Urgent Tasks for the Party on the Organizational Front and the Ideological Front

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(12 October 1983)

Deng Xiaoping

This main topic of this Plenary meeting of the Centre is Party consolidation. The Centre’s resolution concerning Party consolidation has been discussed and passed by everyone. This is a good document, I completely agree. After the meeting, we must still discuss the leadership of the Party over the ideological front. I’d like to talk about a few opinions on the two issues that we cannot go through the motions of Party consolidation and cannot engage in spiritual pollution on the ideological front.

The first problem: we cannot go through the motions of Party consolidation.

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, the party has again determined the ideological line, policy line and organizational line of Marxism, has formulated correct policies that are suited to the situations of all aspects, has gained clear achievements, and a new picture is progressively unfolding in all work matters. The broad masses support our Party’s line and leadership. In the process of realizing a magnificent historical transformation, undergoing the experience of many great struggles, has proven that the main stream of our Party is good, has fighting force, has abilities and has methods to resolve problems.

But, our Party’s situation at the moment is still far from satisfactory. Within the party, major programmes that we haven’t yet had time to clear up and resolve still exist. Here, there are the negative things left over from the ten years of internal chaos, and there are negative things that have emerged and developed under new historical conditions. It is decided to list “three sorts of people”, grave economic criminals and other criminal elements, abusing power for personal gain, people gravely harming the relationship of the Party and the masses, who for a long time have not maintained political consistency with the Centre, or people who maintain consistency on the surface but in reality go their own way. All of these are internal harmful factors for the Party, and corrupting factors, they are a grave expression of intra-Party ideological impurity, work style impurity and organizational impurity.

The most dangerous among these are the “three kinds of people”. A batch of these people has already been cleared up and dealt with, there are some who have already rectified themselves somewhat in their thoughts and actions. But there still is a batch whose viewpoint has not changed and who are hidden inside the Party. Saying they are the most dangerous, is because: 1, they persist in their original factionalist thinking, having a set of agitating and subverting political stands; 2, they have cunning political tricks, at unfavourable times, they disguise themselves and worm their way into confidence, when the opportune moment arrives, they may inflame the people again, and create new turmoil; 3, they have moved to, been scattered and hidden in many places in the entire country, and close factionalist relationship have not yet been completely eliminated; 4, they are relatively young, and relatively cultured. Among them, there are a number of people who have spread words for ten or twenty years. Generally speaking, they are they are ambitious political forces, they should not be belittled, if this is not resolved in Party consolidation, it may leave behind roods of ruin, which may become time bombs.

Naturally, the problems of some other sorts of problems are also dangerous if not resolved, and may also become the root of evil.

Concerning these situations, many of our old Communist Party members feel very worried, the broad Party member masses and popular masses also feel anxious and dissatisfied. The 12th Party Congress decided to conduct party consolidation, the entire Party from top to bottom and the people of all ethnicities in the entire nation have given great expectations towards Party consolidation. This requires our Party to be determined, use a firm, strict and earnest attitude to conduct this Party consolidation, realistically resolve the grave problems outlined above that must be resolved, we can absolutely not go through the motions of this, and cause the comrades in the entire Party and the people of the entire country to lose hope.

Since the 3rd Plenum, we have spent great efforts to rectify the mistake of “leftism” in the “Cultural Revolution” and a number of earlier political campaigns and ideological struggles, this is completely correct. This sort of “leftist” mistake cannot be permitted to be made again. But, not a few comrades have one-sidedly summarized historical lessons, and believe that any talk about ideological struggle and severe handling is “leftism”, they only raise opposing “leftism” and not opposing rightism, this is marching towards another extreme of weakness and laxity. Concerning the problems of erroneous tendencies, conducting ideological struggle with bad people and bad things and organizational handling, in recent years, a mood of excessive tolerance, indecisiveness, soft-heartedness and making concessions to avoid trouble has grown inside the Party, this has loosened Party discipline and even protected a number of bad people.

Recently, the concentrated attack on a nationwide level against grave criminal acts and criminals has been implemented strictly and quickly, has received the warm support from the broad masses, and has become extremely popular. The masses only worry about being too loose in the future, blundering into future calamity so that criminals can take revenge. The masses still believe that they should have been strictly attacked sooner, and criticize us for having done it too late. These reflections and criticism merit high regard. In the past two years, we have pointed out that situations of weakness and laxity exist at all levels of leadership, and that it is impossible to lay hands on grave criminal acts and criminals is one manifestation of this. We shall learn lessons from this, and must firmly overcome the situation of weakness and laxity in leadership. During Party rectification, the abovementioned “three sorts of people” and all other sorts of people with grave mistakes and grave harm, must be strictly subject to organizational handling. Those that should be expelled from the Party are to be expelled from the Party, those that should be dismissed from their positions or punished otherwise are to be punished, criminals must also be brought to justice. Those with lighter circumstances, must be strictly criticized, and they must be made to conduct earnest and not perfunctory self-criticism, creating realistic guarantees for correcting mistakes. This is one of the most important symbols of the Party not just going through the motions.

Those requiring organizational handling in Party rectification, in the entire Party, are very small in number. Where the absolute majority of Party members are concerned, they are to strengthen their Party spirit through ideological education. We must make the entire Party clearly progress in terms of ideology, politics and spiritual situations, the consciousness that Party members serve the people and do seek personal gain must be clearly raised, and the relationship between the Party and the masses must clearly improve. We must regularly launch intra-Party criticism and self-criticism through Party rectification. Within the Party, no matter who it is and no matter what level their position is, they all must be able to accept criticism and conduct self-criticism. We must strengthen Party construction through Party rectification, and realize the basic improvement of the Party style. Every Party member, every Party cadre and every Party organization must inspect themselves in the light of the Party Constitution, and on the basis of the concrete situation of each, make  plans to strive to achieve and persist in meeting the standards provided by the Party Constitution, and guarantee that they are realized. All levels’ leading cadres and especially high-level cadres, should abide by the Party constitution and the “Some Norms concerning Intra-Party Political Life even more strictly, and act as models. this is another important symbol of Party rectification not just going through the motions.

