Conclusion at the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference

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23 May 1951

Liu Shaoqi

Comrades!

Our conference has already gone on for very long, there have been many meetings that I haven’t attended, and I have only looked at some of your minutes and the questions put forward by a number of comrades, I have seen that many questions that have been discussed have been already resolved, and I’d just like to say a few words on some important issues mentioned in them.

I, Appraising our Party’s past propaganda work, its successes and flaws.

Thirty years ago, after Marxism-Leninism was introduced to China, Marxism-Leninism was immediately accepted by China’s advanced personalities, and has undergone research and propaganda, because of this, the Chinese Communist Party was founded, if there had not been research and propaganda of Marxist-Leninist theory, the Chinese Communist Party could not have been founded. Every one of us is a Communist Party member now, and we have convened a propaganda work meeting for the Communist Party again, how has this come about for the Communist Party? There are a few sources: one is the Chinese working class; another is the global situation – the development of the worldwide proletarian revolutionary movement, and the victory of the of the Soviet October Revolution; there is another direct cause, which is that studying Marxism-Leninism, researching Marxism-Leninism and propagating Marxism-Leninism, only generated the Chinese Communist Party in the end, and it has undergone thirty years of struggle (this struggle of thirty years is the struggle for the truth of Marxism-Leninism), before it gained the revolutionary victory of the present. During this long-term and arduous revolutionary struggle, on the one hand, we have propagated Marxism-Leninism on a broad scale, and have popularized the tenets of Marxism-Leninism among the Chinese people (this is a very great work, a very difficult work, to bring a very profound and deep principle to the Chinese people, and especially to propagate it among the Chinese working people, to practice it and operationalize it, if we do not popularize it and do not do popularized work, we will not be able to disseminate this in China, and the working people will be unable to accept it), gained a Chinese national form (the original form of Marxism-Leninism is a European form, and its European form has been changed into an oriental form, and changed into a Chinese national form through our Party’s propaganda and diligence), and guided the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people by closely integrating it with the real lives of the Chinese working people and the real struggle. Therefore, this weapon of Marxism-Leninism has become a powerful fighting weapon of the Chinese working people, and a fighting banner. Our Chinese Communist Party has led the Chinese people in conducting a few decades of revolutionary struggle, and during these decades of struggle, the banner that was raised was the banner of Marxism-Leninism, and the banner of Communism, everyone has united under this banner and used the weapon of Marxism-Leninism and the truth of Marxism-Leninism to fight. Through 30 years of propaganda work, we have gained successes in this regard. On toe other hand, we have developed and enriched Marxist-Leninist theory in terms of the profundity of its significance, and have added quite a few new arms to the general arsenal of Marxism-Leninism, these new arms have been very useful in the revolutionary struggle of all Oriental people, and the struggle of people in all Oriental colonies and dependencies.

These results and achievements mentioned earlier, where our Party’s internals are concerned, should mainly be attributed to our leader, and be attributed to our Marxist-Leninist propagandist – Comrade Mao Zedong. This must be pointed out. Our Party’s propaganda work comrades should take Mao Zedong as model, and mirror Mao Zedong in their propaganda of Marxism-Leninism, he is our Party’s best, most excellent and most outstanding model for the propagation of Marxism-Leninism.

Because our Chinese Communist Party’s study, propaganda, application and bold creation of Marxism-Leninism, we have already raised the theoretical level of the entire Chinese nation towards unprecedented heights. Our Chinese nation has always been a cultured and theoretical nation. At what time was this the highest? Now, it is the highest. Why  could it have been brought to these heights? The main reason is our study of Marxism-Leninism, our propaganda of Marxism-Leninism, our application of Marxism-Leninism, and our creation of Marxism-Leninism, in this way, we have raised the theoretical levels of our nation. We have not just raised theory levels, we have also changed the appearance of China in ideology and reality. That is to say that the magnificent Marxist-Leninist doctrines have already gained a historical and decisive victory among the Chinese people. We have not just obtained historical victories among the Chinese people, but have also enabled the people of all Oriental countries to be more convinced of Marxism-Leninism every day. Why have they become more convinced of Marxism-Leninism every day? It is because of the fact that Marxism-Leninism has gained victories in China.

It is more than a hundred years from the invention of Marxism until today, in these more than one hundred years, Marxism has incessantly gained victories, the victory of the Soviet October Revolution is the largest victory of Marxism-Leninism, after the victory of the October Revolution, another great victory has been gained in the global Communist movement, and that is the victory of the Chinese revolution. The victory of Marxism in China is the greatest victory after the victory in the October Revolution. I think we should evaluate the achievements and results of our propaganda of Marxism-Leninism in the past in this way.

I think an evaluation like this is very necessary, because I read some of your minutes, you have always found that we are doing badly everywhere, here, things aren’t good, there they aren’t good either, we have problems here, and we also have problems there. I see that things are very good and achievements are great, the central pint is that we have propagated Marxism-Leninism and developed Marxism-Leninism in China; in the global Communist movement, we have propagated Marxism-Leninism and developed Marxism-Leninism, we have made Marxism-Leninism go deeply into people’s hearts, and have even made it go deeply among those illiterates, they have sacrificed their lives for Marxism-Leninism, for example in the Korean war, they have paid no regard to their lives, lost arms or legs, but did not desert their post to come back, they were free from all inhibitions, mustered their courage and energy, and advanced. Our propaganda of Marxism-Leninism is so deep, that this is the result of our propagating Marxism-Leninism for a number of decades. All those kinds of heroic deeds and exemplary achievements, in the revolutionary struggle, in war and in class struggle, are very rare in the world.

