Central Propaganda Department Report concerning Work Style Rectification in the Nationwide Cultural Circles and All Associations

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(8 May 1964)

Central Committee:

On 3 February of this year, the China Playwright Association organized an “Evening to Welcome the Spring” in the Consultative Conference auditorium, more than 2.000 drama workers from Beijing and other places attended. Although the evening contained some experience exchange and other beneficial activities, the most important was eat, drink, plays and music, a number of performance programmes were vulgar and low-level, and in poor taste. This matter did not occur very long after transmitting the Chairman’s instructions concerning literary and art work of 12 December last year and the speeches concerning literature and art of comrades Shaoqi, Xiaoping and Peng Zhen on 3 January this year, the nature of the mistake is therefore even more grave. Afterwards, the masses were extremely dissatisfied, and wrote to put forward opinions. Comrade Lu Dingyi conducted severe criticism against this, and put forward that a number of the people in the Association had become corrupt; all Association workers should be transferred downwards by turns to exercise and strengthen political study. Apart from immediately transmitting this to the Playwright Association Party Group and ordering them to inspect matters, we have convened Party Group members, general branch and branch secretaries for the Federation of Cultural Circles and all Associations, more than fifty in total, at the end of March, had three successive meetings and discussed matters. At the meetings, everyone consistently agreed with Comrade Lu Dingyi’s criticism, believing that the occurrence of this matter is not accidental, but is a reflection of the present class struggle in literary and artistic teams, and is the exposure of bourgeois ideologies and work styles among the Association leadership. Many comrades believe that the problems of this “Evening to Welcome the Spring” and the matters that have been exposed by it, also exist to different degrees in other associations. Because of this, everyone feels that it is necessary to conduct a one-time rectification of work styles and study among the cultural circles and all associations, to draw lessons and ensure bad things are changed into good things.

Those participation in the work style reform, are the whole body of cadres from ten work units: the Nationwide Federation of Cultural Circles, the Writers’ Association, the Playwrights’ Association, the Musicians’ Association, the Fine Artists’ Association, the Film Workers’ Association, the Quyi Workers’ Association, the Dance Workers Association, the Folk Literature and Art Research Association and the Photographic Association. Because this work style rectification has this “Evening to Welcome the Spring” as a negative example, and has the instructions of the Centre and the Chairman concerning literature and art work as weapons, and moreover, there is a widespread feeling in every work unit from studying Daqing and studying the Liberation Army that the difference still is very large, and because of the requirement of revolution, the gains have been relatively large. In a relatively concentrated time of 20 days, through mobilization within the Party, arousing the masses, and promoting democracy, the problems that have existed for many years in work and within organs have been exposed, and opinions to improve work aimed at these problems have been put forward. The Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations’ leading cadres have also done a self-criticism. Many comrades say that this work style rectification has truly “opened mouths, moved hearts, and has become ever more animated.” Through work style rectification, a new atmosphere has emerged in the Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations, organic work is also beginning to improve somewhat.

In this work style rectification, problems in two areas have been mainly investigated, one is the problem concerning implementing the Party’s literature and art line of serving workers, peasants and soldiers, and serving Socialism, another one is the problem of revolutionization. The focus has been put on inspecting leadership, raising leaders’ ideology, improving leaders’ work style, rectifying leading organs and strengthening the leading core. Hereby, the problems found out through the work style rectification and the measures to improve work in the future are reported as follows.

