Regulations on the Punishment of Counterrevolutionaries of the People’s Republic of China

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(Approved at the 11th meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee on 20 February 1951, published by the Central People’s Government on 21 February 1951)

Article 1: According to the provisions of Article 7 of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference Common Programme, in order to punish counterrevolutionary crimes, suppress counterrevolutionary activities and consolidate the democratic dictatorship of the people, these Regulations are formulated.

Article 2: All sorts of counterrevolutionary crimes that have overturning the people’s democratic dictatorship or destroying the people’s democratic cause as objective, will be punished according to these Regulations.

Article 3: Those collaborating with imperialist countries to betray the motherland will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment.

Article 4: Those instigating, seducing or bribing civil servants, members of the armed forces or the people’s militia to defect, ringleaders or commanders will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment. Others participating in instigating, seducing, bribing or defecting, will be subject to imprisonment of 10 years or less; where the circumstances are grave, the punishment will be heavier.

Article 5: Those heading conspiracy to assemble a mob, command it or others committing evil crimes will be subject to the death penalty; other vigorous participants will be subject to imprisonment of five years or more.

Article 6: Those conducting one of the following activities of spying or supporting the enemy, will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment, where the circumstances are relatively light, they will be subject to imprisonment of five years or more:

(1) those stealing or inquiring to State secrets or providing intelligence for domestic or foreign enemies;

(2) those indicating targets for bombarding by enemy planes or warships;

(3) those providing weapons, munitions or other military materials to domestic or foreign enemies.

Article 7: Those participating in counterrevolutionary secret services or espionage activities, where one of the following circumstances is present, will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment; where circumstances are relatively light, they will be subject to imprisonment of five years or more:

(1) those receiving dispatches or clandestine activities for domestic of foreign enemies;

(2) those organizing or participating in counterrevolutionary secret services or espionage organizations after liberation;

(3) those having organized or led counterrevolutionary secret services or espionage organizations before liberation, and other grave criminals, that have not shown intent to expiate their crimes by meritorious service after liberation;

(4) those having participated in counterrevolutionary secret services or espionage organizations before liberation, and continue to participate in counterrevolutionary activities after liberation;

(5) those continuing to participate in counterrevolutionary activities after registry with the People’s Government or giving themselves up;

(6) those continuing to contact with counterrevolutionary special services and spies or conducting counterrevolutionary activities after being released from People’s Government education.

Article 8: Those using feudal sects and societies to conduct counterrevolutionary activities, will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment, where circumstances are relatively light, they will be subject to imprisonment of three years or more.

Article 9: Those scheming or implementing the following acts of destruction or murder with counterrevolutionary objectives, will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment; where circumstances are relatively light, they will be subject to imprisonment of five years or more:

(1) those plundering or destroying military facilities, plants, mines, forests, farms, dikes, dams and communications, banks, warehouses, safety facilities or other important public and private property;

(2) those circulating drugs, disseminating bacteria or inducing major disasters to humans, animals and plants through other means;

(3) those causing market disruption or destroying finance on the instruction of domestic or foreign enemies;

(4) those raiding, killing or maiming civil servants or the people;

(5) those falsely using the name of military organs, democratic parties or people’s organizations to counterfeit official documents and certifications, to engage in counterrevolutionary activities.

Article 10: Those committing one of the following acts of incitement or agitation with counterrevolutionary objectives, will be subject to imprisonment of three years or more; where the circumstances are grave, they will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment:

(1) those inciting mass resistance, destroying the implementation of People’s Government grain taxation, tax collection, custodians, military service and other decrees;

(2) those sowing dissent within the unity of all ethnicities, all democratic classes, all democratic parties, all people’s organizations and between the People and Government;

(3) those conducting counterrevolutionary propaganda agitation, fabricating and disseminating rumours.

Article 11: Those illegally crossing the national border for counterrevolutionary objectives, will be subject to an imprisonment of five years or more, lifelong imprisonment or the death penalty.

Article 12: Those gathering mobs to break into jails and rescue prisoners, or inciting prison escapes, organizers and ringleaders will be subject to the death penalty or lifelong imprisonment; other vigorous participants will be subject to imprisonment of three years or more.

Article 13: Those harbouring or sheltering counterrevolutionary criminals, will be subject to imprisonment of ten years or less; where circumstances are grave, they will be subject to imprisonment of ten years or more, lifelong imprisonment or the death penalty.

Article 14: Those committing a crime as listed in these Regulations, where one of the following circumstances is present, the case must be settled leniently, mitigation or exemption from punishment may be granted, taking the circumstances in consideration:

(1) those voluntarily giving themselves op to the Peoples Government and repent sincerely;

(2) those sincerely repenting before or after being exposed or reported and expiate their crime by meritorious service,

(3) those forced or cheated by counterrevolutionaries, and have not volunteered;

(4) those of which counterrevolutionary crimes before liberation where not at all grave, and that have repent and reformed after liberation, and have severed connection with counterrevolutionary organizations.

Article 15: All those committing multiple kinds of crimes, apart from being subject to the death penalty or lifelong infringement, shall be subject lower than the total punishment sum, and higher than the highest individual crime, taking circumstances into consideration.

Article 16: All those committing crimes not specially provided for in these Regulations with counterrevolutionary objectives, must be punished in the light of a similar criminal category in these Regulations.