The most effective propagator of Communism in the entire global Communist movement is the Soviet Union, and is the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Our Chinese Communist Party is also one of the most effective ones in terms of propagating the tenets of Marxism-Leninism. Our propaganda work is done very well, great achievements have been obtained, great effects have been gained. These achievements are due to our Party’s efforts, all Chinese Communists’ efforts, they have been gained under the leadership of Comrade Mao Zedong, these are our Party’s achievements. Interpreting these achievements to become the achievements of your propaganda departments, should not be done so. Actually, propaganda departments have done a lot of work in this area, that still merits to be reconsidered.

II, How is the situation of our propaganda work at present?

The present situation is a fundamental change from the past, China’s circumstances, situations and conditions have completely changed. Because China has been victorious. The Chinese Revolution has been victorious, and the conditions for us to propagate Marxism-Leninism have become even better, first and foremost, there is no one prohibiting our propagation of Marxism-Leninism anymore. For decades, our propaganda of Marxism-Leninism was prohibited by someone, and the prohibition was quite devastating, it only took for someone to say one sentence on the street: “I Propagate Marxism-Leninism”, or to shout “Down with imperialism!”, to be arrested and put in prison. In the past, there was the danger of being killed for propagating Marxism-Leninism, there were all sorts of decrees prohibiting the propaganda of Marxism-Leninism. China’s Marxism-Leninism propagators have undergone much persecution, because there were many people who spent time in jail because of propagating Marxism-Leninism, and there were also many who were sentenced to death, they have been under much attack. But these Communists, they have still used ingenious means to propagate Marxism-Leninism, they wrote one or two phrases in the corner of a newspaper, articles were written so subtly and so dubiously, that is how they propagated Marxism-Leninism. In those decades, they were in regions controlled by Chiang Kai-shek, or controlled by the Japanese, and still persisted in propagating Marxism-Leninism, some propagated them in writing, those who could not do so in writing propagated it orally, where it was impossible for many people to propagate, a small number of people propagated, where it was impossible to propagate to people they did not know, they propagated to people they knew already, they propagated to their friends and their relatives, they propagated to their classmates and colleagues, they talked one-on-one with reliable people, in this eBay, they persisted in propaganda work, regardless of everything. But now, this situation dies not exist anymore, and there are no more people prohibiting our propaganda of Marxism-Leninism, now, people propagating Marxism-Leninism, if your propagate it well, not only will you not have to go to jail, but everyone will applaud, say you propagate very well, you can be a hero and a mode, and earn great honour. The situation of today is reversed, China’s revolution has been victorious, all decrees prohibiting the propaganda of Marxism-Leninism have been thoroughly abolished, the millions of Chinese people have had their class consciousness raised unprecedently during the real revolutionary struggle, during the struggle to oppose imperialism, the struggle to oppose feudalism and during class struggle. Peasants have gained a class consciousness through venting grievances against and denouncing landlords during land reform. Urban people have gained a very high level of class consciousness through the recent movement to suppress the counterrevolution. The consciousness of the Chinese people has been raised unprecedently, and the shackles that fettered the Chinese people ideologically, and fettered the Chinese workers have been smashed, or are currently being smashed, many people have changed their minds. Peasants have said during land reform that they have changed their minds, and have in reality changed their minds, which means that they have excavated the roots of poverty, vented their grievances, and why are they poor? Let’s settle the account. Class education has also been conducted in the army in ’47 and ’48, there have been three inspections and three rectifications, inspection of class, inspection of viewpoints, inspection of ideology and inspection of work style, such a rectification has raised class consciousness, where discipline was bad before, it became better after inspection. Why is this so? It is because there was Marxism-Leninism, because they gained class consciousness, because they gained class consciousness on the basis of Marxism-Leninism, through their real experience and starting from their real life. The broad people have launched study of Marxist-Leninist theory and this new ideology of Marxism-Leninism, and have accepted it on a large scale. These intellectuals and university professors, on the one hand, they read books, and study Marxism-Leninism from books; on the other hand they have observed land reform, listened at meetings to air grievances, and participated in real occasions of class educations in real life. After coming back from observation, they have written many articles in newspapers, they say: after observing land reform and listening to grievances, my viewpoint has completely changed. Among intellectuals, there are some viewpoints that haven’t changed in the past decades, and that have now changed. For example, the president of Furen University, Chen Yuan, he had a viewpoint that did not change for decades, and when he heard an eighty year-old woman speak at a meeting to air grievances, that viewpoint of his changed, that old lady said: “Before, what could I do! The political power is yours, the police is yours, complaints are not successful, it is only today that I can avenge myself!” This eighty year-old woman was also illiterate, but these few sentences educated him, and he changed his viewpoint. Tsinghua University professor Wu Jingchao observed land reform in Xi’an, and after he came back, he wrote an article saying that many of his viewpoints changed. The broad people’s class consciousness has risen, and on the basis of this real rise of class consciousness, a further rise in theory is required. What is important for the working people is the real class consciousness, they were subject to the oppression by landlords in their real lives, were subject to oppression by capitalists, subject to oppression by the Japanese, and oppression by the Americans, how did these forms of oppression come about? They pursued this to the root, that pursuit arrived at problems of class, and arrived at the profundity of Marxism-Leninism, afterwards, they believed this, and gained class consciousness. This consciousness has come on the basis of the experience of real struggle and the experience of real life, real life and real struggle have stimulated their class consciousness. If a person’s class consciousness is like this, it is still insufficient, it is knowledge that has been gained through perception, and has come from his real life, people have oppressed him and have exploited him, airing grievances once, and settling accounts once, may have enlightened his consciousness, but this must still be raised to the height of theory. Many people and especially Communist Party members must be required to raise it another step, and raise it to the level of theory. There are some people who have gained class consciousness from being oppressed once, having settled accounts once, and having undergone class education once, some people have not been oppressed (such as university professor etc.), but have become conscious once they attended meetings and listened to people airing grievances once. A person who has gained real class consciousness, and who is required to participate in real struggle again, will raise it even more, someone who reeds books once more, and studies Marxist-Leninist theory, will raise it even more. Now, the broad people demand to study Marxism-Leninism, the broad people’s  real class consciousness has risen, and under these conditions, the condition for which we want to conduct Marxist-Leninist propaganda and education is very good, this condition is that our  Chinese Communist Party members, our Party’s propaganda workers have gained unprecedented smooth conditions for the propaganda of Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought among the Chinese people. Our propaganda workers must use these smooth conditions that have already been created in all areas to strengthen the propaganda of Marxism-Leninism, and continue to strive to raise the consciousness of the working people and the theory levels of the working people, we must continue to raise these and raise them again, enabling our Chinese nation to become one of the nations with the highest theoretical levels in the world.

