Report concerning the Issue of Intellectuals

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Zhou Enlai

14 January 1956

Comrades:

In order to strengthen Party leadership over intellectuals and strengthen Party leadership over overall scientific and cultural work, the Centre has decided to convene a conference to discuss the issue of intellectuals.

This decision of the Centre is a part of the Centre’s overall struggle to lead the entire Party in opposing conservative ideologies and striving to complete the main tasks of the transitional period

Everyone knows that, in 1955, on the basis of a proposition of Comrade Mao Zedong, the Party Centre conducted a series of struggles against right-leaning conservative ideologies within the party. The most important results of this series of struggles are: the gradual and thorough expansion of the elimination of counterrevolutionaries operating within organs and within society, and it is estimated that within the following two years, this will be basically completed on a nationwide scale; that the agricultural cooperative movement has advanced by leaps and bounds on the basis of the rapid growth of the awareness of the masses, this year, we will basically complete the semi-Socialist cooperative movement on a nationwide level, and are currently turning towards fully Socialist cooperative development; the development of capitalist industry and commerce into joint State-private organization in whole sectors was rapid, and it is very much possible that this year, it will be basically completed on a nationwide level; the first Five-Year Plan to develop the national economy will be comprehensively completed ahead of time and in excess of quota, it is foreseen that some productive departments may complete their production plans of 1957 in 1956, all other departments also may possibly complete the Five-Year Plan ahead of time and in excess of quota.

All these huge and moving achievements were unimaginable a year before, if we had not launched the struggle to oppose right-leaning conservative ideologies, these achievements would have been impossible to attain at this time. Thus it can be seen how great the harm from right-leaning conservative ideologies is within our Party.

The basic requirements for the struggle to oppose right-leaning conservative ideologies are that our country’s people’s democratic regime should be more consolidated and developed, Socialist reform should be completed ahead of time, State industry development plans are completed of time and the technological transformation of the national economy is accelerated. This struggle has a major global importance. In our huge China of 600 million people, being able to complete these tasks in advance and accelerate them, completing these tasks and conducting them in many ways, rapidly, well, and frugally, will enable the overall Socialist camp’s forces to strengthen even more quickly and greatly, and will even more benefit the our preventing the eruption of new wars, and if the insane invaders dare to start a new war, we also will be in a more powerful position. Therefore, the Party Centre has decided to make opposing right-leaning conservative ideologies into a central issue for the eighth national conference, and has required the entire Party to launch this struggle in all work departments.

The issue of intellectuals is put forward on this basis.

What sort of relationship does the issue of intellectuals exactly have with our present task of accelerating Socialist construction?

The reason why we want to construct a Socialist economy, in the final analysis, is in order to satisfy the daily increasing material and cultural requirements of the entire society to the largest extent, and in order to achieve this objective, we must incessantly develop social productivity, to incessantly raise labour productivity we must, on the basis of high technology, make Socialist production incessantly expand and incessantly improve. Because of this, in the Socialist times, it is more necessary than in any earlier time to fully raise production technology, and even more necessary to fully develop science and utilize scientific knowledge. Because of this, we must develop Socialist construction in larger numbers, faster, better an more frugally, and apart from having to rely on the vigorous labour of the working class and the broad people, we must also rely on the vigorous labour of intellectuals, that is to say, we must rely on the close integration of physical labour and mental labour, and rely on the brotherly bond between workers, peasants and intellectuals. Al construction we are carrying out at the moment, requires the participation of intellectuals ever more. For example, we want to look for minerals, which means we must have a batch of geology experts, bring along a large batch of university graduates and secondary school graduates, to go to desolate mountains and wilderness everywhere to conduct surveys, investigations, examinations and explorative drills. If we want to construct mines, factories, railroads and irrigation projects, we must have a batch of engineers and a large batch of technology experts to survey, design, construct and install them. If factories want to produce, in every segment from product design to finished product inspection, a certain quantity and a certain level of technological strength are required. Industry and commerce management requires all sorts of specialized knowledge ever more. If we want to construct a modernized national defence, we require all kinds of scientific experts. Without teachers and doctors, we cannot have schools and hospitals. Without culture and art workers, we cannot have cultural life. In villages, after realizing agricultural mechanization and electrification, we will undoubtedly need to have a large batch of agricultural machinery engineers, electricity station engineers, agricultural experts, accountants, etc.; at present, in order to realize the many items that need to be started in the nationwide agricultural development outline draft from 1956 until 1967, for example for the production of novel animal-drawn faring equipment, chemical fertilizer and water pumps, eliminating the main plant diseases and insect pests, eliminate grave human illnesses and epidemics, we must also rely on scientific and technological workers, plant protection scholars, and even more fully mobilize and give rein to their strength, serving the great Socialist construction, has also become an important task in our striving to complete the main tasks in the transition period. All departments of our Party, all levels’ Party organizations should all give this issue high regard.

What is then the issue of intellectuals at present? The basic issue at present is that none of the strengths of our intellectuals, regardless of whether they are in the quantitative side, the professional level side, or the political consciousness side, are sufficient to respond to the requirements of the high-speed development of Socialist construction; also, some irrational phenomenal of our use and treatment of intellectuals at present, and especially some factionalist emotions in a part of the comrades towards intellectuals outside of the Party, have impeded the full elaboration of existing strengths of intellectuals to a certain degree. We must strengthen leadership, overcome  flaws, adopt a series of effective measures, mobilize and give rein to the existing strengths of intellectuals to the fullest, incessantly raise their political consciousness, foster new strengths to com and expand their ranks to the largest extent, and rapidly raise their professional level as much as possible, in order to adapt to the incessantly growing demands of the State towards intellectuals. This is a basic task of our Party at present concerning the issue of intellectuals.

I

In order to discuss the tasks of the Party concerning the issue of intellectuals, we must first and foremost observe the current situation of intellectuals. Our Party has always given high regard to the issue of intellectuals. Still in 1939, the Party Centre passed a decision concerning attracting great numbers of intellectuals drafted by Comrade Mao Zedong, and in all the anti-Japanese base areas, this was effectively implemented. After nationwide liberation, the Party conducted a policy of uniting, educating and reforming intellectuals on a nationwide scale. The Party Centre believes that: revolution requires attracting intellectuals, construction especially requires attracting intellectuals. Especially because before liberation, our country was a country with backward science and backward culture, we must be even more good at fully utilizing this historical inheritance of the batch of intellectuals handed down from the old society, and bake them serve our country’s Socialist construction. The party Centre also believes that: our country’s intellectuals in the old times, although they have been influenced by imperialism and the reactionary class, the absolute majority among them has at the same time been subjected to imperialist and Guomindang oppression, and consequently, a part of them has participated in the revolution, a part of them sympathises with our revolution, and the majority has adopted a wait-and-see attitude and maintain a neutral position, counterrevolutionaries are in the absolute minority. Facts put forward more evidence for Chinese intellectuals every day: apart from being together with the working class and the Communist Party, there is no other way out, therefore, uniting intellectuals is necessary and is completely possible. Starting from this understanding, the Party Centre has adopted the policy of “embracing” the intellectuals from the old times, the absolute majority will continue to be given suitable work, and some among them will be allocated to responsible work; efforts are made to assist originally unemployed intellectuals with finding employment, or suitable arrangements are made for them. On the political side, the Party gave many intellectuals’ representatives their due position. The Party Centre believes that intellectuals from the old society must be assisted in conducting self-reform, enabling them to abandon their landlord class and bourgeois ideology, and accept the ideology of the working class. For this objective, the Party has adopted a series of steps. The Party organizes for them to participate in the struggles of  land reform, suppressing counterrevolutionaries, Resisting America and Supporting Korea, the “Three Antis” and the “Five Antis”, to visit factories and the countryside, visit the Soviet Union, participate in all sort of international activities, led them to learn the basic knowledge of Marxism-Leninism, criticize the idealist viewpoints of the bourgeoisie, conduct struggles against the Hu Feng counterrevolutionary clique [1] and other counterrevolutionary elements, and launch criticism and self-criticism on the basis of study. In the professional area, the Party has also adopted many steps to help them improve work methods and raise professional abilities. The absolute majority among them have already become State work personnel, and already serve Socialism, and also are a part of the working class. At the same time as uniting, educating and reforming old intellectuals, the Party has also used great forces to foster large amounts of new intellectuals, and among them, there have already been a corresponding quantity of intellectuals born in the working class. Because of all of this, a fundamental change has occurred in the appearance of  our country’s intelligentsia over the past six years.

Concerning the political situation of intellectuals at present, many work units have made statistics. These statistics indicate that: among high-level intellectuals, progressive elements supporting the Communist Party and the People’s Government, vigorously supporting Socialism and vigorously serving the people occupy about 40 per cent; middle-roaders supporting the Communist Party and the People’s government, that are generally able to complete tasks, but are insufficiently vigorous politically also occupy about 40 per cent; the above two parts together occupy about 80 per cent. Apart from these 80 per cent, backward elements lacking political consciousness or opposing Socialism ideologically occupy ten-something per cent, and counterrevolutionary and other bad elements occupy a few per cent.

At the same time, in comparison with the early period of liberation, this change has been very rapid. For example, on the basis of the statistics of four higher education institutes in Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao on 141 teachers, in the past six years, progressives have grown from 18 per cent to 41 per cent, backward elements decreased from 28 per cent to 15 per cent. Many intellectuals, in the face of our country’s great Socialism reform or Socialist construction undertaking, cannot but daily receive strong influence, and see the mutually connected destiny of the entire nation and themselves from the new Chinese students.

What must be given attention here is, that the ideological situation of intellectuals is not completely adapted to the changes in their political and ideological position. Many progressive elements still have different degrees of bourgeois idealist and individualist ways of thinking, and even less want to say that they are middle-roaders. Furthermore, intellectuals in not a few work units, especially the part that is relatively backward, change very slowly, and also reflect that we did very little work among them.

The ranks of intellectuals have seen rapid expansion in terms of quantity in the last six years. At present, high-level intellectuals in scientific research, education, engineering and technology, hygiene, culture, art and other areas number about 10.000 according to estimates, among those, the number added after liberation, according to some data statistics, occupy about a third. In some departments, the increase is especially quick. For example, there were fewer than 200 geologic work personnel in the early period of liberalization, but in 1955, according to statistics in the four departments of geology, heavy industry, oil industry and coal industry, just engineers have increased to 497 people, and higher education institute graduate technicians numbered 3440.

In the six years after liberation, higher education institute graduates nationwide number 217900 people. Although they do not all conform to our standards for what we call high-level intellectuals, but they are newly emerging forces in intelligentsia, and furthermore, are the reserve forces of experts. Moreover, it must be pointed out that many youths, although  they are not yet expert  in rank, have already taken charge of expert work, and generally don’t take charge badly. Among the 4200 teaching personnel in higher education institutes, professors and assistant-professors occupy 17.8 per cent, tutors occupy 24 per cent, and teaching assistants occupy 58 per cent, and a pert of the teaching assistants have already participated in teaching work. In engineering circles, it is the same. There are only 31000 engineers of all levels nationwide, but higher education institute graduate technicians of all levels number 63600 people, many among them in fact take charge of engineering work, some among then should have already been promoted to engineer earlier. Apart from this, as reserve forces for high-level intellectuals, there are still other broad troops of intellectual, they are currently incessantly raising their knowledge levels in real work and part-time study processes.

Among the so-called high level intellectuals and general intellectuals, there are no strict boundaries, there are in total 3.840.000 intellectuals in the five areas of scientific research, education, engineering and technology, hygiene, culture and art at the moment according to statistical data. They are a great force in the undertaking of Socialist construction. Correctly estimating and using these intellectuals, in a planned way assisting them in incessantly progressing politically and professionally, is an extremely important task for the Party and the country. In my report, although I stress discussing the issues relating to high-level intellectuals, but the majority of principles are equally applicable to common intellectuals.

As it was said earlier, our country’s intellectuals have become a very large force. But, our country is so large, our construction undertaking develops so fast, and will develop even faster in the future, because of this, we cannot but even faster expand the ranks of intellectuals and especially the ranks of high-level intellectuals, in order to satisfy the urgent requirements of Socialism. It should be recognized that our work of fostering and promoting newly emerging forces still has many flaws, these flaws impede the even faster expansion of intellectual ranks.

The professional levels of our country’s intellectuals have clearly risen over the past six years as well. Nationwide higher education institutes conducted education reform, and newly set up many departments and specializations that did not exist in the entire country before, newly complied and translated large amounts of teaching materials, and have raised teaching quality. Science and technology circles nationwide have conducted high work in geological prospecting aspects basic construction design and work aspects, new product design and test-manufacture aspects, and gained clear achievements, because of the results of striving to learn from the Soviet Union, our country’s engineering circles have now already mastered many modern factory, mine, bridge, irrigation construction design and implementation, and have seen a great rise in the capacity to design large machinery, engines and steamers. From 1952 to 1955, the new machine products that were successful in test manufactures numbered about 3500, and a small number already achieved global levels. In the area of metallurgy, our country is able to smelt 240 varieties of high-quality steel and alloys; our country’s blast furnace and open-hearth furnace utilization coefficients already achieve the level of the Soviet Union in 1952. In the area of theoretical science, the achievements of our country in some departments of mathematics, physics, organic chemistry and biology, have also received attention from the global scientific circle, and some among them have already mate contributions to production and practice.

