CCP Central Committee and State Council Decisions Concerning Strengthening Publishing Work

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ZF No. [1983]24, 6 June 1983

 

The Party’s 12th Congress has put forward the magnificent programme to completely initiate a new picture of Socialist modernization construction, and again stressed that, at the same time as constricting a high-level material civilization, it is also absolutely necessary to strive to construct a high-level Socialist spiritual civilization. The new trends of Socialist modernization construction have pushed publishing work to an important position that it has never had in our Party’s and our country’s history. In order to adapt to the needs of constructing these two civilizations, the Party Centre and the State Council believe that publishing work must be strengthened and improved, and make publishing undertakings have an even larger development.

(1) The situation and tasks of the publishing battle line

Since destroying the counterrevolutionary clique of Jiang Qing, and especially since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, the publishing battle line has been the same as all battle lines of the entire country, and has obtained clear achievements. Publishing departments earnestly implement the Party’s principles of liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts, and have broken through the long-term ideological fetters of “leftism”, and effectively conduct the work to bring order out of chaos, implement policies on intellectuals, and have given rein to the vigour of the broad publishing workers and writers, have revived and developed publishing undertakings, and on the basis of the needs of transforming the focus point of the entire Party’s work, have successively published a large batch of books urgently needed by the State and the people, and have resolved the grave book wasteland created by the decade of chaos. At the same time as the Party’s guiding publishing workers to correct the wrong tendencies of “leftism”, rightist influences have also been timely overcome, which guaranteed the healthy development of publishing works. Book categories and varieties become ever more rich, academic works, science and technology books, literature and art works, all sorts of textbooks and reference books, children’s reading materials, ethnic minority language books and foreign language books, etc., have grown relatively largely, and the quality of many books has clearly risen, nationwide book printing numbers exceed the highest historical levels by far, and all sorts of periodicals also show a picture of a very large of the overall publishing undertaking and the emergence of the beginnings of flourishing.

But, not a few problems that urgently need to be resolved still exist in publishing work. The problem that publishing books is difficult and buying books is difficult is extremely acute; the period of book publishing is too long, for higher, secondary and primary school textbooks and teaching materials it cannot yet be achieved that books completely arrive before class; the quality of some books and periodicals is not high, or even rough and shoddy; under the influence of bourgeois liberalization ideology trends, some books and articles or works in periodicals have diverged from the guidance of the basic principles of Marxism and Mao Zedong Thought, and deviated from the Socialist track; simply pursued profits, causing tendencies of commercialization of spiritual products, which has somewhat grown. The reasons that brought about these problems mainly are: (1) publishing, printing and distribution undertakings’ material and technology conditions are extremely backwards; (2) the existing structures are not suited to development of publishing undertakings; (3) publishing team quantities are insufficient, there is a gap in succession, ideological levels and business levels cannot catch up with the needs of new situations; speaking from the leading ideology of the relevant departments, the understanding of the important function of printing work in Socialist modernization construction is insufficiently recognized, it is not taken seriously enough, and implementation of Party publishing principles is insufficiently forceful.

In realizing the main tasks and all struggle objectives put forward by the 12th Party Congress, forcefully moving Socialist material construction and spiritual civilization construction forward, the publishing battle line bears a glorious and also arduous task. Publishing undertaking development is both an important aspect of the Socialist spiritual civilization construction, and is also an important condition and component part of material civilization construction. Ideological construction, cultural construction, economic construction and political construction are all closely related to publishing work. The state of our publications’ quality and quantity, directly reflects and influences our country’s’ economy, politics, culture and education development levels. Books and periodicals are important dissemination methods for ideology, culture and science. Any sort of advanced ideological, scientific or cultural understanding can be transferred far and wide once it is published in book form, and it can be given rein in a larger scope and a longer time. Books are the ladders for human progress. During the past era of revolutionary war, books disseminating revolutionary truths, enlightened and guided thousands upon thousands of people to march the path of revolution; during the new historical period, disseminating Socialist ideology, disseminating science and culture and disseminating all books and periodicals benefiting humankinds’ progress, will have an ever more important function in fostering new Socialist persons with ideals, morals, culture, who obey discipline.

On the basis of the spirit of the 12th Party Congress, the Party and the State must both give full regard to publishing work, realistically resolve difficulties and problems existing in publishing work, and strive to launch a new picture for publishing work. The development of publishing undertakings must implement a revolutionary spirit, destroy old conventions that cannot be adapted to new circumstances, establish new rules and regulations, muster all positive factors, liberate productive forces, stimulate editing, printing and distribution capacities to grow and develop coordinatedly and relatively quickly. For book publishing, the focus points must be guaranteed on the basis of comprehensive arrangements, and books propagating patriotism and Communism, books reflecting Socialist construction theory and practice, all sorts of science books introducing the newest achievements of modern science and technology, and all sorts of reading materials urgently needed by the 800 million peasants and the broad youth and children, must be earnestly grasped, making these books reach achieve a new level. Striving to achieve within the “7th Five-Year Plan” that: publishing undertaking development to be basically adapted to publishing tasks, book publishing to be basically adapted to the needs of Socialist modernization construction, realizing a quality rise of books, increase in variety, shortening of publishing periods, distribution to timely satisfy needs, making even more flourishing emerge in the overall publishing undertakings.