Chairman Mao wrote in “On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship”; “we must use democratic methods to educate ourselves and transform ourselves on a nationwide level and the scope of the whole body, to enable us to rid ourselves from internal and external reactionary influences (this influence is still very great at this time, and will still exist for a long time, it cannot be eliminated very rapidly), and transform ourselves from the bad habits and bad ideologies from the old society, not make ourselves march the mistaken path pointed out by reactionaries, but continue to advance, and develop towards a Socialist society and a Communist society.” Next, he also stated that: we must conduct education on a nationwide level and the scope of the whole body, and not only educate the people, but must furthermore educate the reactionaries, as long as reactionaries have not been killed (if they have been killed, they naturally don’t need education, apart from those who have been killed), it is even fine if they are punished with lifelong imprisonment, they must be educated, and must undergo reform through labour. Here, he says separately: towards the people, democratic methods and voluntary methods must be used in education, towards reactionaries, coercive methods must be used in education.

This time, I read in your minutes: some localities, when propagating Marxism-Leninism, close the doors, require people to listen, and force them to receive lessons. This is using coercive measures to educate the people, that is to say that methods to educate enemies are used to educate the people, this is a mistake, at this point, we do not distinguish enemies and ourselves. Chairman Mao said, democratic methods are to be used for education among the people, and coercive methods are to be used for education of enemies, but when our comrades doing judicial work, and comrades doing public security work educate criminals, they adopt democratic methods, this is also making a mistake of principle. Towards criminals, coercive methods must be used, and democratic methods can be used. Therefore, in these localities, we must make matters clear: among the people, coercive methods cannot be used, using coercive methods is mistaken, democratic methods cannot be used towards enemies, using democratic methods is also mistaken.

We must use coercive methods to transform and educate reactionaries. We must also educate the national bourgeoisie and the petty bourgeoisie. And the gravest problem is that we must educate the peasants. As for the working class, Chairman Mao has written about this, I don’t need to talk about this here, we must first and foremost educate the working class. And does the Communist Party have to educate itself? Without doubt, it must be educated before anything else. That is to say that we must first and foremost educate Communist Party members themselves, then educate the working class, educate the peasant class, educate the petty bourgeoisie, educate the national bourgeoisie, and then educate reactionaries. This is to say that we must conduct education on a nationwide level and at the scope of the whole body.

Which things should be used to educate the people? The ideological principles of Marxism-Leninism are to be used to educate the people on a nationwide level and at the scope of the whole body. Now, we have gained the conditions, Chairman Mao said: we now have a people’s country. Now we have a people’s country, we have gained the possibility to conduct education of the people on  nationwide level and at the scope of the whole body; without a people’s country, we did not have this possibility. Now, we have gained this possibility, and must also do this. Using the ideological principles of Marxism-Leninism to educate the people on a nationwide level and at a scope of the whole body, is also the most basic political task of our entire Chinese people. Chairman Mao said in “On the People’s Democratic Dictatorship” that organizing a people’s country requires doing many things, things in politics, the economy and other areas. How should we go about in doing these things? We will march towards Socialism and Communism. To march towards Socialism and Communism, we must first and foremost lay ideological foundations – use the thoughts, viewpoints and methods of Marxism-Leninism to educate ourselves and the people in the entire country. This is the task for our Party’s propaganda work under our new circumstances and new situations of today. This task is magnificent, arduous and glorious, this task can only be achieved after a very long period of time.