In short, we absolutely must do this Party rectification well, build our Party into a Marxist Party with fighting strength, and become a firm core for leading the people in the entire country to conduct Socialist material civilization construction and spiritual civilization construction. If the entire Party shares this determinations, matters will certainly be done well.

The second problem: no spiritual pollution can be conducted on the ideological front.

The ideological front has a broad scope, and I now mainly talk about the theoretical front and the literary and artistic front. In recent years, great achievements have been made on these two fronts. Concerning the discussion on practice being the sole criterion of truth, concerning the scientific summary of Party history and especially history since the founding of the nation, concerning constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, concerning economic and political structural reform, concerning constructing a Socialist spiritual civilization and strengthening Communist and patriotic ideological education, revolving around these, the theoretical world has done much research, argumentation and propaganda work, and has had a very positive function. In all areas of theory and academia, many comrades are industrious and hardworking, and have done large amounts of beneficial work. In literature and art, an unprecedented flourishing has occurred, and progress in reflecting the depth and breadth of real life and in art expression has been clear. Novels, reportages, films, television dramas, theatre plays, operas, poetry, music, fine arts, dance, quyi and all other areas have seen a batch of excellent works emerge. The achievements are the most important, and must be fully recognized, this is undoubtedly so.

But, the theoretical world and the literary and artistic world also still have many problems, considerably grave confusion still exists, and especially the phenomenon of spiritual pollution still exists. Today, I’d like to stress the problems in this area.

The soldiers on the ideological front shall all be engineers of the human soul. In this present period of transition, and in the undertaking of Socialist spiritual civilisation construction and overall societal construction, they have an especially great responsibility in the ideological education area. The negative consequences of the decade of chaos and all sorts of factors inherited from history, and complex new questions emerging under new circumstances, lead to all sorts of reactions in the people’s thoughts, including some blurred and erroneous understanding. Being engineers of the soul, they shall raise high the banner of Marxism and Socialism, use their writings, works, teachings, lectures and performances to educate and guide the people to treat history and understand reality correctly, and firmly believe in Socialism and the leadership of the Party, inspire the people to exert themselves, be positive and upwards, and truly achieve that they have ideals, have morals, have culture and abide by discipline, and bravely struggle for the great and majestic understating of Socialist modernization construction. The absolute majority of people truly act like this to different degrees. But, some people run counter to the times and the requirements put to them by the people, use their unhealthy ideologies, unhealthy works and unhealthy performances to pollute people’s spirits. The essence of spiritual pollution is to disseminate the degenerate and backward ideologies of the bourgeoisie and other exploiting classes, disseminate emotions of not trusting the Socialist and Communist undertaking and the leadership of the Communist Party. The year before last, the Party Centre, convened a conference on ideological front issues, criticized some capitalist liberalization tendencies and phenomena of laxity and weakness in leadership, that meeting has received some results, but has not completely resolved the problems. The situation of weakness and laxity in leadership still exists; some bourgeois liberalization tendencies have been somewhat overcome, some have not yet been overcome, some have developed even more gravely.

There is a corresponding number of theoretical workers, who lack interest in all sorts of major theoretical questions put forward in Socialist modernization construction, who are unwilling to investigate and research real issues, who indicate that they want to maintain a distance from reality, in order to avoid making mistakes, or who believe that this has no academic value. When researching real problems, some situations that depart from Marxism have indeed also emerged. Some comrades hanker discussing the value of people, humanitarianism and so-called alienation, their interest is not in criticizing capitalism but in criticizing Socialism. Humanitarianism is a theoretical question and a moral question, naturally it may be and should be researched and discussed. But there are various sorts of humanitarianism, we shall conduct Marxist analysis, propagate and implement Socialist humanitarianism (what we called revolutionary humanitarianism in the revolutionary years), and criticize bourgeois humanitarianism. The bourgeoisie often flaunt how they stress humanitarianism, and attack Socialism for being anti-humanitarianist. I have not expected there being some comrades inside our Party who also abstractly propagate humanitarianism, the value of people, and so on. They do not understand that not only in capitalist societies, but also in Socialist societies, it is also impossible to abstractly stress the value of people and humanitarianism, because there still are bad people inside our societies, there still are the scum of the old society and the scum of the new society, there still are anti-Socialist elements, there still are foreign and Taiwanese spies. Our people’s standard of living and cultural levels are not yet high, this can also not be resolved by relying on talk about the value of people and humanitarianism, fundamentally, it can only be resolved by relying on vigorously constructing a material civilization and a spiritual civilization. Departing from the se concrete situations and concrete tasks and talking about people, is not talking about real people but talking about abstract people, it is not a Marxist attitude, and may lead the youth astray. As for “alienation”, after Marx discovered the law of residual value, he continued to use this expression to describe the wage labour of workers in a capitalist society, the meaning was that this sort of workers’ labour is alien to them, and opposes workers themselves, with the result only being that the capitalists become rich, and they themselves remain poor. Now, some comrades exceed the scope of capitalism, to the point that they not only aim at the remnants of capitalist labour alienation and their aftermath, but they say that alienation exists in socialism, that alienation exists in the economic sphere, the political sphere and the ideological sphere, they believe that Socialism, in its own development incessantly creates alienated forces because of the own activities of social subjects. They also use the viewpoint of overcoming this sort of so-called alienation to interpret reform. This sort of discourse, cannot only not help people to truly understand and resolve all sorts of problems emerging in the present Socialist society, it also cannot help people in correctly understanding and conducting the reforms that must be incessantly conducted in Socialist societies for technological progress and social progress. This can in fact only lead people to go and criticize, doubt and deny Socialism, or make people lose confidence in Socialism and Communism, or believe that Socialism and capitalism are equally hopeless. If this is the case, what meaning does Socialism still have! Marxism must develop, socialist theory must develop, it must advance together with the development of humankind’s social practice and scientific development. But, the sort of viewpoint mentioned earlier does not advance, but retreats backwards, and retreats to the point before Marxism. Humanitarianism and alienation theory are relatively prominent problems in the ideological world at present. Other similar problems are not few either. For example, propaganda of abstract democracy, or even advocating that counterrevolutionary discourse shall also have the freedom of publication; opposing democracy with the leadership of the Party, putting forward arguments violating Marxism on issues of the Party spirit and the spirit of the people, and so on. Some comrades still embrace a doubtful attitude towards the Party putting forward the Four Cardinal Principles. At one time, a small number of comrades believed that whether this society of ours is a Socialist society, whether we should or whether we can realize Socialism, or even whether our Party is a proletariat Party, that these are all questions. Some comrades also believe that, as now is the Socialist phase, “putting money above all else” is necessary and correct. These erroneous viewpoints mostly are written into articles and openly published in newspapers and periodicals, some have still not been purged. It can be seen to what extent there is ideological confusion with a number of comrades in the theory world