But generally speaking, our country’s science and technology level is still very backward. We have not yet been able to grasp and use many of the newest achievements in world science, but we have also not been able to leave Soviet expertise and resolve matters independently in many complex technological issues in our country’s construction at present. But until recently, we had not yet made an overall plan on the issue of raising our country’s science and technology levels; even existing forces have not been completely and effectively used. The backwardness in science and technology cannot be separated from the weakness of the theoretical science base, and the strength we put into scientific research is very little.

From the above simple tale, it may be deduced that: our achievements are great, but there still are not a few flaws.

Then, which policies should we adopt concerning the issue of intellectuals? Which tendencies should we prevent and rectify?

At present, the main tendency in the issue of intellectuals is factionalism, but at the same time, tendencies of slackening vigilance and compromise also exist. The former tendency is: underestimating the huge progress of intellectuals politically and professionally,  underestimating their major function in our country’s Socialist undertaking, not recognizing that they are a part of the working class, believing that production in any case relies on workers, that technology relies on Soviet experts and consequently not earnestly implementing the Party’s policy concerning intellectuals and not earnestly researching and resolving problems relating to the area of intellectuals; being indifferent on how to fully mobilize and give rein to the strengths of intellectuals, how to further reform intellectuals, expand the ranks of intellectuals, raise the professional abilities of intellectuals and other questions. The latter tendency is only seeing the progress of intellectuals and not seeing their flaws, estimating them too highly, without differentiating and blindly trusting them, or even not guarding against bad elements, and consequently not conducting education and reform work over them, or although seeing their flaws, because of the existence of all sorts of worries that should not exist, not daring to conduct education or reform work over them. These two sorts of tendencies are opposite in form, but the result in reality is all a sort of right-leaning conservatism, it all is abandoning leadership, lacking a vigorous fighting spirit, and this all hinders our correct resolution of issues of intellectuals and issues of science and culture, this all hinders the development of our country’s Socialist undertaking.

We must at the same tome oppose these two sorts of incorrect tendencies. We cannot not neglect the existing strengths of intellectuals, and even less not believe to be satisfied; we cannot rely on Soviet experts for an indefinite duration, or slacken conducting the most efficient study of the advanced science and culture of the Soviet Union and other countries. The principle of sole correctness that we should adopt, is in order to enable our country’s Socialist construction undertaking to be conducted in great numbers, rapidly, well and frugally, and we must exhaust all efforts to mobilize and give rein to the existing strengths of intellectuals to the fullest extent, and at the same time strive to further reform, expand and raise them as much as possible, enabling the speed and scale of this sort of reform, expansion and rise to be able to fully conform to our country’s giant pace in great development  in all areas.

II

Mobilizing and giving rein to the strengths of intellectuals, not only is necessary for our country’s present intense construction undertaking, but it is also a precondition for intellectuals to further reform, expand and rise.

Generally speaking, intellectuals are mobilized in great numbers under the leadership of our Party. Otherwise, the huge progress of intellectuals and their huge contribution to our country that we talk about, would be unimaginable. We must first and foremost affirm this point, this is the main aspect of the facts.

But in our work, not a few flaws certainly exist as well, including some grave flaws. In the present wave of Socialist construction and reform, we must strengthen leadership, and rapidly overcome these flaws, before we will be able to fully mobilize and give rein to the strengths of intellectuals.

In order to mobilize and give rein to the strengths of intellectuals to the fullest extent, first, we should improve use of and arrangements for them, enabling them to give rein to their specialty that is beneficial for the country.

In the area of using and arranging for intellectuals, we haven’t done badly in the majority of situations. Many intellectuals already have undertaken many and great tasks in the construction of the country, and their abilities have incessantly risen in practice.

But in the end, it cannot be said that we have already used and arranged for intellectuals in a wholly suitable manner, and have not let any strength be left idle. For example, in many organs, because of work being unsuitably allocated, or work not being organized well, situations that cause small numbers of intellectuals to “sit around with no work to do” still exist, and these intellectuals have often been allocated towards these organs just because of some specialist knowledge. This sort of situation that wastes the country’s most cherished assets must be eliminated. Another example, in higher education institutes in the entire country, there still are small numbers of teachers who have not started teaching. Among these people, there are some who by no means cannot start teaching, or for whom only some study needs to be organized before they may start teaching, they should be let to start teaching; if they truly cannot start teaching, methods should be thought up to allocate them to work that they can undertake, such as editing and translation work, publishing work, library work, etc., and they should not left idle. Another example, in society, there are still an extremely small number of unemployed intellectuals who have substantial work ability, localities or the Centre should allocate them to a certain work according to the situation.

In some localities, in the arrangement for and use of intellectuals, the situation of engagement in work not related to training also still exists. There are a number of scientists who themselves  are willing to engage in scientific research work, and who are most useful to the country in doing scientific research work, who are, however, allocated to do administrative work in organs or administrative work in schools. There still are a number of experts who, because of mistakes in work allocation, have been appointed work that they have not studied for completely without reasons, sometimes, today they are called to do this, tomorrow they are called to do that, but they are not let to return to their own speciality. On the basis of the State Council’s 4th Office statistics concerning the five work units subordinate to the Ministry of Light Industry, this sort of situation of engagement in work not related to training affects about ten per cent of high-level intellectuals, this is such a grave loss! We must adopt firm and determined measures to redress this sort of bureaucratist, factionalist and departmentalist mistakes in treating talent, in order to ensure that specialists are only used in the places where they are needed most.

In order to mobilize and give rein to the strengths of intellectuals to the fullest extent, second, we should have a full understanding of the intellectuals we use, and give them the deserved trust and support, enabling them to vigorously conduct their work.

The trust and support that intellectuals give us is generally satisfactory, but we still should look at our flaws in work. On the issue of intellectuals’ trust, as said before, one sort of tendency is to excessively trust them without differentiation in politics and professional matters, to such an extent that some State secrets have been unnecessarily told to a number of unrelated people or have been revealed to some unreliable people, or that completely unqualified people have been put in important position, causing work to be harmed. This sort of situation exists, and must be rectified. Another sort of tendency is that they have not been given the necessary trust, for example, not letting them go to factories they are permitted to go to, not letting them see materials they are permitted to see,  this sort of situation exists as well, and must be rectified as well. State secrets must be kept unconditionally, any slackening is not permitted; the problem is to correctly draw a clear boundary of secrecy, and not to wilfully expand the scope of secrets, causing work to suffer harm, and causing work personnel to run into difficulty. At the same time, there must be a correct appraisal and understanding of the history of intellectuals, in order to avoid that some people suffer from long-lasting and unnecessary doubt because of “historical complexities”. Among the high-level intellectuals of today, many people have a relatively complex history, this is not a strange thing. But only a small number of people have political issues, and only an extremely small number has political issues at present. There are not a few intellectuals over whose history a conclusion has not yet been reached, because the leading comrades have not earnestly and responsibly gained a clear idea of their issues in a way that seeks truth from facts, consequently causing their issues to be postponed without resolution for a long time. Relatively strong forces should be concentrated to differentiate importance and urgency, and speedily settle their outstanding cases as far as possible, in order to benefit their use in the future.

Intellectuals outside of the Party, apart from their deserved trust, must also have their deserved support. That is to say, they should be given a position and authority, their opinion should be respected, their professional research and work results should be given high regard, their academic discussion should be advocated and carried forward in academic discussion, and their creations and inventions should be given opportunities for testing and popularization. There are small numbers of Party and League members who do not respect the leadership of their higher-level intellectuals outside the Party, we should take responsibility to rectify this sort of situation.

As for the fact that trust in and support for intellectuals is insufficient, this is the main manifestation of factionalism of a number of our comrades in the issue of intellectuals. Not a few comrades still have not become accustomed to encounter and consult matters with intellectuals outside of the Party, and to guide and assist the before and during matters. Some comrades have even adopted an attitude of respectful distance from intellectuals outside of the Party. In this way, both sides lack understanding, and unfamiliarity is easily shaped. But, they are important work personnel of our country, the quality of our work directly influences the construction of the country, therefore, we have a responsibility to learn to approach them in a comradely manner, to correctly understand them, and thereby governing them through guidance and assistance, and enabling them to give rein to a vigorous function in work.

In order to mobilize and give rein to the strengths of intellectuals to the fullest extent, third, we should provide the necessary work conditions and appropriate treatment for intellectuals.

At present, the work conditions and treatment of intellectuals has greatly improved since before Liberation. But, just as stated before, there still are some problems in this area that urgently need to be resolved.

In the area of the work conditions of intellectuals, at present, an important issue is that among them, many people cannot most effectively allocate their own work time. Many intellectuals feel deeply about the fact that too much of their time is used in non-work-related meetings and administrative matters, it is permissible that they are not required to participate in these meetings and many work matters. Almost the more famous the scientist, writer or artist is, the more time is lost in all sorts of meetings, tasks and social activities, this is a grave phenomenon at our country’s cultural front. The Centre believes that, it must be guaranteed that they can use at least five of every six work days (or 40 hours every week) for their own work, the rest of the time may be used in political study or necessary meetings and social activities. This requirement should be firmly implemented. Intellectuals participating in social events is beneficial, the flaw at present is the fact that these activities are often concentrated on the shoulders of too few people. In the future, this should be adjusted, ensuring that as many people as possible participate, so that it does not become a burden on anyone. Not a few experts have too many concurrent positions, this should also rapidly be adjusted.

A number of intellectuals feel that they lack necessary books, materials and work equipment in their work, or lack suitable assistants, with the result that work efficiency is low. This sort of situation truly exists. For example, many work units using large amounts of book materials have not fully given regard to these precious assets, and have not appointed suitable cadres to put them in order, consequently a number of experts are unable to use theses book materials to conduct research. The main cause creating this phenomenon is our lack of understanding of their needs, or the fact that although this have been heard many times, it have not been responsibly resolved, and some work personnel is unwilling to trouble themselves for these “small matters”, this is mistaken. This is not a “small thing”, and we should earnestly and speedily resolve these issues.

Intellectuals’ life remuneration, generally speaking has improved since before Liberation, but in order to enable high-level intellectuals to use more of their strengths in their work, their life remuneration should be appropriately raised. A number of high-level intellectuals often unnecessarily spends too much time on daily life trifles, this should be seen as damage of the country’s labour force. Some high-level intellectuals’ housing conditions are too bad, in Beijing and other cities where the population is growing especially rapidly, there are situations where families of a number of mouths live together in a small room. Their rest and entertainment life is also not organized well. All these issues should be resolved earnestly by controlling departments.

In order to resolve the issue of life remuneration of intellectuals even better, we must mainly set about three areas: first, we should educate all relevant work units’ administrative management personnel to ideologically give high regard to the life conditions of intellectuals, and that they especially must break through  the sort of mistaken concept of only paying attention to the life of administrative responsible persons, and to think about intellectuals “whatever you have that merits care, why should I wait upon you”. As long as we do this, issues will be resolved by about half. Second, we should educate all relevant work units’ labour union organizations and consumer cooperative organizations to strive to broaden their services to intellectuals in their work unit. Labour union’s membership fees should to a very large extent be used for the cultural life and material welfare undertaking in work units. Work units’ work personnel should go deeply into the masses, and use indomitable spirits to resolve all sorts of life difficulties for labour union members in their work units, this should be an important task for all sorts of intellectuals’ labour unions. Third, we should, on the basis of the principle of payment according to work done, suitably adjust the salary of intellectuals, and ensure that the amount of salary their receive corresponds to the size of the contribution they make to the country, and eliminate egalitarianism in salary structures and other irrational phenomena. Furthermore, there is a small number of intellectuals that does not fall into the scope of state work personnel, for example, a number of drama and opera actors, Chinese painting artists and Chinese medicine doctors, at present, their income is relatively low, this sort of issue should also be resolved through separate rules by controlling departments.

Another important problem in intellectuals’ life remuneration is the promotion system. Now, our promotion system is irrational in many places: there are many ranks and the difference between them is small, higher education graduates’ ranks are too low; there are no fixed promotion rules and promotion standards; many work units aren’t graded for years, and because of this, there is also a number of people that has not been able to be promoted. This sort of irrational promotion system greatly obstructed intellectuals to progress in their work, and has especially obstructed the fostering of newly emerging forces and the promotion of common intellectuals. This system must be rapidly reformed. Furthermore, concerning academic degrees, academic ranks, honorary titles for intellectual circles, reward systems for invention, creation and outstanding writings, etc., are also important methods to encourage intellectuals to progress and stimulate the progress of science and culture. These systems are currently being drafted by relevant departments, and should be promulgated in the near future.

Concerning the political treatment of intellectuals, there are also some places that must be improved. The main problem here is that we must eliminate the fact that many work units do not care about the political life of intellectuals. Some intellectuals blame us to require them to listen repeatedly to a long report, but even more intellectuals blame us for not letting them listen to one report in a whole year. Similarly, there are many social activities, and people believe that they participate too much, but even more people believe that, if they are able to have a chance to participate once, they will feel greatly encouraged. We should pay attention to these areas and suitably adjust matters. Furthermore, we should also conduct education among working personnel, and let them understand how to correctly deal with intellectuals, and must not inadvertently injure their proper self-respect, this sort of self-respect is something any upright worker should have.