To use the viewpoints of Marxism-Leninism to educate the people, we must first and foremost eliminate imperialist ideologies and feudal ideologies, and must thoroughly eliminate imperialist ideology and feudal ideology from among the people in the entire country. Chairman Mao said: we must progressively eliminate the bad habits, bad thoughts and bad influences brought from the old society from among the people, destroy them and clean them up, and we must criticize the ideologies of the bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie and the peasant class, that is to say non-Marxist-Leninist and non-proletarian ideologies. Because today, we have not yet destroyed the economic basis for the bourgeoisie and the petty bourgeoisie  in our policies, we have also not destroyed the economic basis for the peasantry, and must even develop it. Our policies do not touch upon them, they do not touch the private assets of the bourgeoisie, and do not touch the private assets of the petty bourgeoisie, the private assets of the peasantry must be protected even more. Because of this, we cannot destroy and clean up bourgeois ideologies, petty bourgeois ideologies and peasant ideologies, and cannot reduce them. But they must be criticized. Why? Because their ideologies are mistaken and bad. There are some among them that are good, bourgeois, petty bourgeois and peasant ideologies have a good side at present, such as their opposition to imperialism and their opposition to feudalism, they have these thoughts, we must recognize them. But they also have mistaken matters that must be criticized. That is also to say that we must first and foremost isolate bourgeois and petty-bourgeois thoughts ideologically, and ensure that the people know that although this sort if ideology has a good side, and has some reason, but that this reason is not thorough, but is mistaken and incorrect, with their methods, China will not be run well, with bourgeois ideology, China cannot march towards Socialism, but will march towards capitalism, when it marches towards capitalism, the working classes’ leadership powers will be lost, imperialism and feudalism will be rethroned, this is dangerous. If we isolate bourgeois ideologies and petty-bourgeois ideologies from the people, so that no-one will believe them, we must make the people know that they are wrong in terms of the system of thinking. To clean up imperialist ideologies and feudalist ideologies, and to isolate capitalist ideologies and petty-bourgeois ideologies, as well as all other non-proletariat ideologies, we must criticize them and renounce them, say that they are mistaken, and call upon the people not to believe them. Only in this way is it possible to establish Marxism-Leninism – the leadership power of the ideology of the working class. If we want to strengthen and consolidate this leadership power of the working class in terms of ideology and economics, we must first and foremost strengthen the leadership power of the working class ideologically, and consolidate the leadership power of the working class. This is our task, here, we must also divide clearly, imperialist ideologies and feudal ideologies must be cleaned up, speaking from the point of view of law, we do not permit them to talk and act irresponsibly, we do not permit them to speak, do not permit them to propagate, this is concerning reactionary ideology, concerning bourgeois ideology and petty-bourgeois ideology, matters are not like this, they are permitted to talk and act irresponsibly, it has not been said that they are illegal, the law does not prohibit them, they do not break the law administratively, they are still permitted to exist, they are permitted to talk, they are permitted to have the right to speak, they are permitted to express opinions. But, we must also point out which mistakes they have, and make people not believe them. Is it permitted to hit bourgeois ideology and petty bourgeois ideology into an illegal position, and propagate a decree: it is not permitted to talk and act irresponsibly? This is no good, this exceeds our revolutionary phase of today. Today, we are at the revolutionary stage of the new democracy, during this period, we still recognize the existence of the bourgeois economy in terms of economic policy,  and recognize that the petty bourgeois economy exists, so you must also recognize their existence in terms of ideology, recognize that they are lawful, but we must argue with them, they may also write articles, may also speak, and may propagate, but we must propagate Marxism-Leninism and must refute them. Is not refuting them good? It is not good, not refuting them won’t do, not refuting then has one problem, which is the question of who wins and who submits, is it then still bourgeois ideology and petty bourgeois ideology that was victorious? Or was it proletarian ideology that was victorious? If bourgeois ideologies and petty bourgeois ideologies have gained the superior position among the Chinese people, and have gained the high ground, and then gain the superior position in politics and economics, then, the Chinese revolution will be defeated. It is such a question of defeat or victory. If we are defeated, imperialism and Chiang Kai-shek will be rethroned. Therefore, although we cannot propagate them to be illegal now, we must absolutely refute them, and point out their mistakes. Only then can the leading position of this Marxist-Leninist working class ideology be established among the entire Chinese people, and continue to strengthen, consolidate and broaden it, isolate other ideologies, so that no-one believes them. This will guarantee the victory of the working classes ideologically, guarantee the victory of Marxism-Leninism, guarantee this victory ideologically, and guarantee this victory as well in terms of politics and economics. In short, if we would propagate bourgeois ideologies and petty bourgeois ideologies to be illegal now, that would be mistaken and overly leftists, it would be skipping a phase, if we do not criticize and refute them, that is also a mistake of principle.

It must be made clear: within the Party, us Communist Party members should have the most keen vigilance ideologically, oppose this sort of liberalist atmosphere and liberalist attitude, and must firmly oppose the enemies – imperialist and feudal ideologies, in administration, we can absolutely not allow them to propagate, or allow them to talk and act irresponsibly, as for ideological propaganda of the bourgeoisie, when we say that this is still lawful at this time, it means we say that we still allow them to “talk and act irresponsibly”, but we must argue with them. Recently, in Tsinghua, I heard that they opposed bourgeois ideologies, made bourgeois ideologies illegal, and did not allow them to “talk and act irresponsibly”, this is incorrect and is excessively “leftist”. Within the party, we oppose liberalism, bourgeois ideologies, non-proletarian ideologies and anti-Marxist-Leninist ideologies are illegal, and they are not allowed to talk and act irresponsibly, within the Party, it is recognized that only one ideology is lawful, that is the proletarian ideology, Marxism-Leninism. But, we must handle matters inside and outside of the Party differently. There is also another kind, that is wearing a Marxist-Leninist coat, and appearing in Marxist-Leninist form, but in reality, they are non-proletarian ideologies or the enemies’ ideologies, when these sorts of concealed forms are adopted, we must pay attention. Us Communist Party members should have this sort of sense. Chairman Mao said in his report on rectification of incorrect work styles that we must raise political intuition.  We must sense which are enemies’ ideologies in society, and among the people, which are capitalist ideologies, which are bourgeois ideologies and which are proletarian ideologies. If we sense this flavour incorrectly or wrongly, and they are non-proletarian ideologies, one method should be adopted: attitudes must be expressed, we cannot but express attitudes or but adopt methods in the face of non-proletarian ideologies. Inimical methods and inimical attitudes must be adopted towards inimical ideologies. Towards capitalist and bourgeois ideologies, we must adopt methods of persuasion and education, and methods of argument.