On the literature and art side, there have been a few more literature works reflecting the new life of Socialist modernization construction, this merits a welcome. But, works that are able to inspire the revolutionary spirit of the people and the youth, promoting them to heroically devote themselves to the motherland’s construction and struggle in all areas, and that have a strong inspirational strength, apart from being relatively plentiful in reportage literature, is also present in other areas, but we cannot say in great number. Some people have expressed indifference to the slogan put forward by the Party Centre that literature and art serves the people, and serves Socialism, have expressed indifference to the Socialist orientation of literature and art, lack the enthusiasm to express and eulogize the revolutionary history of the Party and the people and their struggle and heroic achievements for Socialist modernization construction, they rarely stand on the Party’s vigorous and revolutionary standpoint to raise the masses’ understanding, arouse their enthusiasm and strengthen their confidence concerning problems in the Socialist undertaking that must be resolved. On the contrary, they enthusiastically write things that are dark, gloomy and even fabricate, concoct and distort the history and reality of the revolution. Some people play up Western so-called “modernist” ideological trends to a great extent, and openly propagate that the highest objective of literature and art is to “express oneself”, or propagate abstract theories of human nature and humanism, they believe that the so-called alienation of people under Socialist conditions shall become a subject of creation, and a few works even propagate sex. Although this sort of works is small in number, they have engendered an influence among a part of the youth that should not be ignored. Many literature and art workers overlook studying Marxism, do not go deep into the masses to struggle to construct a new life, some Party members also do not vigorously participate in Party life, this is an important cause for the emergence of all the abovementioned negative phenomena.

The unhealthy trend of “putting money above all else” has also spread among the literary and artistic world, from the grass roots to Central first-level performance troupes, there are a number of performers running about and performing helter skelter, not a few people actually use some vulgar and low-level content and methods to get some money. Unfortunately, some famous performers and some literature and art soldiers of the Liberation Army have also been swept into this. It is only natural that the broad masses express indignance against these people who only pander to the vulgar tastes of a part of the audience and who do not hesitate to corrupt the glorious title of Socialist literature and art worker. This sort of “putting money before all else”, and the tendency of commercializing spiritual products is also manifested in other aspects of spiritual production. Some people who are aloof to artistic circles, publishing circles and cultural heritage circles have simply become businesspeople seeking only profit.

In the end, which attitude should we adopt towards modern Western bourgeois culture? Implementing the policy of opening up the economy to the outside world is correct, and must be maintained for a long time. Foreign cultural exchange must also be developed for a long time. We have adopted a two-handed policy in the economic enterprise, meaning that we must open up, but also cannot blindly, without plans and unselectively bring things in, and we can absolutely not refrain from resisting and struggling against degenerate capitalist influences. Why should we permit things in capitalist culture that are harmful to us come in unhindered during exchange in the cultural sphere? We must learn advanced science, technology and business management methods from capitalist developed countries, as well as all other knowledge and culture beneficial to us, adopting a closed-door policy, complacency and conservatism are foolish. But, things belonging to the cultural sphere must absolutely be analysed, differentiated and criticized in terms of ideological content and method of expression using Marxism. Nowadays, the West still has not a few academics, writers and artists who are truly progressive who conduct all sorts of serious and valuable writing and creation, naturally, we must stress introduction of their works. But, now there are some comrades who, without analysing, differentiating or criticizing all sorts of Western philosophical, economical, social, political, literary and artistic trends, blindly praise them like a swarm of bees. As the introduction of Western academia and culture is this confused, to the extent that books, films, music, dance as well as videos and records which are believed to be low-level, vulgar or dangerous in Western countries as well, have entered in great number. This sort of using Western bourgeois backward culture to corrupt the youth can no longer be condoned.

