Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic

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The First Chinese Soviet National Congress solemnly proclaims to the working masses of the entire world and all of China the fundamental tasks that it must realize in all of China, which is the Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic.

The realization of these tasks has already begun in the present Soviet regions. But the First Chinese Soviet National Congress believes that the completion of these tasks can only occur after the overthrow of the rule of the imperialist Guomindang in all of China and the establishment of Soviet Republic rule in all of China. Furthermore, only at that time can the Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic be concretized, and become the detailed Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic. The National Chinese Soviet Congress sincerely calls upon the working masses of peasants and labourers in all of China to struggle for the realization of these fundamental tasks in all of China, under the leadership of the Provisional Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic.

I, The task of the basic Law of the Chinese Soviet Republic lies in guaranteeing the labourer and peasant democratic dictatorship in the Soviet regions and its victory in all of China. The objective of this dictatorship is to eliminate all feudal remains, drive away the influence of the great imperialist powers in China, unify China, systematically limit the development of capitalism in China, drive the country’s economic construction forward, raise the unity of the proletariat and its level of consciousness, unite the broad poor peasant masses around it, in order to transform it into the proletarian dictatorship.

II, What the Chinese Soviet regime constructs is a democratic dictatorship country of the labourers and peasants. The entire political power of the Soviet belongs to the labourers and the peasants, the Red Army soldiers and all labouring masses. Under the Soviet regime, all labourers, peasants, Red army soldiers and all working masses have the power to appoint representatives to grasp the management of political power; only warlords, bureaucrats, landlords, despotic gentry, capitalists, rich peasants, monks, priests, all people who exploit others and all counterrevolutionary elements do not have right to send representatives to participate in political power or political freedoms.

III, The highest political power in the Chinese Soviet Republic is the plenary meeting of the National Soviet Congress of Labourers, Peasants and Soldiers, at times where the plenary meeting is adjourned, the Provisional Central Executive Committee of the National Soviet is the organ with the highest political power, People’s Committees are organized under the Central Executive Committee to deal with daily government affairs, promulgate all decrees and resolutions.

IV, Labourers, peasants, Red Army soldiers and all working masses in the territory of the Soviet regime and their family members are equal before Soviet law, without differentiation of sex, race (Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Mai, Li and Taiwanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, etc., in China) or religion, all are citizens of the Soviet Republic, in order to ensure that labourers, peasants, soldiers and the working masses truly grasp their own political power, the Soviet Election Law provides: all abovementioned Soviet citizens above the age of sixteen enjoy the Soviet right to vote and to be elected, to directly delegate representatives to participate in the plenary sessions of labourer, peasant and soldier congresses (Soviets) at all levels, to discuss and decide upon all national and local decisions; the method to represent production is to take the factories of industrial workers, and the regions inhabited by handicraft labourers, peasants and the urban poor as units; the Soviet representatives elected by this sort of basic unit have a certain term of office, the sort of representative who participates in the work of all sorts of urban or village Soviet organizations and committees must deliver reports to their electorate on time, the electorate has the right to recall the persons they elected and conduct new elections at any time. In order to ensure that only the proletariat can lead the broad peasants and labouring masses in marching towards Socialism, the Chinese Soviet regime gives special rights to the proletariat at times of elections, and increases the proportions and quota of representatives of the proletariat.

V, The Chinese Soviet regime has thoroughly improving the living situations of the working class as objective, it formulates a Labour Law, declares the eight-hour working day, formulates minimum wage standards, establishes social security systems and national unemployment benefits, and declares that workers have the power to supervise production.

VI, The Chinese Soviet regime has eliminating the feudal system and thoroughly improving peasants’ lives as objectives, it promulgates a Land Law, advocates the confiscation of all land of the landlord class, and its distribution to poor peasants and middle peasants, and has realizing land nationalization as objective.

VII, The Chinese Soviet regime has guaranteeing the interest of workers and peasants, limiting the development of capitalism, ensuring that the toiling masses are removed from capitalist exploitation and marching towards a Socialist system as objectives, it declares that it cancels all exorbitant taxes and levies from the era of counterrevolutionary rule, levies a uniform progressive tax, sternly suppresses all plots and schemes by Chinese and foreign capitalists to slow down work or destroy it, it adopts an economic policy that completely benefits the working and peasant masses, is understood by the working and peasant masses and marches towards Socialism.

