the naming of those schools, etc., and the submission shall include the name of the representative; for works that are distributed in the name of a government office, apart from the provisions of Article 31 Item 1, the Ministry of Civil affairs shall be consulted by the government office before distribution of the work.


Article 18: For all distribution of unclaimed works, the reason must be published first in the official journal and in all well-known newspapers, and may be submitted for distribution if no-one has come forward to recognize it within one year.


Article 19: For all works to be distributed in series or progressively, or works distributed several times; this shall be indicated at the time of first submission; and they shall be submitted at every point of distribution afterwards.


Article 20: For the provisions of Articles 5 through 7, when the heirs want to continue the copyright, they shall submit this to the competent government office.


Article 21: Where copyright is transferred as a pledge, the original holder and the receiver shall jointly sign a submission to the competent government office.


Article 22: During the copyright period, those wishing to reproduce the original work and add revisions, shall submit this to the competent government office, and provide two samples.


Article 23: All already submitted and registered works, shall indicate the exact date of these two matters at the end of the work; but those not yet having completed these two matter before distribution, shall indicate the already completed matter at the end of the work


Chapter IV: Limits to rights

Section I: Powers

Article 24: Works composed by multiple authors, where one amongst them are reluctant to publish them, consideration shall be made of the style of the work; if it can be divided, the part written by that person is removed, and is choice heard; if it cannot be divided, he shall receive the deserved remuneration from the other persons, and his copyright is shared by the other authors, but where this person is reluctant to be listed in the work, his convenience shall be respected.


Article 25: Those collecting works of others and compiling one work, the copyright works of the compiled part reverts to the compiler; but in cases of plagiarism or separation, this limit does not apply.


Article 26: The copyright of works completed by putting up capital to engage people, reverts to the investor.


Article 27: The copyright of commentaries and speeches, even if written down by other persons, reverts to the performer, but with the permission of the performer, this limit does not apply.


Article 28: The copyright of translations of foreign works into Chinese reverts to the translator; only, he may not prohibit other persons from making a separate translation into Chinese of the original text, where the translated text does not differ, this limit does not apply.


Article 29: Copyright of works elucidating new ideas on the basis of works of other persons, in a sufficient way to consider it as a new work, refers to the person elucidating new ideas.


Article 30: When all already registered copyrights are infringed, the copyright holder is permitted to apply for a suit with the relevant Procurator’s Office.


Article 31: All works that cannot obtain copyright are:

1, law, decrees, treaties and written case files

2, all sorts of Buddhist texts preached in temple feasts;

3, all sorts of news explanations political and current-affairs printed in newspapers;

4, guild speeches.


Article 32: All works that are considered to be in the public domain are the following:

1, works of which the copyright term has expired;

2, works of which the author has dies and there are no heirs;

3, works that have been circulated for along time;

4, where it is agreed to let people reproduce the works without restrictions.


Section II: Prohibitions

Article 33: All works that have been submitted, registered and issued with a licence, may not be reproduced or copied by other persons, and its copyright may not be infringed by any sort of passing off.


Article 34: When receiving other person’s works, it is prohibited to separate or alter it, change or hide the name or distribute it under another name, but with the permission of the original copyright holder, this limit does not apply.


Article 35: Works of other persons of which the copyright term has expired, may not be separated, altered, the name may not be changed or hidden, and it may not be distributed under another name.


Article 36: It is prohibited to distribute one’s own works falsely under the name of another person, but in case of using a pen name, this limit does not apply.


Article 37: It is prohibited to distribute answers to questions put in educational textbooks without authorization.


Article 38: Without permission from the original rights holder, works that are not yet distributed may not be taken by force or in repayment of debt by other persons.


Article 39: All following matters, will not be considered as passing off, but must clearly indicate the source of the original work:

1, excerpts from many persons’ works published in one book, used for common textbooks or reference;

2, excerpts from other persons’ works, used for to support an argument or explanation in one’s own work;

3, engraving models imitating other persons’ drawings, or imitating other persons’ engraving models to make drawings.


Section III: Punishment provisions

Article 40: All works passed off as other persons’ works, are subject to fines of 40 Yuan or higher but less than 400 Yuan; those knowingly reselling them are subject to the same fine as those passing off.


Article 41: When infringing another person’s copyright because of passing off, apart from the punishment in the previous article, the infringer shall be ordered to compensate the damage that the victim has suffered, and the printing blocks for that book and tools specially used in passing off, shall be expropriated and confiscated.


Article 42: Those violating the provisions of Article 34 and Article 36, will be subject to a fine of 20 Yuan or more but less than 200 Yuan.


Article 43: Those violating the provisions of Article 35, Article 37 and Article 39 Item 1 and 2, are subject to a fine of 10 Yuan or more but less than 100 Yuan.


