CCP Central Committee Instructions concerning the Rectification Movement

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27 April 1957

(1)

The first rectification movement that our Party started in 1942 has gained major, revolutionary and victorious results. Now, our country has entered from a period of revolution into a period of Socialist construction, and is therefore undergoing new, intense and magnificent change. Social relationships have fundamentally changed, the people’s ideas are also changing in their wake. Our Party and the working class must be able to further and even better leading all of society in transformation and the construction of a new society, they must be able to even better muster all positive forces, unite all people that can be united, and transform negative forces into positive forces, in their struggle for the objective of constructing a magnificent Socialist country, they must at the same time transform themselves. However, there are many comrades inside the Party who do not understand or do not greatly understand these kinds of new circumstances and the Party’s new tasks. At the same time, because the Party has established its governing position nationwide, and has gained the support of the broad masses, many comrades easily adopt methods of simple administrative orders to deal with problem, and there are some elements whose standpoints are not firm who easily are infected by the vestiges of the old society and the Guomindang work style, have shaped a sort of privileged thinking, and even use methods of attack and suppression in dealing with the masses. Since a few years, in our Party, there has been a new growth of bureaucratism, factionalism and subjectivism that result in separation from the masses and separation from reality. Because of this, the Centre believes it is necessary to, according to the principles of “starting from the hope of unity, through criticism and self-criticism, achieving a new unity on a new basis”, again conduct a universal and profound rectification movement against bureaucratism, against factionalism and against subjectivism in the entire Party, raise the entire Party’s levels of Marxist thinking and improve work styles, in order to adapt to the demands of Socialist transformation and Socialist construction.

(2)

This rectification movement shall take the two reports that Chairman Mao, representing the Centre, made at the Supreme State Conference of February of this year and the Propaganda Conference convened in March of this year, and make correctly dealing with the problem of contradictions among the people into the main theme of the present rectification. These two reports by Comrade Mao Zedong have been circulated among the broad cadres and intellectuals, in the future, it is also necessary to circulate them to the whole body of Party members and the popular masses. The circulation of these two reports has attracted enthusiastic discussion inside and outside of the Party, where our Party is concerned, in fact, this is the beginning of the rectification movement. All levels’ Party Committees must organize study sessions concerning these two reports, and summarized and improve work in their localities, departments and work units according to the basic thinking in these two reports, and with reference to a number of other documents. In these study sessions, the most important matter for leading bodies and cadres at all levels is that they must inspect and deal with the problem of contradictions among the people, inspect the implementation situation of Party policies such as “letting a hundred flowers bloom, letting a hundred schools of thought content, long-term coexistence and mutual supervision” and the implementation situation of the policy of “building up the country through thrift and hard work”, inspect those phenomena of bureaucratism of becoming removed from the working masses, the peasant masses, the soldier masses, the student and intellectual masses, inspect the factionalist phenomena of not starting from uniting 600 million people, not starting from uniting all peoples, all ethnicities, all parties and the broad masses outside of the Party, and not starting from uniting the entire Party, inspect those subjectivist tendencies of not starting from the real situation, but truly implement the Centre’s instructions concerning “correctly handling contradictions among the people”. With regard to common Party members, the main matters that they must understand are: serving the people; consulting matters with the people of problems occur, being the first to suffer hardship, being the last to enjoy gains; implementing criticism and self-criticism. Concerning intellectual Party members, apart from the above-mentioned requirements, we must also stress to demand of them that they link up with the worker and peasant messes, distinguish the proletariat standpoint from the capitalist and bourgeois standpoint, overcome individualist and liberalist tendencies, and strengthen their Party spirit. In order to overcome the subjectivity and bias in thinking methods, leading cadres and intellectual Party members must also conduct study of dialectical materialism for an appropriate period in the near future, plans concerning study in this area will be provided separately.

(3)

This rectification movement shall be an ideological education movement that is serious and conscientious as well as gentle and mild, and shall be a movement of apt criticism and self-criticism. Meetings should only be limited to forums and small group meetings with few attendants, and more methods of heart-to-heart talks between comrades should be adopted, that is to say individual conversations, it is not necessary to hold large criticism meetings or large struggle meetings. Forums and small group meetings, when engaging in criticism, or when engaging in individual conversations, criticism should be given a free hand and encouraged, firmly implement the principle of “say all you know, speak without reserve; don’t blame the speaker, take warning from words; if there is a problem, change it, if there is no problem, make greater efforts”, one should not approve everything of their own, and reject other persons’ criticism. Every person should humbly listen to the opinions of other persons, vigorously put forward opinions to other persons, but they may not coerce the person being criticized to accept criticism he does not agree with. Concerning some debates involving matters of principle, a necessary conclusion should be reached where possible, but it must be tolerated that different opinions are maintained. Concerning people where it is found, during the rectification movement, that they have made mistakes, regardless of how large the mistake is, apart from grave matters violating laws and upsetting discipline, no organizational punishment shall be given without exception, but positive and patient assistance must be given. In this way, the objectives of “learning from past mistakes to avoid future ones and healing the disease and saving the patient” are to be achieved.