VIII, The Chinese Soviet regime has thoroughly liberating China from imperialist oppression as objective. It declares the complete autonomy and independence of the Chinese nation, it does not recognize all political and economic privileges of imperialism in China. It declares that all unequal treaties concluded with counterrevolutionary governments are invalid, it denies all foreign debts with counterrevolutionary governments. Within Soviet areas, imperialist naval, land and air forces are not permitted stationing, the imperialist concessions and settlements are unconditionally reclaimed, the banks, customs, railroads, shipping, mines, factories, etc., that are in imperialist hands are nationalized without exception, at present, foreign enterprises are permitted to conclude new rental agreements and continue production, but they must abide by all Soviet government decrees.

IX, The Chinese Soviet regime has doing everything possible to bring about and guarantee the victory of the worker and peasant revolution in all of China as objective, it declares that supporting and participating in revolutionary class warfare is the duty of all toiling masses, it will especially formulate systems for universal military service duties, to shift from a volunteer army to a conscription army. The right to bear arms and participate in class warfare only belongs to the worker, peasant and toiling masses. Under the Soviet regime, the armed forces of the counterrevolution and all exploitation must be completely dissolved.

X, The Chinese Soviet regime has guaranteeing the freedom of the worker, peasant and toiling masses to speak, publish, assemble and form organizations as objective, it opposes bourgeois and landlord democracy, it advocates worker and peasant democracy, destroys the economic and political power of landlord and capitalist classes, in order to eliminate all obstacles in society fettering worker and peasant freedom, and uses the power of the mass regime to obtain printing organs (newspaper offices, printing shops, etc.), meeting venues and all other necessary equipment, to give to the worker, peasant and toiling masses, in order to guarantee that they obtain the material basis for these freedoms. At the same time, all counterrevolutionary propaganda and activity and all political freedoms of exploiters will be absolutely prohibited under the Soviet regime.

XI, The Chinese Soviet regime has guaranteeing the thorough implementation of women’s liberation as objective, it recognizes the freedom of marriage, implements all sorts of means to protect women, to ensure that women are really able to gradually obtain the material bases to separate themselves from the fetters of household duties, and to participate in the economic, political and cultural life of the whole society.

XII, The Chinese Soviet regime has guaranteeing the right of working, peasant and toiling masses to receive education as objective, within the scope permitted by the waging of class warfare, the implementation of completely free-of-charge universal education should be begun, first and foremost, it should be implemented among young toiling masses, guarantee all rights of young toiling masses, and vigorously guide them to participate in political and cultural revolutionary life, in order to develop new social forces.

XIII, The Chinese Soviet regime has guaranteeing the true religious freedom and practice of worker, peasant and toiling masses as objective, it implements the principle of absolute separation between religion and state, no religions can obtain any protection or funding supplied by the Soviet state, all Soviet citizens have the freedom of anti-religious propaganda, Imperialist churches can only be permitted to exist when they abide by Soviet laws.

XIV, The Chinese Soviet regime recognizes the right of national self-determination of ethnic minorities within the borders of China, it always recognizes the rights of all small nations to separate from China, and establish their own independent country. Mongolians, Hui, Tibetans, Miao, Li, Koreans and others who reside on Chinese territory have the complete right to self-determination: to accede to or separate from the Chinese Soviet federation, or establish their own autonomous regions. the Chinese Soviet regime will, at present, strive to assist these small nations in separating themselves from imperialist, Guomindang, warlord, aristocratic, lama, gentry and other oppressive rule and gain complete autonomy, the Soviet regime will also develop their own national culture and national language among these nations.

XV The Chinese Soviet regime grants the right to protection in the Soviet areas to revolutionary combatants from the Chinese masses as well as the world who are persecuted by reactionary rulers because of revolutionary activities, it assists and leads them to resume their fighting strength until the revolutionary victory.