Article 44: All copyright infringement cases must be started through submission of a filing by the victim.


Article 45: Where the copyright of a work of multiple authors is infringed, it is not necessary to seek agreement from the other authors, and it is permitted to submit a filing without consultation, and request the compensation of benefits that one already lost.


Article 46: In copyright infringement cases, regardless of whether it is a civil case or a criminal case, when the plaintiff submits a filing, he shall provide a pledge of responsibility for registration, the examining official may, on the basis of the circumstances submitted by the plaintiff, temporarily suspend the distribution of works involved in the passing off in advance; if the trial makes clear that the accusation is not true, it shall order the plaintiff to compensate the damage suffered during the prohibition of distribution.


Article 47: In copyright infringement cases, if it is made clear that there was no intention to pass off, the benefit obtained by the defendant shall be paid back to the plaintiff, and he is exempt from further punishment


Article 48: Not going through submission and registration, or falsely indicating submission and registration dates at the end of works, is subject to a fine of 30 Yuan or more but less than 300 Yuan.


Article 49: Where submissions are not true, and where no submission or filing is made at the time of reprinting with revisions, the copyright will be cancelled after proof through investigation.


Article 50: All those committing the crimes listed in Article 40 and following of this Code, are subject to a suspension of submitting accusations for a period of two years.


Chapter V: Supplementary provisions

Article 51: This Code will take effect within three months, to be calculated from the day of promulgating the text.


Article 52: All works that local officials have given protection, before this Code took effect, shall be submitted for registration within six months, to be calculated from the day of this Code taking effect; those not submitted after this period or not submitted at all, will not receive the protection of this Code.


Article 53: Works distributed within 30 year before this Code took effect, may all be submitted and registered after this Code takes effect.


Article 54: Works already distributed before this Code took effect, and which someone has already reprinted or imitated, an that at that time have not been accused of passing off, after this Code takes effect, and the original author has submitted and registered it, the reprinted or imitated items, are still permitted to be distributed for three years to be calculated from the date this Code takes effects, and shall be prohibited afterwards.


Article 55: For registration, fees are charged, the amounts per work are as follows:

1, registration: 5 Yuan;

2, petition for inheritance: 5 Yuan;

3, petition to accept: 5 Yuan;

4, provision to replace a list permit: 3 Yuan;

5, registering proof of copyright : 1 Yuan;

6, examination for copyright with responsible government offices: 5 Yuan;

7, copying copyright cases from responsible government offices: 5 Jiao, where it exceeds 100 characters, 1 Jiao is added per 100 characters;

8, affixing a seal on proof of copyright for cases: 5 Yuan.


第一章 通例

第一條 凡稱著作物而專有重制之利益者,曰著作權。稱著作物者,文藝、圖畫、帖本、照片、雕刻、模型皆是。

第二條 凡著作物歸民政部註冊給照。

第三條 凡以著作物呈請註冊者,應由著作者備樣本二分,呈送民政部;其在外省者,則呈送該管轄衙門,隨時申送民政部。

第四條 著作物經註冊給照者,受本律保護。

第二章 權利期限

第一节 年限
第五條 著作權歸著作者終身有之;又著作者身故,得由其承繼人繼續至三十年。

第六條 數人共同之著作,其著作權歸數人共同終身有之,又死後得由各承繼人繼續至三十年。

第七條 著作者身故後,承繼人將其遺著發行者,著作權得專有至三十年。

第八條 凡以官署、學堂、公司、局所、寺院、會所出名發表之著作,其著作權得專有至三十年。

第九條 凡不著姓名之著作,其著作權得專有至三十年;但當改正真實姓名時,即適用第五條規定。

第十條 照片之著作權,得專有至十年;但專為文書中附屬者不在此限。

第二節 計算
第十一條 凡著作權均以註冊日起算年限。

第十二條 編號逐次發行之著作,應從註冊後,每號每冊呈報日起算年限。

第十三條 著作分數次發行者,以註冊後末次呈報日起算年限。其呈報後經過二年尚未接續呈報,即以既發行者為末次呈報。

第十四條 第五條規定,以承繼人呈請立案批准之日起算年限。

第十五條 第六條規定,以數人中最後死者之承繼人呈請立案之日起算年限。

第三章 呈报义务

第十六條 凡以著作物呈請註冊者,呈報時應用本人姓名;其以不著姓名之著作呈報時,亦應記出本身真實姓名。

第十七條 凡以學堂、公司、局所、寺院、會所出名發行之著作,應用該學堂等名稱,附以代表人姓名呈報;其以官署名義發行者,除第三十一條第一款規定外,應由該官署於未發行前咨報民政部。