Article 17: Those committing crimes listed in these Regulations, must be deprived of their political rights, and their complete or a part of their property must be confiscated.

Article 18: For counterrevolutionary crimes committed before the implementation of these Regulations, the provisions of these Regulations apply as well.

Article 19: Any person has the power to expose or inform People’s Governments of counterrevolutionary activities, but they may not bring false accusations out of grudge.

中华人民共和国惩治反革命条例

(一九五一年二月二十日中央人民政府委员会第十一次会议批准,一九五一年二月二十一日中央人民政府公布)

第一条

根据中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领第七条的规定,为惩冶反革命罪犯,镇压反革命活动,巩固人民民主专政,特制定本条例。

第二条

凡以推翻人民民主政权,破坏人民民主事业为目的之各种反革命罪犯,皆依本条例治罪。

第三条

勾结帝国主义背叛祖国者,处死刑或无期徒刑。

第四条

策动、勾引、收买公职人员、武装部队或民兵进行叛变,其首要分子或率队叛变者,处死刑或无期徒刑。其他参与策动、勾引、收买或叛变者,处十年以下徒刑;其情节重大者,加重处刑。

第五条

持械聚众叛乱的主谋者、指挥者及其他罪恶重大者处死刑;其他积极参加者处五年以上徒刑。

第六条

进行下列间谍或资敌行为之一者,处死刑或无期徒刑;其情节较轻者处五年以上徒刑:

(一)为国内外敌人窃取、刺探国家机密或供给情报者;

(二)为敌机、敌舰指示轰击目标者;

(三)为国内外敌人供给武器军火或其他军用物资者。

第七条

参加反革命特务或间谍组织,有下列情节之一者,处死刑或无期徒刑;其情节较轻者处五年以上徒刑:

(一)受国内外敌人派遣潜伏活动者;

(二)解放后组织或参加反革命特务或间谍组织者;

(三)解放前组织或领导反革命特务或间谍组织,及其他罪恶重大,解放后无立功赎罪表现者;

(四)解放前参加反革命特务或间谍组织,解放后继 续参加反革命活动者;

(五)向人民政府登记、自首后继续参加反革命活动 者;

(六)经人民政府教育释放仍继续与反革命特务、间 谍联系或进行反革命活动者。

第八条

利用封建会门,进行反革命活动者,处死刑 或无期徒刑;其情节较轻者处三年以上徒刑。

第九条

以反革命为目的,策谋或执行下列破坏、杀 害行为之一者处死刑或无期徒刑;其情节校轻者处五年 以上徒刑:

(一)抢劫、破坏军事设施、工厂、矿场、森林、农场、堤 坝、交通。银行、仓库、防险设备或其他重要公私财物者;

(二)投放毒物、散播病菌或以其他方法,引起人、畜或农作物之重大灾害者;

(三)受国内外敌人指使扰乱市场或破坏金融者;

(四)袭击或杀、伤公职人员或人民者;

(五)假借军政机关、民主党派、人民团体名义,伪造公文证件,从事反革命活动者。

第十条

以反革命为目的,有下列挑拨、煽惑行为之一者,处三年以上徒刑;其情节重大者处死刑或无期徒刑:

(一)煽动群众抗拒、破坏人民政府征粮、征税、公役、兵役或其他政令之实施者;

(二)挑拨离间各民族、各民主阶级、各民主党派、各人民团体或人民与政府间的团结者;

(三)进行反革命宣传鼓动、制造和散布谣言者。

第十一条

以反革命为目的偷越国境者,处五年以上徒刑、无期徒刑或死刑。

第十二条

聚众劫狱或暴动越狱,其组织者、主谋者处死刑或无期徒刑;其他积极参加者处三年以上徒刑。

第十三条

窝藏、包庇反革命罪犯者,处十年以下徒刑;其情节重大者,处十年以上徒刑、无期徒刑或死刑。

第十四条

凡犯本条例之罪而有下列情形之一者,得酌情从轻、减轻或免予处刑:

(一)自动向人民政府真诚自首悔过者;

(二)在揭发、检举前或以后真诚悔过立功赎罪者,

(三)被反革命分子胁迫、欺骗,确非自愿者;

(四)解放前反革命罪行并不重大,解放后又确已悔改并与反革命组织断绝联系者。

第十五条

凡犯多种罪者,除判处死刑和无期徒刑者外,应在总和刑以下,多种刑中的最高刑以上酌情定刑。

第十六条

以反革命为目的之其他罪犯未经本条例规定者,得比照本条例类似之罪处刑。

第十七条

犯本条例之罪者,得剥夺其政治权利,并得没收其财产之全部或一部。

第十八条

本条例施行以前的反革命罪犯,亦适用本条例之规定。

第十九条

对反革命罪犯,任何人均有向人民政府揭发、密告之权,但不得挟嫌诬告。

第二十条

犯本条例之罪者,在军事管制时期内由各地军区司令部、军事管制委员会或剿匪指挥机关所组织之军事法庭依照本条例审判之。

第二十一条

本条例自中央人民政府委员会批准公布之日施行

Article 20: Those committing crimes listed in these Regulations during the period of military control, will be tried by military counts established by all localities’ military region headquarters, military control committees or anti-banditism command organs, in the light of these Regulations.

Article 21: These Regulations take effect on the day of People’s Government Committee approval and publication.

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