XVI, The Chinese Soviet regime ensures that foreigners who reside in the Soviet areas and engage in toil enjoy all political rights provided by Soviet laws.

XVII, The Chinese Soviet regime proclaims that the global proletariat and oppressed nations stand on one revolutionary front with it, the country with proletarian dictatorship, the Soviet Union, is its firm ally.

 

中華蘇維埃第一次全國代表大會僅〔謹〕向全世界與全中國的勞動群眾,宣佈它在全中國所要實現的基本任務,即中華蘇維埃共和國的憲法大綱。

這些任務,在現在的蘇維埃區域內已經開始實現。但中華蘇維埃第一次全國代表大會認為這些任務的完成,只有在打倒帝國主義國民黨在全中國的統治,在全中國建立蘇維埃共和國的統冶之後。而且在那時,中華蘇維埃共和國的憲法大綱才更能具體化,而成為詳細的中華蘇維埃共和國的憲法。中華蘇維埃全國代表〈大會〉,謹號召全中國的工農勞動群眾,在中華蘇維埃共和國臨時政府的指導之下,為這些基本任務在全中國的實現而鬥爭。

一、中國〔華〕蘇維埃共和國家根本法(憲法)的任務,在於保證蘇維埃區域工農民主專政的政權和達到它在全中國的勝利。這個專政的目的,是在消滅一切封建殘餘,趕走帝國主義列強在華的勢力,統一中國,有系統的限制資本主義的發展,進行國家的經濟建設,提高無產階級的團結力與覺悟程度,團結廣大的貧農群眾在它的周圍,以轉變到無產階級的專政。

二、中國蘇維埃政權所建設的是工人和農民的民主專政的國家。蘇維埃全政權是屬於工人,農民,紅軍兵士及一切勞苦民眾的。在蘇維埃政權下,所有工人,農民,紅軍兵士及一切勞苦民眾都有權選派代表掌握政權的管理;只有軍閥,官僚,地主,豪紳,資本家,富農,僧侶及一切剝削人的人和反革命分子是沒有選派代表參加政權和政治上自由的權利的。

三、中華蘇維埃共和國之最高政權為全國工農兵會議(蘇維埃)的大會,在大會閉會的期間,全國蘇維埃臨時中央執行委員會為最高政權機關,中央執行委員會下組織人民委員會處理日常政務,發佈一切法令和決議案。

四、在蘇維埃政權領域內的工人,農民,紅軍兵士及一加勞苦民眾和他們的家屬,不分男女,種族(漢,滿,蒙,回,藏,苗,黎和在中國的臺灣,高麗,安南人等),宗教,在蘇維埃法律前一律平等,皆為蘇維埃共和國的公民,為使工農兵勞苦民眾真正掌握著自己的政權,蘇維埃選舉法特規定:凡上述蘇維埃公民在十六歲以上皆享有蘇維埃選舉權和被選舉權,直接選派代表參加各級工農兵會議(蘇維埃)的大會,討論和決定一切國家的地方的政治事務;代表產生方法是以產業工人的工廠和手工業工人農民城市貧民所居住的區域為選舉單位;這種基本單位選出的地方蘇維埃代表有一定的任期,參加城市或鄉村蘇維埃各種組織和委員會中工作,這種代表須按期的向其選舉人做報告,選舉人無論何時,皆有撤回被選舉人及實行新選舉的權利。為著只有無產階級才能領導廣大的農民與勞苦群眾走向社會主義,中國蘇維埃政權在選舉時給予無產階級以特別的權利,增多無產階級代表的比例名額。

五、中國蘇維埃政權以澈底的改善工人階級的生活狀況為目的,制定勞動法,宣佈八小時工作制,規定最低限度的工資標準,創立社會保險制度與國家的失業津貼,並宣佈工人有監督生產之權。

六、中國蘇維埃政權以消滅封建制度及澈底的改善農民生活為目的,頒布土地法,主張沒收一切地主階級的土地,分配給貧農,中農,並以實現土地國有為目的。

七,中國蘇維埃政權以保障工農利益,限制資本主義的發展,更使勞苦群眾脫離資本主義的剝削,走向社會主義制度去為目的,宣佈取消一切反行命統治時代的苛捐雜稅,徵收統一的累進稅,嚴厲的鎮壓一切中外資本家的怠工和破壞的陰謀,採取一切有利於工農群眾並為工農群眾了解的走向社會主義去的經濟政策。

