Notice Concerning Printing and Distributing the “Summary of the Work Meeting on Investigating and Prosecuting Criminal Illegal Publishing Activities According to the Law”

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In order to completely implement the State Council “Notice Concerning Strictly Attacking Illegal Publishing Activities”, the General Administration of Press and Publications, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television, and the State Administration of Industry and Commerce held a work meeting in Beijing from 25 until 28 December 1987 on investigating and prosecuting criminal illegal publishing activities according to the law in which a number of relevant leading cadres from provincial-level Press and Publication Bureaus, Courts, Procuratorates, Public Security Offices (bureaus) participated. Hereby, the summary of the meeting is issued to you, please transmit it speedily for implementation, in order to promote the deep development of investigating and prosecuting criminal illegal publishing activities. For the problems of policy and law demarcation touched upon by the Supreme People’s Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate in the “Summary”, further judicial interpretations shall be made. If there are contradictions between interpretations of the “Summary” and the “Two Supremes”, the interpretation of the “Two Supremes” shall prevail.

 

In order to completely implement the State Council “Notice Concerning Attacking Illegal Publishing Activities”, further clarify the legal basis and policy demarcation of investigation and prosecution of criminal illegal printing activities, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, General Administration of Press and Publications, Ministry of Radio, Film and Television, State Administration of Industry and Commerce, from 25 until 28 December 1987 held a “Work Meeting on Investigating and Prosecuting Criminal Illegal Publishing Activities According to the Law”, in Beijing, in which relevant leading cadres from Courts, Procuratorates, Public Security Offices (Bureaus), Press and Publications Bureaus from the 10 provinces and municipalities of Liaoning, Shandong, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Guangdong, Beijing and Shanghai participated. Relevant entities such as the NPC Standing Committee Legal Work Committee, State Council Secretariat and Central Propaganda Department Publishing Bureau, etc., sent people to attend the meeting. The participating comrades took the basic line decided in the 13th Party Congress as guidance, earnestly studied and researched the State-Council “Provisional Administrative Punishment Regulations for Speculation and Profiteering” and the State Council and Supreme People’s Procuratorate “Notice Concerning Severely Punishing Illegal Printing Activities According to the Law” (hereafter named the Two Supremes “Notice”, exchanged experiences and questions on investigation and prosecution of criminal illegal printing activities, and integrating concrete cases, deeply discussed policy and law demarcations to be paid attention to in investigation and prosecution work; the Public Security and Press and Publications systems’ participating comrades also specially discussed “Provisional Rules on Printing Sector Management “Opinion-seeking Draft”. The Summary is as follows:

 