We cannot yet do Socialism at the present time, and Communism is even further away, but we must first and foremost lay this stable basis in ideology, we must first and foremost understand, and must first and foremost pay attention. As long as we, Communist Party members, are sober ideologically, then, we will guarantee that we will make the people in the entire country believe in us, and under our leadership, march towards the final victory step by step! For this, we must rely on everyone’s efforts, and first and foremost, our propaganda department heads and professional propagandists must do their work well!

在全国宣传工作会议上的结论

(1951年5月23日)

同志们!

我们的会议已经开了很久,有好多次会议我都没有来参加,只是看了你们一些记录和一些同志提出来的问题,我看有好多问题在讨论中都已解决了,我想只就其中提到的有几个重要问题来讲一下。

一、对于过去我们党的宣传工作的估计,它的成绩和缺点。

在三十年以前,从马列主义输入到中国来以后,马列主义就立即被中国的先进人物所接受,井进行了研究和宣传,因此成立了中国共产党,如果没有对马列主义理论的研究和宣传,中国共产党是不可能成立的。我们大家现在都是共产党员,现在开的又是共产党的宣传工作会议,共产党是怎样来的呢?来源有几个:一个是中国的工人阶级;一个是世界形势——全世界无产阶级革命运动的发展,苏联十月革命的胜利;还有一个直接的原因,就是学习马列主义,研究马列主义,宣传马列主义,最后才产生了中国共产党,并经过了三十年的斗争(这三十年的斗争就是为了马列主义的真理而斗争),到现在获得了革命的胜利。在这个长期的、艰苦的革命斗争中间,一方面我们在广大的范围里面宣传了马列主义,并且使马列主义的原理在中国人民中间通俗化起来(这是一个很大的工作,很困难的工作,一个高深的、深奥的原理拿到中国人民中间,特别是拿到中国劳动人民中间来进行宣传,来实践,来运用,如果不通俗化,不进行通俗化的工作,就不能在中国推广,劳动人民就不能接受),具有中国的民族形式(马列主义原来的形式是欧洲的形式,经过我们党的宣传、努力,使它从欧洲的形式变为东方的形式,变为中国民族的形式),和中国劳动人民的实际生活,实际斗争密切结合起来指导中国人民的革命斗争。所以马列主义这个武器就成了中国劳动人民强有力的战斗武器、战斗旗帜。我们中国共产党领导中国人民进行了几十年的革命斗争,在这几十年的斗争中,所举的旗帜就是马列主义的旗帜,共产主义的旗帜,大家团结在这个旗帜之下,运用马列主义的武器为马列主义的真理而斗争。经过了三十年的宣传工作,我们获得了这一方面的成绩。在另一方面,我们在极深刻的意义上发展了、丰富了马列主义的理论,在马列主义总武器库中间增加了不少新的武器,这些新武器对于东方各国人民的革命斗争,对于东方各殖民地、附属国人民的斗争是很有用的。

上面所讲的这些成绩的获得,在我们党里面讲,主要应归功于我们的领袖,归功于我们马列主义的宣传家——毛泽东同志。这一点是必须指出的。我们党作宣传工作的同志应以毛泽东同志为模范,照毛泽东同志这样来宣传马列主义,他是我们党宣传马列主义最好的、最优秀的、最杰出的一个模范。

由于我们中国共产党对马列主义的学习、宣传、运用和大胆地创造,我们已经把中国整个民族的理论水平提高到空前未有的高度。我们中国民族历来就是一个有文化、有理论的民族。什么时候最高呢?现在最高。为什么能提到这样高度呢?主要原因就是我们对于马列主义的学习,对马列主义的宣传,对马列主义的运用,及对马列主义的创造,这样把我们民族的理论水平提高了。不止是把理论水平提高了,而且我们从思想上、从实际上把中国的面貌改变了。这就是说伟大的马列主义学说已经确定地在中国人民中间取得了历史性的胜利。不止是在中国人民中间取得了历史性的胜利,而且使东方各国人民一天一天地更信服马列主义。为什么他们一天一天地更信服马列主义呢?就是由于马列主义在中国取得了胜利。

从马克思主义发明到现在一百多年了,在这一百多年中间马克思主义不断地取得胜利,苏联十月革命的胜利是马列主义最大的一次胜利,从十月革命胜利以后,在世界共产主义运动中间又取得一次大的胜利,那就是中国革命的胜利。马克思主义在中国的胜利是从十月革命胜利以后最大的一次胜利。对于过去我们宣传马列主义的成绩和效果,我想应该这样来估计。