What I said earlier, are some necessary conditions for fully mobilizing and giving rein to the strengths of intellectuals. Naturally, for the sake of this goal, they must still be educated and reformed, and they must be given political and professional leadership, we must still talk about this later on. But, no matter what, those conditions I just talked about are indispensable. Only with these conditions will it be easy to fully mobilize intellectuals to give rein to their strengths in the magnificent undertaking of constructing the motherland, and will it be easy to mobilize them to progress politically and professionally.

Continuing to help intellectuals to conduct self-improvement is one of the important political tasks of the Party during the transitional period.

Our country is now in a transitional period, this is the time of the deepest social transformation. The private ownership system of the means for production that lasted for millennia must change and become a Socialist ownership system; the exploiting system that lasted for millennia must be eliminated forever; all people must change into workers of different categories. This sort of earth-shattering change cannot but attract intense reactions in all aspects of our country’s social life and ideological sphere. Because of this, all social issues of this period, also including the issues of intellectuals, cannot be observed in separation from class struggle. All sorts of political fault lines and changes of intellectuals are the reflection of the progress of class struggle among the ranks of intellectuals. We have already seen that, among the present intellectuals, there is a small percentage of counterrevolutionaries and other bad elements (for example frauds and hooligans), these people must be eliminated from the ranks of intellectuals. Outside of this, there still is a small number of people who ideologically oppose Socialism or who do not completely understand Socialism. Concerning these people, we should criticize their mistaken thoughts, and as much as possible strive for them to come to the Socialist side.

The work to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements concealed in intellectual circles has seen great achievements in the past year. We should continue our efforts, and strive for the objective that within the next two years, counterrevolutionary elements will be basically cleared out.

During the period of struggle with counterrevolutionary elements, we must not implicate people who only have a normal social relationship with counterrevolutionary elements, this point is very important, because there are many people like this among intellectuals. In the past, if it happened that they were mixed up with counterrevolutionary elements incorrectly, we should explain matters clearly to them. Concerning people who only had relationships with counterrevolutionary elements in the past, and who have changed position after Liberation, after they have appropriately accounted for themselves, they should also be treated the same as normal people.

We have talked about it earlier, that some distance still exists between a number of intellectuals and our Party. We must actively strive to eliminate this sort of distance. But this sort of distance often has been opened up from two sides: on the one hand, it is because or comrades haven’t engaged with them and understood them; but on the other hand, it is in fact also because a number of intellectuals have adopted an attitude of maintaining distance from or even opposing Socialism. In our enterprises, schools and organs, and in society, there still are such intellectuals: they do not differentiate between enemies and ourselves, between the Communist Party and the Guomindang, between the Chinese people and imperialism; they are dissatisfied about the policies and measures of the Party and the People’s Government, and recall capitalism with nostalgia or even recall feudalism with nostalgia, they oppose the Soviet Union and are unwilling to learn from the Soviet Union; they refuse to study Marxism-Leninism, and vilify Marxism-Leninism; they belittle labour, belittle the labouring people, and belittle the cadres that rose from the labouring people, they are unwilling to engage with workers and peasants and worker and peasant cadres; they are unwilling to see the growth of newly emerging forces, and believe progressives are opportunists; they not only often create disputes and opposition between intellectuals and the Party, and furthermore, they create disputes and opposition among intellectuals, they are self-important, and think they are first under heaven, they are unable to accept leadership from anyone and criticism from anyone; they deny the interests of the people and the interests of society, start from their individual interest in looking at all issues, praise what conforms to their own interests and oppose what does not conform to their own interests. Naturally, all these people full of mistakes are not great in number among the intellectuals at present; but the abovementioned sort or sorts of mistaken people, are not great in number. Not only backward elements, must also a number of middle-of-the-roaders, often have some of the above-mentioned mistaken viewpoints. The afflictions of narrow-mindedness, arrogance and conceit, and starting from individual interests when looking at problems, are also not few among progressive elements. If such intellectuals do not change their viewpoints, even if they strive to engage with us, there will still be distance between us and them.

Because of this, we should not only transform backward elements, but should also as far as possible educate middle-of-the-roaders to cast of their middle-of-the-road attitudes, and become progressive elements; progressive elements must also be helped to continue their progression, and be helped to diligently study Marxism-Leninism and eliminate the influence of capitalism, individualism and idealism from their ideologies. We should foster  a large batch of red experts who persist in struggling for Socialism among high-level intellectuals. At present, there are some high-level intellectuals that have already become red experts, there still are many people who have this sort of hope. We should warmheartedly help them to conduct self-transformation and realize this hope of theirs, any exclusion or discrimination against them is mistaken.

Generally speaking, thoroughly eliminate the counterrevolutionary elements hidden among intellectual circles, reduce backward elements to the smallest extent, change middle-of-the-roaders into progressive elements as much as possible, and make progressives into completely Socialist intellectuals, this is our struggle programme for continuing to transform intellectuals in the present stage.

Concerning the transformation of intellectuals, we have already obtained rich experience and huge advances. Because of this, concerning the question whether or not intellectuals can be transformed, there have not been a few detailed discussions. Our present task is to summarize experiences from the past, overcome some flaws in past work, and ensure that work in the future can be conducted in a more planned manner. Since we see all sorts of political fault lines among intellectuals, we should by and large, according to this sort of situation, respectively formulate methods to educate progressive elements, middle-of-the-roaders and backward elements, adopt all sorts of methods that have already proven to be effective, and implement them.

The transformation of intellectuals generally has three paths: one is through observing social life and practice; one is through the practice of their own work, and one is through common theoretical study. These three sides are mutually linked, a person’s ideological transformation often is influenced by these three sides. But generally speaking, education of social life has the broadest and most direct function. Everyone knows that the ideological transformation of many intellectuals has begun through participation in land reform and resisting America and supporting Korea. In the past few years, visits to factories and villages have also extremely forcefully helped intellectuals to gain confidence towards Socialism. But we still have not systematically organized this work, and especially many middle-of-the-roaders and backwards elements often have not been put into our plans. In the future, we should make intellectuals participating in Socialist construction into an important task, ensure comprehensive arrangements, and ensure that all people who have not yet participated can have an opportunity for a visit in the next few years.

Professional practice has a major function in the ideological transformation of intellectuals. In the past few years, the transformation of educational methods and the adoption of Soviet learning materials has enabled many teachers who did not believe in the Soviet Union or who did not believe in Marxism-Leninism to change their understanding. Similarly, our country’s worker and peasant masses’ creation of productive technology, the dissemination of Soviet science and technology, and the real models of Soviet experts, have also enabled many science and technology personnel to be convinced of the superiority of the Socialist system. In the future, we should continue to develop experience in this regard. But as for the issue of learning from the Soviet Union, in the past, there have also been flaws of excessive rashness, rigidity and mechanical imitation, some comrades even arbitrarily denied the scientific and technological achievements of capitalist countries. These flaws should be avoided in the future.

The study of Marxism-Leninism has a decisive significance concerning intellectuals establishing a revolutionary view of life and a scientific worldview. But now, in some localities, this sort of study is not organized well, either because of the level of the instructors is too low, or because study plans and methods do not conform to the needs of high-level intellectuals. In the future, we should overcome these flaws, and according to the principles of voluntarity and linkage to work, provide for some obligatory basic courses in Marxism-Leninism, and stress the adoption of self-study, evening university, correspondence learning, scientific discussion meetings and other methods, to help intellectuals study theory.

As the transformation of intellectuals is a sort of reflection of class struggle, the process of this transformation itself cannot be without corresponding struggle. First and foremost, we must require all intellectuals to stand on a patriotic standpoint, respect the Constitution and draw a clear boundary between enemies and ourselves. If a person violates the patriotic viewpoint, violates the Constitution, or confuses enemies and ourselves in speech or actions, then, it is unimaginable that people do not engage in struggle with this sort of people. Second, between Socialist ideology and capitalist ideology, materialist ideology and spiritualist ideology, there cannot but be intense struggle. The process of intellectuals’ ideological transformation is inseparable from the development of ideological struggle in intellectual circles. Since Liberation, the ideological transformation movement led by the Party and the criticism of spiritualist ideology, has engendered great results concerning the progress of intellectuals. What must be given attention in ideological struggle is that the transformation of a person’s thoughts must go through that person’s consciousness. Use coarse methods to conduct ideological transformation, and it is impossible to resolve problems. But the phenomenon of using coarse methods in dealing with scientists and scientific issues still happens, all localities must pay attention to rectifying this. Furthermore, although some people persist in their own ideological mistakes, as long as they do not oppose the people in words and deeds, and even are willing to use their own knowledge and energy to work for the people, than, we should, at the same time as criticising their mistaken ideologies, we must also be good at patiently dealing with them and helping them to progressively come to understanding.

In order to help intellectuals to pursue progress, it is important that the Party’s leaders conduct direct engagement with them. Many intellectuals hope that we are able to give them more ideological and political assistance and criticism, and feel that we give them too little of this sort of assistance. There are not a few intellectuals who not only find it difficult to come into contact with local Party Committee leading comrades, and even when they live together with the Part Committee members in their work unit, have difficulties in gaining opportunities to talk with them. They say that we “use them much and help them little”, or that we “only use them, and don’t help them”. There are also people who say that our work personnel only goes to find them for three reasons: (1) transferring work; (2) to explain history; (3) when mistakes have been made. These criticisms are acute, and should attract our attention. We should include conducting ideological and political talks with them and conducting comradely criticism of them into plans for the transformation of intellectuals. Organizing some symposiums to exchange opinions with them is something they welcome, and this should be done regularly in the future. Furthermore, we should also attract some intellectuals from outside the Party, according to concrete situations, to participate in Party groups and branches as non-voting members, to let them further understand the intent of the Party and receive the Party’s education.

In order to help the progress of intellectuals, apart from relying on Party members, we must also organize progressive elements who already occupy about forty per cent of the intellectuals to participate in work. The Communist Youth League, labour unions and all democratic parties have done not a little work in the past few years, and should use their forces in an even more planned manner in the future.

Because we have much experience in the area of transforming intellectuals, and also have the support of progressive forces, common intellectuals have, in the construction of the motherland that advances by leaps and bounds, ever more deeply accepted Socialist education, their progress inevitably will be quicker than in the past few years. As long as every work unit in the entire country makes plans for the transformation of intellectuals, including seven-year plans from 1956 to 1962, and annual plans, and persistently implements them, we certainly will ensure that progressives who vigorously struggle for Socialism and accept the basic viewpoints of Marxism-Leninism, by the end of the second Five-Year Plan, will number more than three quarters of high-level intellectuals, and that backward elements will be reduced to about five per cent.

Concerning the work of attracting Party members from among intellectuals, plans should be made as well. Now, there are already many progressive intellectuals who require entry to the Party. For example, the Ministry of Heavy Industry Nonferrous Metallurgy Design Academy’s project technology staff number 1920 people in total, of which 605 have applied to join the Party, or about 31 per cent. The Tianjin 6th higher school teaching staff of lecturer or higher number 291 people, of which 106 have applied to join the Party, or 36 per cent. The staff of the North China Agricultural Scientific Research Centre number 131 people, of which 53 have applied to join the Party, or 40 per cent. But, in the past few years, we have attracted few Party members from among them, this is a sort of closed-doorism tendency. This sort of tendency must be corrected. Naturally, attention must be paid to strictly attracting Party members according to Party membership conditions, but it may be believed that, among these people who have applied to joint the Party, those conforming to Party membership conditions aren’t few in number. Considering the increase of progressive forces among high-level intellectuals, and considering the incessant addition of newly emerging forces to the teams of high-level intellectuals, we believe that planning to achieve that, in 1962, Party members number about one third of the total number of high-level intellectuals, is appropriate.

Realizing the above plans, will bring further basic changes to the ideological and political situation of our country’s intellectuals. We will possibly basically complete this one particular historical task of transforming intellectuals during our country’s transition phase. After that period, intellectuals will be the same as all people, they must still incessantly transform themselves through study and practice, and must, at new levels, advance towards even high progress and objectives. But, that is a sort of regular task by then.

IV

In order to adapt to the needs of the rapid development of national construction, our intellectual teams must be broadened in quantity, and must be raised in professional levels.

Our country’s scientific and cultural forces, at present, are much smaller than those of the Soviet Union and other large countries worldwide, at the same time, they are also much lower in quality, this does not correspond with the requirements of our large Socialist country of 600 million people. We must do our utmost to catch up, and strive to, as rapidly as possible, expand and raise the scientific and cultural forces of our country, and overtake global advanced levels in not too much time. This is the magnificent struggle task for our Party and the intellectual circles nationwide, and the people nationwide.

We regularly say that our science and culture is backward, but we do not regularly go and research in which areas they actually are backwards. Comrades: I’d like to say a but mire here on the situation in the area of science, this is not only because science is a decisive factor that relates to all areas of our national defence, economy and culture, but because global science, in the past two or three decades, has seen huge and rapid progress, this progress has relegated us far to the rear of scientific developments.

