Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China

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11 March of the First Year of the Republic of China

Chapter I: General principles

Article 1: The Republic of China is composed of the Chinese people.

Article 2: The sovereignty of the Republic of China lies in the whole body of citizens.

Article 3: The territory of the Republic of China consists of the 22 provinces, Inner and Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Qinghai.

Article 4: The governing power of the Republic of China is exercised by the Assembly, the Provisional Great President, the Ministers and the Courts.

Chapter II: The people

Article 5: The people of the Republic of China are equal without exception, without distinction of ethnicity, class or religion.

Article 6: The people may enjoy the following freedoms.

I, The people may not be physically arrested, detained, interrogated or punished without a legal basis.

II, The people’s homes may not be entered or searched without a legal basis.

III, The people have the freedom to hold property and engage in commerce.

IV, The people have the freedom of speech, writing, publishing and assembly.

V, The people have the freedom of confidential correspondence.

VI, The people have the freedom of residence and migration.

VII, The people have the freedom of religious belief.

Article 7: The people have the right to present a petition to Parliament.

Article 8: The people have the right to state grievances to administrative offices.

Article 9: The people have the right to bring legal suits to the Courts.

Article 10: The people have the right to sue government officials in the Administrative Courts, for acts unlawfully harming their rights.

Article 11: The people have the right to take the official examinations.

Article 12: The people have the right to elect and be elected.

Article 13: The people have the duty to pay taxes according to the law.

Article 14: The people have the duty to perform military service according to the law.

Article 15: The people’s rights listed in this Chapter may be limited according to the law, when it is held that this enhances the public welfare, to safeguard public order or when necessary under extraordinary circumstances.

Chapter III: The Assembly

Article 16: The legislative power of the Republic of China is exercised by the Assembly.

Article 17: The Assembly is composed of the Members appointed by the various localities according to the provisions of Article 18.

Article 18: All provinces, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia and Tibet each assign five persons; Qinghai appoints one person. The method of their assignment is to be determined by each locality.

Each member has the right of one vote in Assembly meetings.

Article 19:

The powers of the Assembly are as follows:

I, Discussing and deciding on all legislative drafts.

II, Discussing and deciding on the budget and accounts of the Provisional Government.

III, Discussing and deciding on nationwide taxation law, the currency system and the standards for weights and measurements.

IV, Discussing and deciding on raising public debt and bonds borne by the Treasury.

V, Committing to the matters provided in Article 34, 34 and 40.

VI, Responding to inquiries from the Provincial Government.

VII, Receiving the petitions of the people.

VIII, It may propose opinions concerning laws and other matters to the Government.

IX, It may put forward questions and letters to Ministers, and require them to attend and respond.

X It may request the Provisional Government to investigate incidents in which officials take bribes or violate the law.

XI, When the Assembly believes that the Provisional Grand President plots rebellion, it may, when more then four fifths of the total number of Members are in attendance, vote to impeach him with a majority of three-quarters or more.

XII, When the Assembly believes that a Minister neglects his duty, it may, when more than three quarters of the total number of Members are in attendance, vote to impeach him with a majority of two-thirds or more.

Article 20: The Assembly may gather, meet and adjourn on its own accord.

Article 21 The Assembly’s meeting must be open. But where Ministers request it or more than half of the total number of Members in attendance vote so, it may be closed.

Article 22: For matters on which the Assembly discusses and decides, it shall refer them to the Provisional Grand President for promulgation and implementation.

Article 23: If the Provisional Grand President rejects matters decided upon by the Assembly, he may state the reasons within ten days of them being referred, and refer them to the Assembly for reconsideration. But if the Assembly, upon reconsideration, still upholds its earlier decision with a majority of attending members of two thirds or more, matters are to be conducted according to

Article 24: The Speaker of the Assembly is selected from and by the Members in an open ballot, the person who obtains more than half of the total amount of ballots is elected.

Article 25: Assembly Members are not liable outside of the Assembly for speech or votes within the Assembly.

Article 26: Except where Assembly members are caught in a criminal act or commit crimes that relate to internal chaos and external calamities, they may not be arrested without permission from the Assembly when it is in session.

Article 27: The rules of the Assembly are to be determined by the Assembly itself.

Article 28: The Assembly is disbanded on the date when the Parliament is established. Their duties will be exercised by the Parliament.

Chapter IV: The Provisional Grand President

Article 29: The Provisional Grand President and the Vice President are elected by the Assembly. The person who obtains two thirds or more of the votes of a total of three quarters or more of the total number of Members attending is elected.

Article 30: The Provisional Grand President represents the Provisional Government, assumes overall responsibility for government administration and promulgates laws.

Article 31: The Provisional Grand President may, in order to implement laws or on the basis of legal provisions, issue decrees or cause them to be issued.