The main problems in implementing the Party’s literature and art orientation are:

I, The Party’s literature and art orientation has not been persistently implemented. There is a period, mainly before the 10th Plenum, in which the problems of a vague orientation and an unclear understanding of the circumstances of class struggle existed to different degrees in all work units. In the area of literature and art creation, writers and artists have not been vigorously organized to create works reflecting the Socialist era. Many works lack the spirit of the times, and cannot very well serve Socialist revolution and construction, they are also not suited to the economic basis of Socialism. The editorial departments of some associations’ periodicals lack enthusiasm concerning works reflecting the present real struggles, and publish very few of them; they have, nonetheless, published not a few things removed from the times, and that don’t have a lot of Socialism; they have even published a number of works that use the past to disparage the present, that air grievances and are anti-Socialist. The “Script” monthly did not publish the script “Seizing Power” that reflected rural class struggle, but enthusiastically published “Li Huiniang” and other ghost stories. The Music Publishing House published “200 Famous Foreign Songs” that propagate capitalist thoughts and feelings, and distributed 70.000 copies, which had a bad influence on the broad youth and students.

Second, in the area of literature and art theory and criticism, banners were not clear, militancy was not strong, what should be encouraged was not encouraged, what should be opposed was not opposed. There was a lack of deep research and powerful propaganda of Mao Zedong Thought. There was insufficient discovery and affirmation of good works. Little criticism was raised against bourgeois ideology tendencies, and even mistaken theories were propagated. At one creative meeting, the Writers’ Association did not encourage writers to create advanced characters and images of our times, but advocated that more should be written about “middle characters who are neither good nor bad, in reality, these are doubts about heroic characters among the masses. The “Drama Daily” on one occasion praised ghost plays and dramas propagating feudal morals on a large scale. The Musicians’ Association and the Dance Workers’ Association did, for a long time, not conduct powerful criticism against tendencies in the music and dance world of separation from the masses and blind idolatry of the West.

III, In the area of literature and art teams, their progressive side is often seen, but their backward side is not sufficiently reckoned with; the necessity of writers and artists going deep into life and integrating with workers, peasants and the masses has been overlooked; the long-term nature of the ideological transformation of literature and art workers has been overlooked; and no great attention has been given to work to foster newly-emerging forces. In recent years, the linkage between literature and art workers, and workers, peasants and soldiers has weakened, bourgeois individualism and bourgeois literature and art ideology have somewhat grown. The requirements towards Party member writers and artists are not strict; of non-Party member writers and artists, attention has only been paid to unity, attention has been paid to life treatment, but no attention has been paid to educating and assisting them politically. All those linked up with associations are mainly some old famous people, there is little linkage with young writers; in periodicals, works of new talents are published little, and newly emerging forces mature very slowly. The Writers’ Association General Assembly members’ average age is more than 45, there are very few people between 30 and 40 years, and there are almost no people younger than 30.

The main problems existing in in the area of organic work are:

I, The Party groups in the Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations are not perfect, ideology is not revolutionized, there is a lack of the work style of proletarian struggle, and offices are yamenized. Some leading cadres neither earnestly study Marxism-Leninism and the Party’s principles and policies, and do not go into the masses to conduct training, investigation and research; they are both removed from worker and peasant masses, and removed from literature and art teams, and also removed from the cadres in their own organs; they both do not grasp creation and do not grasp comment; they are busying themselves all day, being sluggish, do not grasp the focus point, are satisfied with the present situation, their work has no vitality. Some associations’ leading cores have not united for a long time, and stir up some unprincipled disputes (for example the Folk Literature and Art Research Association). Between all associations’ Party group members, there is a lack of criticism and self-criticism, and a strong leading core has not been formed. The Party groups of the Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations have not given high regard to political and ideological work, and have done little research on problems in these areas, they are not good at grasping living thoughts and are not good at the work of conducting themselves. Party and Youth League working cadres generally are relatively weak, Party and Youth League organizations’ function as struggle fortresses has not been given great rein, organizational life is insufficiently regular, some branches have not held meetings for a long time. Within organs, the political atmosphere is diluted.