 

(2) The nature and guiding principles of publishing work

Our country’s publishing undertakings are fundamentally different from publishing undertakings in capitalist countries, are a component part of the Socialist undertakings led by the Party, must persist in the basic principle of serving the people and serving Socialism, propagating Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, disseminating all science, technological and cultural knowledge beneficial to economic and social development, and enriching the spiritual culture life of the people. If the understanding of the nature of Socialist printing undertakings is blurred, it will be impossible to implement our publishing policies well, and it will be impossible to guarantee that printing work persist in Socialist orientation. Therefore the following few points must be made clear:

1. Socialist publishing work is first and foremost propaganda and education work, and has a clear ideological and revolutionary nature. Publishing departments must consciously use the four basic principles to guide their work, and contribute to Socialist ideology construction. Book and periodical publishing shall forcefully stimulate the research, development and dissemination of Marxist theory. Lastingly, broadly and deeply propagating patriotic and Socialist ideology, opposing feudalist and capitalist degenerate ideology must be the main content of book and periodical publishing. .

 

2. Socialist publishing work is also a scientific and cultural work, and has a strong knowledge and science nature. It must accumulate and propagate scientific and cultural knowledge, and must in a selective manner, comprehensively publish Chinese and foreign cultural heritage and all sorts of ideological materials, in order to contribute to Socialist cultural construction. Publishing departments shall consciously implement the Party’s principles of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend, let the foreign serve China, getting rid of the old and introducing the new, stimulate the flourishing of scientific and cultural undertakings, foster and create all sorts of talents required for modernization construction, and raise the science and culture level of the entire nation.

3. Socialist publishing work serves the broadest popular masses, and has a broad mass nature and plan nature. It must provide multi-faceted, rich and varied books that are adapted to all sorts of different cultural levels to urban and rural broad readers. Publishing departments must broadly investigate and listen to the opinions and requirements of readers, and on the basis of society’s needs, plan considering all factors, suitably arrange matters, strengthen planning, achieve that focus points are guaranteed, fill in gaps in production, give high regard to dissemination, pay attention to raising, overcoming blindness and free-flowing phenomena.

4. Socialist publishing work is a joint work of publishing workers, writers and translators, the relation between them is the mutual cooperation relationship between comrades. Book content is the comprehensive reflection of the achievements of human civilization. Publishing work must be done well, and must rely on grand teams engaging in ideological theoretical scientific, education and cultural work. Publishing departments must broadly unite and organize experts, academics – including from all thought schools and all directions, specialist writers and leisure writers from all sides, and must pay attention to discovering and fostering new productive forces. Their conducting creation, writing and translation should be warmly supported and promoted,  the necessary conditions provided to them, and their rights and interests guaranteed.

5. Socialist publishing work must first and foremost pay attention to the influence on the spiritual world of publications and the social effect of guiding practical activities, and must at the same time pay attention to the economic effect engendered by publications as commercial products for sale. publishing departments must persist in putting quality first, make the greatest effort to provide the people with the best spiritual and cultural nourishment. All categories’ books must strive to achieve that their topic satisfies a need, the content is rich, and must strive to have a high ideological nature, scientific nature and artistic nature as far as possible, and oppose roughness and shoddiness. Publishing departments must strengthen economic accounting, raise operational management levels, overcome waste in all segments, effectively use humanpower, material resources and financial resources, pay attention to economic effect, but they can absolutely not purely pursue profit. Otherwise, it will be impossible to overcome and prevent the phenomenon of spiritual product commercialization, and it will be impossible to guarantee the Socialist nature and orientation of our publishing work.

(3) Strengthening publishing team construction

In order to adapt to the urgent need of initiating a new picture in publishing work, strengthening the ideological construction, organization construction and professional construction, of publishing teams and especially editing teams, and fostering a line of revolutionized, young, intellectualized and specialized  teams,  are serious tasks put in front of us.

1. editing work is the central segment of the overall publishing work, it is a work with a strong political, ideological, scientific and specialized nature, and is both a very difficult and meticulous creative labour. The height of editing personnel’s political and ideological level, knowledge level and professional capacity, directly influences the quality of publications. Editing personnel have a major social responsibility in providing beneficial spiritual nourishment and preventing spiritual pollution. At present, there is a lack of editing team specialized backbones, the phenomenon of ageing is grave, knowledge levels cannot follow new developments of science and culture. Because of this, fully adjusting, training and raising editing teams is a vital matter of extreme urgency.

Publishing departments and relevant work units must formulate plans, substantiate editing teams and adopt many kinds of methods to strengthen editing team training work, especially of young editors. Where editing personnel does not suit the needs of work, they must undergo training before continuing work, those not suited to perform editing work must be adjusted. Henceforth, those posted into editorial work must have a cultural and specialization level of university or higher, and at least must have a cultural and specialization level corresponding to university. When central and local planning, education and personnel department allocate research students and university graduates, they shall attach high importance to and care for the needs of editing and publishing departments. Personnel in society having levels and capacity corresponding to the abovementioned ones, and that are suited to editorial work, may be selected on the basis of qualifications by publishing departments in consultation with labour and personnel departments, and according to the regulations relating to attracting employed cadres. For proofreading, binding and layout design personnel, corresponding measures must also be adopted, and they must be substantiated and fostered.

One important substance of the reform of editing departments is grasping the responsibility system. All systems must be completed an perfected according to the characteristics of editing work, in order to benefit giving rein to the vigour and initiative of editors, and achieve the objective of raising work efficiency and raising manuscript quality. The important function and contribution of editing personnel shall be affirmed, and the creative labour of editing personnel respected. Awards shall be given for excellent editing. Editing personnel must be educated to be willing to accept the role of unknown heroes, to establish professional ethics and firmly resist unhealthy tendencies in editing work.

