Manifesto of the Chinese Communist Party

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(November 1920)

Dear comrades! This manifesto has been decided upon by the Chinese Communist Party in November of last year. The content of this Manifesto is only one part concerning the principles of Communism, and because of this, has not been externally published, however, this is a standard for accepting Party members. The Chinese original manuscript of this Manifesto cannot be found in this place, therefore, the brothers have translated this from the English manuscript. As it is more than a year ago that this Manifesto was decided, naturally, there are places that need revision or supplementing by now. I very much hope that all comrades carefully research this Manifesto, because every Communist must pay attention to this sort of important document – the Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moreover, it may raise discussion among the Communists in the Chinese delegation to the Far Eastern Peoples’ Conference. The result of the discussion must be consulted and adopted by the Chinese Communist Party.

Zhang Guotao

10 December 1921

1. The ideals of Communists

A. Concerning views on economic aspects, Communists advocate that the means of production – machines and factories, raw materials, land, communication organs, etc., are reclaimed, jointly owned and jointly used by society. If the means of production are reclaimed, jointly owned and jointly used, private property and the silver-renting system will naturally perish in its wake. The status quo of individuals exploiting individuals in society will also absolutely not exist, because the thing creating the roots of exploitation – surplus value – cannot no longer be obtained in any place.

B. Concerning views on political aspects, Communists advocate the abolition of state power, State organs and governments like all of those today can naturally not exist. Because state power, the army and the courts protect the interests of the minority and suppress the majority of the labouring masses; at a time where the means of productions are owned privately by the minority, this is very necessary. If private ownership and the silver-renting system are all abolished, state power, the army and the courts will naturally become useless.

C. Concerning views on social aspects, Communists must ensure that there is only one class in society (that is, that there are no classes) which is the class of the working masses. Private property is the root of all special forces in the present society, if there are no people who are able to concentrate their property, there will be no more special classes.

2. The objective of Communists.

The objective of Communists is to create a new society according to the ideals of Communism. But we must ensure that our ideals can be realized in society, the first step is that we must eradicate the present capitalist system. To eradicate the capitalist system, we can only use brute force to overthrow capitalist countries. The force of the labouring masses – the proletariat – is presently developing and uniting there, this force will be able to let capitalism die a natural death. This sort of force continues to grow there, this truly is the result of class conflict within capitalist countries. This manner in which this force is expressed, is class struggle.

Therefore, class struggle is to overthrow the tools of capitalism. Class struggle has always existed in human societies, however, it has changed its condition a few times, because it has been sifted by the development of the means of production. During the time of feudal countries, class struggle existed as well; but it has differences with the later class struggle in capitalist countries, because the class struggle under countries of capitalists is especially pressing. The growth of this sort of forces becomes more substantial with each passing day, and in the end, will eradicate capitalism.

The growth of this sort of struggle is the law of history.

The task of the Communist Party is that it must organize and concentrate the forces for this class struggle, and ensure that the forces to attack capitalism become more abundant every day.

This must absolutely be propagated to workers, peasants, soldiers, sailors and students before it can be successful; the objective is that we must organize some large industrial unions, and unite them into a general federation of industrial unions, we must also organize a revolutionary proletarian party – the Communist Party. The Communist Party must guide the revolutionary proletariat to go and struggle with capitalism, and must obtain state power from the hands of capitalists – this state power safeguard the capitalist countries; we must also put this state power into the hands of workers and peasants, just as the Russian Communist Party did in 1917.

The revolutionary proletarian industrial unions must absolutely use the method of large strikes, incessantly throw capitalist countries into disorder, and ensure that the enemies of the labouring masses grow weaker every day. If the opportune moment in which political power can be wrested from the hands of capitalist comes, the Communist Party’s call will proclaim a general and joint strike, this is a deadly attack on the capitalist system.

Moreover, after the capitalists have been overthrown, these industrial unions will have become the organs of Communist society, which are in charge of economic life.

The toppling of capitalists’ governments and the transfer of state power into the hands of the revolutionary proletariat; is no more than a part of the objective of the Communist Party, of which it can announce success; but the task of the Communist party is then not yet complete, because class struggle still continues, however, it has changed in pattern – this pattern is the proletarian dictatorship.

3. The most recent situation of class struggle

Looking at the present, the entire world can be considered as a capitalist organ, therefore, the class struggle in one country may engender a similar influence in other countries. The result of the revolutionary victory of the Russian proletarian in November 1917 has caused the Russian class struggle to change into a pattern of dictatorship of workers and peasants. Hence, the class struggle in other countries has become more pressing every day, its tendency is towards a similar pattern to the class struggle in Russia – this is the proletarian dictatorship.