第十八條 凡擬發行無主著作者,應將緣由預先登載官報及各埠著名之報,限以一年內無出而承認者,准呈報發行。

第十九條 編號逐次發行之著作,或分數次發行之著作;均應於首次呈報時預為聲明;以後每次發行,仍應呈報。

第二十條 第五條至第七條規定,其承繼人當繼續著作權時,應赴該管衙門呈報。

第二十一條 將著作權轉售抵押者,原主與接受之人,應連名到該管衙門呈報。

第二十二條 在著作權期限內,將原著作重制而加以修正者,應赴該管衙門呈報,並送樣本二分。

第二十三條 凡已呈報註冊者,應將呈報及註冊兩項年月日,載於該著作之末幅;但兩項尚未完備而即發行者,應將其已行之項載於末幅。

第四章 权利限制

第一節 權限
第二十四條 數人合成之著作,其中如有一人不願發行者,應視所著之體裁,如可分別,則將所著之一部分提開,聽其自主;如不能分別,應由餘人酬以應得之利,其著作權歸餘人公有,但其人不願於著作內列名者,應聽其便。

第二十五條 蒐集他人著作編成一種著作者,其編成部分之著作權,歸編者有之;但出於剽竊割裂者,不在此限。

第二十六條 出資聘人所成之著作,其著作權歸出資者有之。

第二十七條 講義及演說,雖經他人筆述,其著作權仍歸講演者有之,但經講演人之允許者,不在此限。

第二十八條 從外國著作譯出華文者,其著作權歸譯者有之;惟不得禁止他人就原文另譯華文,其譯文無甚異同者,不在此限。

第二十九條 就他人著作闡發新理,足以視為新著作者,其著作權歸闡發新理者有之。

第三十條 凡已註冊之著作權遇有侵損時,准有著作權者向詼管審判衙門呈訴。

第三十一條 凡著作不能得著作權者如下:





第三十二條 凡著作視為公共之利益者如下:





第二節 禁例
第三十三條 凡既經呈報註冊給照之著作,他人不得翻印仿製,及用各種假冒方法,以侵損其著作權。

第三十四條 接受他人著作時,不得就原著加以割裂、改竄及變匿姓名或更換名目發行,但經原主允許者,不在此限。

第三十五條 對於他人著作權期限已滿之著作,不得加以割裂、改竄及變匿姓名或更換名目發行。

第三十六條 不得假托他人姓名發行己之著作;但用別號者不在此限。

第三十七條 不得將教科書中設問之題擅作答詞發行。

第三十八條 未發行之著作,非經原主允許,他人不得強取抵債。

第三十九條 下列各項,不以假冒論,但須註明原著之出處:




第三节 罚则
第四十條 凡假冒他人之著作,科以四十元以上四百元以下之罰金;知情代為出售者,罰與假冒同。

第四十一條 因假冒而侵損他人之著作權時,除照前條科罰外,應將被損者所失之利益,責令假冒者賠償,且將印本刻版及專供假冒使用之器具,沒收入官。

第四十二條 違背三十四條及三十六條規定者,科以二十元以上二百元以下之罰金。

第四十三條 違背三十五條、三十七條之規定,及三十九條第一款、第二款之規定者,科以十元以上一百元以下之罰金。

第四十四條 凡侵損著作權之案,須被侵害者之呈訴始行准理。

第四十五條 數人合成之著作, 其著作權遇有侵損時,不必俟餘人同意,得以徑自呈訴,及請求賠償一已所失之利益。

第四十六條 侵損著作權之案,不論為民事訴訟或刑事訴訟,原告呈訴時,應出具切結存案,承審官據原告所呈情節,可先將涉於假冒之著作,暫行停止發行;若審明所控不實,應將禁止發行時所受損失,責令原告賠償。

第四十七條 侵損著作權之案,如審明並非有心假冒,應將被告所已得之利,償還原告,免其科罰。

第四十八條 未經呈報註冊,而著作末幅假填呈報註冊年月日者,科以三十元以上三百元以下之罰金。

第四十九條 呈報不實者,及重制時加以修正而不呈報立案者,查明後將著作權撤銷。

第五十條 凡犯巳本律第四十條以下各條之罪者,其呈訴告發期限以二年為斷。

第五章 附则

第五十一條 本律自頒布文到日起算,滿三個月施行。

第五十二條 自本律施行前,所有著作經地方官給示保護者,應自本律施行日起算,六個月內呈報註冊;逾期不報或竟不呈報者,即不得受本律保護。

第五十三條 本律施行前三十年內已發行之著作,自本律施行後,均可呈報註冊。

第五十四條 本律施行前已發行之著作,業經有人翻印仿製,而當時並未指控為假冒者,自本律施行後,並經原著作者呈請註冊,其翻印仿製之件,限以本律施行日起算,三年內仍准發行,過此即應禁止。

第五十五條 註冊應納公費,每件銀數如下:










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