我想作这样一个估计很有必要,因为我看到你们的一些记录,你们总觉得我们处处都不好,这里也不好,那里也不好,这里也有问题,那里也有问题。我看很好,成绩很大,中心的一点就是我们在中国宣传了马列主义,发展了马列主义;在全世界共产主义运动中间宣传了马列主义,发展了马列主义,使马列主义深入了人心,以致深入到那些文盲中间,他们为马列主义而牺牲性命,比如在朝鲜战场上,他们不顾生命,断手断脚,不开小差回来,毫无顾虑,奋勇向前。我们对于马列主义的宣传是这样深刻,这就是我们几十年来对于马列主义宣传的效果。这些在革命斗争中间,在战场上,在阶级斗争中间的各种英雄事迹、模范事迹,是世界上很少有的。

在全世界共产主义运动中间宣传共产主义原理最有效的是苏联,是苏联共产党。我们中国共产党在宣传马列主义的原理上也是最有效的一个。我们的宣传工作,作的很好,获得了很大成绩,得到了很大效果。这个成绩是由于我们全党的努力,所有中国共产主义者的努力,在毛泽东同志直接领导之下所得来的,这是我们全党的成绩。把这个成绩解释成你们宣传部的成绩,还不要这样讲。究竟宣传部在这方面作了多少工作,那还值得再考虑一下。

二、现在我们宣传工作的情况怎么样?

现在的情况比过去根本改变了,中国的形势、情况、条件统通改变了。因为中国胜利了。中国革命胜利了,我们宣传马列主义的条件就更好了,首先没有人禁止我们宣传马列主义了。几十年来我们宣传马列主义是有人禁止的,而且禁止的相当厉害,只要那个人在街上讲一句:“我宣传马列主义”,喊一声“打倒帝国主义!”就会把你抓到监牢里面去。过去宣传马列主义有杀头之危险,有各种禁止宣传马列主义的法令。中国的马列主义宣传者是受过很多折磨的,因为宣传马列主义坐班房的人很多,被判处死刑的也很多,受过很多打击。可是这些共产主义者,他们还是用了很巧妙的方法去宣传马列主义,在报纸的末角上写上那末一两句,文章写的那么不吞不吐,不明不白,那样去宣传马列主义。几十年来他们在蒋介石统治的地区,在日本人统治的地区坚持着对马列主义的宣传,有的用文字宣传,不能用文字宣传的就用口头宣传,不能很多人宣传,个别的去宣传,不能向不认识的人宣传,向自己认识的人去宣传,向自己的朋友、自己的亲戚去宣传,向同学、同事去宣传,向靠得住的一个人一个人地去讲,这样坚持着宣传工作,不顾一切。但是现在这个情况没有了,再没有人禁止我们宣传马列主义了,现在宣传马列主义的人,如果你宣传的好,不仅不要你坐班房,而且大家鼓掌,说你宣传的好,可以做英雄,做模范,有很大的荣誉。今天的情况反过来了,中国革命胜利了,一切禁止马列主义宣传的法令彻底废除了,全中国成万万的人民在当前的实际革命斗争中间,在反对帝国主义的斗争中间,在反对封建主义的斗争中间,在阶级斗争中间,他们的阶级觉悟空前地提高了。农民在土地改革中间对地主的诉苦、控诉,他们有了阶级觉悟。城市人民在最近镇压反革命的运动中间也有了很高的阶级觉悟。中国人民的觉悟空前提高了,在思想上束缚中国人民,束缚中国劳动人民的锁链已经被粉碎,或者正在被粉碎,很多人换了脑筋。农民在土改运动中,他们说换了脑筋,实行换脑运动,就是挖穷根,吐苦水,为什么穷?算一算账。在四七年、四八年军队也搞阶级教育,三查三整,查阶级、查立场、查思想、查作风,这么一整,阶级觉悟就提高了,以前纪律不好的,一查统通好了。为什么呢?就是因为有了马列主义,有了阶级觉悟,在马列主义的基础上面,从他的实际经验、实际生活出发,他们就有了阶级觉悟。广大人民现在对于马列主义理论,对于马列主义这个新思想的学习、接受在广大范围里面展开了。那些知识分子,大学教授,他们一方面读书,在书本上学习马列主义;一方面参观土地改革,听过控诉会,参加了真正实际的阶级教育的场面。参观回来之后在报纸上写了很多文章,他们说:从参观土地改革,听了控诉以后,我的观点完全改变了。在知识分子里面有些观点过去几十年都没有变,现在改变了。比如辅仁大学的校长陈垣,他有一个观点几十年不变,他在控诉会上听到八十岁的一个老太婆一讲,他那个观点改变了,那个老太婆说:“以前我有什么办法!政权是你们的,警察是你们的,告状也告不成,只有今天我才能报仇!……。”这个八十岁的老太婆,也不识字,这样几句话就教育了他,改变了他的观点。清华大学教授吴景超在西安参观了土改,他回来之后写了一篇文章,说是有许多观点改变了。广大人民的阶级觉悟提高了,在这种实际阶级觉悟提高的基础上再要求理论上的提高。对于劳动人民重要的是实际的阶级觉悟,他们的实际生活受过地主的压迫,受过资本家的压迫,受过日本人的压迫,受过美国人的压迫,这些压迫是怎么来的呢?就追这个根子,一追就追到阶级问题上来了,就追到马列主义的深处了,然后他们就相信了,就有阶级觉悟了。这个觉悟是根据实际斗争经验、实际生活经验来的,实际生活和实际斗争启发了他们的阶级觉悟。一个人的阶级觉悟仅仅是这样,还是不够的,还是从感性的知识中来的,从他的实际生活中,人家压迫了他,剥削了他,一诉苦,一算账,就启发了他的觉悟,但是还要提高到理论的高度。对很多人特别是共产党员要求他们再提高一步,提高到理论的水平上来。有些人是从自己受压迫中间,一算账、一搞阶级教育就有了阶级觉悟,有些人是自己没有受过压迫(像大学教授等),可是一参加会,听人家一诉苦就觉悟了。一个有了实际阶级觉悟的人,再要他参加到实际斗争中去,就更会提高,再把书本子一读,马列主义的理论一学,就更提高了。现在广大人民要求学习马列主义,广大人民实际的阶级觉悟提高了,在这样的条件下,我们要进行马列主义的宣传教育这个条件就很好,这个条件是我们中国共产党人,我们党底宣传工作者,在中国人民中间进行马列主义、毛泽东思想的宣传的空前未有的顺利条件。我们的宣传工作者,就要利用这些已经产生的各方面的顺利条件来加强马列主义的宣传,继续努力提高劳动人民的觉悟和劳动人民的理论水平,要继续提高再提高,使我们中国民族在世界上成为一个有最高理论水平的民族之一。

