Report at the News Work Conference in the South-western Region

Posted on Updated on

16 May 1950

Deng Xiaoping

Picking up the writing brush is the main method of exercising leadership. Leading comrades must learn how to pick up the writing brush. Having conferences is a sort of leadership method, it is necessary, but the people coming to conferences are always small in number, even if a large report is made, there still will be only a few hundreds listening. Specific talks are also a leadership method, but it can only be “specific”. The broadest way of realizing leadership is using the writing brush. Using brushes to write things out and disseminate them is broad, and through writing, ideologies are refined, and become relatively thorough. Therefore, using the brush to lead is the main method of leadership, this is what Chairman Mao told us. All those who have not yet learned it should learn how to write, those who can write, but not proficiently, must slowly become more proficient

There are many ways of picking up the brush. The Party and government write resolutions, instructions, and send out telegrams, this is very important, but instructions and telegrams can only reach a certain scope of cadres. Any policy, if it is only seen by cadres and not seen by the masses, cannot give rise to effect. In picking up the brush, the way with the broadest application is writing articles and carrying them in newspapers or publishing pamphlets, as well as writing good contributions and broadcasting them on radio stations. Publishing newspapers and organizing radio, publications and pamphlets, can both achieve a reality of close links, closely integrate the central tasks, this is more effective and broader than their methods in implementing and realizing the intention of leadership, and their application is larger.

“The brush is too heavy”, not being able to write, what should be done? We must talk with leading comrades in all regions, explain the importance of picking up the brush and the importance of news work, if he doesn’t understand how to use a brush, this leader has many shortcomings himself. Writing articles is also not very difficult, mainly, the idea should be good. Leading comrades have these conditions: understanding relatively much of the situation, being relatively complete and correct in looking at problems. Problems in technical aspects are secondary, with effort of oneself, help from others, this can be raised steadily. If leading comrades are not willing to write articles, news work comrades must take the initiative to do work. If he doesn’t want to write, there is always a reason “I can’t write, I can’t write it” or “I have no time”, he must be actively sought out, “You speak and I’ll write”, or looking for near leaders and comrades who can write to write it. But first and foremost, the leader must write himself, news work comrades actively help and organize contributions in a planned way. In this way, it is possible to progressively resolve the problems of leading organs and leading comrades using newspapers and leading newspapers. There are three conditions for running newspapers: integrating reality; linking with the masses; criticism and self-criticism. If these three conditions are deviated from, leadership will not be exercise well, newspapers will have no strength, and may easily become “records of everything that is hear”. Therefore, the precondition for running newspapers well lies in leadership.

We must run local newspapers well. There has been progress recently in the “New China Daily”. Our newspapers must carry general information issued by the Centre, but local newspapers, don’t necessarily have to use all broadcast scripts of the New China general office, and must appropriately select, adapt, compress, and abstract them, we must consider targets, whether or not they can read that much and can understand it after reading. Some small newspapers are run more integrated with reality than large newspapers, are more suited to the requirements of the masses, are even more popular and vivid. Naturally, localities wanting to run large newspapers (large cities) must run large newspapers, but they should not all run large newspapers.

Newspapers must integrate with reality, and integrate with the central tasks of the time and the place. The New China main office-issued contributions should be given high regard, but are editable relatively well. The main vigour of leading comrades and comrades running newspapers must be put towards local news, the work and life situations of the people in those regions should be carried in large numbers. Newspaper publishers must constantly gain contact with leaders, and according to the changes in the present tasks in that regions, adjust their reporting policy from time to time. Not long ago, the “New China Daily” wrote a special article, which explained the situation of suppressing bandits, and content mainly was critical. Was it correct or incorrect? It is also correct. Is it timely or untimely? It was untimely. In considering whether something is correct or not, we must consider time, place, conditions and other factors. There were already achievements in suppressing bandits, the army was under circumstances of great effort and arduousness, mainly going about criticizing was untimely. Putting it a month in advance would have been just timely. This illustrates that our comrades’ understanding of the real circumstances of bandit suppression was insufficient. Now, the influence of newspapers is larger than in the past, there are some incorrect things that are published in newspapers, this is a waste. In the past few years, many cadres did not read newspapers, now, it is different, newspapers have prestige, reading what a newspaper is saying must be done with reflection. Many localities reading that newspapers criticized methods, secretly change them, this is the function of newspapers. In society, many people read newspapers, read about some attitude of the Communist Party, how the people’s government policies are, and want to find things they need in newspapers, and resolve their own problem. Exactly because of this, cadres and newspapers all give high regard to newspapers, we must be very cautious.