I, The Meeting summarized the previous work attacking illegal publishing activities, further deepened the understanding of the importance of investigation and prosecution work. The participating comrades looked back on implementing the spirit of the State Council “Notice Concerning Gravely Attacking Illegal Publishing Activities” in the previous half year, developing the practice of attacking illegal publishing activities, and unanimously think that: the State Council policy decision on launching attacks on illegal publishing activities is correct and timely. The battle results obtained in the previous half-year fully bear out this point. According to incomplete statistics, from July 1987 until the end of October, in the entire country, more than 16130000 illegal books, 4747000 illegal periodicals, 6566000 illegal newspapers, 1510000 illegal audio tapes and 89600 illegal video tapes were tracked town nationwide. Of these, a large part had content inciting sex and violence, of a low artistic style, instigating crime, gravely destroying the socialist publishing undertaking, disordering the socialist culture market, influencing the construction of a spiritual civilization, corrupting the prestige of the revolution and the opening-up policy; especially these illegal publications poisoned social atmosphere, poisoned the masses and especially had a big influence on minors. In recent years, criminals tend to become lower in age, the proportion of youth of 25 years and lower in the total number of criminals is more than 50%. Under young criminals, the proportion of sex crimes and violent crimes is proportionate, of those, not a little are gang crimes resembling underworld societies. The causes of the appearance of this sort of social phenomenon, are manifold, one of the important causes is the poisoning and seduction by illegal publications propagating fighting, murder, sex and obscenity. Because of this, it is fully necessary to conduct strict attack of illegal publishing activities, especially criminal illegal publishing activities. Launching this sort of struggle, is a comprehensive governance work integrating strengthening administrative management, strengthening economic management, strengthening public order management and attacking crimes, it is an important move in using legal methods to manage society and the economy, it is an important step in deepening reform and creating a desirable social environment. The participating comrades pointed out, this campaign attacking illegal publishing activities, was highly regarded by all levels of government, was carried out by relevant entities in coordination, was broadly propagated, has created large impetus, had correct focal points, paid attention to policy, blocked sources and dammed rivers, strengthened management, thereby obtaining marked results in a relatively short time, it has begun to stop short the illegal publishing activities that had been running rampant for a while. But, we must still maintain sober minds, and must clearly understand that: because our country is in the beginning stages of socialism, feudalism and capitalism’s degenerate ideologies will exist for a long time, domestic and foreign antagonistic forces and hostile elements regarding with hostility and destroying our country’s Socialist system will exist for a long time; under the new circumstances of reform, opening up, and invigoration, there is bound to be a number of people by hook or by crook studying the loopholes where our legal system is not complete, using illegal publishing activities to seek large and quick profits, even conducting sabotage activities. Because of this, we must make investigating and prosecuting criminal illegal publishing activities into a long-term duty, strengthen communication, build mutual support, operate jointly, repulse the frontal assault of criminal illegal printing activities emerging at any time, in order to safeguard and promote the construction of the Four Modernizations, making reform and opening up be able to progress successfully.

 

II, The Meeting stressed strengthening regular management work, progressively making publishing management work legalized and systematized.

The participating comrades pointed out, in order to relatively thoroughly curb illegal printing activities, we must counter problems existing in all publishing activity (including editing, printing, distribution and sales) segments, try to find out management systems conforming to objective laws, both take stop-gap measures and go to the root; both stopping leaks, and benefit the vigour of reform, making management work progressively march along legalized and systematized tracks, promoting our country’s publishing undertakings to enter a healthy and vigorous development phase. The top priority in publishing management work is strengthening management over the printing sector, in order to block the source of illegal publications. To this end, the Meeting conducted discussion over the “Provisional Rules on Printing Sector Management “Opinion-seeking Draft” jointly drafted by entities such as the State Economic Commission, the General Administration of Press and Publications, the Ministry of Public Security, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Light Industry, etc., put forward opinions for revision, hoping for a speedy promulgation and implementation.

 

III, The Meeting thinks that the State Council “Provisional Administrative Punishment Regulation on Speculation and Profiteering” and the Two Supreme’s “Notice” have provided a clear legal basis for investigation and prosecution of illegal printing activities.

Through earnestly studying these two legal documents, the participating comrades unanimously think that: these two legal documents’ promulgation has provided a legal basis for investigation and prosecution of illegal printing activities, indicating a large step in our country’s publishing management undertaking in strengthening legal system construction advancement.

Everyone analyzing these two legal documents’ content said: the provisions of the first paragraph in the Two Supremes’ “Notice” clarified the legal basis for investigating and prosecuting general criminal illegal printing activities, namely that all engagement in publishing, printing, distribution and sales of illegal publications with the aim of making quick and huge profits, where circumstances are grave, shall be punished as the crime of speculation and profiteering; the provisions of the second paragraph in the Two Supremes’ “Notice”, clarified that when investigating and prosecuting special illegal publication activities, where illegal business or illegal income volumes are huge or circumstances are grave, they shall be punished as the crime of speculation and profiteering. Furthermore, the Provisional Administrative Punishment Regulations on Speculation and Profiteering” listed “activities of printing, selling or disseminating illegal publications (including audiovisual publications”, obtaining illegal profit” in the speculation and profiteering activities to be punished administratively, thus providing a legal basis for investigating and prosecution general illegal printing activities not constituting a crime. If it is said that, previously, attacking illegal publishing activities lacked strength because before, legal provisions were not clear enough, then, when from now on it appears that attacking lacks strength, it is a problem in our work.

