Formulated on 12 May 1931
Promulgated on 1 July 1931
The National Government has established the Republic of China on the basis of the revolutionary Three Principles of the People and the Five-Powers Constitution. As [we] have gone from the period of military government into the period of political tutelage, it is proper to promulgate the Provisional Constitution, for all to abide by, in order to facilitate the creation of constitutional government, and hand over government [powers] to a government elected by the people. In solemn respect for the testament of the President [Sun Yat-sen] of the Chinese Nationalist Party that founded the Chinese Republic, the National Assembly was convened in the capital. The National Assembly formulated the following Provisional Constitution for the Republic of China During the Period of Political Tutelage
Chapter I: General Principles
Article 1: The territory of the Republic of China consists of the various provinces, as well as Mongolia and Tibet.
Article 2: The sovereignty of the Republic of China belongs to the whole body of citizens.
All those having the nationality of the Republic of China according to the law are citizens of the Republic of China.
Article 3: The Republic of China will forever be a united republic.
Article 4: The flag of the Republic of China is red, with a white sun on a blue sky in the upper left corner.
Article 5: The capital of the Republic of China is Nanjing.
Chapter II: The people’s rights and obligations
Article 6: Without distinction of gender, race, religion or class, all citizens of the Republic of China are equal before the law without exception.
Article 7: Citizens of the Republic of China have the rights to elect and recall officials, and the rights to formulate and amend laws as provided in Article 9 of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction, in counties that are completely autonomous, according to the provisions of Article 8 of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction.
Article 8: People may not be arrested, taken into custody, interrogated or punished without a legal basis.
Where someone is arrested or taken into custody because of being suspected for a crime, the organ implementing the arrest or custody mist move them to judicial organs for examination within 24 hours at the latest, the person in question or other persons must also request court review within 24 hours.
Article 9: Except for servicemen on active duty, the people are not to be subjected to military trial without a legal basis.
Article 10: The people’s residences may not be entered, searched or sealed without a legal basis.
Article 11: The people have the freedom of religious belief.
Article 12: The people have the freedom of movement, which may not be stopped or limited without a legal basis.
Article 13: The people have the freedom of confidentiality in letters and telegrams, which may not be stopped or limited without a legal basis.
Article 14: The people have the freedom to form associations, which may not be stopped or limited without a legal basis.
Article 15: The people have the freedom to express discourse, print, publish and write, which may not be stopped or limited without a legal basis.
Article 16: The property of the people may not be sealed or confiscated without a legal basis.
Article 17: The people’s exercise of property ownership is guaranteed by law, to the extent that it does not impair the public interest.
Article 18: Where it is necessary for the public interests, the people’s property may be requisitioned or levied according to the law.
Article 19: The people enjoy the right to inherit property according to the law.
Article 20: The people have the right to petition.
Article 21: The people have the right to bring lawsuits to the courts according to the law.
Article 22: The people have the right to raise complaints against government departments, and administrative litigation.
Article 23: The people have the right to take examinations according to the law.
Article 24: The people have the right to enter public service.
Article 25: The people have the obligation to pay taxes according to the law.
Article 26: The people have the obligation to serve as soldiers or corvée labourers according to the law.
Article 27: The people have the obligation to submit to government offices that implement their official powers according to the law.
Chapter III, The tutelage programme
Article 28: The political programme for the period of political tutelage and its execution are to be based on the provisions of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction.
Article 29: Local autonomy is to be practices according to the provisions of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction and the Implementation Law to Begin Local Autonomy.
Article 30: During the period of political tutelage, the Chinese Nationalist Party National Representative Conference represents the National Assembly in exercising central sovereign power.
When the Chinese Nationalist Party National Representative Conference is closed, its powers are exercised by the Chinese Nationalist Party Central Executive Committee.
Article 31: The exercise of the four political rights to elect and dismiss officials, formulate and amend laws takes place under the tutelage of the National Government.
Article 32: The five political powers, the administrative, legislative, judicial, examination and supervision powers, are exercised by the National Government.
Chapter IV: The national economy and the people’s livelihood.
Article 33: In order to develop the national economy and the people’s livelihood, the State encourages and protects the people’s production and enterprises.
Article 34: In order to develop the rural economy, improve peasants’ livelihoods and enhance the welfare of tenant farmers, the State shall vigorously implement the following matters:
I, Reclamation of wasteland nationwide, developing irrigation and water conservation.
II, Establishing agricultural finance organs, to encourage rural cooperative undertakings.