What is the Southwest’s central task today? Speaking about the entire region, first is suppressing bandits, second is completing the task of levying grain taxes, revenue and government bonds, third is leading production (which is mainly agricultural production) four is adjusting industry and commerce and providing relief to the unemployed. In order to realize these tasks, we must convene People’s Congresses and Peasant Congresses. The next step is reducing rent this winter and next spring, this is also put forward from the Southwest.

How are these tasks completed? In the area of suppressing bandits, Sichuan has many good experiences in suppressing bandits, newspapers must report these, but cannot let bandits completely understand our tactics. Newspapers must propagate bandit suppression policies, and integrate leniency with suppression. Chief criminals must be punished, unwilling accomplices are let off, those rendering meritorious service will be rewarded. What does letting off unwilling accomplices mean? “Letting off” means no convictions, and also means no punishments. Some are let off without so much as an interrogation, this is a mistake. There must always be education, speaking frankly, only when the masses provide guarantee, should people be let off. Generally speaking, bandit suppression produces the desired results. The situations in Guizhou and Yunnan are each different as well. Newspapers must grasp the characteristics of every locality, this is leadership.

Levying grain tax, is generally very dynamic at the beginning, but very difficult to collect afterwards. The methods in ten thousand counties to resolve this problem are relatively appropriate, they must be introduced and expressed well. This is realizing leadership. Newspapers must use comments and editorials to add a series of reports to lead the payment of grain taxes.

In leading production, the overall situation is not too bad. Chairman Mao instructed that new regions must maintain the original production levels, and not let them drop, and that old regions still have to “grow an inch”, this is not easy. At present, peasant’s production vigour has been raised. But cultivating new plots must not be encouraged, trees must be cut for cultivating new plots, and the largest problem for Sichuan right now is that there are few woods. Some localities report that they have reallocated a plot of land from rich tenant farmers to poor farmers, it is said that this was voluntary. For these things, newspapers cannot write editorials in praise, and cannot write information for dissemination. The main policy in production is no chaos. All ungrasped things require a but of caution, to be researched first, or write bout it, say it is good, but also which dangers there are, making the masses consider it again from another angle, this is also leadership.

Adjusting industry and commerce is mainly a city matter. Our policy is to adjust labour and capital, simultaneously dealing with both interests, otherwise, it will be unfavourable for the entire national economy. We must assist privately run industry and commerce that is beneficial to the national economy and people’s livelihood, and encourage the production vigour of private persons. The capital side must improve management and reduce costs. Recently, newspapers carried a few reports of privately run cotton mills resolving difficulties, this should be carried, it uses privately run enterprises’ examples to realize leadership over privately run enterprises. We foster progressive privately run enterprises with good prospects those without prospects must be guided to change production. Adjusting industry and commerce involves problems in three aspects, one: capital, two: labour, three: the public, all must be guided to develop productivity. The Communist Party is for developing social productivity, otherwise, it has violated Marxist theory. In Shanghai, one piece of cotton sells for 5 million Yuan, here, 9 million Yuan is wanted, who will buy it? We cannot bring tariff barriers to the Three Gorges, and even worse, bring feudal separatist rule. It is said that some industrialists and businesspeople conflict with our policies, but this is truly changing, which is good, once it is improved, they will feel that our policies are of assistance to them. We are in the middle of great change, destruction is hard to avoid. What is managed extremely unreasonably must collapse, speculation must also collapse. The production of incense, candles and hell bank money and other superstitious products absolutely has no future. The production of some things must now be reduced, but after ten years may develop again, such as cosmetics. We must guide the development of industry and commerce in a healthy direction. Price stability has benefits to industry and commerce, recently, a few loans have also been lent on this bases. Guidance must be conducted over lending, and uses assigned. If more than 2 billion is lent to the Minsheng Corporation, and assigned to buy coal or repair ships, this has also resolved a few problems in the coalmining business and the machinery sector. After lending out money, there must be inspections, to ensure it is used in appropriate localities, otherwise, it may create an anarchist attitude. There are some things of which excessive production exceeds market demand, if it cannot be sold, there is a problem, and production switches must be guided.

