Dear comrades! This manifesto has been decided upon by the Chinese Communist Party in November of last year. The content of this Manifesto is only one part concerning the principles of Communism, and because of this, has not been externally published, however, this is a standard for accepting Party members. The Chinese original manuscript of this Manifesto cannot be found in this place, therefore, the brothers have translated this from the English manuscript. As it is more than a year ago that this Manifesto was decided, naturally, there are places that need revision or supplementing by now. I very much hope that all comrades carefully research this Manifesto, because every Communist must pay attention to this sort of important document – the Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moreover, it may raise discussion among the Communists in the Chinese delegation to the Far Eastern Peoples’ Conference. The result of the discussion must be consulted and adopted by the Chinese Communist Party.
10 December 1921
1. The ideals of Communists
A. Concerning views on economic aspects, Communists advocate that the means of production – machines and factories, raw materials, land, communication organs, etc., are reclaimed, jointly owned and jointly used by society. If the means of production are reclaimed, jointly owned and jointly used, private property and the silver-renting system will naturally perish in its wake. The status quo of individuals exploiting individuals in society will also absolutely not exist, because the thing creating the roots of exploitation – surplus value – cannot no longer be obtained in any place.
B. Concerning views on political aspects, Communists advocate the abolition of state power, State organs and governments like all of those today can naturally not exist. Because state power, the army and the courts protect the interests of the minority and suppress the majority of the labouring masses; at a time where the means of productions are owned privately by the minority, this is very necessary. If private ownership and the silver-renting system are all abolished, state power, the army and the courts will naturally become useless.
C. Concerning views on social aspects, Communists must ensure that there is only one class in society (that is, that there are no classes) which is the class of the working masses. Private property is the root of all special forces in the present society, if there are no people who are able to concentrate their property, there will be no more special classes.
2. The objective of Communists.
The objective of Communists is to create a new society according to the ideals of Communism. But we must ensure that our ideals can be realized in society, the first step is that we must eradicate the present capitalist system. To eradicate the capitalist system, we can only use brute force to overthrow capitalist countries. The force of the labouring masses – the proletariat – is presently developing and uniting there, this force will be able to let capitalism die a natural death. This sort of force continues to grow there, this truly is the result of class conflict within capitalist countries. This manner in which this force is expressed, is class struggle.
Therefore, class struggle is to overthrow the tools of capitalism. Class struggle has always existed in human societies, however, it has changed its condition a few times, because it has been sifted by the development of the means of production. During the time of feudal countries, class struggle existed as well; but it has differences with the later class struggle in capitalist countries, because the class struggle under countries of capitalists is especially pressing. The growth of this sort of forces becomes more substantial with each passing day, and in the end, will eradicate capitalism.
The growth of this sort of struggle is the law of history.
The task of the Communist Party is that it must organize and concentrate the forces for this class struggle, and ensure that the forces to attack capitalism become more abundant every day.
This must absolutely be propagated to workers, peasants, soldiers, sailors and students before it can be successful; the objective is that we must organize some large industrial unions, and unite them into a general federation of industrial unions, we must also organize a revolutionary proletarian party – the Communist Party. The Communist Party must guide the revolutionary proletariat to go and struggle with capitalism, and must obtain state power from the hands of capitalists – this state power safeguard the capitalist countries; we must also put this state power into the hands of workers and peasants, just as the Russian Communist Party did in 1917.
The revolutionary proletarian industrial unions must absolutely use the method of large strikes, incessantly throw capitalist countries into disorder, and ensure that the enemies of the labouring masses grow weaker every day. If the opportune moment in which political power can be wrested from the hands of capitalist comes, the Communist Party’s call will proclaim a general and joint strike, this is a deadly attack on the capitalist system.
Moreover, after the capitalists have been overthrown, these industrial unions will have become the organs of Communist society, which are in charge of economic life.
The toppling of capitalists’ governments and the transfer of state power into the hands of the revolutionary proletariat; is no more than a part of the objective of the Communist Party, of which it can announce success; but the task of the Communist party is then not yet complete, because class struggle still continues, however, it has changed in pattern – this pattern is the proletarian dictatorship.
3. The most recent situation of class struggle
Looking at the present, the entire world can be considered as a capitalist organ, therefore, the class struggle in one country may engender a similar influence in other countries. The result of the revolutionary victory of the Russian proletarian in November 1917 has caused the Russian class struggle to change into a pattern of dictatorship of workers and peasants. Hence, the class struggle in other countries has become more pressing every day, its tendency is towards a similar pattern to the class struggle in Russia – this is the proletarian dictatorship.
The class struggle in Russia changing into the pattern of proletarian dictatorship is not some sort of accidental situation, it is a natural state in the development of human society. As capitalists are being toppled, the time has begun in which a Communist society is created, this sort of situation is natural. During a certain time, this sort of Russian political situation is necessary, therefore, this sort of political situation will be inevitable in all countries. Because when we loo at methods for production and allocation, these countries are all similar – they all have the capitalist form.
The Russian proletarian dictatorship has only displayed the struggle between the proletarian forces in the whole world and the capitalist forces in the whole world, in the world of today, some have already been vanquished. As the proletariat in all nations is still struggling with capitalism, and has not yet gained victory, we imagine that Russia in its territory can solely create a Communist country, this is a large mistake and a special mistake. The Russian proletariat cannot yet immediately establish a Communist country, capitalism has already been overturned, but it couldn’t but defend itself, and resist the enemies at home and abroad, this is very clear. Therefore, only by realizing the proletarian dictatorship is it possible to achieve the objective of resisting enemies at home and abroad. This is to say that they must use the power of a class to create a Communist society, and this class must create a future world, accept the mission of history, and accomplish this undertaking.
Another thing, this is not a special characteristic of Russian historical development, but is also a special characteristic of global historical development, furthermore, the situation of this sort of class struggle must be undergone in any country in the world.
The meaning of proletarian dictatorship is no more than to say that state power has been obtained by the revolutionary proletariat, but it is absolutely not to say that the trails of capitalist forces, that oppose the revolutionary forces, have all been exterminated. It is also not to say that the result of overthrowing the capitalist dictatorship is that Communism can be easily and simply realized. It is absolutely not like this, the task of the proletarian dictatorship is to continue to use brute force to battle the remaining capitalist forces on the one hand, on the other hand, it must use revolutionary methods to create many Communist construction methods, this sort of construction methods are formulated by the representatives chosen by the proletariat – the part of the proletariat with the strongest class consciousness and revolutionary spirit.
By the time that the capitalist forces from the whole world are exterminated, the undertaking of production will begin to work on the basis of Communist principles. At that time, the proletarian dictatorship must build a path to Communism.