It must be pointed out that, regardless of whether it concerns theoretical circles or literature and art circles, the mainstream is still good or relatively good, the people doing spiritual pollution are small in number. The problem is that there is a lack of powerful criticism against the mistaken words and acts of this small number of people, and of the necessary preventive measures. The harm of spiritual pollution is very large, and sufficient to bring disaster to the country and injure the people. It confuses the boundaries between right and wrong among the people, creates negative, lax, dissenting and immoral emotions, corrodes people’s spirits and willpower, foments the unchecked spread of individualist ideologies of all shapes and colours, and foments the thinking trend among a number of people to doubt or even deny Socialism and Party leadership. The core of the Four Cardinal Principles is the Socialist system and Party leadership, this is the root of our founding the nation and uniting the people of the entire country in struggle. The present variety of negative phenomena, unhealthy trends and evil practices, criminal acts as well as the hostile activities of a number of people opposing Socialism, have been engendered by causes in many areas, naturally they cannot all be imported to confusion on the ideological front. But, the influence created by confusion on the ideological front cannot, in fact, be underestimated. Does all of this not support practice being the sole criterion to test truth? Some comrades should look at what kind of influence and what kinds of consequences their mistaken words, harmful works, and vulgar performances have had among the people and among the youth. Some honest, friendly foreign persons are worried in our stead because of this. Naturally there will be people applauding. On the Mainland, people will applaud, on Taiwan, in Hong Kong and some foreign countries, there also will be people applauding. If I may offer some advice to these comrades, to think a bit when there are people applauding: actually, which kind of people, based on which standpoints, are applauding, for which goal are they applauding, and use practice to test this. Do not believe that a little bit of spiritual pollution does not count for very much, or does not merit unwarranted fuss. Some phenomena may not seem to be of great harm in the short term. But if we do not timely pay attention and adopt firm measures to stop it, but let it run wild, it may influence even more people to walk on evil ways, and the consequences may be extremely grave. Looking far into the future, this problem relates to what kind of generation will succeed us in our undertaking, and relates to the fate and prospects of the Party and State.

Party leadership over the ideological front must be forcefully strengthened. Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, and especially during the 12th Party Congress, the guiding policies for the ideological front are correct and clear, the problem lies in its weak implementation. From the Centre to the localities, the main responsible persons in all levels’ Party Committees absolutely must give high regard to the situation, problems and work of theoretical circles, literature and art circles, as well as the overall ideological front. First and foremost, they must understand the gravity of the present problems, and understand the urgent necessity of changing the situation of weakness and laxity in leading the ideological front. Some comrades show no interest in spiritual pollution, adopt liberalist attitudes or even believe that this is the reflection of vivacity and vigour, or the “Two Hundreds” policy. Some comrades know perfectly well that this is not true, but do not want to or do not dare to engage in criticism, fearing it harms friendship. Going on like this will not work. Just as a serious and conscientious attitude must be firmly adopted towards mistaken tendencies, bad people and bad things in the entire party, a serious and conscientious attitude must also be adopted towards all sorts of serious issues creating ideological confusion and spiritual pollution, and this must be grasped to the end. The main method for resolving the issue of confusion on the ideological front still is launching criticism and self-criticism. We should acknowledge that some Marxist criticism has been conducted against some mistaken tendencies in the theoretical circles and literary or artistic circles, it is only that the effects are insufficiently clear. On the one hand, the quality and measure of criticism itself is insufficient, on the other hand, the vehemence in resisting criticism is quite strong. There is little criticism, and it is still often named “attack”, and is still said to be “bludgeoning”. In fact, it is often the criticising person who is attacked, and the criticized person who often receives sympathy and protection. We absolutely must thoroughly transform this sort of irregular situation, and ensure that Marxist, Socialist and Communist propaganda and especially all correct viewpoints on major theoretical and principle issues, truly have a guiding effect on the ideological circles. Now, some mistaken viewpoints call themselves Marxist, some openly challenge Marxism. Against this Marxists shall stand up and speak. The Communist Party members on the ideological front, and especially the Communist Party members who have leading responsibilities and influence in this field, must stand at the forefront of the struggle. If they have mistakes themselves, they must conduct earnest self-criticism, and realistically correct themselves. Whoever persists in mistakes and  is unwilling to correct them, cannot undertake leading responsibilities in ideological work. All Communist Party members must strengthen the Party nature, abide by the Party Constitution and its discipline. Regardless of whatever expert, academic, writer or artist it is, as long as they are Party members, they are not permitted to consider themselves special, and believe that they are more brilliant than the Party politically, and may go their own way. Resolving these problems is the most important requirement of the Party towards Party organizations and Party members on the ideological front. As long as our Party truly strengthens the leadership of Marxism, persists in overcoming the situation of weakness and laxity and liberalist attitudes, earnestly launches vigorous ideological struggle, all abovementioned sorts of problems on the ideological front can be resolved, and will not be difficult to resolve.

If we do things in this way, some people may say: has the Party’s policy changed, must we still let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend? The Party’s policy has not changed, and the “Two Hundreds” policy is still necessary. But opposing launching criticism with the “Two Hundreds” policy, is a sort of grave misunderstanding or distortion. The objective of the “Two Hundreds” policy is to stimulate the flourishing of Socialist culture. Comrade Mao Zedong once said: “Truth develops from the struggle with falsehoods. Marxism has developed in this way.” Some people understand the “Two Hundreds” policy as absolute freedom to air views, or even only releasing erroneous things, and not letting Marxism contend with it. What sort of hundred schools contending can this be called? This distorts the proletarian and Marxist policy of the “Two Hundreds” into a bourgeois liberalization policy. Comrade Mao Zedong’s “Against Liberalism” is a good Marxist text. I suggest all levels’ leading comrades and especially the comrades at the ideological front, study it, and conduct affairs according to the spirit of the text.

When we stress launching vigorous ideological struggle, we still must pay attention to preventing “leftist” errors. This sort of simplistic, one-sided, rough and radical so-called criticism, as well as brutal struggle and merciless attack methods from the past may absolutely not be repeated. Regardless of whether it concerns speaking at meetings or writing articles, it must fully reason things out and scientifically analyse matters seeking truth from facts. People participating in discussion and criticism must first and foremost have researched the issue under discussion of criticism clearly, and may absolutely not take a part for the whole, imagine fears, cannot overwhelm others by their power, and resort to sophistry. We must adopt a well-disposed attitude towards comrades making mistakes, and give them time to earnestly consider matters, let them conduct fair, reasonable and transparent argumentation and factual defence, and we must especially welcome and encourage them to conduct sincere self-criticism. When this sort of self-criticism is made, it is fine, and no further tight grip is necessary. Criticism or self-criticism must stand on a Marxist viewpoint, and cannot stand on “leftist” viewpoints. It is still necessary to continue to conduct criticism and rectification against “leftist” erroneous viewpoints in ideological or theoretical aspects. But, it should be clearly pointed out that the problems that must be resolved first and foremost at the present ideological front, are correcting rightist, weak and lax tendencies.