Article 32: The Provisional Grand President is the Commander-in-chief of naval and land forces nationwide.

Article 33: The Provisional Grand President may formulate civil service institutions and rules, but must submit them to the Assembly for discussion and decision.

Article 34: The Provisional Grand President appoints and dismisses civil and military officials, but the Assembly’s approval must be obtained to appoint Ministers and Diplomatic Ambassadors.

Article 35: The Provisional Grand President may, with the approval of the Assembly, declare war, make peace and conclude treaties.

Article 36: The Provisional Grand President may declare martial law according to the law.

Article 37: The Provisional Grand President represents the entire country in receiving foreign Ambassadors and Consuls.

Article 38: The Provisional Grand President may put bills to the Assembly.

Article 39: The Provisional Grand President may award decorations for merit and other honours.

Article 40: The Provisional Grand President may grant general pardons, specific amnesties, sentence commutation and recovery of rights. But a general pardon must be agreed to by the Assembly.

Article 41: After a Provisional Grand President is impeached by the Assembly, the Supreme Court is to select nine persons from its judges to form a special court and try him.

Article 42: When a Provisional Grand President is removed from office for whatever reason, or cannot assume office, the Provisional Vice-President is to implement his duties in his stead.

Chapter V: Ministers

Article 43: The Premier and the heads of all Ministries are jointly called Ministers.

Article 44: Ministers assist the Provisional Grand President in implementing his duties.

Article 45: Ministers must countersign when the Provisional Grand Presidents puts forward bills, promulgates laws and issues decrees.

Article 46: Ministers and their Committee Members may attend the Assembly and speak.

Article 47: After ministers are impeached by the Assembly, the Provisional Grand President shall remove them from office. But he may submit this to the Assembly for reconsideration once.

Chapter VI: The Courts

Article 48: The Courts are composed of judges respectively appointed by the Provisional Grand President and the Minister of Justice.

The personnel allocation of Courts and the qualifications of judges are to be determined in law.

Article 49: The Courts try civil and criminal cases according to the law.

But administrative lawsuits and other special forms of litigation are to be determined in a manner other than law.

Article 50: Court trials must be open. But where it is believed that this may impair peace, security or order, it may be closed.

Article 51: Courts independently try cases and are not to be subject to interference by higher-level government offices.

Article 52: Judges’ salaries may not be lowered during their appointment, nor may their job be changed. Those who have not been punished according to the law or have been subject to disciplinary dismissal, may not be dismissed. Exemplary punishment rules are to be determined in law.

Chapter VII: Supplementary provisions

Article 53: Within 10 months after this Provisional Constitution takes effect, the Provisional Grand President shall convene Parliament. The composition of Parliament and electoral law will be determined by the Assembly.

Article 54: The Constitution of the Republic of China is formulated by Parliament. Until the Constitution takes effect, this Provisional Constitution has legal effect equal to a Constitution.

Article 55: This Provisional Constitution is to be revised by a majority in the Assembly of two thirds or more, or if the Provisional Grand President moves so, with a three quarters vote of the attending Members, where four fifths or more of the total number of Members attend.

Article 56: This Provisional Constitution takes effect on the date of promulgation.

The Provisional Government Organization Outline is abolished on the date this Provisional Constitution takes effect.

 