The class struggle in Russia changing into the pattern of proletarian dictatorship is not some sort of accidental situation, it is a natural state in the development of human society. As capitalists are being toppled, the time has begun in which a Communist society is created, this sort of situation is natural. During a certain time, this sort of Russian political situation is necessary, therefore, this sort of political situation will be inevitable in all countries. Because when we loo at methods for production and allocation, these countries are all similar – they all have the capitalist form.

The Russian proletarian dictatorship has only displayed the struggle between the proletarian forces in the whole world and the capitalist forces in the whole world, in the world of today, some have already been vanquished. As the proletariat in all nations is still struggling with capitalism, and has not yet gained victory, we  imagine that Russia in its territory can solely create a Communist country, this is a large mistake and a special mistake. The Russian proletariat cannot yet immediately establish a Communist country, capitalism has already been overturned, but it couldn’t but defend itself, and resist the enemies at home and abroad, this is very clear. Therefore, only by realizing the proletarian dictatorship is it possible to achieve the objective of resisting enemies at home and abroad. This is to say that they must use the power of a class to create a Communist society, and this class must create a future world, accept the mission of history, and accomplish this undertaking.

Another thing, this is not a special characteristic of Russian historical development, but is also a special characteristic of global historical development, furthermore, the situation of this sort of class struggle must be undergone in any country in the world.

The meaning of proletarian dictatorship is no more than to say that state power has been obtained by the revolutionary proletariat, but it is absolutely not to say that the trails of capitalist forces, that oppose the revolutionary forces, have all been exterminated. It is also not to say that the result of overthrowing the capitalist dictatorship is that Communism can be easily and simply realized. It is absolutely not like this, the task of the proletarian dictatorship is to continue to use brute force to battle the remaining capitalist forces on the one hand, on the other hand, it must use revolutionary methods to create many Communist construction methods, this sort of construction methods are formulated by the representatives chosen by the proletariat – the part of the proletariat with the strongest class consciousness and revolutionary spirit.

By the time that the capitalist forces from the whole world are exterminated, the undertaking of production will begin to work on the basis of Communist principles. At that time, the proletarian dictatorship must build a path to Communism.