Non-Party members who wish to participate in the rectification movement should be welcomed. But this must be completely voluntary, coercion is not permitted, furthermore, they must be permitted to leave freely at any time.

(4)

In order to strengthen the links between the Party and the broad working people, and thoroughly changing the phenomenon that many leading personnel have become removed from the masses, at the same time as conducting the rectification movement, we shall also propose rules that all able-bodied levels’ main leading cadres in the Party, the government and the military participate in physical labour together with the workers and peasants for a period of time, and ensure that these rules are progressively reshaped into a kind of long-lasting structure. Our Party’s leading cadres have shared joy and sorrow together with the worker, peasant and soldier masses for a long time, this sort work style of close relationships with the masses is one of the fundamental factors ensuring the victory in the Chinese revolution. However, in the past few years, many comrades have stepped backward in this area. At present, the Party’s task, apart from conducting work style rectification and study, raising the Party’s internal ideological understanding, rectifying flaws and mistakes in work, is also to is to completely uphold and carry forward the excellent traditions of arduous struggle of our party in real life, and to strive to further establish a basic system in which the mental labour and physical labour of Party and State leading workers are integrated, ensuring that leaders are on the same page with the masses, ensure that relationships among the people are completely renewed, and ensuring that bureaucratism, factionalism, subjectivism and old-timer manners are greatly reduced. The way to integrate Party and State leading workers’ mental labour and physical labour shall start shall be to start with a small amount of people within the Party. It is fine even if there only is a small bit of this sort of physical labour. When experiences are gained, and appropriate steps are taken, this will be rolled out in a planned and progressive manner to all Party, government and military leading work personnel who are able to engage in a certain amount of physical labour and main management personnel in economic and cultural organizations. Some concrete rules need to be provided concerning these issues, the Centre will provide special instructions separately.

(5)

This rectification should begin first in county-level and higher or regiment-level or higher Party organizations as well as Party organizations in factories, mines and higher education institutes, it should also start with inspecting the ideology and work style of leading cadres.

When conducting this rectification, all work units shall organize leading small groups. The first secretaries of Party Committees must take responsibility themselves and closely grasp leadership. The rectification plan shall implement the principle of neither neglecting work styles and work, and must integrate the rectification movement with improvement in work, integrate it with the concrete resolution of contradictions among the people, prevent rectification behind closed door and impairment to work. Rules for the organizational leadership and concrete work plans for this rectification will be provided and implemented by the Centre’s directly subordinate Party Committee, the Party Committee in Centre and State bodies, the General Political Department and all provincial (municipal) committees, and autonomous region Party Committees, and it is hoped that this sort of concrete plans can be reported to the Centre within two weeks of receiving these instructions.

 

中国共产党中央委员会关于整风运动的指示

(一九五七年四月二十七日)
(一)

我们的党一九四二年开始的第一次整风运动,取得了伟大革命胜利的结果。现在,我们的国家已经从革命的时期进入了社会主义建设的时期,正处在一个新的剧烈的伟大的变革中。社会的关系根本变化了,人们的思想意识也在随着变化。我们的党和工人阶级要能够进一步地更好地领导全社会的改造和新社会的建设,要能够更好地调动一切积极力量,团结一切可能团结的人,并且将消极力量转化为积极力量,为着建设一个伟大的社会主义国家的目标而奋斗,必需同时改造自己。但是,党内有许多同志,并不了解或者不很了解这种新情况和党的新任务。同时,又因为党已经在全国范围内处在执政的地位,得到了广大群众的拥护,有许多同志就容易采取单纯的行政命令的办法去处理问题,而有一部分立场不坚定的分子,就容易沾染旧社会国民党作风的残余,形成一种特权思想,甚至用打击压迫的方法对待群众。几年以来,在我们党内,脱离群众和脱离实际的官僚主义、宗派主义和主观主义,有了新的滋长。因此,中央认为有必要按照“从团结的愿望出发,经过批评和自我批评,在新的基础上达到新的团结”的方针,在全党重新进行一次普遍的、深入的反官僚主义、反宗派主义、反主观主义的整风运动,提高全党的马克思主义的思想水平,改进作风,以适应社会主义改造和社会主义建设的需要。

(二)