Modern science and technology advances by leaps and bounds, by 1000 miles in a day. Overall mechanization, overall automatization and remote control are being progressively realized in production processes, thereby enabling labour production rates to rise to unprecedented levels. All sorts of high-temperature, high-pressure, high-speed and extra high-temperature, extra-high pressure and extra high-speed machines are being designed and produced. The voyages and velocities of transportation machines on land, on the waters and in the skies rise every day, high-speed airplanes have already exceeded the speed of sound. This progress in technology require all sort of materials that possess new and specialized particularities, and consequently, all sorts of new metals, and alloy materials, as well as synthetic materials made through chemical methods, these are incessantly being produced, in order to satisfy these new requirements. All production departments’ production technology and technology rules are being transformed day by day, guaranteeing that production processes are further accelerated and strengthened, that the useful parts of natural resources are used to the fullest, that raw materials are economized to the grates extent and product quality rises incessantly.

The highest peak in new developments of science and technology is the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy has provided humankind with a new source of power without parallel in strength, and has opened up promising prospects for improvements in all scientific departments. At the same time, because of electronic automatic control machinery produced through electronics and other scientific progress, it has become possible to start conditionally replace a number of specific mental work, in the same manner that other machines replace physical work, thereby greatly raising the level of automatized technology. These newest achievements have caused humanity to face a new eve of a scientific, technological and industrial revolution. This revolution is exactly as Comrade Bulganin said: “in terms of its meaning, it exceeds the industrial revolution that was engendered by the emergence of steam and electricity by far.”

We must catch up with the advanced scientific level of this world. We must remember that, at a time where we are driving ahead and catching up, other people are also continuing to advance rapidly. Because of this, we must expend the most intense labour in this area, only by grasping the most advanced science will we be able to consolidate national defence, will we be able to have strong and advanced economic forces, and will we be able to have full conditions to, together with the Soviet Union and other people’s democratic countries, regardless of whether in peaceful competition or in a war of aggression initiated by enemies, vanquish imperialist countries.

Now, it is still very difficult to exactly estimate how much time will be required before we are able to overtake advanced global levels with our science. But at this time, if we want to put forward this task, we must, by the end of the 3rd Five-Year Plan, ensure that the scientific departments most needed by our country approach advanced global levels, and ensure that the newest foreign achievements can be achieved rapidly through our own efforts. With this basis, we will be able to further resolve the issue of catching up to global levels.

In order to complete this magnificent task, we must first and foremost break through the dependent mentality that lacks a national self-consciousness. “The backwardness of China in the scientific area cannot be changed immediately, reliance on Soviet assistance is needed anyhow”. This is not wrong, we must rely on Soviet assistance to change our backwardness. But what method should we use to utilize this sort of assistance? One sort of method is not having complete plans, treat the symptoms, healing feet when feet hurt, and when running into some problem, asking the Soviet Union for lessons. Those being sent to the Soviet Union for study are not scientists, but the absolute majority are secondary graduates. The results is a situation whereby we cannot break away from reliance and imitation in a lifetime, it is adding to the burden of Soviet scientific circles for indefinite duration, and harms our country’s planned and rapid development of science, which has also influenced the growth speed of the scientific strength, economic strength and defence strength of the Socialist camp. Another method is to make complete plans, clearly distinguishing greater and lesser urgency, the fundamental and the incidental, systematically utilizing the newest achievements of Soviet science, and as quickly as possible overtaking Socialist levels. This is to say, apart from requiring Soviet assistance in the most urgent tasks, and learning technology from Soviet assistance, all our country’s departments that need to learn from the Soviet Union in science, should send out relatively mature scientists in a planned manner to learn from the soviet union, or ask Soviet experts to come to our country and help us establish the basis for scientific research, striving to make it possible in the shortest time that, at levels that the Soviet Union has already achieved, we continue to launch research domestically and foster the work of cadres. In this manner, it will be possible to utilize Soviet assistance most effectively and rationally, stimulate the planned development of our country’s science, and ensure that both countries’ scientific undertakings may establish mutually assisting relationships relatively rapidly, this also stimulates the growth of the scientific strength, economic strength and defence strength of the Socialist camp. The latter sort of method is what both Soviet and Chinese scientists have repeatedly suggested, and is the only correct method that should be adopted.

In order to systematically raise our country’s scientific levels, we must also break through myopic tendencies, and maintain a suitable proportion in allocating forces between theoretical work and technological work, long-term needs and present needs, and furthermore, form correct divisions of work and cooperation, in order to avoid doing one thing and neglecting another. In the past few years, all sorts of our country’s work have just begun, and we have put more strength towards present needs and technology work, and have paid relatively less attention to long-term needs and theoretical work, this is hard to avoid, and it can also be understood. But by now, if we still do not timely strengthen attention towards long-term needs and theory work, then, we will make a great mistake. Without certain theoretical science research work as a basis, there will be no fundamental progress and innovation in technology. But the growth of theoretical strength, must always be a little slower than the growth of technological strength, and the effect of theoretical work generally is indirect, and it is not easy to perceive it at once. Because this is the case, many comrades still have a sort of myopic tendency, they aren’t willing to produce the necessary strength in the area of scientific research, and regularly require scientists to resolve relatively simple problems of technological application and production operation methods for them. Naturally, theory can absolutely not be separated from reality, any sort of “theoretical research” that is separated from reality is something we must oppose, but the main tendency at present is a neglect of theoretical research. This sort of situation not only is manifest in the area of natural sciences, it is equally manifest in the area of social sciences. At present, the forces that we have allocated to the area of social sciences, in comparison with the forces allocated to the area of natural sciences, in terms of our country’s needs, is still weak and ill-matched. For example, in the Chinese Academy of Science committees, there are 172 people in the area of natural sciences, and those who are at the moment able to, as a matter of fact, use the majority of their time for scientific work is more than half; in the area of social science, it is 51 people, and those who are at the moment able to, as a matter of fact, us the majority of their time for scientific research work are only few!

Both of the above tendencies are mutual cause and result, and are mutually integrated. We must thoroughly rectify these improper tendencies, and change these situations that are not beneficial to scientific development.

The State Council has now already entrusted the State Planning Commission to be responsible for, together with relevant departments, formulating long-term plans for scientific development from 1956 until 1966, by the end of March. When formulating this long-term plan, we must introduce the newest global science to our country’s scientific departments, national defence departments, production departments and educational departments, according to possibility and needs, make our country’s scientific circles make up for its shortcomings in the areas with the greatest shortages and the fields most urgently needed for the country’s construction as much as possible, to ensure that after 12 years, these scientific fields and technological categories may approach the Soviet Union and other large countries in the world.

What is then the path to achieve this objective most rapidly and most effectively?

A path like this is: first, according to the most urgently needed categories, as rapidly as possible dispatching some groups of experts, excellent scientific work personnel and excellent university graduates to go to the Soviet Union and other countries for one or two years of practical training, or to be research students, and after they come back, immediately establish a basis for developing this science and technology in scientific institutions and all government departments, and foster large amounts of new cadres. At the same time, according to requirement, successively sending people for practical study and research every year. Second, concerning a number of disciplines, requesting some expert groups from the Soviet Union and other relevant countries, and request them to be responsible for assisting us to establish scientific research organs in scientific institutions and all relevant departments within the shortest possible time, fostering cadres, or conducting comprehensive collaboration with our country’s scientific circles. Third, organizing large batches of scientific work personnel and technological personnel to lean from Soviet experts who are in China at the moment in a planned manner use them as tutors, and we must not use them as common workers. In the proves of construction of and production in the 156 enterprises that the Soviet Union helped our country to establish, systematically organizing large batches of technology personnel to research and grasp the new technological principles, and rapidly pass them on. Fourth, concentrate the most excellent scientific forces and the most excellent university graduates to go into the area of scientific research. Use extremely large forces to strengthen the Chinese Academy of Science, make it become the locomotive leading the entire country in raising scientific levels and fostering newly-emerging forces. Fifth, all scientific forces in higher education occupy the absolute majority of the nationwide scientific strength, they must forcefully develop scientific research work under the guidance of the nationwide science development plan, and greatly foster newly emerging forces who conform to current levels of science and technology. Sixth, all government departments, and especially geology, industry, agriculture, irrigation, transportation, national defence and hygiene departments should rapidly establish and strengthen necessary research organs, reasonably divide work and cooperate with the Academy of Science, jointly broaden teams in scientific circles, and be responsible for introducing the newest achievements of global science into real application in a planned and systematic manner, in order to use the newest technologies of the world to equip our country in all areas, as rapidly as possible.

In order to earnestly and not emptily march towards modern science, we must grasp time. One year’s time can be lost very easily in empty prattle and procrastination. Because of this, the Party centre requires that: before the end of April this year, long-term scientific development plans must be determined, as well as concrete plans that are suited to this long-term for both this and next year, also, the first batch of scientific forces must be mustered in order to implement this long-term plan and the plans for this and next years (including a name list of personnel that must be sent out of the country, the number of Soviet experts that need to be invited, the number of people that need to be transferred from other positions to scientific research positions and a name list of important people, etc.), and all possibilities must be exhausted to realize the plans for sending people out of the country or transferring them by the end of June this year. Concerning the plans to broaden scientific research work and broaden the fostering of scientific forces in higher education institutes, these must be commenced and realized after this year’s summer vacation.

In order to realize the plan to march towards science, we must prepare all necessary conditions to develop scientific research. What is of primary importance here, is that we must ensure that scientists obtain the necessary books, files, materials, technological materials and other work conditions. We must increase the book expenditures of all research organs and higher education institutes, increase their reasonable use, strengthen the work of libraries, archives and museums, extremely greatly improve the import work of foreign books and periodicals, and ensure that existing books and periodicals are allocated reasonably. We must broaden the education of foreign languages, and broaden the translation work of important foreign books.

All the above principles generally equally apply to other departments in culture and education. All cultural and education departments should make development plans for the period from 1956 to 1967, and adopt effective measures to implement them.

Our plan to develop scientific and cultural forces must be a plan that both raises and broadens, because not only is our country a large country, that must have a certain number of talents that are suited to needs in these areas, quality can generally also only emerge on a certain quantitative basis.

In order to broaden our country’s scientific and cultural forces, we must first and foremost increase the quota for higher education students according to plan, and must also pay attention to fostering the existing common intellectuals, incessantly raising their professional level. They are not only important reserves and collaborators for high-level intellectuals, but as said before, they are much more in number than high-level intellectuals; they are distributed among all regions and all work departments nationwide, and have a huge responsibility in national construction. All Central departments and all provinces must respectively formulate special plans to help their progress, ensure that their professional abilities are rapidly increased, and raise the excellent elements among them into high-level intellectual teams.

V

Our Party is currently victoriously resolving the problems of agricultural collectivization and manual labour collectivization, and is currently victoriously resolving the problem of the transformation of capitalist industry and commerce. The entire Party and the working people of the entire country are currently striving to complete the Five-Year Plan in advance and in excess of quota. The people nationwide are filled with a confidence in victory and a vigour of struggle. Following the high tide of turbulent and tempestuous transformation of the Socialist economy, a high tide of cultural construction must emerge, at this moment, we must completely resolve a series of issues concerning intellectuals, this is undoubtedly extremely necessary in our cause of Socialist transformation and our cause of Socialist construction.

Among the tasks concerning intellectuals we put forward, we cannot say there will not be some difficulties. But these difficulties cannot be more difficult than our transformation of 500 million peasant and transforming the entire capitalist industry and commerce, they cannot be more difficult than our realization of the first Five-Year Plan. In the past six years, our Party has gained huge achievements in the area of leading intellectuals and leading scientific and cultural undertakings. Now, we have more experiences and more methods than in the past, and on the basis of past experience, our Party certainly will be able to lead the intellectuals towards new and even greater victories in scientific and cultural undertakings. That sort of thinking that believes that the Party is unable to lead the intellectuals in scientific and cultural construction has absolutely no basis.

The problem lies in being good in learning. All departments, Central and regional, must learn to even better lead intellectuals and lead scientific and cultural undertakings. We should not imagine that, since we are Communist Party members, we naturally can lead intellectuals in conducting constructions, or that we naturally cannot make mistakes. Whatever issue we deal with, we must always persist in the honest attitude of “know what you know, don’t know what you don’t know”, not pretend to understand something when we don’t understand it, but we must change non-understanding into understanding. Our Party must foster a large batch of  cadres mastering all areas of knowledge in culture and science. As long as we earnestly dig into this, we can certainly master it.

Of all tasks raised in the report, many are things that need to be uniformly resolved by the Centre. Concerning these issue, we put forward the following division of work:

Concerning all sorts of issues related to intellectuals that have an administrative nature, because of the necessity to make some uniform regulations and management, the State Council prepares the establishment of a Chinese Experts’ Bureau to be responsible for handling this matter. But until this organ is established, relevant departments should, on the basis of Centre instructions, immediately set to resolve all issues in the area of intellectuals. After this organ has been established, all departments can also not reduce their responsibility for directly handling matter that they should bear because the expert bureau generally is only responsible for those issues that are unsuitable to be handled by one single department. The expert bureau is responsible for uniform planning, uniform regulation and uniform inspection, supervision and stimulation, in issues of all administrative issues concerning high-level intellectuals. Concerning localities were all departments deal unsuitably with high-level intellectuals, the expert bureau has the power to rectify this according to certain procedures.