 

IV, The Meeting made relatively clear understanding of several important policy and legal demarcation problems presently facing investigation and prosecution of criminal illegal printing activities.

The participating comrades through deeply discussing the present problems existing in investigation and prosecution work, have made relatively clear understanding of several important policy and legal definition problems that should be resolved.

1. Concerning the meaning of “illegal publication”. Thee State Council “Notice Concerning Strictly Attacking Illegal Publishing Activities” has clearly provided a definition of illegal publication: all newspapers, periodicals, books, audio tapes, video tapes, etc., not printed by a State-approved publishing work unit and openly distributed on the market, are illegal publications. Material-type books, newspapers and audiovisual publications, printed or recorded by publishing work units for internal use, must be reported for approval with the controlling work unit, and be checked and approved by the county-level or higher (including county-level) Press and Publications (Culture) administrative organ or the provincial-level or higher (including provincial-level) audiovisual management organ, and issued with a printing approval certificate, and may only then be printed; otherwise, the printed publication shall also be considered as an illegal publication.

The above provisions differentiate the definition of lawful and unlawful, taking whether or not the publication itself has obtained relevant State entity permission as basis. According to the provisions of relevant administrative regulations, only publishing work units approved for registration by State publications management entities, being registered with the administrative industry and commerce management entity of their locality and having obtained a business licence, are lawful publishing work units. All publications printed by non-lawful publishing work units and openly distributed, are illegal publications.

 

This sort of illegal publication mainly has the following forms:

publications printed, falsely using the name of a publishing work unit, which simply does not exist;

publications printed, misappropriating the name of a State-approved publishing work unit;

publications pirating lawful publications and being openly distributed and sold to society;

publications being openly distributed to society, not being signed by a publishing work unit or signed by non-publishing work unit;

publications of which the printer, with the aim of seeking illegal profit, made unauthorized added production runs;

publications of which personnel of publishing work units ordered to be disbanded, made unauthorized reprints or published it under the name of the original editorial department;

publications printed by other non-publishing work units and openly distributed to society.

Apart from the abovementioned illegal publications, publications with obscene and reactionary content are also illegal publications; publications having illegal or reactionary content, even if published by State-approved publishing work units, shall also be considered as illegal publications.

2. Concerning the present investigation and prosecution focus targets. The participating comrades think that, the present investigation and prosecution of illegal printing activities, shall focus on investigating and prosecuting the following kinds of criminal:

criminals who, with the aim of quick and large profit, engage in production, selling or dissemination of obscene publications;

criminals who, with the aim of quick and large profits, in large quantities publish, print, distribute or sell illegal publications illegal publications with obscene or reactionary content;

criminals who have engaging in illegal publishing activities as main occupation, where the illegally obtained income volume is huge;

ringleaders of illegal printing activities groups;

criminals engaging in illegal printing activities who are impenitent, especially those that have been punished in the past and have not repented and reformed, and continuously do illegal printing activities.

The participating comrades stress, in investigation and prosecution work, it is certainly necessary to fully pay attention to the definitions differentiating between lawful and unlawful, criminal and non-criminal: those prosecuted for criminal liability, must be activities having harm to society, constituting a crime, that should be subject to criminal punishment. Furthermore, to judge whether or not the fundamental norm for social harmfulness is met, it should be considered wither or not it is beneficial for developing productivity, whether or not it benefits the construction of socialist spiritual civilization.

These illegal printing activities with relatively light circumstances, of which the harm is not large, in principle are not dealt with criminally; where fresh things emerging in reform, it is necessary to protect and foster them. In short, it is necessary to persist in the principle of “taking reality as basis, taking law as criterion”, strictly handle matters according to the law, pay attention to grasping policy definitions, being strict where strictness is called for, being relaxed where relaxedness is called form “seek truth from facts, extend differentiated treatment, in order to reach the objective of attacking the small number of grave lawbreakers, and educate the large masses”.

