Instruction concerning Transmitting the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference

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16 March 1957

All provincial (municipal) Committees and autonomous region Party Committees, the Liberation General Political Department, the Party Committees directly under the Central Committee and the Party Committees of State organs:

The Centre convened the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference from 6 until 13 March 1957. This conference attracted the participation of about 160 science, education, literature, art, news, publishing and other cultural personalities from outside the Party (comprising about one fifth of the total number of participants). The Conference first and foremost listened to a recording of the report “Correctly Dealing with the Issue of Contradictions among the People” that Comrade Mao Zedong made at the Supreme State Conference. During the period of the conference, Comrade Mao Zedong organized six discussion sessions with several dozen representatives from inside and outside of the Party in the areas of propaganda, education, literature and art, press and publications, higher education and science, and gave a speech himself at the plenary session.

The victory in the democratic revolution and the Socialist revolution, and the victory of the undertaking of Socialist construction have caused great changes in the social essence and social appearance of our country. Millions of people have entered the reality of Socialism, which will inevitably trigger reaction in people’s ideologies. Now the large scale popular movement of class struggle has concluded, contradictions among the people begin to be revealed. Our country has about five million intellectuals, they work in education, literature, art, science, technology, news, publishing and other undertakings and in Party, government and military organs, they are a very important part of the people, they are the people educating the people, without them, it will be impossible to build Socialism. They can be divided into three parts: an extremely small number opposes Socialism, the reason why they oppose Socialism is because they are under the deep influence of the exploiting class; there is a small number of people (about ten per cent), both inside and outside of the Party, who do not only vigorously praise the Socialist system, but have also grasped the Communist worldview, they are Marxists, and are advanced personalities; the largest part, more than eighty per cent, are willing to accept the Socialist system, but their worldview is not yet completely Marxist. Among this above part of more than eighty per cent of the intellectuals, some are idealists, and oppose the Marxist worldview; some have a doubting attitude vis-a-vis the Marxist worldview; many know something about Marxism, and would like to study Marxism, but they are only willing to study Marxism-Leninism on a voluntary basis, and with the good-willed help of others, but they feel antipathy towards using rude attitudes to force study. This sort of situation of intellectuals will exist for a long time. All sorts of different intellectuals display different viewpoints, this is a very natural thing.

At a time where class struggle has basically concluded, the Party put forward the policy of “letting a hundred flowers bloom, and a hundred schools contend”. The objective of this policy is to use the method of persuasion, and use the method of free argumentation, and not to use rude methods, to conduct long-term, patient and meticulous Marxist propaganda towards intellectuals, stimulate our country’s literature, art and science to rapidly flourish under the guidance of Marxism. The Party understands that a strict difference must be made between the two sorts of different contradictions, the issue of the enemy and ourselves, and the issue of right and wrong. Contradictions among the people, and especially ideological issues, can only be based on “starting from the desire for unity, undergoing criticism or struggle, in order to reach unity on a new basis”. We must adopt correct methods to help intellectuals to study Marxism, and approach the working and peasant masses. We must ensure that within a long period (for example, fifteen years), more intellectuals in the entire country (for example, one third) are able to comprehend and grasp Marxism through learning and practice, and through engagement with working and peasant masses.

Now, in the relationship between the Party and intellectuals, some irregular attitudes exist. This cause for this sort of irregular attitudes is that two sorts of anti-Marxist-Leninist thinking exist within the Party, which are dogmaticism and right opportunism. Dogmaticism uses rude and not persuasive methods, it uses rebukes and not reasonable methods, it uses coercive and not voluntary methods, in treating intellectuals, in treating ideological issues and in treating issues of studying Marxism. Dogmatist comrades confirm all about our work in the past, they only look at achievements, and do not see flaws, they are proud and arrogant, fear criticism, are not enthusiastic about reasoning, and require the adoption of simple coercive methods towards different opinions. Many comrades in fact do not approve of or do not completely approve of “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend” and the policy of “long-term coexistence and mutual supervision” of the democratic parties. Right opportunists deny all of our past work, they only see flaws and do not see achievements, thereby, they lose confidence, and describe the magnificent undertaking of the revolution and of construction as black all over. Right opportunists in fact are yes-men of the bourgeoisie. These two sorts of mistaken thinking and these two sorts of one-sided visions must be opposed inside and outside of the Party, and we must persist in the policies of “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend” and “long-term coexistence and mutual supervision”.

One important experience from this Propaganda Work Conference is holding meetings with Party members and personalities from outside the Party together, this not only has benefits for the close unity of Party members with non-Party members, but also is beneficial to understanding the situation, hearing opinions, discussing and researching issues, implementing the Party principles and policies.

The Central Committee believes that this Conference has an important significance towards ideological work in the future, all localities must organize deep transmission and discussion. All provinces (municipalities) should equally convene propaganda work conferences, and attract the participation of personalities from education, literature, art, science, technology, news and publishing circles from outside the Party, just like this Propaganda Work Conference convened by the Central Committee, the meetings are to last about a week. Apart from issues derived from this Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference, newly emerging issues in propaganda work should be continuously collected and discussed. Furthermore, democracy shall be fully carried forward, and it is especially necessary to let personalities from outside the Party speak their heart’s content. The Centre believes that all provincial (municipal)Party Committee First Secretaries must lead ideological work themselves, and guide the conferences. This sort of propaganda work conference with joint participation from inside and outside of the Party, is to be organized once or twice every year at the Centre, in the provinces and in the municipalities. All provinces (municipalities) should attract as many country (city) Party Committee secretaries to listen to the transmitted report of the speech of Comrade Mao Zedong.