Concerning all sorts of issues related to intellectuals that have a political nature, and concerning the issue of continuing to conduct ideological transformation among intellectuals and dealing with relevant counterrevolutionaries, all relevant departments must take direct responsibility, and the Central Propaganda Department is responsible for conducting uniform supervision. The Central Propaganda Department shall regularly examine all departments’ situation of implementing the Centre’s policies concerning intellectuals and examine the situation of their work plans and implementation plans, overcome their flaws in work, disseminate their advanced experiences in work, and timely put forward issues and suggestions to the Centre.

The work of absorbing Party members among the intellectuals is the responsibility of the Central Organization Department. Democratic Party work among intellectuals is the responsibility of the United Front Work Department. Labour Union work among intellectuals is the responsibility of the All-China Labour Union. But when resolving important issues in these areas of work, contact should be made with the Central Propaganda Department.

In order to strengthen leadership, deal with and investigate issues related to intellectuals, all levels’ Party Committees and all departments should respectively appoint suitable organs to bear day-to-day responsibility, and must regularly convene some special meetings, regularly exchange experiences and incessantly strive for the improvement of the work situation.

Comrades, we are convinced that, through our work, intellectuals will further unite around the Party, and contribute their forces even more vigorously to the magnificent Socialist undertaking. The alliance shaped within the Socialist undertaking by workers, peasants and intellectuals of the entire country, will develop in step with our work, and will be more consolidated and strengthened day by day. Relying on this alliance, we certainly will, within not too long a period, construct our country into a completely modernized, rich and strong Socialist industry country, and will certainly, within not too long a period, realize the mighty call of Comrade Mao Zedong: “We will emerge into the world as a nation with a high culture.”

[1] In 1955, Hu Feng and other people were mistakenly branded as the “Hu Feng counterrevolutionary clique”. On 29 September 1980, the Party Central Committee, when approving the Public Security Bureau, Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate Notice concerning the Re-examination Report of the “Hu Feng Counterrevolutionary Clique” Case, proclaimed that the “Hu Feng counterrevolutionary clique” was rehabilitated. The Notice said: “The ‘Hu Feng Counterrevolutionary Clique’ case, under the historical conditions of that time, confused two contradictions of a different nature, in which some comrades with mistaken speech and factionalist activities branded him a counterrevolutionary and a counterrevolutionary clique. The Centre has decided to rehabilitate him. All those branded as Hu Feng counterrevolutionaries, are rectified without rectification, their reputation is restored, and they will recover their original salary treatment from the date of rehabilitation, where there are other problems in the history of the person concerned, a verdict is made on the basis which problem it is, and the original  work unit will appropriately arrange work for them. Of all those having undergone legal procedures and verdicts, the original handling court is suggested to revoke the verdicts.

关于知识分子问题的报告
周恩来

(一九五六年一月十四日)
同志们:

为着加强党对于知识分子的领导,加强党对于整个科学文化工作的领导,中央决定召集一次会议讨论知识分子问题。

中央的这个决定,是中央领导全党反对保守思想、努力完成过渡时期总任务的整个斗争的一部分。

大家知道,在一九五五年内,根据毛泽东同志的倡议,党中央曾经对于党内的右倾保守思想,进行了一系列的斗争。这一系列的斗争的最重要的结果,就是肃清反革命分子运动在机关内在社会上都有步骤地彻底展开,预计今后两年内将在全国范围内基本上完成;就是农业合作化运动在群众觉悟迅速增长的基础上突飞猛进,今年将在全国范围内基本上完成半社会主义的合作化,并且正在向着全社会主义的合作化发展;就是资本主义工商业的全行业公私合营迅速发展,今年也很有可能在全国范围内基本上完成;就是发展国民经济的第一个五年计划整个地将要提前和超额完成,预计某些生产部门可以在一九五六年完成一九五七年的生产规划,其他各部门也都有可能提前和超额完成五年计划。

所有这些巨大的动人的成就,在一年以前还是不可想象的,如果不展开反对右倾保守思想的斗争,那么这些成就,到现在也还是不可能获得的。由此可见,右倾保守思想在我们党内的危害是多么严重。

反对右倾保守思想的斗争的基本要求,是应该更加巩固和发展我国人民民主专政,提早完成社会主义改造,超额完成国家工业发展计划和加速进行国民经济的技术改造。这个斗争有重大的世界意义。在我们六亿人口的大国中,能够提前完成和加速进行这些任务,把这些任务完成和进行得又多、又快、又好、又省,就将使整个社会主义阵营的力量得到更快更大的加强,就将更有利于我们阻止新的战争的爆发,而如果疯狂的侵略者敢于发动新的战争,我们也将处于更有力的地位。因此,党中央决定,把反对右倾保守思想作为党的第八次全国代表大会的中心问题,要求全党在一切工作部门中展开这个斗争。

知识分子问题,就是在这样的基础上提出来的。

知识分子问题,同我们目前的加速社会主义建设的任务,究竟有什么关系呢?

我们所以要建设社会主义经济,归根结底,是为了最大限度地满足整个社会经常增长的物质和文化的需要,而为了达到这个目的,就必须不断地发展社会生产力,不断地提高劳动生产率,就必须在高度技术的基础上,使社会主义生产不断地增长,不断地改善。因此,在社会主义时代,比以前任何时代都更加需要充分地提高生产技术,更加需要充分地发展科学和利用科学知识。因此,我们要又多、又快、又好、又省地发展社会主义建设,除了必须依靠工人阶级和广大农民的积极劳动以外,还必须依靠知识分子的积极劳动,也就是说,必须依靠体力劳动和脑力劳动的密切合作,依靠工人、农民、知识分子的兄弟联盟。我们现在所进行的各项建设,正在愈来愈多地需要知识分子的参加。比方说,我们要找矿,就得有一批地质专家,带上大批大学毕业生和中学毕业生,到各处的荒山僻野去进行测量、普查、详查和钻探。我们要建设矿山、工厂、铁路和水利工程,就得有一批工程师和一大批技术员来勘测、设计、建筑和安装。工厂要生产,生产中从产品设计到成品检验的每一个环节,都需要一定数量和一定水平的技术力量。工业和商业的管理,愈来愈需要各种专门的知识。要建设现代化的国防,就需要各种科学专家。没有教师和医生,我们就不能有学校和医院。没有文化艺术工作者,我们就不能有文化生活。在农村里,实现农业机械化和电气化以后,固然需要有大批的农业机器工程师、电站工程师、农学家、会计师等等;就在目前,为着实现从一九五六年到一九六七年全国农业发展纲要草案中的许多马上就要着手的项目,例如为着生产新式畜力农具、化学肥料和抽水机,消灭主要的病虫害,消灭严重的人类疾病和畜疫,也必须依靠科学技术工作者、植物保护学者、医务工作者和兽医的积极参加。因此,知识分子已经成为我们国家的各方面生活中的重要因素。而正确地解决知识分子问题,更充分地动员和发挥他们的力量,为伟大的社会主义建设服务,也就成为我们努力完成过渡时期总任务的一个重要条件。我们党的各个部门,党的各级组织,都应该重视这个问题。

什么是当前的知识分子问题呢?当前的根本问题,就是我们的知识分子的力量,无论在数量方面,业务水平方面,政治觉悟方面,都不足以适应社会主义建设急速发展的需要;而我们目前对于知识分子的使用和待遇中的某些不合理现象,特别是一部分同志对于党外知识分子的某些宗派主义情绪,更在相当程度上妨碍了知识分子现有力量的充分发挥。我们必须加强领导,克服缺点,采取一系列有效的措施,最充分地动员和发挥现有的知识分子的力量,不断地提高他们的政治觉悟,大规模地培养新生力量来扩大他们的队伍,并且尽可能迅速地提高他们的业务水平,以适应国家对于知识分子的不断增长的需要。这就是我们党目前在知识分子问题上的根本任务。

为了讨论党在知识分子问题上的任务,我们首先要把目前知识分子的情况考察一下。我们党向来是重视知识分子问题的。还在一九三九年,党中央就通过了毛泽东同志所起草的关于大量吸收知识分子的决定,并且在各个抗日根据地有效地实施了。全国解放以后,党在全国范围内对于知识分子实行了团结、教育、改造的政策。党中央认定:革命需要吸收知识分子,建设尤其需要吸收知识分子。特别是由于解放前的我国是一个文化落后科学落后的国家,我们就更必须善于充分地利用旧社会遗留下来的这批知识分子的历史遗产,使他们为我国的社会主义建设服务。党中央又认定:我国旧时代的知识分子在过去虽然受了帝国主义和反动阶级的种种影响,但是他们中间的绝大多数同时也受着帝国主义和国民党的压迫,因而一部分参加了革命,一部分同情于革命,多数对于革命抱着中立的观望的态度,反革命分子只占极少数。事实日益给中国知识分子提出证明:他们除了同工人阶级和共产党一道,并没有什么别的出路,因此,团结知识分子是必要的,也是完全可能的。从这个认识出发,党中央对于旧时代的知识分子采取了“包下来”的方针,绝大多数都继续给以适当的工作,其中一部分还分配了负责的工作;对于原来失业的知识分子也努力帮助他们就业,或者给以其他的适当的安排。在政治方面,党给了许多知识分子的代表人物以应有的地位。党中央认为:对于旧时代的知识分子必须帮助他们进行自我改造,使他们抛弃地主阶级和资产阶级的思想,接受工人阶级的思想。为了这个目的,党采取了一系列的步骤。党组织他们去参加土地改革、镇压反革命、抗美援朝、“三反”“五反”的斗争,参观工厂和农村,访问苏联,参加各种国际活动,领导他们学习马克思列宁主义的基本知识,批判资产阶级的唯心主义观点,进行反对胡风反革命集团[1]和其他反革命分子的斗争,并且在学习的基础上展开批评和自我批评。在业务方面,党也采取了许多步骤,帮助他们改进工作方法,提高业务能力。他们中间的绝大部分已经成为国家工作人员,已经为社公主义服务,已经是工人阶级的一部分。在团结、教育、改造旧知识分子的同时,党又用了很大的力量来培养大量的新的知识分子,其中已经有相当数量的劳动阶级出身的知识分子。由于这一切,我国的知识界的面貌在过去六年来已经发生了根本的变化。

关于知识分子的目前的政治状况,许多单位作了统计。这些统计表明:在高级知识分子中间,积极拥护共产党和人民政府、积极拥护社会主义、积极为人民服务的进步分子约占百分之四十左右;拥护共产党和人民政府,一般能够完成任务,但是在政治上不够积极的中间分子也约占百分之四十左右;以上两部分合占百分之八十左右。在这百分之八十左右以外,缺乏政治觉悟或者在思想上反对社会主义的落后分子约占百分之十几,反革命分子和其他坏分子约占百分之几。

同解放初期比较起来,这个变化是很快的。例如,根据北京、天津、青岛四所高等学校对于一百四十一个教师的统计,过去六年中,进步分子由百分之十八增为百分之四十一,落后分子白百分之二十八减为百分之十五。许多知识分子在我国伟大的社会主义改造和社会主义建设的事业面前,不能不日益受到强烈的影响,并且从中国的新生中看到全民族和他们自己的互相关联的命运。

在这里需要注意的是,知识分子的思想状态同他们在政治和社会地位上的变化并不是完全相适应的。许多进步分子也还有程度不同的资产阶级唯心主义和个人主义的思想作风,更不要说中间分子了。此外,有不少单位的知识分子、特别是其中比较落后的部分的变化很慢,也反映我们在他们中间做的工作很少。

知识分子的队伍在过去六年中在数量上也有了很快的扩大。目前全国在科学研究、教育、工程技术、卫生、文化艺术和其他方面的高级知识分子根据估计约为十万人,其中在解放以后增加的数字,根据一部分材料统计,约占三分之一左右。有些部门增加得特别快。例如,地质工作人员在解放初期不满二百人,而在一九五五年,根据地质、重工业、石油工业、煤炭工业等四个部的统计,只是工程师就已经增加到四百九十七人,而高等学校毕业的技术员就达到三千四百四十人。

解放以后六年中,全国高等学校毕业生已经达到二十一万七千九百人。他们虽然并不都合乎我们所说的高级知识分子的标准,但是他们是知识界的新生力量,并且是专家的后备军。而且必须指出,有许多青年虽然在等级上还不是专家,却已经担任了专家的工作,并且一般地担任得不坏。在高等学校的四万二千教学人员中,教授和副教授只占百分之十七点八,讲师占百分之二十四,助教占百分之五十八点二,而一部分助教现在已经参加了教课的工作。在工程界也是一样。全国各级工程师只有三万一千多人,而高等学校毕业的各级技术员却有六万三千六百人,他们中间的很多人实际上是担任着工程师的工作,其中有些人早已应该被提升为工程师了。除此以外,作为高级知识分子的后备军的,还有其他知识分子的广大队伍,他们正在实际工作和业余自学的过程中不断地提高他们的知识水平。

所谓高级知识分子和一般知识分子,中间并没有严格的界限,现在就已经有统计数目的科学研究、教育、工程技术、卫生、文化艺术五个方面的知识分子来看,共有三百八十四万人。他们是社会主义建设事业中一支伟大的力量。正确地估计和使用这些知识分子,有计划地帮助他们在政治上和业务上不断进步,是党和国家的极其重要的任务。在我的报告中,虽然着重地讨论有关高级知识分子的问题,但是大部分原则同样地适用于一般知识分子。