3. Concerning the question of how to determine “grave circumstances” in criminal illegal publishing cases investigated and prosecuted under the crime speculation and profiteering. The participating comrades think that, for determining “grave circumstances”, a relatively large illegal business volume or illegal profit volume shall be taken as beginning point, and consideration of other grave circumstances is integrated. Because some illegal printing activities themselves have characteristics such as not paying remuneration, printing amounts are large, profits are high, etc., if the provisions on “amount” in the Two Supremes’ “Reply to Present Handling of Some Questions Concerning Concretely Applicable Law in Economic Crime Cases (Trial)” completely would apply in illegal publishing criminal cases, it would not be appropriate. But, at present, relatively few judicial organs handle this sort of cases, the illegal printing activities situation is also relatively complex, for putting forward a relatively appropriate punishment measurement amount standards, conditions are not mature enough, it is necessary to sum up the experience of judicial practice. At present, all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities may according to the amounts provided by the Two Supremes in 1985, according to the real situation in that locality, stipulate amount standards for grasp in that locality. At the same time, other grave circumstances must be integrated and given consideration. Other grave circumstances mainly are: the poison in illegal publication content is large, harmfulness is large; long-time engaging or repeatedly committing illegal publishing activities; not repenting and reforming after administrative punishment; using official powers to commit illegal printing activities, illegal publications already being distributed to society, etc.

4. Concerning the question of appraising illegal publications. The participating comrades unanimously agree that judicial authorities shall entrust local provincial, autonomous region and municipal publications controlling authorities organize personnel having expert knowledge and a certain political calibre to conduct appraisal of illegal publications, especially obscene publications. For publication appraisal must be conducted by three or more people appointed by the publications controlling authority and invited by judicial organs; after appraisal, an appraisal letter shall be written; the appraisers and work units of which appraisers have been appointed shall sign their names or stamp their seal on the appraisal letter; the appraisal letter shall relatively concretely describe the basis for the appraisal conclusion. When there are disputes or differences over the appraisal conclusion, where it concerns books and periodicals, it shall be submitted to the General Administration of Press and Publications for organization of expert review, where it concerns audiovisuals, it shall be submitted to the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television for organization of expert review. Standards for appraising obscene publications are the relevant provisions of the “Regulations Concerning Prohibition of Obscene Products”, promulgated by the State Council in April 1985.

5. Concerning how to treat cases already dealt with. Cases already handled before issuance of the Two Supremes’ “Notice” are generally not changed, but the following small amount of cases must be dealt with again: cases where illegal income or illegal business volumes are especially huge, and the original sentence is overly light; cases where criminal circumstances are vile, and the original sentence is overly light; cases which should be punished severely according to the law, but where only administrative punishment was imposed; cases of failure to repent and reform after administrative punishment, and continuing to engage in illegal printing activities or other criminal activities.

6. Concerning the question of evidence. When investigating and prosecuting criminal illegal publishing cases, it is necessary to lay emphasis on evidence, lay emphasis on investigation and research, and not delivering thoughtless testimonies; it is necessary to make strong evidence, for illegal business or illegal income amounts, there must be irrefutable evidence, with correct calculations, calculations cannot be rough.