中華民國元年三月十一日

中華民國臨時約法

第一章 總綱

第一條 中華民國由中華人民組織之。

第二條 中華民國之主權屬於國民全體。

第三條 中華民國領土爲二十二行省、內外蒙古、西藏、靑海。

第四條 中華民國以參議院、臨時大總統、國務員、法院行使其統治權。

第二章 人民

第五條 中華民國人民一律平等,無種族、階級、宗教之區別。

第六條 人民得享有左列各項之自由權。

一 人民之身體非依法律,不得逮捕、拘禁、審問、處罰。

二 人民之家宅非依法律不得侵入或搜索。

三 人民有保有財產及營業之自由。

四 人民有言論、著作、刊行及集會結社之自由。

五 人民有書信秘密之自由。

六 人民有居住遷徙之自由。

七 人民有信敎之自由。

第七條 人民有請願於議會之權。

第八條 人民有陳訴於行政官署之權。

第九條 人民有訴訟於法院受其審判之權。

第十條 人民對於官吏違法損害權利之行爲,有陳訴於平政院之權。

第十一條 人民有應任官考試之權。

第十二條 人民有選舉及被選舉之權。

第十三條 人民依法律有納稅之義務。

第十四條 人民依法律有服兵之義務。

第十五條 本章所載人民之權利,有認爲增進公益、維持治安或非常緊急必要時,得依法律限制之。

第三章 參議院

第十六條 中華民國之立法權以參議院行之。

第十七條 參議院以第十八條所定各地方選派之參議員組織之。

第十八條 參議員每行省、內蒙古、外蒙古、西藏各選派五人;靑海選派一人。其選派方法由各地方自定之。

參議院會議時每參議員有一表决權。

第十九條 參議院之職權如左︰

一 議决一切法律案。

二 議決臨時政府之豫算決算。

三 議決全國之稅法幣制及度量衡之準則。

四 議決公債之募集及國庫有負擔之契約。

五 承諾第三十四條、三十五條、四十條事件。

六 答覆臨時政府諮詢事件。

七 受理人民之請願。

八 得以關於法律及其他事件之意見建議於政府。

九 得提出質問書於國務員,並要求其出席答覆。

十 得咨請臨時政府查辦官吏納賄違法事件。

十一 叅議院對於臨時大總統認爲有謀叛行爲時,得以總員五分四以上之出席,出席員四分三以上之可決彈劾之。

十二 參議院對於國務員認爲失職或違法時,得以總員四分三以上之出席,出席員三分二以上之可决彈劾之。

第二十條 參議院得自行集會開會閉會。

第二十一條 參議院之會議須公開之。但有國務員之要求或出席參議員過半數之可决者,得秘密之。

第二十二條 參議院議决事件咨由臨時大總統公布施行。

第二十三條 臨時大總統對於參議院議决事件,如否認時,得於咨達後十日內聲明理由,咨院覆議。但參議院對於覆議事件,如有到會參議員三分二以上仍執前議時,仍照第二十二條辦理。

第二十四條 參議院議長由參議員用記名投票法互選之,以得票滿投票總數之半者爲當選。

第二十五條 參議院參議員於院內之言論及表决,對於院外不負責任。

第二十六條 參議院參議員除現行犯及關於內亂外患之犯罪外,會期中非得本院許可,不得逮捕。

第二十七條 參議院法由參議院自定之。

第二十八條 參議院以國會成立之日解散。其職權由國會行之。

第四章 臨時大總統副總統

第二十九條 臨時大總統、副總統由參議院選舉之。以總員四分三以上出席得票滿投票總數三分二以上者爲當選。

第三十條 臨時大總統代表臨時政府,總攬政務,公布法律。

第三十一條 臨時大總統爲執行法律或基於法律之委任,得發布命令並得使發布之。

第三十二條 臨時大總統統帥全國海陸軍隊。

第三十三條 臨時大總統得制定官制官規,但須提交參議院議决。

第三十四條 臨時大總統任免文武職員,但任命國務員及外交大使公使須得參議院之同意。

第三十五條 臨時大總統經參議院之同意,得宣戰媾和及締結條約。

第三十六條 臨時大總統得依法律宣告戒嚴。

第三十七條 臨時大總統代表全國接受外國之大使、公使。

第三十八條 臨時大總統得提出法律案於參議院。

第三十九條 臨時大總統得頒給勳章並其他榮典。

第四十條 臨時大總統得宣告大赦、特赦、减刑、復權。但大赦須經參議院之同意。

第四十一條 臨時大總統受參議院彈劾後,由最高法院全院審判官互選九人組織特別法庭審判之。

第四十二條 臨時副總統於臨時大總統因故去職,或不能視事時得代行其職權。

第五章 國務員

第四十三條 國務總理及各部總長均稱爲國務員。

第四十四條 國務員輔佐臨時大總統負其責任。

第四十五條 國務員於臨時大總統提出法律案公布法律及發布命令時須副署之。

第四十六條 國務員及其委員得於參議院出席及發言。

第四十七條 國務員受參議院彈劾後,臨時大總統應免其職。但得交參議院覆議一次。

第六章 法院

第四十八條 法院以臨時大總統及司法總長分別任命之法官組織之。

法院之編制及法官之資格以法律定之。

第四十九條 法院依法律審判民事訴訟及刑事訴訟。

但關於行政訴訟及其他特別訴訟,別以法律定之。

第五十條 法院之審判須公開之。但有認爲妨害安甯秩序者得秘密之。

第五十一條 法官獨立審判不受上級官廳之干涉。

第五十二條 法官在任中不得减俸或轉職。非依法律受刑罰宣告或應免職之懲戒處分,不得解職。懲戒條規以法律定之。

第七章 附則

第五十三條 本約法施行後限十個月內,由臨時大總統召集國會。其國會之組織及選舉法由叅議院定之。

第五十四條 中華民國之憲法由國會制定。憲法未施行以前,本約法之效力與憲法等。

第五十五條 本約法由參議院參議員三分二以上,或臨時大總統之提議,經參議員五分四以上之出席,出席員四分三之可决得增修之。

第五十六條 本約法自公布之日施行。

臨時政府組織大綱於本約法施行之日廢止。

One thought on “Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    December 7, 2013 at 9:08 am

    […] Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China (1912, National Assembly) […]

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