2. Printing and distribution work are important component parts of the overall publishing work. Printing and distribution teams are the same as editing teams, and the situation of not being adapted to publishing undertaking development also exists at present. The printing system must strengthen professional education and do technology training well, forcefully foster higher and secondary level printing technology talents. The distribution system must within a few years, train all bookstore business personnel once in rotation. Those not suited for book distribution work must be posted to other work. Henceforth, those posted into book distribution work must have higher secondary or higher cultural levels. The establishment of the Beijing Printing Institute must be accelerated, and it may be changed into a publishing institute when conditions are met late. Universities meeting conditions must be selected to establish book-publishing specialities. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions meeting conditions shall establish book distribution and printing technology secondary specialist schools, and may also organize professional secondary  schools that do not guarantee a job assignment but selection on the basis of qualification. The professional backbones of the Xinhua bookstores may be selected from excellent business personnel having higher secondary or higher cultural levels, according to relevant regulations on attracting employed cadres. Grass roots bookstore personnel management, when conditions are met, shall be the joint responsibility of provincial-level Xinhua bookstores and the local relevant departments, with the provincial-level Xinhua bookstore management in the lead.

3. The problems of publishing teams and especially editing teams, are first and foremost the problems of intellectuals. The position and function of knowledge and intellectuals in Socialist spiritual civilization construction must be fully understood, and intellectual policies further implemented. Firmly grasping doing editing job title, printing, distribution and other professional job title revision and assessment work well, establishing evaluation and regular promotion systems, realistically improving their work conditions and life conditions. Publishing department intellectuals’ political treatment and life treatment standards shall be the same as in scientific research, engineering and technology, education, news and other departments. All provincial, municipal and autonomous people’s publishing houses’ cadre allocation and political treatment shall be the same as the newspaper publisher of the same level.

 

(4) Reforming the backward situation of printing and distribution

In order to resolve the problems that publishing books is difficult and buying books is difficult, structural reform and technological transformation urgently needs to be implemented in book and periodical printing and book distribution work.

1. Vigorously developing printing undertakings, realistically transforming the situation that book printing management is bad, equipment is obsolete, technology is extremely backward, and productive forces are insufficient. The grave situation of our country’s printing undertakings being backwards shall be given full attention by relevant departments. It is generally acknowledged around the world that backward printing undertakings not only displays the backwardness of a country’s culture and education, but also displays economic development is backward, at present, our country’s printing undertakings lag far behind a number of developing countries. They also lag far behind our country’s overall economic development. This sort of situation is extremely unfavourable to the magnificent objective of realizing the complete initiation of a new picture of Socialist modernization construction. We must, within a few years from now, in a planned manner, conducting technological transformation and structural reform of the printing industry. The present book and periodical printing shops must universally conduct rectification, and improve operational management. Book and periodical publishing in the Beijing area is required to have a relatively large growth of book and periodical printing capacity within three to five years. Relevant Central and State Council ministries and commissions and the Beijing Municipality must conduct technological reform of book and periodical print shops. Shanghai and other localities also must adopt corresponding measures to resolve the problem that book and periodical printing capacity is insufficient. Beijing, Shanghai and other localities’ technological transformation of sixteen shops and the new construction of one typesetting plant,  has been brought into the capital construction plans of relevant ministries and commissions and Beijing, Shanghai and other regions by the Ministry of Culture together with the State Planning Commission and the Economic Commission after inspection. According to the requirement of rational distribution, regions with good conditions such as transportation, paper supply, etc., have been selected, to establish some printing and distribution bases. New technologies in book and periodical printing must be vigorously spread. Henceforth, book printing technological equipment and facilities must be brought into State planning, production and supply channels, and management work of production and supply must be strengthened and improved. The variety of typesetting, printing and binding equipment and facilities must be increased with effort, quality must rise, costs lowered, and the situation of our country’s printing technology must transform from manual typesetting and movable print to adopting a basis of advanced technological equipment. This sort of work is led by the State Economic Commission, which organizes culture, machinery, electronics, light industry, chemical industry, metallurgy and other relevant departments to carry it out jointly, brings it into State planning, and closely organizes implementation.

2. Reforming book distribution systems, strengthening book distribution capacity. The Xinhua bookstore operations and management systems must be reformed, and at the same time, collective and individual distribution network points must be developed, progressively shaping a book distribution network with Xinhua bookstores as backbones, many kinds of circulation channels, many kinds of economic forms, many kinds of sales methods, reducing circulation segments. Book distribution is different from sale of ordinary products. The Ministry of Culture and the Xinhua bookshops should make plans to effectively raise book distribution department work personnel’s political levels and cultural levels, and within a few years progressively achieve that the large majority of distribution work personnel has an approximate understanding of the content of newly-published books, know which kinds of books are needed by which kinds of readers, which kinds of books shall be vigorously promoted, etc., progressively overcoming the present situation in distribution work that still exists rather widespread of blind stocking and accepting or rejecting as one pleases. Beijing regional book distribution network points and Xinhua bookstore Beijing distribution offices and transportation companies wholesaling and stocking warehouse expansion, will be planned respectively by the Ministry of Culture and Beijing Municipality, brought into the capital construction planning of each, and arranged by the Beijing municipality through urban construction plans. The question of nationwide cities and towns increasing book distribution network points and warehouses shall be brought into city and town construction plans, and researched and implemented by all localities planning and urban construction departments, Xinhua bookstores and foreign languages bookstores. In rural market towns meeting conditions, Xinhua bookstore salesrooms shall be set up. The grass roots supply collectives must be relied upon and supported to do rural book distribution well.