如上所说,我国知识分子现在已经成为一支很大的队伍。但是,我们的国家是这样地大,我们的建设事业发展得这样地块,今后还要发展得更快,因此,我们不能不更快地扩大知识分子的队伍,尤其是高级知识分子的队伍,以满足社会主义建设的迫切需要。应该承认,我们培养和提拔新生力量的工作也还有很多缺点,这些缺点阻碍着知识分子队伍的更快的扩大。

我国知识分子的业务水平在过去六年中也有了显著的提高。全国的高等学校进行了教学改革,新设了许多以前全国所没有的系和专业,新编和翻译了大量的教材,提高了教学的质量。全国的科学技术界在地质勘探方面,基本建设设计和施工方面、新产品设计和试制方面,都进行了巨大的工作,得到了显著的成就,由于努力向苏联学习的结果,我国工程界现在已经学会了许多现代化的工厂、矿井、桥梁、水利建设的设计和施工,在设计大型机械、机车、轮船方面的能力也有很大的提高。从一九五二年到一九五五年试制成功的新的机械产品,已经有三千五百种左右,少数已经达到世界水平。在冶金方面,我国能够冶炼的优质钢和合金纲,已经有二百四十多种;我国高炉和平炉的利用系数已经达到苏联一九五二年的水平。在理论科学方面,我国在数学、物理学、有机化学、生物学的若干部门中的成就,也受到了世界科学界的重视,其中一部分已经对生产的实践有了贡献。

但是整个说来,我国的科学和技术的状况仍然是很落后的。不但世界科学的很多最新成就,我们还没有能够掌握和利用,而且就是目前我国建设中的许多复杂的技术问题,我们也还不能离开苏联专家而独立解决。可是直到最近以前,我们对于提高我国科学和技术水平的问题,还没有作出全面规划;甚至现有的力量,也还没有完全有效地利用。技术科学上的落后同理论科学基础的薄弱是分不开的,而正是在科学研究方面,我们投入的力量最少。

从以上的简单叙述可以看出:我们的成绩很大,但是还有不少的缺点。

那么,我们在知识分子问题上应该采取怎样的方针呢?应该防止和纠正什么倾向呢?

目前在知识分子问题上的主要倾向是宗派主义,但是同时也存在着麻痹迁就的倾向。前一种倾向是:低估了知识界在政治上和业务上的巨大进步,低估了他们在我国社会主义事业中的重大作用,不认识他们是工人阶级的一部分,认为反正生产依靠工人,技术依靠苏联专家,因而不认真执行党的知识分子政策,不认真研究和解决有关知识分子方面的问题;对于怎样充分地动员和发挥知识分子的力量,怎样进一步改造知识分子、扩大知识分子的队伍,提高知识分子的业务能力等迫切问题,漠不关心。后一种倾向是,只看到知识界的进步而不看到他们的缺点,对他们过高地估计,不加区别地盲目信任,甚至对坏分子也不加警惕,因而不去对他们进行教育和改造工作,或者虽然看到他们的缺点,但是由于存在着各种不应有的顾虑,因而不敢对他们进行教育和改造工作。这两种倾向在形式上是相反的,而实际的结果却都是一种右倾保守主义,都是放弃领导,缺乏积极的斗争精神,都妨碍着我们正确地解决知识分子问题和科学文化问题,都妨碍着我国社会主义事业的发展。

我们必须同时反对这两种不正确的倾向。我们既不能对知识界的现有力量加以忽略,更不能认为可以满足;既不能无限期地依赖苏联专家,更不能放松对苏联和其他国家的先进的科学技术进行最有效的学习。我们所应该采取的唯一正确的方针,就是为了使我国的社会主义建设事业进行得又多、又快、又好、又省,必须尽-切努力最充分地动员和发挥知识分子的现有力量,同时尽一切努力尽可能迅速地给以进一步的改造、扩大和提高,使这种改造、扩大和提高的速度和规模能够真正符合我们国家的各方面伟大发展的巨人式的步伐。

最充分地动员和发挥知识分子的现有力量,不但是我国目前紧张的建设事业所必需的,而且也是对知识界加以进一步的改造、扩大和提高的前提。

一般地说,知识分子是在我们党的领导下被大量地动员起来了。要不然,我们前面说的知识分子的巨大进步和他们对于国家的巨大贡献,就都是不可思议的了。我们必须首先肯定这一点,这是事物的主要方面。

但是在我们的工作中,也的确存在着不少缺点,包含一些严重的缺点。在目前社会主义建设和改造的高潮当中,需要我们加强领导,迅速地克服这些缺点,才能更充分地动员和发挥知识分子的力量。

为了最充分地动员和发挥知识分子的力量,第一,应该改善对于他们的使用和安排,使他们能够发挥他们对于国家有益的专长。

在知识分子的使用和安排方面,我们在大多数的情形下都做得不坏。许多知识分子已经在国家建设中负担了很多很重大的任务,而他们的能力在实践中也不断地得到了提高。

但是究竟不能说,我们已经把知识分子使用和安排得都恰当了,而没有闲置任何力量。例如在许多机关里,因为工作分配得不适当,或者工作组织得不好,也还有使少数知识分子“闲得发慌”的情形,而这些知识分子往往正是因为有某种专门知识,才被分配到这些机关里来的。这种浪费国家最宝贵的财产的情形,必须加以消灭。又如在全国高等学校里,还有很少数教师没有开课。这些人里面有一些并不是不能开课,或者只需要组织他们学习一下就可以开课,这就应该让他们开课;如果确实不能开课,也应该设法分配给他们所能担任的工作,例如编译工作、出版工作、图书馆工作等,而不应该让他们闲着。又如在社会上也还有极少数失业而还有相当劳动能力的知识分子,也应该根据情况,由地方或者由中央给他们分配一定的工作。

有些地方,在对知识分子的安排和使用上,用非所学的情形也还存在。有一部分科学家,本人愿意作科学研究工作,也以做科学研究工作对国家最有利,却被分配做机关行政工作或者学校行政工作。还有一部分专家,由于工作分配中的错误,完全没有理由地被指定担任他们所没有学过的工作,有时今天叫干这个,明天又叫干那个,可是就不让他们调回本行。根据国务院第四办公室就轻工业部的所属五个单位统计,这种用非所学的情况,在高级知识分子中就约占百分之十,这是多么严重的损失!我们必须采取坚决的步骤,来纠正这种对待人才的官僚主义、宗派主义和本位主义的错误,以便把专门人才用在最需要的地方。

为了最充分地动员和发挥知识分子的力量,第二,应该对于所使用的知识分子有充分的了解,给他们以应得的信任和支持,使他们能够积极地进行工作。

知识分子对于我们所给予的信任和支持,一般地是满意的,但是我们仍然应该看到我们工作中的缺点。在对于知识分子的信任问题上,如前所说,一种倾向是在政治上和业务上不加区别地过分地信任,以至把一些国家的机密没有必要地告诉给一些不相干的人或者泄露给一些不可靠的人,或者对于完全不称职的人加以重用,使工作遭到损失。这种情形是存在的,必须加以纠正。另一种倾向是没有给他们应有的信任,例如可以去的工厂不让他们去,可以看的资料不让他们看,这种情形也是存在的,也必须加以纠正。国家的机密必须无条件地保守,任何放松都是不允许的;问题是在正确地划清机密的界限,而不要任意地扩大机密的范围,使工作受到损失,使工作人员遇到困难。同时,对于知识分子的历史要有一个正确的估计和了解,以免一部分人由于“历史复杂”而受到长时期的不应有的怀疑。现在的高级知识分子中许多人历史是比较复杂的,这并不奇怪。但是只有少数人有政治问题,只有机少数人有现行的政治问题。不少有历史问题没有作出结论的知识分子,是由于领导同志没有认真负责、实事求是地弄清他们的问题,因而使问题长期迁延不决。应该集中比较强的力量,分别轻重缓急,尽可能迅速地清理他们的悬案,以利于今后对他们的使用。

党外的知识分子除了需要应得的信任,还需要应得的支持。这就是说,应该让他们有职有权,应该尊重他们的意见,应该重视他们的业务研究和工作成果,应该提倡和发扬在社会主义建设中的学术讨论,应该使他们的创造和发明能够得到试验和推广的机会。有少数党团员不尊重他们上级的党外知识分子的领导,这种情形,我们应该负责加以纠正。

对于一部分知识分子信任和支持不够,这是我们有些同志在知识分子问题上的宗派主义的主要表现。不少的同志还不习惯于同党外知识分子遇事商量,并在事前给以及时的指导和帮助。有的同志对于党外知识分子甚至采取敬而远之的态度。这样,彼此既缺乏了解,也就容易形成隔膜。但是,他们是我们国家的重要工作人员,他们的工作好坏直接地影响着国家的建设,所以我们有责任学会用同志的态度去接近他们,正确地了解他们,从而治他们以指导和帮助,使他们能够在工作中发挥积极的作用。

为了最充分地动员和发挥知识分子的力量,第三,应该治知识分子以必要的工作条件和适当的待遇。

知识分子目前的工作条件和待遇,比解放以前有了很大的改善。但是也像前面所说的一样,这一方面也还有一些急待解决的问题。

在知识分子的工作条件方面,目前的一个重要问题是他们中间的许多人不能最有效地支配自己的工作时间。许多知识分子深感他们用在非业务性会议和行政事务上的时间太多,这些会议和有许多事务本来是可以不要他们参加的。差不多愈是著名的科学家、文学家和艺术家,被各种会议、事务和社会活动所占去的时间愈多,这是我国文化战线上的一个严重现象。中央认为,必须保证他们至少有六分之五的工作日(即每周四十小时)用在自己的业务上,其余的时间可以用在政治学习、必要的会议和社会活动方面。这个要求,应该坚决贯彻实现。知识分子参加社会活动是有益的,目前的缺点是这些活动往往集中在少数人身上。今后应该加以调整,尽可能使多数人可以参加,对于大家不成为负担。有不少专家兼职太多,也应该迅速地加以调整。

一部分知识分于在工作中感觉缺乏必要的图书资料和工作设备,或者缺乏适当的助手,以致工作效率很低。这种情形确实是存在的。例如许多拥有大量图书资料的单位,没有充分重视这些宝贵财产,没有派适当干部去进行整理,因而使一些专家不能够利用这些图书资料进行研究。造成这种现象的主要原因是我们对于他们的需要不熟悉,或者虽然听说了多次,而没有负责地给以解决,有些工作人员不愿意为这些“小事情”麻烦,这是错误的。这不是“小事情”,我们应该迅速地认真地解决这些问题。

知识分子的生活待遇,一般地说比解放以前已经有了改善,但是为了使高级知识分子能够把更多的精力用于工作,他们的生活待遇应该适当地提高。一部分高级知识分子为了日常生活琐事,往往不必要地费去太多的时间,这应该看作是国家劳动力的损失。有些高级知识分子的居住条件太差,在北京和其他人口增加特别快的城市,都有一家几口合住一间小屋的情形。他们的休息娱乐生活也组织得不好。所有这些问题,都应该由主管的部门认真地加以解决。

为了更好地解决知识分子的生活待遇问题,主要地需要从三方面着手:第一,应该教育各有关单位的行政管理人员从思想上重视知识分子的生活条件,特别是要打破那种只注意行政负责人的生活,而对于知识分子就觉得“你有什么值得照顾,我为什么要侍候你”一类的错误观念。只要这样,问题就可以差不多解决一半。第二,应该教育各有关单位的工会组织和消费合作社组织努力扩大为本单位的知识分子服务。工会的会费应该在很大的程度上用于本单位的文化活动和物质福利事业。工会的工作人员应该深入群众,用顽强的精神为本单位的会员解决各种生活困难,这应该是各种知识分子工会的一项重要任务。第三,应该根据按劳取酬的原则,适当地调整知识分子的工资,使他们所得的工资多少同他们对于国家所作的贡献大小相适应,消除工资制度中的平均主义倾向和其他不合理现象。此外,有少数不属于国家工作人员范围的知识分子,例如一部分戏曲艺人、国画家和中医,目前收入比较少,这种问题也应该自主管部门另行设法解决。

有关知识分子生活待遇的另一个重要问题是升级制度。我们现在的升级制度有很多不合理的地方:等级多而等距小,高等学校毕业生的等级太低;没有确定的升级办法和升级标准;许多单位几年不评级,因此也就有一部分人没有能够升级。这种不合理的升级制度,大大地妨碍了知识分子在业务上的上进心,特别是妨碍了新生力量的培养和一般知识分子的提拔。这个制度必须迅速地加以修改。此外,关于学位、学衔、知识界的荣誉称号,发明创造和优秀著作奖励等制度,也是鼓励知识分子上进和刺激科学文化进步的一个重要方法。这些制度正在由有关部门拟定,应该在最近期间确定公布。

对于知识分子的政治待遇,也有一些地方需要加以改善。这里的主要问题,是要消除许多单位对于知识分子的政治生活的不关心。有些知识分子埋怨我们一个长报告要他们听好几次,但是更多的知识分子埋怨我们一年不让他们听一次报告。同样,有许多社会活动,有人觉得参加太多,但是更多的人认为,如果他们能够得到参加一次的机会,他们将感到很大的鼓舞。这些方面,我们都应该注意加以适当的调整。此外,我们还应该在工作人员中进行教育,让他们懂得怎样正确地对待知识分子,而不要在无意之间伤害了他们的正当的自尊心,这种自尊心是任何一个正直的劳动者都应该有的。