Unemployment mainly is within large cities. It is said that Chongqing has 50.000 people (with 250.000 workers in the entire city), Guiyang has 10.000 people (with 30.000 workers in the entire cities) and Chengdu has 20.000 people. We must appropriately arrange for and provide relief to the unemployed.

Resolving these above problems, mainly requires holding People’s Congresses in all walks of life, this is the best and most important method to link up with the masses. We must rectify incorrect working styles among cadres, oppose bureaucratism and commandism. Even if it is hardworking bureaucratism, or even if it is commandism that works hard in spite of difficulties, both must be opposed.

The Centre will publish land laws, and will without exception lead the people of all classes to study it, because everyone is involved. Studying well will prepare for land reform next year, and will prepare for rent reduction this year. Newspapers must organize study and discussion, and let this be known inside and outside of the Party. “Ten eyes watching, ten fingers pointing”, everyone has studied this, understood this, and it is not tolerated that cadres act recklessly, this has benefited overall leadership.

These abovementioned problems all are tasks for newspapers to realize leadership. In prominent aspects, they must concentrate forces, ad some times, use a full page to carry them, use a month of time to publish a series of comments and editorials to propagate and implement matters. In this way, people will pay attention. Whether or not there is strength, is not only a question of quality, but also quantity. Quality means correctness, quantity also means expansion, only when all sides revolving around this, will there be strength.

Launching criticism and self-criticism, the “Xinhua Daily” recently has done this a bit better. In the past, newspapers only reported the good and held back the bad, now, they also report bad news, this may treat complacency and lax vigilance. Newspapers’ most powerful force is criticism and self-criticism. The Centre praised some newspapers in the past, which mainly was because they realized criticism and self-criticism, and clearly separated right and wrong, clearly separated what should be done and what should not be done. Newspapers engaging in criticism must grasp models, go from start to finish, guide towards the positive side, and sometimes must consciously contrast good and bad. This sort of criticism and self-criticism has strength, and explains that it is for the sake of improving work, and not for being negative. What does vivid and vigorous mean? It does not lie within the length of writing, but that vivid processes must be written about, and that there are results. The criticism we have often only brings out problems, and there is no outcome. Describing the process also cannot be long and tedious. Criticism and self-criticism must strongly carry on, we still don’t do it enough. The leadership, Party Committees and governments must support reporters to write critical pieces with all their strength, now, people who dare to talk are too few, we must encourage them to talk. When necessary, we must also be alert towards and explain criticism that does not conform to the facts.

Looking from the leadership side, running newspapers means everyone runs newspapers, looking from the side of news workers, it also means everyone runs newspapers. Newspapers really are linked up very well with reality, and with the masses, newspapers that are run well, are the largest help for the leadership. There often is a situation like this: Party and government can’t hear something, newspapers can hear it, and can feel the pulse of society. To know what the most important problem presently is, comprehensively research the letters from readers, often, it can be deduced from there.

Any task is not one that one newspaper can complete. All newspapers interface differently, efforts must be made on all sides, only then is it possible to universally disseminate the voice of the Party and government towards the masses at all levels.