7. Concerning the question of how to deal with State organs and enterprise work units engaging in illegal printing activities. The participating comrades reflect, at present, when investigating illegal printing activities in State organs and enterprise work units, obstruction is large, and they are difficult to handle. The participating comrades think that, when handling this sort of cases, it is certainly necessary to persist in the principle of “everyone is equal before the law”, being upright and not given to flattery, justly and impartially enforcing the law, strictly handle cases according to the relevant provisions in the Two Supremes’ “Reply to Present Handling of Some Questions Concerning Concretely Applicable Law in Economic Crime Cases (Trial)” ; namely: State organs and enterprise work units conducting illegal publishing activities, where that work unit seeks improper benefit, are generally dealt with by administrative industry and commerce management organs according to industry and commerce regulations; for those where controlling personnel and directly-responsible persons in charge embezzle public funds, where circumstances are grave and it constitutes a crime, criminal liability shall be prosecuted according to the law; abovementioned work units conducting illegal printing activities, where the amounts are especially huge, or large losses are created for the State, the controlling personnel and directly responsible persons in charge shall also be prosecuted for criminal liability. The participating comrades stress, investigating and prosecuting criminal illegal printing activities is a pressing task, and moreover is a work with a strong policy nature. All relevant entities, after the meeting, shall further strengthen communication, interflow situations, give mutual support, coordinate campaigns, and may not mutually shift responsibility, and may also not exceed their authority by handling cases that fall not within their purview. Management organs such as Press and Publications, Radio, Film and Television, Culture, etc., must jointly with entities such as Public Security, Industry and Commerce, etc., realistically strengthen management over all links of publishing activities; administrative industry and commerce entities must speedily thoroughly investigate illegal and unlawful publishing activities, and make administrative punishments according to the law; concerning illegal printing activities, especially criminal production activities of obscene publications, public security entities must speedily file cases, crack cases, transfer cases to the procuratorial organs; procuratorates and courts, after accepting cases, shall punish grave illegal publishing criminals according to the law. The Meeting hopes that all localities catch some model cases, especially major and important cases, and speedily thoroughly investigate and handle them, broadly propagate them, in order to promote investigation and prosecution of criminal illegal printing activities work’s deep development.

 

新闻出版署、公安部、广播电影电视部、国家工商行政管理局关于印发《依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会纪要》的通知

为全面贯彻落实国务院《关于严厉打击非法出版活动的通知》,新闻出版署、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、广播电影电视部、国家工商行政管理局于1987年12月25日至28日在北京联合召开了部分省市新闻出版局、法院、检察院、公安厅(局)有关负责人参加的依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会。现将会议纪要发给你们,请迅速传达贯彻,以推动查处非法出版犯罪活动工作的深入开展。最高人民法院、最高人民检察院对《纪要》中涉及的政策、法律界限问题,将作进一步的司法解释。如《纪要》与“两高”的解释相抵触,以“两高”的解释为准。