毛主席在《论人民民主专政》上写道;“要在全国范围内和全体规模上,用民主的方法,教育自己和改造自己,使自己脱离内外反动派的影响(这个影响现在还是很大的,并将在长时期内存在着,不能很快地消灭),改造自己从旧社会带来的坏习气和坏思想,不使自己走入反动派指引的错误路上去,并继续前进,向着社会主义社会和共产主义社会发展。”下边又讲道:要在全国范围内和全体规模上进行教育,不仅教育人民,而且要教育反动派,反动派只要不是杀头的(杀了头的,当然就不用教育了,除了杀头的之外),就是判无期徒刑的也好,都要教育,都要进行劳动改造。这里他就分开来讲:对人民是用民主的方法和自愿的方式来教育,对于反动派是用强迫的方法进行教育。

这次,我从你们的记录上看到:有的地方,宣传马列主义时,把门关起来,一定要听,强迫受训。这就叫用强迫的方法教育人民,就是说用教育敌人的方法来教育人民,这是一个错误,在这一点上就是敌我不分。毛主席讲,人民内部的教育是用民主的方法,对反动派的教育是用强迫的方法,可是我们做司法工作的同志,做公安工作的同志教育犯人时是采取民主的方法,这也是犯了一个原则错误。对于犯人是要用强迫的方法,而不能用民主的方法。所以在这个地方我们要把它分清楚:在人民内部不能用强迫的方法,用强迫的方法是错误的,对敌人不能用民主的方法,用民主的方法也是错误的。

对于反动派我们要用强迫的方法改造他们、教育他们。对民族资产阶级,小资产阶级也要教育。而最严重的问题是要教育农民。对工人阶级,毛主席没有写,这不用说,我们首先是要教育工人阶级的。那末共产党自己要不要教育呢?无疑问,是要更加首先教育的。那就是首先要教育共产党人自己,教育工人阶级、教育农民阶级、教育小资产阶级、教育民族资产阶级,以至于教育反动派。这就是说,要在全国范围内和全体规模上来进行教育。

用什么东西教育人民呢?就是用马列主义的思想原则,在全国范围内和全体规模上来教育人民。现在有了这个条件,毛主席讲:有了人民的国家。有了人民的国家,才有了在全国范围内和全体规模上来进行对人民教育的可能;没有人民的国家,就没有这个可能。现在有了这个可能,也必须这样做。用马列主义的思想原则在全国范围内和全体规模上教育人民是我们党、也是我们全中国人民的一项最基本的政治任务。毛主席在《论人民民主专政》上讲,组织人民的国家,要做很多的事情,政治、经济等各方面的事情。做这些事情干什么呢?就是将来走向社会主义、共产主义去。要走向社会主义,共产主义去,首先就要在思想上打底子——用马列主义的思想、观点和方法来教育自己和全国的人民。这就是我们今天在新形势、新条件下,我们党的宣传工作的任务。这个任务是伟大的艰苦的和光荣的,这个任务是很长时期才能达到的。