Generally speaking, strengthening the Party’s leadership on the ideological front, overcoming the situation of weakness and laxity has become an urgent task for the entire Party. Not only theoretical circles, literary and artistic circles, but also education, news, publishing, radio, television, mass culture and mass ideological and political work and other aspects, all have similar or other problems that urgently need resolving. The overall ideological front work must be strengthened. We must seriously put this problem in front of the entire Party, and bring it into the important matters agenda of the Centre and all levels’ Party Committees. After the focus of work was transferred towards economic construction, the entire Party must research how to adapt to new circumstances, strengthen the Party’s ideological work, prevent immersion in economic work and overlook trends in ideological work. All levels’ Party Committees and first and foremost the main responsible cadres in Party Committees, must realistically watch and deeply research trends and problems on the ideological front, adopt realistic and effective methods to improve the work on this front. I suggest that the Central Political Bureau and the Central Secretariat conduct a specialized discussion of the Party’s ideological front work, and systematically resolve problems relating to principles, tasks, measures, steps, etc. I am convinced that, as long as the entire Party, from high to low, gives high regard to this work, grasps this work and strengthens the development of overall Party consolidation, the situation in this aspect will certainly greatly change in appearance, and a new picture of flourishing and prospering Socialist ideology and culture will certainly emerge.

(This speech was given at the 2nd Plenum of the 12th Party Congress)

党在组织战线和思想战线上的迫切任务
邓小平

(一九八三年十月十二日)

这次中央全会的主要议题是整党。中央关于整党的决定,大家讨论通过了。这是一个好的文件,我完全同意。会后还要讨论一下党对思想战线的领导。我想就整党不能走过场和思想战线不能搞精神污染这两个问题说点意见。

第一个问题:整党不能走过场。

我们党从十一届三中全会以来,重新确立了马克思主义的思想路线、政治路线和组织路线,制定了各方面的适合情况的正确政策,收到了显著的成效,各项工作的新局面正在逐步打开。广大群众拥护我们党的路线和领导。在实现伟大历史转变的过程中,经过多次重大斗争的考验,证明我们党的主流是好的,是有战斗力的,是有能力、有办法解决问题的。

但是,我们党现在的状况还远不是都令人满意。党内还存在着不少没有来得及清理和解决的严重问题。这里有十年内乱遗留下来的消极东西,也有在新的历史条件下产生和发展起来的消极东西。决定列举了“三种人”,严重的经济犯罪和其他刑事犯罪分子,以权谋私、严重损害党和群众的关系的人,长期在政治上不同中央保持一致、或者表面上保持一致实际上另搞一套的人,等等。所有这些,都是党内的危险因素,腐败因素,是党内思想不纯、作风不纯、组织不纯的严重表现。

其中最危险的是“三种人”。这些人已经清查和处理了一批,有些在思想上和行动上已经有所改正。但是确有相当一批立场没有改变而在党内隐藏了下来。说他们最危险,是因为:一、他们坚持原来的帮派思想,有一套煽惑性和颠覆性的政治主张;二、他们有狡猾的政治手腕,不利时会伪装自己,骗取信任,时机到来,又会煽风点火,制造新的动乱;三、他们转移、散布和隐蔽在全国许多地方,秘密的派性联系还没有完全消灭;四、他们比较年轻,也比较有文化。他们当中有些人早就扬言十年、二十年后见。总之,他们是一股有野心的政治势力,不可小看,如果不在整党中解决,就会留下祸根,成为定时炸弹。

当然,其他几类人的问题,不解决也很危险,也是祸根,

对于这些情况,我们好多老共产党员很感忧虑,广大党员群众和人民群众也感到担心和不满。十二大决定进行全面整党,全党上下、全国各族人民一致拥护,对整党寄予极大的期望。这就要求我们党下定决心,用坚决、严肃、认真的态度来进行这次整党,切实解决上述那些必须解决的严重问题,绝对不能走过场,使全党同志和全国人民失望。

三中全会以来,我们花了很大气力纠正“文化大革命”及其以前的一些政治运动和思想斗争中的“左”的错误,是完全正确的。这类“左”的错误决不允许重犯。但是,不少同志片面地总结历史教训,认为一讲思想斗争和严肃处理就是“左”,只提反“左”不提反右,这就走到软弱涣散的另一个极端。在对错误倾向、坏人坏事作思想斗争和组织处理的问题上,这些年来党内确实滋长了过分容忍、优柔寡断、畏难手软、息事宁人的情绪,这就放松了党的纪律,甚至保护了一些坏人。

最近,在全国范围内对严重刑事犯罪分子依法实行从重从快的集中打击,受到广大群众的热烈拥护,非常得人心。群众只担心将来处理太宽,放虎归山,罪犯又来报仇。群众还认为早就应当从严打击,批评我们搞晚了。这些反映和批评值得高度重视。前两年我们曾指出各级领导上存在着软弱涣散的状况,对严重刑事犯罪分子下不了手也是一种表现。由此应当得出教训,必须坚决克服领导上的软弱涣散状态。在整党中,对于上述的“三种人”和其他各种错误严重、危害严重的人,必须严肃地作出组织处理。该开除党籍的就开除党籍,该给撤职或其他处分的就给这些处分,犯罪的还得法办。对于情节较轻的,要进行严肃的批评,并要他们作出认真的而不是敷衍的检讨,作出改正错误的切实保证。这是整党不走过场的最重要标志之一。