II, Among work personnel, bourgeois ideology work styles are correspondingly grave. Individualist thinking is relatively widespread and prominent, not  few people only think about doing their own creation for the whole day, pursue fame and seek gains, and only perform their work perfunctorily, they make do and that’s it. Their writing originally were not bad things, but they have started from pursuing individual fame and profit, have disregarded work, and do not care about managing their creations. There are a few members of the Party group in the Federation of Cultural Circles, who have not done work for years on end, but lived in the Western Hills and wrote things. Those below ape those below, causing many people to work uneasily, and wholeheartedly want to become a reputed authority by their writing. Some people are fussy about food, clothing and enjoyment for the whole day, a few people have corrupted lives. Organic discipline is slack, and there is freedom, carelessness and sloppiness. The phenomenon of coming to work late and leaving early is widespread, some people do not work well when they are at work, they drink tea, chat and muddle through the day. Even graver is that these unhealthy trends and evil practices are criticized little. Therefore, there are people who say: “Here, we also have ‘three sames’: it’s the same whether work is good or bad, it’s the same whether it is positive or negative, it’s the same whether tasks are completed or not completed.”

III, Some work units’ personnel is complex, and teams are impure. Some people are targets for patronage have been handed over by relevant departments that must be placed in a certain position, not a few persons’ historical situation is complex, there are also a number of people whose political background is unclear.

In short, the basic problems of all literature and art groups are that they have not implemented the Party’s literature and art line, teams are gravely impure, and leading cores are not perfect. Through inspection and discussion, everyone has raised understanding, felt that the problems are truly very  grave, and that painful decisions must be made to earnestly improve work, change work styles, clean up organizations, and perfect leadership. Measures are the following:

I, Further clarifying the literature and art orientation, implementing the Party’s literature and art policies, and forcefully developing Socialist literature and art. At present, the emphasis is on grasping modern drama, reportage literature, revolutionary songs and other creations, to rapidly reflect the present struggle; at the same time, powerful measures are adopted to organize and assist writers and artists to live deeply among the masses for a long time, strive to create works that summarize the times relatively deeply, and create model characters for the Socialist times. Compile literature and art materials that are adapted to rural needs, to launch rural touring exhibitions, summarize and exchange the experiences of drama troupes, quyi teams and literature and art workers going into the mountains and the villages, and serving the countryside. Forcefully foster young writers and artists, make fostering newly emerging forces into the key to construct Socialist literature and art.

II, Improving literature and art periodicals, strengthening the militancy of periodicals, ensuring that periodicals truly become the strong battlefields for developing Socialist literature and art, propagating the Party’s literature and art principles and policies, propagating Mao Zedong Thought on literature and art and fostering young creative teams. Vigorously organize and publish literature and art works reflecting the Socialist times, and especially works by young writers; launch discussion on all sorts of academic problems, strengthen comment and recommendation work concerning excellent works; at the same time, conduct powerful criticism of revisionist literature, art and ideology, and other bourgeois literature, art and ideology. Strengthen comment teams.

III, Party organization members of the Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations, professional backbones and all cadres, are to be rotated to the countryside in phases, to participate in labour, participate in grass-roots work, participate in rural Socialist education activities or participate in rural cultural work teams, in order to transform thoughts and strengthen the relationship with the masses, and conduct investigation and research of the cultural lives of the masses. All work units are to decide to immediately draw out one third to half of their cadres to go down to the countryside, and ensure that going down to the countryside becomes a regular system.

IV,  Organizing cadres to study Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. Study Chairman Mao’s works, achieve linkage with reality, combine learning with application. Some associations have already set up small study groups for the works of Chairman Mao. Some associations are preparing to organize that their leading cadres are given a short time of leave and are able to choose to study the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin as provided by the Centre. Party organization members must regularly and earnestly read and research Central documents and instructions.

V, Reorganizing leading organs, completing leadership cores. All Party organizations must be adjusted and substantiated, unsuitable members shall be removed from their positions. Strengthen organs’ political and ideological work. The Federation of Cultural Circles system  is to prepare for the establishment of branch Party Committees, to uniformly manage the Party work, ideological and political work of all associations. Prepare to transfer some cadres from the teams to substantiate the leading forces of the Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations. Promote a number of young and able cadres with good politics and work styles to go into leading organs. Clean up teams, progressively remove all unsuitable or idle personnel.