在西南区新闻工作会议上的报告
(一九五○年五月十六日)
邓小平
拿笔杆是实行领导的主要方法。领导同志要学会拿笔杆。开会是一种领导方法,是必需的,但到会的人总是少数,即使做个大报告,也只有几百人听。个别谈话也是一种领导方法,但只能是“个别”。实现领导最广泛的方法是用笔杆子。用笔写出来传播就广,而且经过写,思想就提炼了,比较周密。所以用笔领导是领导的主要方法,这是毛主席告诉我们的。凡不会写的要学会写,能写而不精的要慢慢地精。
拿笔有多种。党和政府写决议、指示、计划,发电报,这是很重要的,但指示、电报只能传达到一定范围的干部。任何政策如果只同干部见面,不同群众见面,是不能发生效果的。拿笔杆子中,作用最广泛的是写文章登在报纸上和出小册子,再就是写好稿子到广播电台去广播。出报纸、办广播、出刊物和小册子,而又能做到密切联系实际,紧密结合中心任务,这在贯彻实现领导意图上,就比其他方法更有效、更广泛,作用大得多。
“笔杆子太重”,不会写,怎么办?要同各地区领导同志谈通,说明拿笔杆的重要、新闻工作的重要,不懂得用笔杆子,这个领导本身就是很有缺陷的。写文章也不是很困难,主要是要意思好。领导同志具备这个条件:了解情况比较多,看问题比较全面、正确。技术方面的问题是次要的,自己努力,别人帮助,慢慢就会提高。领导同志不愿意写文章,新闻工作同志要主动去做工作。他不愿写,总有一个理由,“不会写,写不了”,或者“没有功夫”,那就主动找他,“你讲我写”,或者找接近领导而又能写的同志来写。但首先还是要领导同志亲自写,新闻工作同志主动帮助,有计划地组织稿件。这样就可以逐步解决领导机关、领导同志运用报纸、领导报纸的问题。办好报纸有三个条件:结合实际、联系群众、批评与自我批评。这三条离开了领导也搞不好,报纸就没有力量,容易变成“有闻必录”。所以办好报纸的前提在领导。
要办好地方报纸。《新华日报》〔118〕最近有进步。我们的报纸要登中央发的一般消息,但作为地方报纸,新华社总社的广播稿不一定全用,要适当选择、改编、压缩、提炼,要考虑对象,能不能看那么多,看了懂不懂。有的小报就比大报办得更结合实际,更切合群众需要,更通俗活泼。当然,需要办大报的地方(大城市)必须办大报,但不是都要办大报。
报纸要结合实际,结合当时当地的中心任务。新华社总社发来的稿件应该重视,但比较好编。领导同志和办报同志的主要精力要放在当地新闻上,要大量刊登本区人民的工作和生活情况。报社要时时和领导取得联系,根据本地当前任务的变化,随时调整自己的报道方针。不久前《新华日报》写了一篇专论,讲的是剿匪中的情况,内容主要是批评。正确不正确?也正确。合不合时宜?不合时宜。正确与否要考虑到时间、地点、条件等因素来判断。在剿匪已经有了成绩,部队又很艰苦很努力的情况下,主要去批评就不合时宜了。放在一个月以前则刚合时宜。这说明我们的同志对剿匪的实际情况了解不够。现在报纸的影响比过去大了,有些不正确的东西在报上一表扬,就糟了。前几年很多干部不看报,现在不同了,报纸有威信,看到报纸讲什么就要照着去做。很多地方看到报纸批评了的做法,就秘密地改,这就是报纸的作用。社会上很多人看报,看共产党什么态度,人民政府政策如何,要从报上找自己需要的东西,解决自己的问题。正因为干部群众都重视报纸,我们就要很慎重。
西南区今天的中心任务是什么?从全区说,一是剿匪,二是完成征粮、税收、公债〔119〕任务,三是领导生产(主要是农业生产),四是调整工商业、救济失业人员。为了实现这些任务,要召开人民代表会或农民代表会。下一步是今冬明春的减租,也是从全西南提出的。
这些任务完成得怎样?剿匪方面,四川剿匪有很多好经验,报纸要报道,但又不能让土匪完全了解我们的战术。报纸要宣传剿匪政策,宽大与镇压相结合。首恶必办,胁从不问,立功受奖。什么叫胁从不问?“不问”是说不问罪,也就是不治罪。有的问都不问一下就放了,这就错了。总要教育教育,坦白一下,群众取保,才能释放啊。总的说,剿匪见效。贵州、云南的情况又各有不同。报纸必须抓住每个地方的特点,这就是指导性。
征收公粮,一般开始时都是轰轰烈烈,但后来很难收上来。万县解决这个问题的办法比较恰当,要好好介绍、表扬,这就是实现领导。报纸要用评论、社论加上一连串的报道来领导交公粮。