这次整风运动应当以毛泽东同志今年二月在扩大的最高国务会议上和三月在中央召开的宣传会议上代表中央所作的两个报告为思想的指导,把正确处理人民内部矛盾的问题作为当前整风的主题。毛泽东同志的这两个报告已经在广大的干部和知识分子中传达,以后还要继续在全体党员和人民群众中传达。这两个报告的传达引起了党内党外的热烈讨论,就我们党来说,实际上,这就是整风运动的开始。各级党委必须组织关于这两个报告的学习,按照这两个报告的基本思想,并参考一些其他有关的文件,总结和改进本地区、本部门、本单位的工作。在学习中,对于各级领导机关和干部,主要的是要检查处理人民内部矛盾问题的情况,检查对于党的“百花齐放、百家争鸣、长期共存、互相监督”方针和“勤俭建国”方针的执行情况,检查那些脱离工人群众、农民群众、士兵群众、学生和知识分子群众的官僚主义现象,检查那些不从团结六亿人民出发、不从团结各民族各党派和广大的党外群众出发、不从团结全党出发的宗派主义现象,检查那些不从实际情况出发的主观主义现象,而真正地贯彻执行中央关于“正确地处理人民内部矛盾问题”的指示。对于一般党员,主要的是要求他们懂得:为人民服务;有事和群众商量;吃苦在前,得利在后;实行批评和自我批评。对于知识分子党员,除了上述各项要求以外,还要着重要求他们联系工农群众,分清无产阶级立场和资产阶级、小资产阶级立场,克服个人主义和自由主义倾向,加强党性。为了克服思想方法上的主观性和片面性,领导干部和知识分子党员还必须在今后的适当时期进行唯物辩证法的学习,关于这一方面学习的计划,将来另行规定。

(三)

这次整风运动,应该是一次既严肃认真又和风细雨的思想教育运动,应该是一个恰如其分的批评和自我批评的运动。开会应该只限于人数不多的座谈会和小组会,应该多采用同志间谈心的方式,即个别地交谈,而不要开批评大会,或者斗争大会。不论在座谈会、小组会上,进行批评的时候,或者个别交谈的时候,都应该放手鼓励批评,坚决实行“知无不言,言无不尽;言者无罪,闻者足戒;有则改之,无则加勉”的原则,不应该肯定自己的一切,拒绝别人的批评。同时,对于批评者要提倡实事求是,具体分析,以免抹杀别人的一切,使批评变成片面的过火的批评。每个人都应该虚心地听取别人的意见,积极地向别人提意见,但是不得强迫被批评者接受他所不同意的批评。对于一些带原则性的争论,可能的时候应该作出必要的结论,但是必须容许保留不同的意见。对于在整风运动中检查出来犯了错误的人,不论错误大小,除严重违法乱纪者外,一概不给以组织上的处分,并且要给以积极的、耐心的帮助,这样来达到“惩前毖后、治病救人”的目的。

非党员愿意参加整风运动,应该欢迎。但是必须完全出于自愿,不得强迫,并且允许随时自由退出。

(四)

为了加强党同广大劳动人民的联系,彻底改变许多领导人员脱离群众的现象,在进行整风运动的同时,应该在全党提倡各级党政军有劳动力的主要领导人员以一部分时间同工人农民一起参加体力劳动的办法,并且使这个办法逐步地形成为一种永久的制度。我们党的领导干部在历史上长时期是同工农兵群众同甘共苦的,这种密切联系群众的优良作风是保证中国革命胜利的基本因素之一。但是近几年来,有许多同志在这一方面是退步了。目前党的任务,除了进行整风学习,提高党内思想认识、改正工作中的缺点错误以外,还要在实际生活中完全保持和发扬我们党的艰苦奋斗的优良传统,并且着手进一步建立党和国家的领导工作人员的脑力劳动和体力劳动相结合的根本制度,使领导者同群众打成一片,使人民内部的关系面貌一新,使官僚主义、宗派主义、主观主义、老爷架子,大大减少。党和国家的领导工作人员的脑力劳动和体力劳动相结合的办法,应该先从党内的少数人员作起。这种体力劳动,哪怕很少一点也是好的。待取得经验之后,经过适当步骤,再有计划地逐步地普及到凡能多少从事劳动的党政军领导工作人员和经济、文化组织中的主要管理人员。关于这个问题,需要规定一些具体办法,中央将另作专门指示。

(五)

这次整风运动,应该首先从县级以上、军队团级以上的党的组织以及大的厂矿和大专学校的党的组织开始,并且应该首先从检查领导干部的思想作风开始。各省委、市委、自治区党委可以同时选择若干基层党委进行整风学习,以便取得典型经验,逐步推广。

在进行整风运动的时候,各单位应该组织领导小组。党委的第一书记必须亲自负责,抓紧领导。整风计划应该贯彻整风和工作两不误的原则,并且必须使整风运动的进行同工作的改进结合起来,同人民内部矛盾的具体解决结合起来,防止关门整风,妨害工作。整风的组织领导办法和具体工作计划,由中央直属党委、中央国家机关党委、总政治部和各省(市)委、自治区党委自己规定实行,并且希望于收到本指示以后两星期内能够将这种具体计划报告中央。

One thought on “CCP Central Committee Instructions concerning the Rectification Movement

    Latest Updates « China Copyright and Media said:
    February 21, 2015 at 8:53 am

    […] CCP Central Committee Instructions concerning the Rectification Movement (Central Committee, April 1957) […]

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