中国共产党宣言
(一九二○年十一月)
亲爱的同志们!这个宣言是中国共产党在去年十一月间决定的。这宣言的内容不过是关于共产主义原则的一部分,因此没有向外发表,不过以此为收纳党员之标准。这宣言之中文原稿不能在此地找到,所以兄弟把他从英文稿翻译出来。决定这宣言之时期既然有一年多了,当然到现在须要有修改和添补的地方。我很希望诸位同志把这个宣言仔细研究一番,因为每一个共产主义者都得要注意这种重要的文件——共产党宣言。并且会提出远东人民会议中国代表团中之共产主义者组讨论。讨论的结果,将要供中国共产党的参考和采纳。
Chang
一九二一年十二月十日
1.共产主义者的理想
A.对于经济方面的见解共产主义者主张将生产工具——机器工厂,原料,土地,交通机关等——收归社会共有,社会共用。要是生产工具收归共有共用了,私有财产和赁银制度就自然跟着消灭。社会上个人剥夺个人的现状也会绝对没有,因为造成剥夺的根源的东西——剩余价值——再也没有地方可以取得了。
B.对于政治方面的见解共产主义者主张废除政权,如同现在所有的国家机关和政府,是当然不能存在的。因为政权,军队和法庭是保护少数人的利益,压迫多数劳动群众的;在生产工具为少数人私有的时候,这是很必要的。要是私有财产和赁银制度都废除了,政权,军队和法庭当然就用不着了。
C.对于社会方面的见解共产主义者要使社会上只有一个阶级(就是没有阶级)——就是劳动群众的阶级。私有财产是现社会中一切特殊势力的根源,要是没有人能够聚集他的财产了,那就没有特殊阶级了。
2.共产主义者的目的
共产主义者的目的是要按照共产主义者的理想,创造一个新的社会。但是要使我们的理想社会有实现之可能,第一步就得铲除现在的资本制度。要铲除资本制度,只有用强力打倒资本家的国家。劳动群众——无产阶级——的势力正在那里发展和团聚起来,这个势力是会使资本主义寿终正寝的。这种势力是在那里继续增长,这正是资本家的国家内部阶级冲突的结果。这个势力表现出来的方式,就是阶级争斗。
所以阶级争斗就是打倒资本主义的工具。阶级争斗从来就存在人类社会中间,不过已经改变了几次状态,因为这是以生产工具的发达为转移的。在封建国家的时候,阶级争斗也是一样的存在;但是与在资本家的国家下面的阶级争斗是有分别的,因为资本家的国家下面阶级争斗是格外紧迫,其势足以动摇全世界。这种势力的增长,日见坚实,终归会把资本主义铲除了去。
这种争斗的增长,是历史的法则。
共产党的任务是要组织和集中这阶级争斗的势力,使那攻打资本主义的势力日增雄厚。
这一定要向工人、农人、兵士、水手和学生宣传,才成功的;目的是要组织一些大的产业组合,并联合成一个产业组合的总联合会,又要组织一个革命的无产阶级的政党——共产党。共产党将要引导革命的无产阶级去向资本家争斗,并要从资本家手里获得政权——这政权是维持资本家的国家的;并要将这政权放在工人和农人的手里,正如一九一七年俄国共产党所做的一样。
革命的无产阶级的产业组合定要用大罢工的方法,不断的扰乱资本家的国家,使劳动群众的敌人日趋软弱。要是到了可以从资本家手中夺得政权的最后争斗的时机,由共产党的号召,宣布总同盟罢工,这就是给资本制度一个致命的打击。
并且当了资本家被打倒了之后,这些产业组合就变成了共产主义的社会中主管经济生命的机关。
资本家政府的被推翻,和政权之转移于革命的无产阶级之手;这不过是共产党的目的之一部分,已告成功;但是共产党的任务是还没有完成,因为阶级争斗还是继续的,不过改换了一个方式罢了——这方式就是无产阶级专政。
3.阶级争斗的最近状态
照现在看来,全世界可视为一个资本家的机关,所以一国的阶级争斗可使其他国家受同一的影响。一九一七年十一月俄罗斯无产阶级革命胜利的结果,使俄罗斯的阶级争斗变作劳农专政的方式。所以在其他国家内的阶级争斗也日见紧迫,他的趋向是向着与俄罗斯的阶级争斗一样的方式——就是无产阶级专政。
俄罗斯的阶级争斗变成无产阶级专政的方式,并不是一种偶然的状态,这是人类社会发展中的自然状态。当着资本家正被打倒,开始创造一个共产主义的社会的时候,这种状态是自然的。在一定的时期,这种俄罗斯的政况是必然的,所以这种政况在各国也是会必然的。因为我们从生产和分配的方法上看起来,这些国家都是一样的——都是资本主义式的。
俄罗斯的无产阶级的专政仅仅表明全世界的无产阶级的势力和全世界的资本主义的势力争斗,现在在世界上有一部分已经战胜了。当着各国的无产阶级还在和资本主义争斗,还没有得到胜利的时候,我们设想俄罗斯在她领土之内,单独可以造成一个共产主义的国家,这是大错而特错的。俄罗斯的无产阶级既即时不能建立一个共产主义的国家,资本主义又已经推翻了,她便不得不保卫自己,抵抗国内外的仇敌,这是很显明的。所以只有实行无产阶级专政,才能达到抵抗国内外的仇敌的目的。这就是说要用一个阶级的力量来创造共产主义的社会,而这个阶级是要造成将来的世界,并受历史的使命,要成就这件事业。
再说罢,这并不是俄罗斯历史发展的特征,也是全世界历史发展的特征,而且这种阶级争斗的状态,世界上任何国家都得要经过的。
无产阶级专政的意义不过是说政权已经被革命的无产阶级获得了,但是决不是说,资本主义势力的余迹,如反对革命的势力,都已消灭了。也不是说推翻资本主义政权的结果,共产主义就很容易很简单的实现了。完全不是这么一回事,无产阶级专政的任务是一面继续用强力与资本主义的剩余势力作战,一面要用革命的办法造出许多共产主义的建设法,这种建设法是由无产阶级选出来的代表——最有阶级觉悟和革命精神的无产阶级中之一部分——所制定的。
一直等到全世界的资本家的势力都消灭了,生产事业也根据共产主义的原则开始活动了,那时候的无产阶级专政还要造出一条到共产主义的道路。

One thought on “Manifesto of the Chinese Communist Party

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    March 16, 2013 at 10:59 am

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