III, Implementing grain storage systems, to prevent famine and ensure ample food for the people.
III, Developing agricultural education, stressing scientific experimentation, implementing its spread in agriculture, to increase agricultural production.
V, Encouraging the localities to build rural roads, to make the transportation of products convenient.
Article 35: The State shall set up oil, coal and metal mining industries, and encourage and protect the people-run mining industry.
Article 36: The State shall establish State-run shipping businesses, and encourage and protect the people-run shipping industry.
Article 37: The people may freely choose their occupation and business, but where the public interest is impaired, the State may limit or prohibit this according to the law.
Article 38: The people have he freedom to conclude contracts, these are protected by law to the extent that they do not impede the public interest, and are decent and moral.
Article 39: The people may, in order to improve their economic lives and stimulate the mutual support of labour and capital, organize professional organizations according to the law.
Article 40: Both labour and capital shall, on the basis of the principles of coordination and mutual benefit, develop production and undertakings.
Article 41: In order to improve the living situation of labourers, the State shall implement labour protection laws and regulations.
Women and children who engage in labour shall be granted special protection according to their age and physical situation.
Article 42: In order to protect and relieve peasants, workers, etc., who cannot work because of injury, illness, disability or age, the State shall implement labour insurance systems.
Article 43: In order to develop the national economy the State shall encourage all sorts of cooperative undertakings.
Article 44: The State may adjust or limit the production, sales and pricing of people’s daily necessities.
Article 45: Usurious lending interest and heavy rents for real estate use shall be prohibited by law.
Article 46: The State shall provide corresponding relief to personnel in current military service who become disabled.
Chapter V: National education
Article 47: The Three Principles of the People are the fundamental basis for education in the Republic of China.
Article 48: Education opportunities for men and women are equal without exception.
Article 49: Publicly and privately run education organs are to be subject to State oversight without exception, and are responsible for practicing State-provided education policies and obligations.
Article 50: Children of schooling age shall receive compulsory education without exception, details are to be provided by law.
Article 51: People who have not received compulsory education, shall receive adult supplementary education without exception, details are to be provided by law.
Article 52: The Centre and the localities shall extend the necessary funds for education, and provide guarantees for their independent expenses according to the law.
Article 53: Where privately run schools have excellent results, the State shall reward and subsidize them.
Article 54: The State shall encourage and subsidize education for Overseas Chinese.
Article 55: Where schools’ teaching and administrative staff have excellent results, and have been in their position for a long time, the State shall reward and subsidize them.
Article 56: Publicly and privately-run schools nationwide shall provide free and scholarship positions, in order to bring in students who are excellent in teaching and conduct, who are incapable to move to the next level of schooling.
Article 57: The State shall reward and protect academic and technological research and invention.
Article 58: The State shall protect and preserve relevant historical, cultural and artistic heritage and antiquities.
Chapter VI: The powers of the Centre and the localities
Article 59: The powers of the Centre and the localities are to be based on the provisions of Article 17 of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction, and a power balance system is adopted.
Article 60: All localities may formulate local laws and regulations within the scope of their duties and responsibilities. But those that conflict with Central laws and regulations are invalid.
Article 61: The division of Central and local taxation is to be determined by law.
Article 62: In order to prevent the following categories of harm, the Centre limits local taxation by law:
I, Impairing the social and public interest.
II, Impairing Central income sources.
III, Duplicate taxation.
IV, Impairing transportation.
V, Unfair taxes where one locality imposes import taxes for goods from other localities for its own benefit.
VI, Transit taxes for goods from all localities.
Article 63: Patents and monopoly permission powers in industry and commerce belong to the Centre.
Article 64: When all provinces have reached the time to begin constitutional government, the powers and the Centre and the localities shall be concretely stipulated by law according to the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction
Chapter VII: The organization of government
Section 1: Central institutions
Article 65: The National Government assumes all responsibility for the governing power of the Republic of China.
Article 66: The National Government commands the land, sea and air armies.
Article 67, The National Government exercises the power to declare war, make peace and conclude treaties.
Article 68: The National Government is in charge of general amnesty, special amnesty, reduction of sentencing and recovery of rights
Article 69: The National Government confers honours.
Article 70: The National Government compiles budgets and accounts for the annual income and expenses of the State, and publishes these.
Article 71: The National Government establishes the Administrative Yuan, the Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Juan, the Examination Yuan, the Supervision Yuan and the various ministries and commissions.