3. In order to develop book and periodical printing and book distribution capacity, and especially change the situation of the extreme backwardness of book and periodical printing technology, funding problems must be resolved. For a long time, cultural construction input was excessively low, and was unreasonable as a proportion of economic construction input, this is also a substance of national economic adjustment. Appropriately expanding publishing undertaking input is an urgent need for strengthening the construction of a Socialist spiritual civilization.

From 1983, nationwide culture departments and publishing systems (including central and local publishing, printing, distribution, materials and other work units) implement rules to change from delivering profits to paying taxes, and the tax rates will be reduced from 55 per cent to 30 per cent for the following few years. Paper expenses will be calculated as cost according to the purchase value, and finances will no longer be subsidized; an employee benefit fund is drawn on the basis of 11 per cent of total wage quantities and entered into costs; fixed asset occupation fees and mobile asset occupation fees will no longer be paid. After-tax profit will be completely kept within the publishing system for use in developing publishing undertakings. Where local publishing departments after-tax profits are relatively large, the Ministry of Culture will use an appropriate part for focus construction of publishing undertakings.

All central first-level publishing houses and magazine publishers that have no printing shop of their own or have insufficient printing capacity, shall, according to the size of their book and periodical publishing duties, receive special funding from their controlling ministry or commission, which is used by the Ministry of Culture to comprehensively improve facilities in book and periodical printing aspects.

After adopting the abovementioned measures, central and local relevant department shall still pay attention to appropriately increasing input into publishing undertakings, and at the same time as arranging capital construction programmes, material planning and foreign exchange planning, vigorously support publishing departments.

Publishing departments must practice strict economy, oppose waste, earnestly manage and use after-tax profit and State investment well, focus money on use in improving printing and distribution material and technological conditions. Publishing, printing, distribution, material and other work units must calculate carefully and budget strictly within their segments, and overcome the phenomenon of waste. Publishing houses must especially pay attention to avoiding loss through overstock and discarding caused by duplicate themes, low quality, mistakes and accidents.

 

(5) Further strengthening and improving leadership over publishing work

In order to even better give rein to the function of publishing work in Socialist modernization construction, Party and government leadership over publishing work must be urgently strengthened. All provincial, autonomous region and municipal Party Committees and People’s Governments, Central and State organs’ relevant ministries and commissions, must list publishing work into the important matters agenda, and annually discuss it at least once. Central and local Party Committee propaganda departments must strongly and powerfully grasp publishing work orientations and policies. Government culture and publishing departments must further give rein to their controlling function. Leadership over publishing work can only be strengthened, and can not be weakened.

1. Substantiating leadership ranks, improving leadership methods and leadership styles.

Cadres having a certain theoretical and policy level, good ideology and work style, with strong professional knowledge and in their prime age must be selected to fill leading positions in all levels’ publishing departments and especially editing departments. All publishing houses and magazine publishers  that have not established Party organization editorial departments, must establish them as soon as possible, and where they are not complete, they must be strengthened as soon as possible.

Earnestly organizing the study of the 12th Party Congress documents as well as other relevant Party and government documents, integrating the reality of publishing work, summarizing both positive and negative historical experiences since founding the country, breaking the old and creating the new, progressively shaping a set of systems and methods adapted to the characteristics of Chinese Socialist publishing work.

Formulation of book publishing plans through investigation and research is an important task in strengthening publishing works’ purposefulness and plannedness. Through grasping book publishing plans, the resolution of a certain number of unsuitable or irrational duplication and gaps must be stressed, and uniform plans must be formulated for a number of focus books that must be published, which is to be accomplished through dividing work and coordination.

Understanding the book publishing situation and strengthening book commentary work, is an important method to implement publishing policies and raise book quality. Understanding of the book publishing situation must be strengthened, and comprehensive analysis conducted of and guidance strengthened over the problems of tendentiousness of book publishing in a certain period. Commenting work of excellent books must be vigorously developed. Good books suited to the people’s need should be encouraged and praised; harmful books of low quality must be strictly criticized. A good number of categories of book comment magazines with different readerships as target must be organized nationwide, and other newspapers and periodicals must also give high regard to this work.

Publishing and distribution research institutes must be established, printing technology research institutes must be substantiated, and scientific research work on publishing, printing and distribution strengthened.

2. Grasping all sorts of publishing work units’ rational division of work and comprehensive arrangement work..

Publishing houses of different natures, must formulate their publishing scope within the work division and characteristics of each. All sorts of specialist publishers must concentrate forces to publish good books related to their specialization, all university presses must arrange to publish books on the basis of their education and scientific research tasks, no publisher may exceed their determined book publishing scope.

Publishing work must, under uniform leadership, give rein to their vigour in central and local publishing departments. Local publishers stand in their locality and face the entire nation, and must make publishing books with the concrete characteristics of their locality, that satisfy the needs of readers in their localities and especially the countryside, into a regular and important task. Local science and technology publishers must, according to the needs of that locality’s industry and agriculture production development, stress publishing of science and technology reading materials for common use, and especially rural science and technology reading materials.

Ethnic minority regions’ publishing work and ethnic minority language book and periodical publishing work must be given earnest and high regard and support. Promoting them to contribute to the economic and cultural development of that ethnicity and the flourishing of nationwide publishing work. Their special difficulties must be realistically considered, and more help granted in aspects of humanpower, material resources and financial resources. Relevant departments shall give high regard to the arrangement of ethnic minority language translation personnel and printing technology personnel fostering.