八、中國蘇維埃政權以澈底的將中國從帝國主義榨壓之下解放出來為目的。宣佈中國民族的完全自主與獨立,不承認帝國主義在華的政治上經濟上的一切特權。宣佈一切與反革命政府訂立的不乎等條約無效,否認反革命政府的一切外債。在蘇維埃領域內,帝國主義的海陸空軍絕不容許駐紮,帝國主義的租界租借地無條件的收回,帝國主義手中的銀行,海關,鐵路,航業,礦山,工廠等一律收歸國有,在目前,可允許外國企業重新訂立租借條約繼續生產,但必須遵守蘇維埃政府一切法令。

九、中國蘇維埃政權以極力發既和保障工農革命在全中國勝利為目的,宣告擁護和參加革命的階級戰爭為一切勞苦民眾的責任,特製定普遍的兵役義務,由志願兵役過渡到徵兵制度。惟手執武器,參加階級戰爭的權利,只能屬於工農勞苦民眾。蘇維埃政權下,反革命和一切剝削者的武裝,必須全部解除。

十、中國蘇維埃政權以保證工農勞苦民眾有言論出版集會結社的自由為目的,反對地主資產階級的民主,主張工人農民的民主,打破地主資產階級經濟的和政治的權力,以除去反動社會束縛勞動者和農民自由的一切障礙,並用群眾政權的力量,取得印刷機關(報館,印刷所等)開會場所及一切必要的設備,給予工農勞苦民眾,以保障他們取得這些自由的物質基礎。同時,反革命的一切宣傳和活動,一切剝削者的政治自由,在蘇維埃政權下,都絕對禁止。

十一、中國蘇維埃政權以保證澈底的實行婦女解放為目的,承認婚姻自由,實行各種保護女性的辦法,使婦女能夠從事實上逐漸得到脫離家務束縛的物質基礎,而參加全社會經濟的政治的文化的生活。

十二、中國蘇維埃政權以保證工農勞苦民眾有受教育的權利為目的,在進行階級戰爭許可的範圍內,應開始施行完全免費的普及教育,首先應在青年勞動群眾中施行,並保障青年勞動群眾的一切權利,積極的引導他們參加政治的和文化的革命生活,以發展新的社會力量。

十三、中國蘇維埃政權以保證工農勞苦民眾有真正的信教自由的實際為目的,絕對實行政教分離的原則,一切宗教不能得到蘇維埃國家的任何保護和供給費用,一切蘇維埃公民有反宗教的宣傳之自由,帝國主義的教會只有在服從蘇維埃法律時,才能許其存在。

十四、中國蘇維埃政權承認中國境內少數民族的民族自決權,一直承認到各弱小民族有同中國脫離,自己成立獨立的國家的權利。蒙古,回,藏,苗,黎,高麗人等,凡是居住在中國地域內,他們有完全自決權:加入或脫離中國蘇維埃聯邦,或建立自己的自治區域。中國蘇維埃政權在現在要努力幫助這些弱小民族脫離帝國主義國民黨軍閥王公喇嘛土司等的壓迫統治而得到完全自主,蘇維埃政權更要在這些民族中發展他們自己的民族文化和民族語言。

十五、中國蘇維埃政權對於凡因革命行動而受到反動統治迫害的中國民眾以及世界的革命戰士給予托庇於蘇維埃區域的權利,井幫助和領導他們重新恢復鬥爭的力量,一直達到革命的勝利。

十六、中國蘇維埃政權對於居住蘇維埃區域內從事勞動的外國人,一律使其享有蘇維埃法律所規定的一切政治上的權利。

十七、中國蘇維埃政權宣告世界無產階級與被壓迫民族是與它站在一條革命戰線上,無產階級專政的國家──蘇聯是它的鞏固的聯盟。

One thought on “Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    August 3, 2013 at 9:02 am

    […] Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic (1931) […]

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