附:依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会纪要
为全面贯彻落实国务院《关于严厉打击非法出版活动的通知》,进一步明确查处非法出版犯罪活动的法律依据和政策界限,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、新闻出版署、广播电影电视部、国家工商行政管理局于1987年12月25日至28日在北京联合召开了有辽宁、山东、陕西、四川、江西、湖北、广东、北京、天津、上海等10省、市法院、检察院、公安厅(局)、新闻出版局有关负责人参加的《依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会》。全国人大常委会法制工作委员会、国务院办公厅、中宣部出版局等有关部门派人出席了会议。与会同志以党的十三大确定的基本路线为指导,认真学习、研究了国务院发布的《投机倒把行政处罚暂行条例》和最高人民法院、最高人民检察院发布的《关于依法严惩非法出版犯罪活动的通知》(以下简称两高《通知》),交流了查处非法出版犯罪活动的经验和问题,并结合具体案例深入讨论了查处工作中应注意的政策、法律界限;公安、新闻出版系统与会的同志还专门讨论了《印刷行业管理暂行办法(征求意见稿)》。现纪要如下:
一、会议总结了前一段打击非法出版活动的工作,进一步加深了对查处工作的重要意义的认识。
与会同志回顾半年来贯彻国务院《关于严厉打击非法出版活动的通知》精神、开展打击非法出版活动的实践,一致认为:国务院关于开展打击非法出版活动的决策,是正确的、及时的。半年来取得的战果充分证明了这一点。据不完全统计,1987年7月至10月底,全国共查获非法图书1613万余册,非法期刊474.7万余册,非法报纸656.6万余份,非法录音带151万余盒,非法录像带89600余盒。其中大部分内容诲淫诲盗,格调低下,教唆犯罪,严重地破坏了社会主义的出版事业,扰乱了社会主义的文化市场,影响了精神文明的建设,败坏了改革、开放政策的声誉;尤其是这些非法出版物毒化了社会风气,毒害了群众,特别是对青少年影响更大。近年来,刑事犯罪人员趋于低龄化,25岁以下的青少年犯罪占刑事犯罪人员总数的50%以上。在青少年犯罪中,性犯罪、暴力犯罪占相当比重,其中不少是带有帮会色彩的团伙犯罪。出现这种社会现象,原因是多方面的,重要原因之一就是受了宣扬打斗、凶杀、色情、淫秽的非法出版物的毒害和引诱。因此,对非法出版活动,特别是对非法出版犯罪活动,进行严厉打击,是十分必要的。开展这项斗争,是把加强行政管理、加强经济管理、加强治安管理与打击犯罪结合起来的综合治理工作,是运用法律手段管理社会和经济的重要步骤,是为深化改革创造良好社会环境的重要措施。与会同志还指出,这次打击非法出版活动的行动,由于各级政府重视,有关部门协同作战,广泛宣传,大造声势,重点明确,注意政策,堵源截流,加强管理,从而在较短的时间内取得了显著成效,初步刹住了猖獗一时的非法出版活动。但是,我们仍要保持清醒的头脑,要清楚地认识到:由于我国处于社会主义初级阶段,封建主义和资本主义的腐朽思想还将长期存在,敌视和破坏我国社会主义制度的国内外的敌对势力、敌对分子还将长期存在;在改革、开放、搞活的新形势下,势必仍有一些人千方百计地钻法制不健全的空隙,利用非法出版活动牟取暴利,甚至进行破
坏活动。因此,我们要将查处非法出版犯罪活动作为一项长期的任务,加强联系,互相支持,联合行动,对随时出现的非法出版犯罪活动予以迎头痛击,以保卫和促进四化建设,使改革、开放得以顺利进行。
二、会议强调加强经常性的管理工作,逐步使出版管理工作法规化、制度化。
与会同志指出,要比较彻底地制止非法出版活动,必须针对出版活动(包括编辑、印刷、发行、销售)每个环节存在的问题,摸索符合客观规律的管理制度,既治标,又治本;既堵塞漏洞,又利于改革搞活,使管理工作逐步走上法规化、制度化的轨道,促进我国出版事业进入健康而富有活力的发展阶段。出版管理中的当务之急是加强印刷业的管理,以堵塞非法出版物的源头。为此,会议对国家经委、新闻出版署、公安部、国家工商行政管理局、文化部、轻工部等部门联合草拟的《印刷行业管理暂行办法(征求意见稿)》进行了讨论,提出了修改意见,希望尽快发布实施。
三、会议认为国务院发布的《投机倒把行政处罚暂行条例》和两高《通知》,为查处非法出版活动提供了明确的法律依据。
通过认真学习两个法规文件,与会同志一致认为:这两个法规文件的发布,为查处非法出版活动提供了法律依据,标志着我国出版管理事业在加强法制建设方面前进了一大步。