整党中需要作组织处理的,在全党,只是很少数。对大多数党员来说,是通过思想教育,增强党性。耍使全党在思想上政治上和精神状态上有显著的进步,党员为人民服务而不谋私利的觉悟有显著的提高,党和群众的关系有显著的改善。要通过整党,使党内的批评和自我批评能经常开展。党内不论什么人,不论职务高低,都要能接受批评和进行自我批评。要通过整党,加强党的建设,实现党风的根本好转。每个党员、每个党员干部、每个党组织,都要对照党章进行检查,根据各自的具体情况,作出达到和坚持党章规定的合格标准的努力计划,并保证其实现。各级领导干部,特别是高级干部,更应该严格遵守党章、遵守《关于党内政治生活的若干准则》,起模范作用。这是整党不走过场的又一个重要标志。

总之,我们一定要搞好这次整党,把我们党建设成为有战斗力的马克思主义政党,成为领导全国人民进行社会主义物质文明和精神文明建设的坚强核心。全党都下这个决心,事情就一定能办好。

第二个问题:思想战线不能搞精神污染。

思想战线范围很广,我现在主要说理论和文艺战线。几年来这两方面有很大的成绩。关于实践是检验真理唯一标准的讨论,关于党的历史特别是建国以来历史的科学总结,关于建设有中国特色的社会主义,关于经济和政治体制的改革,关于建设社会主义精神文明和加强共产主义、爱国主义思想教育,围绕这些,理论界作了许多研究、论证和宣传工作,发挥了积极的作用。在理论和学术的各个领域,许多同志辛勤劳动,作了大量有益的工作。文艺出现了空前的繁荣,在反映现实生活的深度和广度上,在艺术的表现力上,都有显著的进步。小说、报告文学、电影、电视剧、话剧、戏曲、诗歌、音乐、美术、舞蹈、曲艺等各个方面,都出了一批优秀作品。成绩是主要的,要充分肯定,这是毫无疑问的。

但是,理论界文艺界还有不少的问题,还存在相当严重的混乱,特别是存在精神污染的现象。今天想着重谈谈这方面的问题。

思想战线上的战士,都应当是人类灵魂工程师。在当前这个转变时期,在社会主义精神文明建设和整个社会主义建设事业中,他们在思想教育方面的责任尤其重大。十年内乱的消极后果和历史遗留的种种困难,新形势下出现的新的复杂问题,在人们的思想上引起各种反映,包括一部分模糊和错误的认识。作为灵魂工程师,应当高举马克思主义的、社会主义的旗帜,用自已的文章、作品、教学、讲演、表演,教育和引导人民正确地对待历史,认识现实,坚信社会主义和党的领导,鼓舞人民奋发努力,积极向上,真正做到有理想、有道德、有文化、守纪律,为伟大壮丽的社会主义现代化建设事业而英勇奋斗。大多数人正是在不同程度上这样做的。但是,一些人却同时代和人民对他们的要求背道而驰,用他们的不健康思想、不健康作品、不健康表演,来污染人们的灵魂。精神污染的实质是散布形形色色的资产阶级和其他剥削阶级腐朽没落的思想,散布对于社会主义、共产主义事业和对于共产党领导的不信任情绪。前年党中央召开了思想战线问题的座谈会,批评了某些资产阶级自由化倾向和领导上的软弱涣散现象,那个会收到了一些效果,但没有完全解决问题。领导上的软弱涣散状态仍然存在;资产阶级自由化倾向有的有所克服,有的没有克服,有的发展得更严重了。

有相当一部分理论工作者,对于社会主义现代化建设实践中提出的种种重大的理论问题缺乏兴趣,不愿意对现实问题进行调查和研究,表示要同现实保持距离,免得犯错误,或者认为没有学术价值。在对现实问题的研究中,也确实产生一些离开马克思主义方向的情况。有一些同志热衷于谈论人的价值、人道主义和所谓异化,他们的兴趣不在批评资本主义而在批评社会主义。人道主义作为一个理论问题和道德问题,当然是可以和需要研究讨论的。但是人道主义有各式各样,我们应当进行马克思主义的分析,宣传和实行社会主义的人道主义(在革命年代我们叫革命人道主义),批评资产阶级的人道主义。资产阶级常常标榜他们如何讲人道主义,攻击社会主义是反人道主义。我没有想到,我们党内有些同志也抽象地宣传起人道主义、人的价值等等来了。他们不了解,不但在资本主义社会,就是在社会主义社会,也不能抽象地讲人的价值和人道主义,因为我们的社会内部还有坏人,还有旧的社会渣滓和新的社会渣滓,还有反社会主义分子,还有外国和台湾的间谍。我们的人民生活水平和文化水平还不高,这也不能靠谈论人的价值和人道主义来解决,主要地只能靠积极建设物质文明和精神文明来解决。离开了这些具体情况和具体任务而谈人,这就不是谈现实的人而是谈抽象的人,就不是马克思主义的态度,就会把青年引入歧途。至于“异化”,马克思在发现剩余价值规律以后,曾经继续用这个说法来描写资本主义社会中工人的雇佣劳动,意思是说工人的这种劳动是异已的,反对工人自己的,结果只是使资本家发财,使自己受穷。现在有些同志却超出资本主义的范围,甚至也不只是针对资本主义劳动异化的残余及其后果,而是说社会主义存在异化,经济领域、政治领域、思想领域都存在异化,认为社会主义在自己的发展中,由于社会主体自身的活动,不断产生异己的力量。他们还用克服这种所谓异化的观点来解释改革。这样讲,不但不可能帮助人们正确地认识和解决当前社会主义社会中出现的种种问题,也不可能帮助人们正确地认识和进行在社会主义社会中为技术进步、社会进步而需要不断进行的改革。这实际上只会引导人们去批评、怀疑和否定社会主义 ,使人们对社会主义、共产主义的前途失去信心,认为社会主义和资本主义一样地没有希望。既然如此,干社会主义还有什么意义呢!马克思主义要发展,社会主义理论要发展,要随着人类社会实践的发展和科学的发展而向前发展。但是,上面这样的观点,不是向前发展,而是向后倒退,倒退到马克思主义以前去了。人道主义和异化论,是目前思想界比较突出的问题。其他类似的问题还不少。比如宣传抽象民主,直至主张反革命言论也应当有发表的自由;把民主同党的领导对立起来,在党性和人民性的问题上提出违反马克思主义的说法,等等。有些同志至今对党提出坚持四项基本原则仍然抱怀疑态度。有一个时期,有少数同志认为,我们这个社会是不是社会主义社会,该不该或能不能实行社会主义,以至我们党是不是无产阶级政党,都还是问题。有些同志又认为,既然现在是社会主义阶段,“一切向钱看”就是必然的,正确的。这些错误的观点大都写成文章公然在报刊上发表,有些一直没有得到澄清。可见理论界的一部分同志思想混乱到什么程度。