Central Committee

16 March 1957

中共中央关于传达全国宣传工作会议的指示

(一九五七年三月十六日)
各省(市)委、自治区党委、解放军总政治部、中直党委、国家机关党委:

中央在一九五七年三月六日至十三日召开了全国宣传工作会议。这次会议吸收了党外科学、教育、文学、艺术、新闻、出版等文化人士约一百六十人参加(占全体参加人数的五分之一)。会议首先听取了毛泽东同志在最高国务会议扩大会议上所作的“正确处理人民内部矛盾问题”的报告录音。在会议期间,毛泽东同志分别和宣传、教育、文艺、新闻出版、高等学校、科学等方面的几十位党内外代表人物举行了六次座谈,并亲自向大会作了讲话。

民主主义革命和社会主义革命的胜利,社会主义建设事业的胜利,使我国的社会性质和社会面貌发生大变动。几万万人口进入社会主义这件事实,必然会在人们的思想意识中引起反映。现在,大规模的群众行动的阶级斗争已经结束,人民内部的矛盾开始表露出来。我国有大约五百万知识分子,他们在教育、文艺、科学、技术、新闻、出版等事业中和党、政、军的机关中工作,他们是人民之中很重要的一部分人,是教育人民的人,离开了他们就不能建设社会主义。他们可以分为三个部分:极少数是反对社会主义的,他们之所以反对社会主义,是因为他们受剥削阶级的影响甚深;有少数人(大约百分之十左右),包括党内党外,是不但很积极地赞成社会主义制度,而且掌握了共产主义的世界观,他们是马克思主义者,是先进人物;最大部分的人,即百分之八十以上,是愿意接受社会主义的制度,但是他们的世界观还不完全是马克思主义的。在上述的百分之八十以上的这部分的知识分子中,有的是唯心主义者,是反对马克思主义的世界观的;有的是对马克思主义的世界观抱着怀疑态度的;有很多是略为知道些马克思主义,也想学习马克思主义,但是他们只愿意在自愿的基础上,在别人善意的帮助之下学习马克思列宁主义,而对于用粗暴态度强制学习则抱有反感。知识分子的这种情况,将会长期存在。各种不同的知识分子,表露自己不同的观点,是很自然的事情。

在阶级斗争已经基本结束的时候,党中央提出了“百花齐放,百家争鸣”的政策。这个政策的目的,是用说服的方法,用自由辩论的方法,而不是用粗暴的方法,向知识分子进行长期的、耐心的、细致的马克思主义的宣传,促进我国的科学文艺在马克思主义的指导下迅速地繁荣起来。党认识到,必须把在敌我问题上和是非问题上两种不同的矛盾加以严格的区别。人民内部的矛盾,特别是思想上的问题,只能根据“从团结的愿望出发,经过批评或斗争,以便在新的基础上达到团结”的原则。我们必须采取正确的方法,帮助知识分子学习马克思主义,和接近工农群众。我们要做到在一个长时期(比如说十五年)内,使全国的知识分子,从学习和实践中,从同工农群众的接触中,有更多的人(比如说三分之一)能够领会和掌握马克思主义。

现在,党与知识分子的关系中,存在着一些不正常的状态。这种不正常状态的原因,是党内存在着两种反马克思列宁主义的思想,就是教条主义和右倾机会主义。教条主义,用粗暴的而不是说服的办法,用斥责而不是说理的办法,用强迫而不是自愿的办法,来对待知识分子,对待思想问题,对待学习马克思主义的问题。有教条主义思想的同志,他们对于我们过去的工作肯定一切,只看到成绩,没有看到缺点,骄傲自满,害怕批评,懒于说理,对于不同的意见,要求采取简单的压服的办法。很多的同志实际上不赞成或不完全赞成“百花齐放,百家争鸣”和各民主党派“长期共存,互相监督”的政策。右倾机会主义,则对于我们过去的工作否定一切,只看到缺点,没有看到成绩,因而丧失信心,把伟大的革命和建设事业描写为漆黑一团。右倾机会主义者实际上做了资产阶级的应声虫。必须在党内党外,反对这两种错误思想,反对这两种片面性,坚持“百花齐放,百家争鸣”和“长期共存,互相监督”的政策。

这次宣传工作会议的一个重要经验,是党员和党外人士一起开会,这不但对于密切党员与非党员的团结有好处,对于了解情况,听取意见,讨论和研究问题,贯彻党的方针、政策,也是很有好处的。

中央认为这次会议对今后的思想工作有极重要的意义,各地必须组织深入的传达和讨论。各省(市)应该同样召开宣传工作会议,并且像中央召开的这次宣传工作会议一样,吸收党外的教育、文艺、科学、技术、新闻、出版界人士参加,开会时间一周左右即可。此次全国宣传工作会议上,各方提出的问题有一百数十条之多,这些问题,都由到会的人带回各地,以便继续讨论。你们的宣传工作会议,除了继续讨论全国宣传工作会议中提出的问题以外,还应继续收集和讨论新提出来的宣传工作中的问题。并且应当充分发扬民主,特别要让党外人士讲出内心的话。中央认为,各省(市)委的第一书记必须亲自领导思想工作,并指导会议的进行。这种党内党外一起参加的宣传工作会议,今后每年在中央和省市均应举行一次或两次。各省(市)应该尽量吸收地县(市)委书记听取关于毛泽东同志讲话的传达报告。

中 央

一九五七年三月十六日

 

One thought on “Instruction concerning Transmitting the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    May 11, 2013 at 10:59 am

    […] Instruction concerning Transmitting the Nationwide Propaganda Work Conference (1957) […]

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