Article 72: The National Government sets up one person as chairmen, and a number of committee members. The Chinese Nationalist Party Central Executive Committee selects and appoints committee members, the quota of people is determined by law.
Article 73: The National Government’s chairman represents the National Government at home and abroad.
Article 74: The presidents of all Yuans and the heads of all ministries and commissions are appointed and dismissed by the National Government according to the law, upon the submission of the chairman of the National Government.
Article 75: Promulgated laws and issued decrees are to be signed before implementation by the National Government’s chairman according to the law.
Article 76: All Yuans, ministries and commissions may issue decrees according to the law.
Article 77: The organizations of the National Government and all Yuans, ministries and commissions are determined by law.
Section 2: Local organization
Article 78: Provinces set up provincial governments, who are under the command of the Centre, and are in overall charge of political affairs for the whole province. Other organizations are determined by law.
Article 79: When all provinces have reached the time to begin constitutional government according to the provisions of Article 16 of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction, the National Assembly may elect provincial heads.
Article 80: The local organization in Mongolia and Tibet may be based on local circumstances, and determined separately by law.
Article 81: Counties set up county governments, who are under the command of provincial governments, and are in overall charge of political affairs for the whole country. Other organizations are determined by law.
Article 82: All counties organize preparatory committees for autonomy, who implement preparatory matters as provided in Article 8 of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction.
County autonomy preparatory committee organization is determined by law.
Article 83: Localities where industry and commerce are flourishing and population is concentrated, or who have other special circumstances, may establish all sorts of urban districts. Their organization is determined by law.
Chapter VIII: Supplementary provisions
Article 84: All laws that conflict with this Provisional Constitution are invalid.
Article 85: The power to interpret this Provisional Constitution is exercised by the Chinese Nationalist Party Central Executive Committee
Article 86: The Constitutional Draft shall be based on the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction, and the achievements of both periods of political tutelage and constitutional government, it is to be negotiated by the Legislative Yuan, and propagated to the masses in the fullness of time, in order to prepare for its timely implementation.
Article 87: When more than half the provinces nationwide reach the time to begin constitutional government, being the time when local autonomy has been completely established in the whole province, the National Government shall convene the National Assembly, determine the Constitution and promulgate it.
Article 88: This Provisional Constitution is formulated by the National Assembly, and is submitted to the National Government for promulgation.
Article 89: This Provisional Constitution takes effect on the date of promulgation.
第 一 條 中華民國領土爲各省及蒙古西藏。
第 二 條 中華民國之主權屬於國民全體。
第 三 條 中華民國永爲統一共和國。
第 四 條 中華民國國旗定爲紅地左上角靑天白日。
第 五 條 中華民國國都定於南京。
第 六 條 中華民國國民無男女、種族、宗教、階級之區別，在法律上一律平等。
第 七 條 中華民國國民依建國大綱第八條之規定，在完全自治之縣享有建國大綱第九條所定選舉、罷免、創制、複决之權。
第 八 條 人民非依法律不得逮捕、拘禁、審問、處罰。
第 九 條 人民除現役軍人外，非依法律不受軍事審判。
第 十 條 人民之住所，非依法律不得侵入搜索或封錮。
第 十一 條 人民有信仰宗教之自由。
第 十二 條 人民有遷徙之自由，非依法律不得停止或限制之。
第 十三 條 人民有通信通電祕密之自由，非依法律不得停止或限制之。
第 十四 條 人民有結社集會之自由，非依法律不得停止或限制之。
第 十五 條 人民有發表言論及刊行著作之自由，非依法律不得停止或限制之。
第 十六 條 人民之財產，非依法律不得查封或沒收。
第 十七 條 人民財產所有權之行使，在不妨害公共利益之範圍內，受法律之保障。
第 十八 條 人民財產因公共利益之必要，得依法律徵用或徵收之。
第 十九 條 人民依法律得享有財產繼承權。
第 二十 條 人民有請願之權。
第 三十 條 訓政時期由中國國民黨全國代表大會代表國民大會行使中央統治權。
第 四十 條 勞資雙方應本協調互利原則，發展生產事業。
第 五十 條 已達學齡之兒童應一律受義務教育，其詳以法律定之。
第 六十 條 各地方於其事權範圍內，得制定地方法規。但與中央法規抵觸者無效。
第 七十 條 國家之歲入、歲出由國民政府編定預算、决算公布之。
第 八十 條 蒙古、西藏之地方制度，得就地方情形，另以法律定之。