领导生产,整个情况不算坏。毛主席指示新区要保持原有的生产水平,不使降低,老区还要“长一寸”〔120〕,这就不容易。当前,农民的生产积极性有了提高。但是开荒不要鼓励,开荒要砍树,现在四川最大的问题是树林少。有的地方报告,他们从佃富农那里调剂了一部分土地给贫农,据说是自愿的。这样的事报纸不能写社论表扬,不能写消息传播。生产中主要一条方针是不要乱动。凡是无把握的事要慎重一些,先研究一番,或者写个东西,说这个好,但也存在哪些危险性,使群众从另一方面再考虑,这也就是领导。
调整工商业,主要是城市。我们的政策是调节劳资,两利兼顾,否则对整个国民经济不利。我们要扶助有益于国计民生的私营工商业,鼓励私人生产的积极性。资方要改善管理,降低成本。最近报上登了些私营纱厂解决困难的报道,应该登,用私营企业的榜样来实现对私营企业的领导。我们扶植进步的、有前途的私营企业,没有前途的要指导转产。调整工商业涉及三个方面的问题,一资、二劳、三公,一切都要引导到发展生产力。共产党就是为发展社会生产力的,否则就违背了马克思主义理论。上海一件纱卖五百万元〔121〕,这里要九百万元,谁来买?不能把关税壁垒搬到三峡来,再来个封建割据。据说有的工商业家对我们的政策有抵触,但他又确实在改,那就好,改好了会感到我们的政策对他是有帮助的。我们正处在大改革之中,破坏是难免的。管理非常不合理的要垮,投机的也要垮。香烛纸钱等迷信品的生产是没有前途的。有些东西的生产现在要减少,但十年之后还会有发展,如化妆品。我们要引导工商业向健全的方向发展。物价稳定对工商业有好处,最近一些贷款也是在这个基础上才贷出的。对贷款要进行指导,指定用途。如贷给民生公司二十多亿,指定买煤、修船,这样也解决了煤矿业和机器业的一些问题。钱贷出去以后要检查,使之用到适当的地方,否则就造成无政府状态。有些东西生产超过市场需要太多,销不出去就有了问题,要指导转产。
失业主要在大城市。据说重庆有五万人(全市工人二十五万),贵阳一万人(全市工人三万),成都两万人。对失业人员,要妥善安排和救济。
解决以上这些问题,主要是开各界人民代表会,这是联系群众最好、最主要的办法。在干部中要进行整风,反对官僚主义和命令主义。哪怕是辛辛苦苦的官僚主义也好,哪怕是艰苦奋斗的命令主义也好,都在反对之列。
中央要公布土地法〔122〕,要无例外地领导各阶层人民学习,因为都牵涉到。学得好,为明年土改〔123〕作准备,也为今年减租〔50〕作准备。报纸要组织学习、讨论,使党内党外都知道。“十目所视,十手所指”〔124〕,大家都学习了,了解了,就不容许干部乱干了,对整个领导有好处。
上面说的这些问题,都是报纸要实现领导的任务。在突出的方面要集中力量,有的时候用整版来登,用一个月时间,发表一连串的评论、社论来宣传和贯彻。这样人们就注意了。有没有力量,不仅是质,也有量的问题。质是要准确性,量也要加大,各方面围绕于此,才有力量。
开展批评与自我批评,《新华日报》最近做得好一些。过去报喜不报忧,现在也报忧了,这就可以医治自满和麻痹。报纸最有力量的是批评与自我批评。中央过去表扬了几个报,主要因为他们实现了批评与自我批评,是非弄得很清楚,应该做的和不应该做的弄得很明确。报纸搞批评,要抓住典型,有头有尾,向积极方面诱导,有时还要有意识地作好坏对比。这样的批评与自我批评才有力量,才说明是为了改进工作,而不是消极的。什么叫生动活泼?不在文字长短,而是要写出生动的过程,而且有结果。我们有的批评往往只是把问题摆出来了,没有下文。描写过程也不能冗长。批评与自我批评要大大发扬,我们还很不够。领导上,党委和政府,要全力支持通讯员写批评稿,现在敢说话的人太少,要鼓励说话。对有些与事实不符的批评,必要时也要提醒和说明。
从领导来看,办报是大家办报,从新闻工作者自己来看,也是大家办报。报纸真的同实际、同群众联系好了,报纸办好了,对领导是最大的帮助。常常有这样的情况:党和政府听不到的,报纸能听到,它能摸到社会的脉搏。目前最突出的问题是什么,把读者来信加以综合研究,常常就能看出来。
任何一个任务不是一家报纸所能完成的。各家报纸接触面不同,要各方面努力,才能把党和政府的声音普遍传播到各阶层群众中去。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s