文艺方面,近年来反映社会主义建设新生活的文学作品多了一些,这是值得欢迎的。但是,能够振奋人民和青年的革命精神,推动他们勇敢献身于祖国各个领域的建设和斗争,具有强大鼓舞力量的作品,除了报告文学方面比较多以外,其他方面也有,可是不能说多。一些人对党中央提出的文艺为人民服务、为社会主义服务的口号表示淡漠,对文艺的社会主义方向表示淡漠,对党和人民的革命历史和他们为社会主义现代化而奋斗的英雄业绩,缺少加以表现和歌颂的热忱,对社会主义事业中需要解决的问题,很少站在党的积极的革命的立场上提高群众的认识,激发他们的热情,坚定他们的信心。相反,他们却热心于写阴暗的、灰色的、以至胡编乱造、歪曲革命的历史和现实的东西。有些人大肆鼓吹西方的所谓“现代派”思潮,公开宣扬文学艺术的最高目的就是“表现自我”,或者宣传抽象的人性论、人道主义,认为所谓社会主义条件下人的异化应当成为创作的主题,个别的作品还宣传色情或宗教。这类作品虽然也不多,但是它们在一部分青年中产生的影响却不容忽视。许多文艺工作者忽视学习马克思主义,不深入群众建设新生活的斗争,有的党员也不积极参加党的生活,这是产生上述各种消极现象的重要原因。

“一切向钱看”的歪风,在文艺界也传播开来了,从基层到中央一级的表演团体,都有些演员到处乱跑乱演,不少人竟用一些庸俗低级的内容和形式去捞钱。很可惜,有些名演员、有些解放军的文艺战士,也被卷到里边去了。对于那些只顾迎合一部分观众的低级趣味,而不惜败坏社会主义文艺工作者光荣称号的人,广大群众表示愤慨是理所当然的。这种“一切向钱看”、把精神产品商品化的倾向,在精神生产的其他方面也有表现。有些混迹于艺术界、出版界、文物界的人简直成了唯利是图的商人。

对于现代西方资产阶级文化,我们究竟应当采取什么态度呢?经济上实行对外开放的方针,是正确的,要长期坚持。对外文化交流也要长期发展。经济方面我们采取两手政策,既要开放,又不能盲目地无计划无选择地引进,更不能不对资本主义的腐蚀性影响进行坚决的抵制和斗争。为什么在文化范围的交流,反倒可以让资本主义文化中对我们有害的东西畅行无阻呢?我们要向资本主义发达国家学习先进的科学、技术、经营管理方法以及其他一切对我们有益的知识和文化,闭关自守、故步自封是愚蠢的。但是,属于文化领域的东西,一定要用马克思主义对它们的思想内容和表现方法进行分析、鉴别和批判。西方如今仍然有不少正直进步的学者、作家、艺术家在进行各种严肃的有价值的著作和创作,他们的作品我们当然要着重介绍。但是,现在有些同志对于西方各种哲学的、经济学的、社会政治的和文学艺术的思潮,不分析、不鉴别、不批判,而是一窝蜂地盲目推崇。对于西方学术文化的介绍如此混乱,以至连一些在西方国家也认为低级庸俗或有害的书籍、电影、音乐、舞蹈以及录相、录音,这几年也输入不少。这种用西方资产阶级没落文化来腐蚀青年的状况,再也不能容忍了。

必须指出,无论在理论界或文艺界,主流还是好的或比较好的,搞精神污染的人只是少数。问题是对这少数人的错误言行缺乏有力的批评和必要的制止措施。精神污染的危害很大,足以祸国误民。它在人民中混淆是非界限,造成消极涣散、离心离德的情绪,腐蚀人们的灵魂和意志,助长形形色色的个人主义思想泛滥,助长一部分人当中怀疑以至否定社会主义和党的领导的思潮。四项基本原则的核心,就是社会主义制度和党的领导,这是我们立国和团结全国人民奋斗的根本。目前社会上的种种消极现象、歪风邪气、犯罪行为,以及一些人反社会主义的敌对活动,它们的产生有多方面的原因,当然不能都归咎于思想战线的混乱。但是,确实不能低估思想战线混乱造成的影响。不是都拥护实践是检验真理的唯一标准吗?一些同志应当看看他们的错误言论、有害作品、低级表演在人民、在青年中间产生了什么影响、什么后果嘛。一些正直的、友好的外国人士为此而替我们担心。当然也有人叫好。在大陆有人叫好,在台湾、香港和某些外国也有人叫好。奉劝这些同志在有人叫好的时候想一想:究竟是什么人站左什么立场上叫好,为了什么目的叫好,也用实践检验一下嘛。不要以为有一点精神污染不算什么,值不得大惊小怪。有的现象可能短期内看不出多大坏处。但是如果我们不及时注意和采取坚定的措施加以制止,而任其自由泛滥,就会影响更多的人走上邪路,后果就可能非常严重。从长远来看,这个问题关系到我们的事业将由什么样的一代人来接班,关系到党和国家的命运和前途。