Publishing work of blind persons’ reading material, etc., must be cared about and assisted.

Foreign-oriented book and periodical publishing and distribution work must be forcefully improved and developed. According to the requirements of foreign propaganda and foreign policy, aimed at the needs and interests of overseas broad readers, vividly and vigorously introducing our country’s basic situation and the new achievements of Socialist modernization construction, shall be the focus point of publishing and distributing foreign-oriented books and periodicals. This sort of books and periodicals shall strive to achieve that both pictures and texts are excellent, and printing is superior. Publishing work units of foreign-oriented books and periodicals must be given full translation and editing forces, and printing and distribution conditions must be improved.

All sorts of periodicals must be further done well, experiences earnestly summarized and quality raised. The Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Culture and State Science and Technology Commission must be responsible for guidance, and conduct the necessary adjustment of the nationwide periodicals.

3. Strengthening book publishing management

All categories of publishers and magazine publishers must abide by Party discipline and State laws, strictly implement the present policies of Party and State, take strict precautions against divulging Party or State secrets. All officially-distributed books must be published by publishers. Magazine publishers cannot publish books. Non-publishing work units may without exception not publish or distribute books, excessive editing and excessive printing of books and periodicals must be determinedly stopped or banned. No person may conduct illegal publishing activities. It is strictly prohibited to import reactionary or obscene books and periodicals, and books and periodicals smuggled into the borders must be determinedly banned. Publishing legislation work must be vigorously conducted. Strengthening book and periodical publishing management and banning illegal publishing activities is a just power to guarantee that the people can orderly exercise their publishing freedom, and guarantee the healthy development of Socialist publishing undertakings. The view of believing that strengthening management may damage the freedom of publication is wrong.

4. Full rein must be given to the function of the State Publishing Committee in acting as the government consulting organ, and to the function of the Chinese Publishing Work Association, the China Printing Technology Association and other groups’ functions in academic research, experience exchange and connecting with the masses. Attention must be paid to strengthen the care for publishing, printing and distribution workers having left the first line, closely connect with them, inherit their rich knowledge, proficient skills and lifelong experience and fully give rein to their function.

中共中央、国务院关于加强出版工作的决定
(中发[1983]24号 一九八三年六月六日发布)