We believe that the Federation of Cultural Circles and all associations have done not a little work, and there are achievements; but the problems that exist are very grave. This work style adjustment relatively deeply investigates the afflictions and mistakes in work, ideology and work styles, it has had results, all measures that they have put forward are also good. But this is only the beginning of a transformation, for there to be deep change, it is still necessary to exert onerous efforts. Although we had some earlier sense of the problems existing in the Federation of Cultural Circles and all association, we have never adopted effective measures to resolve them. In the future, we must strengthen supervision and inspection of them, help them to earnestly improve work, and must ensure that the Federation of Cultural Circles and all association truly become revolutionary fighting work units, become the powerful assistants of the Party, and do not become troupes of freedom, carelessness and sloppiness.

Please provide instructions on the suitability of the above report.

Central Propaganda Department

8 May 1964

 

中共中央宣传部关于全国文联和各协会整风情况的报告

(一九六四年五月八日)

中央:

今年二月三日,中国戏剧家协会在政协礼堂举行“迎春晚会”,参加的有北京的和外地来的戏剧工作者约两千多人。晚会虽然有一些经验交流等有益的活动,但着重的是吃喝玩乐,部分演出节目庸俗低级,趣味恶劣。这件事发生在传达主席去年十二月十二日关于文艺工作的批示和今年一月三日少奇、小平、彭真同志关于文艺工作的讲话以后没有多久,错误性质就更为严重。事后群众非常不满,来信提出意见。陆定一同志对此进行了严厉的批评,指出剧协的一部分人已经腐败;所有各协会工作人员都应该轮流下放锻炼和加强政治学习。我们除立即向剧协党组作了传达并责成他们检查外,并于三月下旬召集文联和各协会党组成员、总支和支部书记五十多人,连续开了三次会,进行讨论。会上大家一致同意陆定一同志的批评,认为这件事的发生,不是偶然的,是当前阶级斗争在文艺队伍中的反映,是剧协领导资产阶级思想作风的暴露。许多同志认为,类似“迎春晚会”这种事和由此而暴露出来的问题,在其他协会中也程度不同地存在着。因此,大家感到有必要在文联和各协会全体干部中,进行一次整风学习,吸取教训,使坏事变为好事。

参加整风的,有全国文联、作家协会、戏剧家协会、音乐家协会、美术家协会、电影工作者协会、曲艺工作者协会、舞蹈工作者协会、民间文艺研究会和摄影学会等十个单位的全体干部。这次整风由于有“迎春晚会”这件事作为反面教材,又有中央和主席对文艺工作的指示作为武器,加以各单位在学习大庆和学习解放军中普遍感到差距很大,有革命的要求,因此收获较大。在二十多天比较集中的时间内,经过党内动员,发动群众,发扬民主,揭露了工作中和机关内多年来存在的问题,并且针对这些问题提出了改进工作的意见。文联和各协会领导干部也作了检查。许多同志说,这次整风真正是“开了口,动了心,越整越有精神”。经过整风,文联和各协会出现了一些新气象,机关工作开始有所好转。

这次整风,主要检查两方面的问题,一是关于贯彻执行党的文艺为工农兵、为社会主义服务的方向问题,一是机关的革命化问题。重点放在检查领导、提高领导思想、改进领导作风、整顿领导机构、健全领导核心。现将整风中检查出来的问题和今后改进工作的措施报告如下:

在贯彻执行党的文艺方向方面存在的主要问题是:

一、没有坚决贯彻执行党的文艺方向。有一个时期,主要是在十中全会以前,各单位都不同程度地存在着方向模糊、对阶级斗争形势认识不清的问题。在文艺创作方面,没有积极组织作家艺术家创作反映社会主义时代的作品。许多作品缺乏时代精神,不能很好地为社会主义革命和建设服务,同社会主义经济基础不相适应。有些协会的刊物编辑部,对反映当前现实斗争的作品缺乏热情,登得很少;却登了不少脱离时代、没有多少社会意义的东西;甚至还发表了一些借古讽今、发泄不满情绪的反社会主义的作品。《剧本》月刊不刊登反映农村阶级斗争的剧本《夺印》,却热心发表《李慧娘》等鬼戏。音乐出版社出版了宣扬资产阶级思想感情的《外国名歌二百首》,发行了七十多万册,在广大青年学生中造成很坏的影响。

二、在文艺理论批评方面,旗帜不鲜明,战斗性不强,应该鼓励的没有鼓励,应该反对的没有反对。对毛泽东文艺思想缺乏深入的研究和有力的宣传。对好作品发现和肯定得不够。对资产阶级思想倾向很少进行批评,甚至还宣扬了错误的理论。作家协会在一次创作会议上,不是鼓励作家创造我们时代的先进人物形象,反而提倡多写不好不坏的“中间人物”,实际上怀疑群众中英雄人物的存在。《戏剧报》一度对鬼戏和宣扬封建道德的戏曲大肆赞扬。音乐家协会和舞蹈工作者协会对音乐、舞蹈界脱离群众和盲目崇拜西洋的倾向,长期没有进行有力的批判。

三、在文艺队伍方面,较多地看到他们进步的一面,对他们落后的一面估计不足;忽视了作家艺术家深入生活、同工农群众相结合的必要性;忽视了文艺工作者思想改造的长期性;没有重视培养新生力量的工作。近年来文艺工作者同工农兵群众的联系削弱了,资产阶级个人主义和资产阶级文艺思想有所滋长。对党员作家艺术家要求不严格;对非党作家艺术家只注意了团结,注意了生活上的照顾,而不注意对他们政治上的教育和帮助。各协会经常联系的,主要是一些老的知名的人,对青年作者联系很少;刊物上很少发表新人的作品,新生力量成长很慢。作家协会总会会员的平均年龄在四十五岁以上,三十岁到四十岁的人很少,三十岁以下的人几乎没有。

在机关工作方面存在的主要问题是:

一、文联和各协会的党组不健全,思想不革命化,缺乏无产阶级的战斗作风,机关衙门化。有的领导干部既不认真学习马克思列宁主义和党的方针政策,又不到群众中去进行锻炼和调查研究;既脱离工农群众,脱离文艺队伍,又脱离本机关的干部;既不抓创作,又不抓评论;整天忙忙碌碌,拖拖拉拉,抓不住重点,满足于现状,工作没有生气。有的协会领导核心长期不团结,闹一些无原则的纠纷(如民间文艺研究会)。各协会党组成员之间缺乏批评和自我批评,没有形成坚强的领导核心。文联和各协会党组对政治思想工作很不重视,很少研究这方面的问题,不善于抓活的思想,不善于做人的工作。党团工作干部一般都比较弱,党团组织的战斗堡垒作用没有很好地发挥,组织生活不够正常,有的支部长期不开会。机关内政治空气稀薄。

二、在工作人员中,资产阶级思想作风相当严重。比较普遍和突出的是个人主义思想,不少人成天只想搞自己的创作,图名求利,而对工作则敷衍塞责,应付了事。写作本来不是坏事情,但是,他们是从追求个人名利的目的出发的,是抛开工作不管来经营自己的创作的。文联党组有个别成员,成年不做工作,住在西山写东西。这样上行下效,使许多人都不安心工作,一心想靠写作成名成家。有些人整天讲究吃穿享受,个别的人生活腐败。机关纪律松懈,自由散漫。上班迟到早退的现象很普遍,有的人上班时不好好工作,喝茶聊天混日子。更严重的是这些歪风邪气很少受到批评。所以有人说:“我们这里也是‘三个一样’:工作好坏一样,积极和消极一样,任务完成和不完成一样。”