必须大力加强党对思想战线的领导。党的十一届三中全会以来,特别是十二大,对于思想战线的指导方针是正确的、鲜明的,问题在于贯彻执行不力。从中央到地方,各级党委的主要负责人一定要重视理论界文艺界以及整个思想战线的情况、问题和工作。首先要认识目前问题的严重性,认识改变思想战线的领导软弱涣散状况的迫切必要性。有些同志对精神污染不闻不问,采取自由主义的态度,甚至认为是生动活泼,是“双百”方针的体现。有些同志明知不对,但是不愿或不敢进行批评,怕伤了和气。这样下去不行。如同在整党中对于错误倾向和坏人坏事,必须采取坚决严肃认真的态度一样,对于造成思想混乱和精神污染的各种严重问题,也必须采取坚决严肃认真的态度,而且要一抓到底。解决思想战线混乱问题的主要方法,仍然是开展批评和自我批评。我们应当承认,在理论界和文艺界对一些错误倾向是进行了一些马克思主义的批评的,只是效果不够显著。一则批评本身的质量和份量不够,二则抵抗批评的气势很盛。批评不多,却常被称为“围攻”,被说成是“打棍子”。其实倒是批评者被围攻,而被批评者却往往受到同情和保护。一定要彻底扭转这种不正常的局面,使马克思主义的和社会主义、共产主义的宣传,特别是在一切重大理论性、原则性问题上的正确观点,在思想界真正发挥主导作用。现在有些错误观点自称是马克思主义的,有的则公然向马克思主义挑战。对此,马克思主义者应当站出来讲话。思想战线的共产党员,特别是这方面担负领导责任的和有影响的共产党员,必须站在斗争的前列。如果自己有错误,就要进行认真的自我批评,并且切实改正。谁要是坚持错误不肯改正,就不能担负思想工作的领导责任。所有共产党员都要增强党性,遵守党的章程和纪律。不管是什么专家、学者、作家、艺术家,只要是党员,都不允许自视特殊,认为自己在政治上比党高明,可以自行其是。解决这些问题,是这次整党对思想战线的党组织和党员的最重要要求。只要我们党真正加强马克思主义的领导,坚决克服软弱涣散的状态和自由主义态度,认真开展积极的思想斗争,思想战线的上述种种问题都可以解决,也不难解决。

我们这样做,有人会说,党的方针是不是变了,还要不要百花齐放、百家争鸣?党的方针没有变,“双百”方针还是要。但是把开展批评同“双百”方针对立起来,却是一种严重的误解或曲解。“双百”方针的目的是促进社会主义文化的繁荣。毛泽东同志说过:“真理是在同谬误作斗争中间发展起来的。马克思主义就是这样发展起来的。”有些人把“双百”方针理解为鸣放绝对自由,甚至只让错误的东西放,不让马克思主义争。这还叫什么百家争鸣?这就把“双百”方针这个无产阶级的马克思主义的方针,歪曲为资产阶级的自由主义的方针了。毛泽东同志的《反对自由主义》,是一篇马克思主义的好文章。建议各级领导同志、特别是思想战线的同志认真学习一下,并且按照文章的精神办事。

我们在强调开展积极的思想斗争的时候,仍然要注意防止“左”的错误。过去那种简单片面、粗暴过火的所谓批判,以及残酷斗争、无情打击的处理方法,决不能重复。无论是开会发言、写文章,都要进行充分的说理和实事求是的科学分析。参加讨论和批评的人,首先要对讨论和批评的问题研究清楚,绝不能以偏概全,草木皆兵,不能以势压人,强词夺理。对有错误的同志,要采取与人为善的态度,给他们时间认真考虑,让他们进行合情合理、澄清论点和事实的答辩,尤其要欢迎和鼓励他们进行诚恳的自我批评。有了这种自我批评就好,不要揪住不放。批评或自我批评都要站在马克思主义立场上,不能站在“左”的立场上。对于思想理论方面“左”的错误观点,仍然需要继续进行批评和纠正。但是,应当明确指出,当前思想战线言先要着重解决的问题,是纠正右的、软弱涣散的倾向。

总之,加强党对思想战线的领导,克服软弱涣散的状态,已经成为全党的一个迫切的任务。不仅理论界文艺界,还有教育、新闻、出版、广播、电视、群众文化和群众思想政治工作等各个方面,都有类似的或其他的迫切需要解决的问题。整个思想战线的工作都需要加强。我们要把这个问题郑重地提到全党面前,提到中央和地方各级党委的重要议事日程上来。在工作重心转到经济建设以后,全党要研究如何适应新的条件,加强党的思想工作,防止埋头经济工作、忽视思想工作的倾向。各级党委,首先是党委主要负责同志,要密切注视和深入研究思想战线的形势和问题,采取切实有效的办法改进这条战线的工作。我建议中央政治局或中央书记处就党的思想战线的工作进行专门的讨论,系统地解决有关的方针、任务、措施、步骤等等问题。我相信,只要全党上下重视这项工作,抓紧这项工作,加上全面整党的展开,这方面的现状就一定会大大改观,社会主义思想文化更加繁荣昌盛的新局面就一定会出现。

 

 

One thought on “Urgent Tasks for the Party on the Organizational Front and the Ideological Front

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    November 24, 2012 at 10:49 am

    […] Urgent Tasks for the Party on the Organizational Front and the Ideological Front (1983) […]

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