用马列主义的观点教育人民,首先就要消灭帝国主义的思想和封建主义的思想,要在全国人民中间把帝国主义的思想和封建主义的思想彻底消灭。毛主席讲:要把人民中间从旧社会带来的坏习惯、坏思想、坏影响逐步地把它消灭、破坏和肃清,对资产阶级、小资产阶级、农民阶级的思想体系,即非马列主义的、非无产阶级的思想要批评。因为今天我们在政策上来讲还不是来破坏资产阶级和小资产阶级的经济基础,也不是破坏农民的经济基础,而且还要发展。我们的政策是不动他们,不动资产阶级的私有财产,不动小资产阶级的私有财产,农民的私有财产更加要保护。因此,对于资产阶级的思想,小资产阶级的思想,农民的思想,就不能破坏和肃清,也肃不清的。但是要批评。因为什么呢?因为他们的思想是错误的,是不好的。其中也有一些好的,资产阶级、小资产阶级、农民阶级的思想在今天是有它好的一面的,譬如它们反对帝国主义,反对封建主义,它们有这些思想,我们要承认它。但是他们还有错误的就要进行批评。也就是说首先要从思想上使资产阶级、小资产阶级的思想孤立起来,使人民知道这种思想虽然有好的一面,有一些道理,但是道理不彻底,是错误的,不正确的,照他们那个办法中国是搞不好的,照资产阶级的思想中国就不能走向社会主义,就要走向资本主义,走向资本主义,工人阶级的领导权就要丧失,帝国主义、封建主义就要复辟,这是危险的。使资产阶级的思想、小资产阶级的思想在人民中间孤立起来,没有人相信它,要使人民知道它在思想体系上是错误的。肃清帝国主义思想、封建主义思想,孤立资产阶级思想、小资产阶级思想以及其它一切非无产阶级的思想,我们要批判它们,要驳它们,说它们是错误的,哗人民别相信它们。这样才能确立马列主义——工人阶级思想的领导权。要想在政治上、经济上加强和巩固工人阶级的领导权,首先就要在思想上加强工人阶级的领导权,巩固工人阶级的领导权。这就是我们的任务。这里也要分清楚,帝国主义的思想、封建主义的思想是要肃清的,从法律上讲,我们是不许他乱说乱动的,不许他发言,不许他宣传,这是对反动派的思想,对于资产阶级的思想,小资产阶级的思想,就不是这样,他就可以乱说乱动,没有说它是非法的,法律上不禁止它,在行政上不犯法,还允许它存在,允许他讲话,允许他有发言权,允许他发表意见。但是,我们也必须指出它有什么错误,使人民别相信它。是不是可以把资产阶级的思想、小资产阶级的思想打入非法地位,宣布一个法令:不准他乱说乱动呢?不行,这就超过我们今天的革命阶段了。我们今天是新民主主义的革命阶段,在这个时期既然我们在经济政策上承认资产阶级经济存在,承认小资产阶级经济存在,那你就必须在思想上也承认它存在,承认它合法,但是要辩论,它也可以写文章,也可以说话,也可以作宣传,可是,我们要宣传马列主义,要驳它。不驳它好不好呢?不好,不驳它就不行,不驳它就有一个问题,就是谁胜谁负的问题,还是资产阶级的思想、小资产阶级的思想战胜呢?还是无产阶级的思想战胜呢?如果在思想上小资产阶级思想、资产阶级思想在中国人民中间占了上风,占了优势,接着在政治上、经济上占了上风,那末,中国革命就要失败。是这样一个失败与胜利的问题。如果失败了,帝国主义、蒋介石就要复辟。所以,虽然现在不能宣布它非法,但是我们一定要驳它,指出它的错误。这样马列主义工人阶级的思想领导地位才能在全中国人民中间确立起来,并继续加强、巩固和扩大,使其它别的思想孤立起来,没有人相信。这样就从思想上保证了工人阶级的胜利,保证了马列主义的胜利,思想上保证了这一胜利,那末在政治上、经济上也就会保证了这个胜利。总之,如果今天把资产阶级思想、小资产阶级思想宣布非法,那是错误的,过左的,超阶段的,如果不批驳,那也是一个原则的错误。

必须讲清楚:在党内,我们共产党员在思想上应有最锐敏的警觉性,反对这种自由主义的风气和自由主义的态度,对敌人——帝国主义、封建主义的思想要坚决反对,而且在行政上,决不准它宣传,不准他乱说乱动,对于小资产阶级的思想宣传,我们说现在还是合法的,就是说还是准它“乱说乱动”的,但是要和它辩论。最近在清华,听说搞什么反对小资产阶级的思想,把小资产阶级的思想搞成了非法的,也不准它“乱说乱动”,这是不对的,这就过“左”了。在党内,反对自由主义,小资产阶级的思想,非无产阶级的思想,反马克思列宁主义的思想是非法的,也不准它乱说乱动,在党内只承认一种思想是合法的,就是无产阶级思想,马克思、列宁主义。但是,在党外,那种非马克思列宁主义的,但不是敌人的思想,还是合法的,是允许它存在的。但是要批评它,指出它的错误。总之,对党内党外要分别对待。还有一种,就是披着马克思列宁主义的外衣,以马克思列宁主义的形式出现,实际是非无产阶级的思想或敌人的思想,是采取这种隐蔽形式的,我们要注意。我们共产党员应该有这种嗅觉。毛主席在整风报告中也讲过;我们要提高政治嗅觉。要嗅觉到,在社会上,在人民中间,什么是敌人思想,什么是资产阶级思想,什么是小资产阶级思想,什么是无产阶级思想,如果嗅着味道不对,不正,是非无产阶级思想,就应该采取一点办法,要表示态度,不能在非无产阶级思想面前,不表示态度,不采取办法。对敌对的思想要采取敌对的办法,敌对的态度。对资产阶级,小资产阶级的思想,要采取说服教育的办法,辩论的办法。

我们在现在还不能搞社会主义,共产主义还要更远,但是我们首先要在思想上把这个基础打稳,我们首先要会心,首先要注意。只要我们共产党员在思想上是清醒的,那么,就可以保证使全国人民信仰我们,在我们的领导下,一步一步地走到最后胜利!这就要靠我们大家努力,首先我们的宣传部长,职业宣传员要好好做工作!

One thought on “Conclusion at the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference

    Latest updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    April 13, 2013 at 10:55 am

    […] Conclusion at the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference (1951) […]

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