党的第十二次全国代表大会提出了全面开创社会主义现代化建设新局面的宏伟纲领,再一次强调提出, 在建设高度物质文明的同时, 一定要努力建设高度的社会主义精神文明。 社会主义现代化建设的新形势, 把出版工作推到我党我国历史上前所未有的重要地位。为了适应建设两个文明的需要,党中央和国务院认为,必须加强和改进出版工作,使出版事业有一个更大的发展。
(一)出版战线的形势和任务
粉碎江青反革命集团以来,特别是党的十一届三中全会以来,出版战线同全国各条战线一样,取得了显著的成绩。出版部门认真贯彻党的解放思想、实事求是的方针,冲破长期以来"左"的思想的束缚,有成效地进行拨乱反正的工作,落实知识分子政策,发挥了广大出版工作者和著译者的积极性,恢复和发展了出版事业,根据全党工作重点转移的需要,陆续出版了一大批国家和人民急需的图书,解决了十年内乱造成的严重书荒。党在引导出版工作者纠正"左"的错误倾向的同时,及时克服了右的影响,保证了出版工作的健康发展。图书的门类和品种越来越丰富,学术著作、科技图书、文艺作品、各类教材工具书、少儿读物、少数民族文字图书和外文图书等都有较大增长,许多图书的质量有显著的提高,全国图书的印数远远超过历史上最高水平、各类期刊也有很大发展整个出版事业呈现出初步繁荣的景象。
但是,出版工作还存在着不少迫切需要解决的问题。出书难、买书难的问题十分尖锐锐;图书出版周期太长;大、中、小学教材和课本还不能做到全部课前到书;有些书刊的质量不高,甚至粗制滥造;在资产阶级自由化思潮的影响下,有的图书、刊物上的文章、作品曾经偏离马克思主义、毛泽东思想基本原理的指导,偏离社会主义轨道;单纯追求利润,使精神产品商品化的倾向,有所滋长。造成这些问题的原因主要是 :(1)出版、印刷、发行事业的物质技术条件十分落后:(2
)现有体制与出版事业的发展很不适应:(3)出版队伍人数不足,青黄不接,思想水平和业务水平赶不上新形势的需要;(4)从有关部门的领导思想上说,对出版工作在社会主义现代化建设中的重要作用认识不足,重视不够,贯彻党的出版方针不够有力。
实现党的十二大提出的总任务和各项奋斗目标,大力推进社会主义的物质文明和精神文明的建设,出版战线担负着光荣而又艰巨的任务。出版事业的发展,即是社会主义精神文明建设的重要方面,又是物质文明建设的组成部分和重要条件。思想建设、文化建设和经济建设、政治建设,都同出版工作密切相关。我们的出版物的质量和数量如何,直接反映着并影响着我国的经济、政治、文化和教育的发展水平。书刊是思想文化科学的主要传播手段。任何一种先进思想和科学文化知识,一经成书出版发行,就能传之久远,在更大的范围和更长的时间内发挥作用。书籍是人类进步的阶梯。在过去革命战争年代,传播革命真理的书刊,启发和引导了成千上万的人走上革命道路;在新的历史时期,传播共产主义思想,传播科学文化和传播一切有利于人类进步的知识的书刊,对于我国社会主义制度的不断完善和发展,对于培养有理想、有道德、有文化、守纪律的社会主义新人,将起着越来越重要的作用。
根据党的十二大精神,党和国家都要重视出版工作,切实解决出版工作中存在的困难和问题,努力开创出版工作的新局面。出版事业的发展,必须贯彻改革精神,打破不能适应新形势的老框框,创立新章法,调动一切积极因素,解放生产力,促进编辑、印刷、发行的能力较快增长并协调发展。图书的出版,要在统筹安排的基础上保证重点,认真抓好宣传爱国主义和共产主义的图书,反映社会主义建设理论和实践的图书,介绍现代科学、技术最新成果的图书和各类教科书,八亿农民和广大青少年、儿童急需的各类读物,使这些图书达到一个新的水平。力争在"七五"计划期间作到:出版事业的发展与出书任务基本适应,图书的出版与社会主义现代化建设的需要基本适应,实现图书的质量提高,品种增加,出版周期缩短,发行及时对路,使整个出版事业出现更大的繁荣。
(二)出版工作的性质和指导方针
我国的出版事业,与资本主义国家的出版事业根本不同,是党领导的社会主义事业的一个组成部分,必须坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的根本方针,宣传马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想,传播一切有益于经济和社会发展的科学技术和文化知识,丰富人民的精神文化生活。如果对社会主义出版事业的性质认识模糊,就不能很好地贯彻我们的出版方针,不能保证坚持出钣工作的社会主义方向。为此,必须明确以下几点:
⒈ 社会主义出版工作,首先是宣传教育工作,具有鲜明的思想性和革命性。出版部门要自觉地用四项基本原则指导自己的工作,为社会主义的思想建设作出贡献。书刊出版应当有力地促进马克思主义理论的研究、发展和普及。要把持久、广泛、深入地宣传爱国主义和共产主义的思想 ,反对封建主义、资本主义的府朽思
想 。作为书刊出版的重要内容。
⒉ 社会主义的出版工作,又是一项科学文化工作,具有很强的知识性和科学性。它要积累和传播科学文化知识,要有选择地整理出版中外文化遗产和各种思想资料,为社会主义的文化建设作出贡献。 出版部门应当自觉地贯彻党的百花齐放、百家争鸣、古为今用、洋为中用、推陈出新的方针,促进科学文化事业的繁荣,培养和造就现代化建设所需要的各种人才,提高全民族的科学文化水平。
⒊ 社会主义的出版工作,是为最广大的人民群众服务的,具有广泛的群众性和计划性。它要给城乡广大读者提供多方面的、适应各种不同文化程度的、丰富多采的图书。出版部门要广泛调查和倾听读者的意见和要求,根据社会需要,统筹兼顾,适当安排,加强计划性,做到保证重点,填补缺门,重视普及,注意提高,克服盲目性和自流现象。
⒋ 社会主义的出版工作,是出版工作者和著译者共同的工作,他们之间的关系是同志式的互助合作关系。图书的内容是人类文明成果的综合反映。要搞好出版工作,必须依靠从事思想、理论、科学、教育、文化工作的宏大队伍。出版部门要广泛地团结和组织各方面的专家、学者、包括各学派、各流派,专业作者、业余作者,并要注意发现和培养新生力量。要热情支持和推动他们搞好创作、编著和翻译,为他们提供必要的条件,并保障他们的权益。