以上所说的,是充分地动员和发挥知识分于力量的一些必要的条件。当然,为了这个目的,还需要给他们以教育和改造,给他们以政治上和业务上的领导,这我们在后面还要谈到。但是,无论如何,以上所说的这些条件都是必不可少的。有了这些条件,才便于更充分地动员知识分子在伟大的祖国建设事业中发挥力量,也才便于推动他们在政治上和业务上的进步。

继续帮助知识分子进行自我改造,是党在过渡时期的重要的政治任务之一。

我国现在正处在过渡时期,这是最深刻的社会改造的时期。几千年的生产资料私有制,要一变而成为社会主义的公有制;几千年的剥削制度,要从此永远消灭;所有的人们,都要变成为不同类型的劳动者。这种翻天覆地的变化,不能不在我国社会生活和思想领域的各个方面,引起激烈的反应。因此,这个时期的一切社会问题,其中也包括知识分子问题,都不能离开阶级斗争来观察。知识分子在政治上的各种分野和变化,正是阶级斗争的进展在知识分子队伍中的反映。我们已经看到,在目前的知识分子中,还有百分之几的反革命分子和其他坏分子(例如骗子和流氓),这些人是需要从知识分子队伍中清除的。除此以外,还有少数思想上反对社会主义和完全不了解社会主义的人们。对于这些人,应该批评他们的错误思想,并且尽可能争取他们转变到社会主义方面来。

肃清暗藏在知识界中的反革命分子的工作,在过去一年中已经得到巨大的成绩。我们应该继续努力,争取在今后两年内达到基本上肃清反革命分子的目的。

在同反革命分子作斗争的时候,不要把只同反革命分子有过普通社会关系的人牵连在一起,这一点很重要,因为知识分子中这样的人是很多的。过去如果曾经不正确地把他们同反革命分子混淆在一起,应该向他们解释清楚。对于只在历史上同反革命组织有过关系,解放以后确实已经改变立场的人,在他们作了适当的交代以后,也应该同普通的人一样看待。

我们在前面说到,在一部分知识分子同我们党之间,还存在着某种隔膜。我们必须主动地努力消除这种隔膜。但是这种隔膜常常是从两方面来的:一方面是由于我们的同志没有去接近他们,了解他们;而另一方面,却是由于一部分知识分子对于社会主义采取了保留态度甚至反对态度。在我们的企业、学校,机关里,在社会上,都还有这样的知识分子:他们在共产党和国民党之间、中国人民和帝国主义之间不分敌我;他们不满意党和人民政府的政策和措施,留恋资本主义甚至留恋封建主义;他们反对苏联,不愿意学习苏联;他们拒绝学习马克思列宁主义,并且诋毁马克思列宁主义;他们轻视劳动,轻视劳动人民,轻视劳动人民出身的干部,不愿意同工人农民和工农干部接近;他们不愿意看见新生力量的生长,认为进步分子是投机;他们不但常常在知识分子和党之间制造纠纷和对立,而且也在知识分子中间制造纠纷和对立,他们妄自尊大,自以为天下第一,不能够接受任何人的领导和任何人的批评;他们否认人民的利益、社会的利益,看一切问题都从个人的利益出发,合乎自己利益的就赞成,不合乎自己利益的就反对。当然,所有这些错误一应俱全的人,在现在的知识分子中是很少数;但是有上述一种或者几种错误的人,就不是很少数。不但落后分子,就是一部分中间分子,也常有以上所说的某一些错误观点。胸怀狭窄、高傲自大、看问题从个人的利益出发的毛病,在进步分子中也还不少。这样的知识分子如果不改变立场,即使我们努力同他们接近,他们同我们之间也还是会有隔膜的。

因此,我们不但应该改造落后分子,而且对于中间分子也应该尽可能地教育他们脱离中间状态,变为进步分子;对于进步分子,也必须帮助他们继续进步,帮助他们努力学习马克思列宁主义,扫除他们思想上的资本主义、个人主义和唯心主义的影响。我们应该在高级知识分子中间培养出大批的坚决为社会主义奋斗的红色专家。目前有些高级知识分子已经成为红色专家,还有很多人具有这种愿望。我们应该热情地帮助他们进行自我改造,实现他们的这种愿望,任何排斥和歧视他们的态度都是错误的。

总起来说,彻底肃清暗藏在知识界中的反革命分子,使落后分子减少到最低限度,使中间分子尽可能地变为进步分子,使进步分子成为完全社会主义的知识分子–这就是我们在目前阶段继续改造知识分子的斗争纲领。

关于知识分子的改造,我们已经有了丰富的经验和巨大的成绩。因此,关于知识分子能否改造的问题,已经不需要详细的讨论了。我们现在的任务,是总结过去的经验,克服过去工作中的某些缺点,使今后的工作能够进行得更有计划。我们既然看到知识分子中的各种政治的分野,就应该大体上按照这种状况,分别地定出教育进步分子、中间分子、落后分子的计划,采取各种已经证明有效的办法,加以实施。

知识分子的改造通常经过三条道路:一条是经过社会生活的观察和实践;一条是经过他们自己的业务的实践;一条是经过一般的理论的学习。这三个方面是互相联系的,一个人的思想的转变常常在三方面都受了影响。但是一般地说来,社会生活的教育作用最为广泛和直接。大家知道,许多知识分子的思想转变都是从参加土地改革和抗美援朝开始的。近几年对于工厂农村的参观,也极有力地帮助了知识分子获得对于社会主义的信心。但是我们还没有有系统地组织这个工作,特别是许多中间分子和落后分子常常没有放在我们的计划之内。在今后,应该把组织知识分子参观社会主义建设作为一项重要任务,加以通盘的安排,使凡是没有参观过的人在最近几年中都得到参观的机会。

业务的实践对于知识分子的思想改造也有重大的作用。过去几年中,教学方法的改革和苏联教材的采用,使许多原来不相信苏联和不相信马克思列宁主义的教师改变了认识。同样,我国工农群众在生产技术上的创造,苏联科学技术在我国的推广,苏联专家的实际示范,也使很多科学技术人员信服了社会主义制度的优越性。今后应该继续发展这一方面的经验。但是在学习苏联的问题上,过去也有过于急躁、生硬和机械照搬的缺点,有的同志甚至武断地否定资本主义国家的科学技术成果。这些缺点,今后应该避免。

马克思列宁主义的学习,对于确立知识分子的革命的人生观和科学的世界观,具有决定的意义。但是现在有些地方这种学习组织得不好,或者是指导的人水平太低,或者是学习的计划和方法不合于高级知识分子的需要。今后应该克服这些缺点,按照自愿和联系业务的原则,规定一些必修的马克思列宁主义的基本课程,着重采取自学、夜大学、函授学校、科学讨论会等方法,来帮助知识分子学习理论。

知识分子的改造既然是阶级斗争的一种反映,这个改造过程本身就不可能没有相当的斗争。首先,我们必须要求所有的知识分子站在爱国的立场上,遵守宪法,分清敌我的界限。如果一个人违反爱国的立场,违反宪法,在言论和行为上混淆敌我,那么,人们不同这样的人进行斗争是不可想象的。其次,在社会主义的思想和资本主义的思想、唯物主义的思想和唯心主义的思想之间,也不可能没有尖锐的斗争。知识分子思想改造的过程,同知识界思想斗争的发展是分不开的。解放以来,党所领导的思想改造运动和对于唯心主义思想的批判,对于知识分子的进步产生了很大的效果。在思想斗争中应该注意的是,一个人的思想的转变,必须通过他本人的自觉。用粗暴的方法进行思想改造,是不能解决问题的。但是用粗暴的方法对待科学家和科学问题的现象,最近还有发现,各地必须注意纠正。此外,有的人虽然在思想上坚持自己的错误,但是只要他并不在言论和行动上反对人民,甚至还愿意用自己的知识和精力为人民工作,那么,我们在批判他的错误思想的同时,就还要善于耐心地等待和帮助他逐步地觉悟起来。

为了帮助知识分子求得进步,党的领导者同他们进行直接的接触有重要的意义。很多知识分子期望我们能够在思想上政治上多给他们以帮助和批评,并且觉得我们给的这种帮助太少了。有不少的知识分子,不但很难接触到地方党委的领导同志,甚至同本单位的党委委员住在一起,也很难有机会谈话。他们说我们对他们是“使用多,帮助少”,或者是“只使用,不帮助”。还有人说,我们的工作人员只在三件事上找他们:(一)调动工作;(二)交代历史;(三)犯了错误。这些批评是尖锐的,应该引起我们注意。我们应该把同他们进行思想上政治上的谈话,对他们进行同志式的批评,定在改造知识分子的计划以内。组织一些座谈会同他们交换意见,这是他们所欢迎的,以后应该经常举行。此外,还应该按照具体情况,吸收一些党外的知识分子列席一定的党组会和支部会,让他们进一步了解党的意图,接受党的教育。

为了帮助知识分子的进步,除了依靠共产党员以外,还要组织已经占知识分子中百分之四十左右的进步分子参加工作。青年团、工会和各民主党派在过去几年中,在这一方面做了不少工作,今后应该更有计划地使用他们的力量。

由于我们在改造知识分子方面已经有了更多的经验,又有了进步力量的支持,而一般知识分子在祖国的突飞猛进的建设中,又愈来愈深刻地受着社会主义的教育,他们的进步必然会比过去几年更快。只要全国每一个单位对于知识分子改造都作出计划,包括一九五六年到一九六二年的七年计划和年度计划,坚持地实行起来,那么,我们一定可以在第二个五年计划期末,使积极为社会主义奋斗并接受马克思列宁主义基本观点的进步分子,在高级知识分子中占到四分之三以上,而使落后分子降到百分之五左右。

关于在知识分子中吸收党员的工作,也应该作出计划。现在已经有很多的进步的知识分子要求入党。例如,重工业部有色冶金设计院的工程技术人员共有一千九百二十人,申请入党的有六百零五人,占百分之三十一点五。天津六所高等学校讲师以上教师二百九十一人,申请入党的有一百零六人,占百分之三十六点四。华北农业科学研究所研究人员一百三十一人,申请入党的有五十三人,占百分之四十。但是,过去几年中我们很少在他们中间吸收党员,这是一种关门主义的倾向。这种倾向必须纠正。当然,必须注意严格按照党员条件接收党员,但是可以相信,在这些申请入党的人中间,合乎党员条件的是不少的。估计到高级知识分子中进步力量的增大,估计到新生力量不断地加入高级知识分子的队伍,我们认为,计划在一九六二年做到党员占高级知识分子总数三分之一左右,是适当的。

实现以上的规划,我国知识界的思想政治状况就将有进一步的根本变化。我们将有可能在我国过渡时期基本上完成改造知识分子这样一个特定的历史任务。在那个时候以后,知识分子同所有的人一样,仍然要在学习和实践中不断地改造自己,并且要在新的水平上,向更高的进步的标准前进。但是,那是一种经常性质的任务了。

为着适应国家建设的急速发展的需要,我们的知识分子队伍必须在数量上加以扩大,在业务水平上加以提高。

我国的科学文化力量目前是比苏联和其他世界大国小得多,同时在质量上也要低得多,这是同我们六亿人口的社会主义大国的需要很不相称的。我们必须急起直追,力求尽可能迅速地扩大和提高我国的科学文化力量,而在不太长的时间里赶上世界先进水平。这是我们党和全国知识界、全国人民的一个伟大的战斗任务。

我们经常说我国科学文化落后,但是并不经常去研究究竟落后在哪些地方。同志们:我想在这里稍微多说一点科学方面的事情,这不但因为科学是关系我们的国防、经济和文化各方面的有决定性的因素,而且因为世界科学在最近二三十年中,有了特别巨大和迅速的进步,这些进步把我们抛在科学发展的后面很远。

现代科学技术正在一日千里地突飞猛进。生产过程正在逐步地实现全盘机械化、全盘自动化和远距离操纵,从而使劳动生产率提高到空前未有的水平。各种高温、高压、高速和超高温、超高压、超高速的机器正在设计和生产出来。陆上、水上和空中的运输机器的航程和速率日益提高,高速飞机已经超过音速。技术上的这些进步,要求各种具备新的特殊性能的材料,因而各种新的金属,和合金材料,以及用化学方法人工合成的材料,正在不断地生产出来,以满足这些新的需要。各个生产部门的生产技术和工艺规程,正在日新月异地变革,保证了生产过程的进一步加速和强化,资源的有用成分的最充分利用,原材料的最大节约和产品质量的不断提高。

科学技术新发展中的最高峰是原子能的利用。原子能给人类提供了无比强大的新的动力泉源,给科学的各个部门开辟了革新的远大前途。同时,由于电子学和其他科学的进步而产生的电子自动控制机器,已经可以开始有条件地代替一部分特定的脑力劳动,就像其他机器代替体力劳动一样,从而大大提高了自动化技术的水平。这些最新的成就,使人类面临着一个新的科学技术和工业革命的前夕。这个革命,正如布尔加宁同志所说过的,“就它的意义来说,远远超过蒸气和电的出现而产生的工业革命”。