三、有些单位人员复杂,队伍不纯。有些人是有关部门交去必须安插的照顾对象,不少人历史情况复杂,还有些人政治面目不清。

总之,各文艺团体的根本问题是没有贯彻执行党的文艺路线和队伍严重不纯、领导核心不健全。经过检查和讨论,大家提高了认识,感到问题确实很严重,必须痛下决心,认真改进工作、改变作风、整顿组织、健全领导。措施如下:

一、进一步明确文艺方向,贯彻执行党的文艺方针,大力发展社会主义文艺。目前着重抓现代剧目、报告文学和革命歌曲等创作,迅速反映当前斗争;同时,采取有效措施组织和帮助作家艺术家长期深入群众生活,努力创作比较深刻地概括时代、创造社会主义时代的典型人物的作品。编选适合农村需要的文艺读物,开展农村巡回展览,总结和交流剧团、曲艺队和文艺工作者上山下乡、为农村服务的经验。整顿文艺队伍,进一步了解文艺队伍的思想状况和存在的问题,以便更切实地做好文艺队伍的社会主义改造工作。大力培养青年作家艺术家,把培养新生力量看作是建设社会主义文艺的关键。

二、改进文艺刊物,加强刊物的战斗性,使刊物真正成为发展社会主义文艺、宣传党的文艺方针政策、宣传毛泽东文艺思想和培养青年创作队伍的坚强阵地。积极组织和发表反映社会主义时代的文艺作品、特别是青年作家的作品;开展各种学术问题的讨论,加强对优秀作品的评论和推荐工作;同时,对修正主义文艺思想和其他资产阶级文艺思想进行有力的批判。加强评论队伍。

三、文联和各协会党组成员、业务骨干和所有的干部,分期分批轮流下放,参加劳动,参加基层工作,参加农村社会主义教育运动或者参加农村文化工作队,以改造思想,加强同群众的联系,对群众的文化生活进行调查研究。各单位决定立即抽出三分之一到二分之一的干部下放,并且使下放成为经常的制度。

四、组织干部学习马克思列宁主义和毛泽东思想。学习毛主席著作,要做到联系实际,活学活用。有的协会已经成立毛主席著作学习小组。有的协会准备组织领导干部短期离职选学中央规定的马、恩、列、斯著作。党组成员要经常认真阅读和研究中央的文件指示。

五、改组领导机构,健全领导核心。各党组要加以调整和充实,不适当的成员,应当解除职务。加强机关的政治思想工作。文联系统准备成立分党委,把所有协会的党的工作和政治思想工作统一管起来。准备从部队调一些干部,充实文联和各协会的领导力量。提拔部分政治上、作风上好的年轻有为的干部到领导机构中去。清理队伍,把一些不适合的或无事可做的人员,逐步调走。

我们认为,文联和各协会做了不少工作,是有成绩的;但存在的问题确是很严重。这次整风,比较深刻地检查了工作和思想作风上的毛病和错误,是有收获的,他们所提出的各项措施也是好的。但是,这只是一个转变的开始,要彻底改变,还需要作艰苦的努力。我们虽然对文联和各协会存在的问题早就有所感觉,但一直没有采取有效的措施,加以解决。今后必须加强对他们的督促和检查,帮助他们认真改进工作,务必使文联和各协会真正成为革命的战斗的单位,成为党的有力助手,而不是自由散漫的团体。

以上报告当否,请批示。

中央宣传部

一九六四年五月八日

One thought on “Central Propaganda Department Report concerning Work Style Rectification in the Nationwide Cultural Circles and All Associations

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    January 26, 2013 at 10:45 am

    […] Central Propaganda Department Report concerning Work Style Rectification in the Nationwide Cultural … (1964) […]

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