⒌ 社会主义的出版工作,首先要注意出版物影响精神世界和指导实践活动的社会效果,同时要注意出版物作为商品出售而产生的经济效果。出版部门要坚持质量第一,尽最大努力,把最好的精神文化食粮供给人民。各类图书都要力求做到选题对路,内容充实,都要力求有尽可能高的思想性、科学性或艺术性,反对粗制滥造。出版部门要加强经济核算,提高经营管理水平,在各个环节上克服浪费,有效地利用人力、物力和财力,注意经济效果,但决不能单纯追求利润。否则,就不能克服和防止精神产品商品化的现象,就不能保证我们的出版工作的社会主义性质和方向。
(三)加强出版队伍的建设
为了适应开创出版工作新局面的迫切需要, 加强出版队伍特别是编辑队伍的思想建设、组织建设和业务建设,培养一支革命化、青年化、知识化、专业化的队伍,是摆在我们面前的严重任务。
⒈ 编辑工作是整个出版工作的中心环节,是政治性、思想性、科学性、专业性很强的工作,又是艰苦、细致的创造性劳动。编辑人员的政治思想水平、知识水平和业务能力的高低,直接影响着出版物的质量。编辑人员对于提供有益的精神养料、防止精神污染,负有重大的社会责任。目前编辑队伍专业骨干缺少,老化现象严重,知识水平跟不上科学文化的新发展。因此,充分调整和培训提高编辑队伍是当务之急。
出版部门及有关单位要制订规划,充实编辑队伍,并采取多种形式,加强编辑队伍特别是青年编辑的培训工作。编辑人员不适应工作需要的,要经过训练再继续工作,不适宜作编辑工作的要进行调整。今后调做编辑工作的,必须具备大学以上的文化、专业水平,至少必须具备相当于大学的文化、专业水平。中央和地方的计划、教育和人事部门在分配研究生和大学毕业生时,对编辑出版部门的需要,应当予以重视和照顾。对社会上确有相当上述水平和能力、适合作编辑的人员,可由出版部门商同劳动人事部门,按照吸收录用干部的有关规定,择优录用。对校对、装帧、版式设计人员,也要采取相应的办法,进行补充和培养。
编辑部门的改革,一项重要的内容是抓责任制。要根据编辑工作的特点,健全和完善各项制度,以利于发挥编辑人员的积极性和主动性,达到提高工作效率和提高书稿质量的目的。应当肯定编辑人员的重要作用和贡献,尊重编辑人员的创造性劳动。对优秀编辑应当给予奖励。要教育编辑人员甘当无名英雄,树立职业道德,坚决抵制编辑工作中的不正之风。
⒉ 印刷、发行工作是整个出版工作的重要组成部分。印刷、发行队伍同编辑队伍一样, 目前也存在着不适应出版事业发展的状况。印刷系统要加强职工教育
, 搞好技术培训,大力培养高中级印刷技术人材。发行系统要在近几年内将所有
的书店营业人员轮训一遍。不适宜做图书发行工作的要调做别的工作。今后调作图书发行工作的必须具备高中或高中以上文化水平。要加速建设北京印刷学院,在以后条件具备时,可改为出版学院。要选择有条件的大学设立图书发行专业。有条件的省、市、自治区应建立图书发行和印刷技术的中等专业学校,也可以办不包分配、择优录用的职业中学。新华书店的业务骨干可按照吸收录用干部的有关规定,从优秀的具有高中以上文化水平的营业员中选拔。基层书店人员的管理,在条件具备时,应由省级新华书店同当地有关部门共同负责,以省级新华书店管理为主。
⒊ 出版队伍特别是编辑队伍的问题,首先是知识分子的问题。要充分认识知识和知识分子在社会主义精神文明建设中的地位和作用,进一步落实知识分子政策。抓紧做好编辑职称和印刷、发行等专业职称的制订和评定工作,建立考核和定期晋升的制度,切实改善他们的工作条件和生活条件。出版部门知识分子的政治待遇和生活待遇, 标准应和科研、工程技术、教育、新闻等部门相同。各省、市、自治区人民出版社的干部配备、政治待遇,应与当地同级报社相同。
(四)改革印刷、发行落后的现状
为了解决出书难、买书难的问题,急须对书刊印刷和图书发行工作进行体制改革和技术改造。
⒈ 积极发展印刷事业,切实改变书刊印刷管理不善、设备陈旧、技术极端落后、生产能力不足的状况。我国印刷事业落后的严重状况,有关部委应该充分重视。举世公认,印刷事业的落后,不但表明一个国家文化教育的落后,而且表明经济发展的落后,现在我国的印刷事业,比一些发展中国家落后得很多。比我国整个经济发展也落后得多。这种状况对于实现全面开创社会主义现代化建设新局面的宏伟目标,十分不利。我们必须在今后若干年内,有计划地对印刷工业进行技术改造和体制改革。现有的书刊印刷厂要普遍进行整顿,改善经营管理。要求北京地区的书刊印刷能力在三、五年内有较大增长。中央、国务院有关部委和北京市,要对所属的书刊印刷厂进行技术改造。上海等地也要采取相应措施解决书刊印刷能力不足的问题。北京、上海等地区十六个厂的技术改造和新建一个排版厂,由文化部会同国家计委、经委审查后纳入有关部委和北京、上海等地区的基建计划。根据合理布局的要求,选择交通运输、纸张供应等条件较好的地区,建立若干印刷的发行基地。要积极推广书刊印刷的新技术。今后,书刊印刷的技术装备和器材,要纳入国家计划生产供应的渠道,进一步加强与改进生产供应的管理工作。对排版、印刷、装订的装备和器材,要努力增加品种,提高质量、降低成本,要逐步把我国印刷技术从手工排版、铅字印刷的落后状况,转移到采用先进技术装备的基础上。这项工作由国家经委牵头,组织文化、机械、电子、轻工、化工、冶金等有关部门共同进行,并纳入国家计划,抓紧组织实施。
⒉ 改革图书发行体制,增加图书发行能力。要改革新华书店的经营管理体制,同时要发展集体的和个体的发行网点,逐步形成以新华书店为骨干的、多种流通渠道、多种经济形式、多种购销形式、减少流通环节的图书发行网。图书发行不同于一般商品的销售。文化部和新华书店,应该作出规划,有效地提高图书发行部门工作人员的政治水平和文化水平,在若干年内逐步做到绝大多数发行工作人员, 对于新出版图书的内容有大致的了解,知道哪种图书为哪些读者所需要,哪些图书应当努力推广等等,逐步克服目前发行工作中还相当普遍存在的盲目进货和随意取舍的状况。北京地区图书发行网点、新华书店北京发行所和储运公司批发储备仓库的扩建,分别由文化部和北京市作出规划,纳入各自的基建计划,并由北京市在城市建设计划中予以安排。全国城镇增加图书发行网点和仓库的问题,应纳入城镇建设规划,由各地的计划、城建部门和新华书店、外文书店共同研究落实。在有条件的农村集镇应设立新华书店门市部。要依靠和支持基层供销社做好农村图书发行工作。