我们必须赶上这个世界先进科学水平。我们要记着,当我们向前赶的时候,别人也在继续迅速地前进。因此我们必须在这个方面付出最紧张的劳动,只有掌握了最先进的科学,我们才能有巩固的国防,才能有强大的先进的经济力量,才能有充分的条件同苏联和其他人民民主国家在一起,无论在和平的竞赛中或者在敌人所发动的侵略战争中,战胜帝国主义国家。

现在还很难确切地估计,需要多长时间,才能使我们的科学赶上世界先进水平。但是我们现在就必须提出这样一个任务,就是要在第三个五年计划期末,使我国最急需的科学部门接近世界先进水平,使外国的最新成就,经过我们自己的努力很快地就可以达到。有了这个基础,我们就可以进一步解决赶上世界水平的问题。

为了完成这个伟大的任务,我们必须首先打破那种缺乏民族自信心的依赖思想。“中国在科学方面的落后反正不能马上改变,反正需要靠苏联的援助。”不错,我们需要靠苏联的援助来改变我们的落后。但是我们应该用什么办法来利用这种援助呢?一种办法是没有全面规划,头痛医头,脚痛医脚,碰到什么问题就去请教苏联。派到苏联去学习的,不是科学家,而大部分是中学毕业生。其结果是一辈子不能脱离依赖和模仿的状态,是无限期地加重苏联科学界的负担,是妨害了我国科学的有计划的迅速的发展,也就是影响了整个社会主义阵营科学力量、经济力量、防卫力量增长的速度。另一种办法是作出全面规划,分清缓急本末,有系统地利用苏联科学的最新成果,尽可能迅速地赶上苏联水平。这就是说,除了紧迫任务请求苏联援助,并从苏联援助中学习技术以外,对于凡是我国科学上需要向苏联学习的部门,都应有计划地派出比较成熟的科学人才向苏联学习,或者请苏联专家来我国帮助我们建立科学研究的基础,务求最短期间可以在苏联已经达到的水平上,在国内展开继续研究和培养干部的工作。这样,就可以最有效最合理地利用苏联的援助,促进我国科学的有计划的发展,使两国科学事业有可能比较快地建立互相协作的关系,也就是促进了整个社会主义阵营科学力量、经济力量、防卫力量的增长。后一种办法是中苏两国科学家所多次建议的、也是我们所应该采取的唯一正确的办法。

为了有系统地提高我国科学水平,还必须打破近视的倾向,在理论工作和技术工作之间,在长远需要和目前需要之间,分配的力量应该保持适当的比例,并且形成正确的分工和合作,以免有所偏废。在过去几年中间,我国的各种工作都在开始,我们在目前需要和技术工作方面多投一些力量,而对于长远需要和理论工作方面注意得比较少,这是难免的,也是可以理解的。但是到了现在,如果我们还不及时地加强对于长远需要和理论工作的注意,那么,我们就要犯很大的错误。没有一定的理论科学的研究作基础,技术上就不可能有根本性质的进步和革新。但是理论力量的生长,总是要比技术力量的生长慢一些,而理论工作的效果一般也是间接的,不容易一下子就看出来。正因为这样,有许多同志现在还有一种近视的倾向,他们不肯在科学研究方面拿出必要的力量,并且经常要求科学家给他们解决比较简单的技术应用和生产操作方面的问题。当然,理论决不可以脱离实际,任何脱离实际的“理论研究”都是我们所必须反对的,但是目前的主要倾向,却是对于理论研究的忽视。这种情况不但表现在自然科学方面,同样地也表现在社会科学方面。目前我们在社会科学方面分配的力量,比在自然科学方面分配的力量,按照我们国家的需要说来,更加薄弱得不相称。例如中国科学院的学部委员,在自然科学方面是一百七十二个人,目前实际上能用大部分时间进行科学工作的有半数以上;在社会科学方面是五十一个人,目前实际上能用大部分时间进行科学研究工作的却只有几个人!

上述的这两种倾向是互为因果、互相结合的。我们必须彻底纠正这些不正确的倾向,改变这些不利于科学发展的状况。

国务院现在已经委托国家计划委员会负责,会同各有关部门,在三个月内制定从一九五六年到一九六七年科学发展的远景计划。在制定这个远景计划的时候,必须按照可能和需要,把世界科学的最先进的成就尽可能迅速地介绍到我国的科学部门、国防部门、生产部门和教育部门中来,把我国科学界所最短缺而又是国家建设所最急需的门类尽可能迅速地补足起来,使十二年后,我国这些门类的科学和技术水平可以接近苏联和其他世界大国。

什么是最迅速最有效地达到这个目的的道路呢?

这样的道路就是:第一,按照我们所最急需的门类,最迅速地派遣若干组专家、优秀的科学工作人员和优秀的大学毕业生到苏联和其他国家去作一年到两年的实习,或者当研究生,回国以后立即在科学院和政府各部分别建立发展这些科学和技术的基础,并且大量培养新的干部。同时,按照需要,每年陆续派人去实习和研究。第二,对于一部分学科,向苏联和其他有关的国家聘请若干组专家,请他们负责在最短期内帮助我们在科学院和有关各部门建立科学研究机构,培养干部,或者同我国科学界进行全面的合作。第三,有计划地组织大批科学工作人员和技术人员向现在在中国的苏联专家学习,把他们当作导师来利用,而不要当作普通工作人员来利用。在苏联援助我国建设的一百五十六项企业的建设和生产过程中,有系统地组织大批技术人员研究和掌握其中的新的技术原理,并且加以迅速的传授。第四,集中最优秀的科学力量和最优秀的大学毕业生到科学研究方面。用极大的力量来加强中国科学院,使它成为领导全国提高科学水平、培养新生力量的火车头。第五,各个高等学校中的科学力量,占全国科学力量的绝大部分,必须在全国科学发展计划的指导之下,大力发展科学研究工作,并且大量地培养合乎现代水平的科学和技术的新生力量。第六,政府各部,特别是地质、工业、农业、水利、运输、国防、卫生各部门,应该迅速地建立和加强必要的研究机构,同科学院进行合理的分工和合作,共同扩大科学界的队伍,并且负责把世界科学的最新成就,有计划地、有系统地介绍到实际应用中去,以便尽可能迅速地用世界最新的技术把我们国家的各方面装备起来。

为了认真地而不是空谈地向现代科学进军,我们必须抓紧时间。一年的时间是很容易在空谈和拖延不决中间浪费了的。因此,党中央要求:在今年四月底以前,必须确定科学发展的远景计划,适合于这个远景计划的今明两年的具体计划,以及为了实现这个远景计划和今明两年计划需要马上调集的第一批科学力量(包括需要派遣出国的科学人员的名单,需要聘请苏联专家的人数,需要由其他岗位调到科学研究岗位的人数和主要人员名单等),并且尽一切可能,争取在今年六月底以前实现派遣和调动的计划。关于在全国高等学校中扩大科学研究工作和扩大培养科学力量的计划,必须在今年暑假以后,就着手加以实现。

为了实现向科学进军的计划,我们必须为发展科学研究准备一切必要的条件。在这里,具有首要意义的是要使科学家得到必要的图书、档案资料、技术资料和其他工作条件。必须增加各个研究机关和高等学校的图书费,并加以合理的使用,加强图书馆、档案馆、博物馆的工作,极大地改善外国书刊的进口工作,并且使现有的书刊得到合理的分配。必须扩大外国语的教学,并且扩大外国重要书籍的翻译工作。

以上所说的原则,一般地也同样适用于文化教育的其他部门。一切文化教育部门都应该作出从一九五六到一九六七年的发展规划,并且采取最有效的措施加以实现。

我们的发展科学文化力量的计划,必须是一个既提高而又扩大的计划,因为不但我们的国家是一个大国,必须有一定的数量才能适应各方面的需要,而且质量一般地也只能在一定的数量的基础上产生。

为了扩大我国的科学文化力量,首先必须按计划增加高等学校学生的名额,还必须注意培养现有的一般知识分子,不断地提高他们的业务水平。他们不但是高级知识分子极为重要的后备军和合作者,而且如前所说,在数量上比高级知识分子多得多;他们分布在全国各地区和各个工作部门中,对于国家建设担负着巨大的责任。中央各个部门和各省市必须分别定出专门的计划,帮助他们的进修,使他们的业务能力得到迅速的增长,并且把他们中间的优秀分子提拔到高级知识分子的队伍中去。

我们党正在胜利地解决着农业合作化和手工业合作化的问题,并且正在胜利地解决着资本主义工商业改造的问题。全党和全国劳动人民,正在为着提前和超额完成五年计划而努力。全国人民充满着胜利的信心和斗争的积极性。随着汹涌澎湃的社会主义经济建设的高潮而来的,将要出现一个文化建设的高潮,在这个时候,我们把关于知识分子的一系列问题加以全面的解决,这对于我们的社会主义改造事业和社会主义建设事业,无疑是非常必要的。

在我们所提出的关于知识分子问题的任务中,不能说没有一些困难。但是这些困难不会比我们改造五亿农民和改造全国资本主义工商业者更加困难,不会比我们实现第一个五年计划更加困难。我们党在过去六年中,在领导知识分子和领导科学文化事业方面,已经得到了巨大的成就。现在我们是比过去更有经验更有办法了,在过去的经验的基础上,我们党一定能够领导知识分子在科学文化事业中取得新的更大的胜利。那种认为党不能够领导知识分子进行科学文化建设的想法,是毫无根据的。

问题是在善于学习。无论中央各部门或各地区都必须学会更好地领导知识分子和领导科学文化事业。我们不应该设想,既然我们是共产党员,我们就天然地会领导知识分子进行文化建设,我们就天然地不会犯错误。这是一种很危险的想法。而在有些地方,我们有一些同志正是因为抱着这种狂妄的态度,使党的工作遭到了损失。我们对待任何问题,都必须坚持“知之为知之,不知为不知”的老实态度,不懂决不要装懂,但是必须由不懂变为懂。我们党必须培养出一大批精通科学和文化各部门知识的干部。只要我们认真地钻进去,我们就一定可以学会。

在报告里提到的各项任务,许多是需要由中央统一解决的。关于这些问题,我们提议作如下的分工:

关于对待知识分子的各种行政性质的问题,因为需要作一些统一的规定和管理,国务院准备设一个中国专家局来负责处理。但是在这个机构成立以前,各有关部门就应该根据中央的指示,立即着手解决知识分子方面的各项问题。在这个机构成立以后,各个部门也不能减轻他们所应负的直接处理的责任,因为专家局一般地只负责解决那些不便于由一个部门单独处理的问题。专家局在关于高级知识分子的各项行政性质的问题上,负有统一计划、统一调整、统一检查督促的责任。对于各部门在高级知识分子问题上处理不当的地方,专家局有权按照一定的程序加以纠正。

关于对待知识分子的各种政治性质的问题,关于在知识分子中继续进行思想改造和处理有关反革命分子的问题,也由各个有关部门直接负责,而由中央宣传部负责进行统一的监督。中央宣传部应该经常检查各部门各地区执行中央关于知识分子政策的状况,检查他们的工作计划和执行计划的状况,克服他们的工作中的缺点,传播他们的工作中的先进经验,并且及时地向中央提出问题和建议。

在知识分子中吸收党员的工作由中央组织部负责。知识分子中的民主党派工作由中央统一战线工作部负责。知识分子中的工会工作由全国总工会负责。但是在解决这些工作中的重要问题的时候,应该同中央宣传部联系。

为了加强领导,处理和检查有关知识分子的问题,各级党委和各个部门都应该分别指定适当的机构担负经常的责任,并且要定期地召集一些专门的会议,经常地交流经验,不断地争取工作状况的改善。

同志们:我们相信,经过我们的工作,知识分子将更进一步地团结在党的周围,并且在伟大的社会主义事业中更积极地贡献他们的力量。全国工人、农民、知识分子在社会主义事业中所形成的联盟,将随着我们的工作的发展,而一天比一天更巩固,更强大。依靠这个联盟,我们一定可以在不很长的时间内,把我们的国家建设成为一个完全现代化的、富强的社会主义工业大国,一定可以在不很长的时间内,实现毛泽东同志的伟大号召–“我们将以一个具有高度文化的民族出现于世界”。

* 这是周恩来在中共中央召开的关于知识分子问题会议上的报告。

根据《周恩来选集》下卷刊印

注 释

〔1〕 一九五五年胡风等人被错定为“胡风反革命集团”。一九八0年九月二十九日,中共中央在批转公安部、最高人民检察院、最高人民法院党组关于“胡风反革命集团”案件的复查报告的通知中,宣布为“胡风反革命集团”平反。通知说:“‘胡风反革命集团’一案,是在当时的历史条件下,混淆了两尝不同性质的矛盾,将有错误言论、宗派活动的一些同志定为反革命分子、反革命集团的一件错案。中央决定,予以平反。凡定为胡风反革命分子的,一律改正,恢复名誉,从平反之日起恢复原工资待遇,本人历史上有其他问题的,是什么问题按什么问题作结论,并由原单位妥善做好对他们的安置工作。凡经过法律程序判决的,建议由原经办的法院撤销原判。凡因‘胡风问题’受到株连的,要彻底纠正。”

One thought on “Report concerning the Issue of Intellectuals

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    January 26, 2013 at 10:45 am

    […] Report concerning the Issue of Intellectuals (1956) […]

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