⒊ 为了发展书刊印刷和图书发行的能力, 特别是改变书刊印刷技术极端落后的状况,要解决资金问题。长期以来,文化建设投资过低,与经济建设投资的比例不合理,这也是国民经济调整的一个内容。适当增加出版事业的投资,是加强社会主义精神文明建设的迫切需要。
从一九八三年起,全国文化部门出版系统(含中央和地方的出版、印刷、发行、物资等单位实行利改税的办法,在近几年内税率由百分之五十五减为百分之三十五。纸张支出按购进价格计入成本,财政不再补贴;按工资总额百分之十一提取的职工福利基金计入成本;不再交纳固定资金占用费和流动资金占用费。税后利润全部留给出版系统用于发展出版事业。对地方出版部门税后利润较多的,由文化部适当集中一部分用于出版事业的重点建设。
中央一级各出版社、杂志社自己没有印刷厂或印刷能力不足的,应按出版书刊任务的大小,由其主管部、委拨出专款,由文化部用于统筹改善书刊印刷方面的设施。
采取上述措施以后,中央和地方的有关部门仍应注意适当增加对出版事业的投资,同时在安排基建项目、物资计划和外汇计划时,积极支持出版部门。
出版部门要厉行节约,反对浪费,认真管好、用好税后利润和国家投资,把钱重点用于改善印刷发行的物质技术条件。出版、印刷、发行、物资等单位都要从各个环节上精打细算,克服浪费现象。出版社要特别注意避免由于选题重复、质量不高和差错事故造成的积压和报废损失。
(五)进一步加强和改善对出版工作的领导
为了更好地发挥出版工作在社会主义现代化建设中的作用,迫切需要加强并改善党和政府对出版工作的领导。各省、自治区、直辖市党委和人民政府,中央和国家机关的有关部委,要把出版工作列入议事日程,每年至少讨论一次。中央和地方党委的宣传部门要强有力地掌握出版工作的方向和方针。政府的文化出版部门要进一步发挥主管作用。对出版工作的领导只能加强,不能削弱。
⒈ 充实领导班子,改进领导方法和领导作风。
要选拔有一定理论政策水平、思想作风好、熟悉业务和年富力强的干部,充实各级出版部门特别是编辑部门的领导。各出版社、杂志社没有建立党的组织编辑部的,要尽快建立,不健全的尽快加强。
认真组织学习党的十二大文件以及党和政府的其他有关文件,结合出版工作的实际,总结建国以来正反两方面的历史经验,破旧创新,逐步形成一套适合中国社会主义出版工作特点的制度和办法。
经过调查研究制订好出书规划,是加强出版工作的目的性和计划性的重要措施。要通过抓出书规划,着重解决某些选题不当、不合理的重复和缺门的问题,对一些必须出版的重点图书,要制定统一规划,分工协作去完成。
了解出书情况和加强图书评论工作,是贯彻出版方针、提高图书质量的重要方式。要加强对出书情况的了解,对一定时期出书的倾向性问题,进行综合分析,加强指导。要积极开展评选优秀图书的工作。对适合人民需要的好书,要鼓励和表扬;对质量低劣有害的图书,要严肃批评。在全国要办好几种以不同读者为对象的图书评论杂志,其他报刊也要重视这项工作。
要建立出版发行研究所,充实印刷技术研究所,加强出版、印刷、发行的科研工作。
⒉ 抓好各类出版单位的合理分工和统筹安排的工作。
不同性质的出版社,要按照各自的分工和特点,确定出书范围。各类专业出版社,要集中力量出好有关本专业的图书,各大学出版社, 要根据各自的教学和科研任务安排出书,各出版社都不得越出确定的出书范围。
出版工作要在统一领导下, 发挥中央和地方出版部门的积极性。地方出版社立足本地、面向全国,要把出版具有本地特点的图书,满足本地读者特别是农村读者的需要,作为经常性的重要任务。地方科技出版社要根据当地工农业生产发展的需要,着重出好通俗适用的科技读物,尤其是农村科技读物。
要认真重视和扶持少数民族地区的出版工作和少数民族文字书刊的出版工作。推动他们为本民族经济文化的发展和全国出版工作的繁荣作出贡献。要切实考虑到他们的特殊困难,在人力、物力、财力方面,给予更多的帮助。对少数民族文字编译人员、印刷技术人员的培养,有关部门应重视安排。
要关心和扶助盲人读物等出版工作。
要大力改善和发展对外书刊的出版发行工作。根据对外宣传的要求和对外政策,针对国外广大读者的需要和兴趣,生动活泼地介绍我国基本情况和社会主义现代化建设的新成就,应当是出版发行对外书刊的重点。这种书刊,应力求做到图文并茂、印刷精良。要给对外书刊的出版部门充实编译力量,改善印刷和发行条件。
要进一步做好各类期刊,认真总结经验,提高质量。中央宣传部、文化部和国家科委要负责指导,对全国期刊分别进行必要的调整。
⒊ 加强图书出版的管理。
各类出版社、杂志社都要遵守党纪国法,严格执行党和国家的现行政策,严防泄露党和国家的机密。所有正式发行的图书,都必须由出版社出版。杂志社不能出版图书。非出版单位一律不得出版、发行书刊,滥编滥印书刊要坚决制止或取缔。任何人不得进行非法的出版活动。严禁进口反动的、淫秽的书刊,对于走私入境的书刊要坚决取缔。要积极进行出版的立法工作。加强书刊出版的管理,取缔非法的出版活动,是为了保障人民有秩序地行使出版自由的正当权利,保障社会主义出版事业的健康发展。认为加强管理会损害出版自由的看法是错误的。
⒋ 要发挥国家出版委员会作为政府咨询机构的作用,发挥中国出版工作协会、中国印刷技术协会等团体的学术研究和经验交流、联系群众的作用。对于离开第一线的年老的出版、印刷、发行工作者,要注意加强对他们的照顾,密切同他们的联系,继承他们丰富的知识、熟练的技能和初中经验充分发挥他们的作用。

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