大家分析这两个文件的内容说:两高《通知》的第一项规定,明确了查处一般的非法出版犯罪案件的法律依据,即凡是以牟取暴利为目的,从事非法出版物的出版、印刷、发行、销售活动,情节严重的,都应当按投机倒把罪论处;两高《通知》的第二项规定,明确了查处特殊的非法出版活动,其中非法经营或非法获利数额巨大或情节严重的,应以投机倒把罪论处。而《投机倒把行政处罚暂行条例》将“印制、销售、传播非法出版物(包括录音录像制品),获得非法利润的行为”,列入应予以行政处罚的投机倒把行为,则为查处一般的构不成犯罪的非法出版活动提供了法律依据。有了这两个法律文件,查处非法出版活动的法律依据就比较完备了。如果说,以往对非法出版活动打击不力是因为法律规定不够明确,那么,今后再出现打击不力的现象就是我们工作上的问题了。
四、会议对当前查处非法出版犯罪活动中的几个重要的政策、法律界限问题有了较明确的认识。
与会同志通过对当前查处工作中存在问题的深入讨论,对几个重要的应当解决的政策、法律界限问题有了较明确的认识。
1.关于“非法出版物”的含义。国务院《关于严厉打击非法出版活动的通知》对非法出版物的含义作了明确规定:凡不是国家批准的出版单位印制的在社会上公开发行的报纸、期刊、图书、录音带、录像带等,都属于非法出版物。非出版单位编印、翻录内部使用的非营利性的资料性图书、报刊和音像出版物,须报经主管单位批准,并经县级以上(含县级)新闻出版(文化)行政机关或省以上(含省级)音像管理机关核准并发给准印证,方可印制;否则,所印制的出版物,亦视为非法出版物。
上述规定区分合法与非法的界限,以出版物本身是否取得国家有关部门认可为依据。按照有关行政法规定,只有经国家出版管理部门审批登记、经所在地工商行政管理机关注册并领取了营业执照的出版单位,才是合法出版单位。凡不是合法出版单位印制的供公开发行的出版物,均是非法出版物。这类非法出版物的形式主要有:
伪称根本不存在的出版单位,印制的出版物;
盗用国家批准的出版单位的名义,印制的出版物;
盗印、盗制合法出版物而在社会上公开发行销售的出版物;
在社会上公开发行的、不署名出版单位或署名非出版单位的出版物;
承印者以牟取非法利润为目的,擅自加印、加制的出版物;
被明令解散的出版单位的成员,擅自重印或以原编辑部名义出版的出版物;
其他非出版单位印制的供公开发行的出版物。
除上述非法出版物外,内容淫秽、反动的出版物,也是非法出版物;即使国家批准的出版单位出版的具有淫秽、反动内容的出版物,也应视为非法出版物。
2.关于当前查处的重点对象。与会同志认为,在当前依法查处非法出版活动中,应重点查处以下几种犯罪分子:
以牟取暴利为目的,从事淫秽出版物的制作、贩卖、传播的犯罪分子;
以牟取暴利为目的,大量出版、印制、发行、销售内容淫秽、反动的非法出版物的犯罪分子;
以从事非法出版活动为常业、获取非法收入数额巨大的犯罪分子;
非法出版活动集团的首要分子;
从事非法出版活动屡教不改,特别是曾受到处罚仍不悔改,继续搞非法出版活动的犯罪分子。
与会同志强调,在查处工作中,一定要十分注意区分合法与非法、罪与非罪的界限:被追究刑事责任的,必须是具有社会危害性,已经构成犯罪,应当受到刑事处罚的行为。而判断是否具有社会危害性的根本标准,就是看其是否有利于发展生产力,是否有利于社会主义精神文明建设。
对于那些情节较轻、危害不大的非法出版活动,原则上不作为犯罪处理;对于改革中出现的新鲜事物,则要加以保护、扶植。总之,要坚持“以事实为根据,以法律为准绳”的原则,严格依法办事,注意掌握政策界限,该严则严,该宽则宽,“实事求是,区别对待,以达到打击少数严重不法分子,教育大多数的目的”。
3.关于对以投机倒把罪论处的非法出版犯罪案件如何认定“情节严重”的问题。与会同志认为,认定“情节严重”应当以非法经营的数额或非法获利的数额较大为起点,并结合考虑其他严重情节。由于非法出版活动本身具有的不付稿酬、印制量大、利润高等特点,如果对非法出版犯罪案件完全适用两高《关于当前办理经济犯罪案件中具体应用法律的若干问题的解答(试行)》中关于“数额”的规定,就不恰当了。但是,目前司法机关处理这类案件较少,非法出版活动的情况又较复杂,要提出一个比较适当的量刑数额标准,条件还不够成熟,需要通过司法实践总结经验。当前,各省、自治区、直辖市可参照两高1985年规定的数额,根据本地区的实际情况,规定本地区应掌握的数额标准。同时,应结合其他严重情节综合加以考虑。其他严重情节主要有:非法出版物内容的毒素大、危害性大;长期从事或多次搞非法出版活动;经行政处罚仍不悔改;利用职权搞非法出版活动;非法出版物已发行到社会上,等。
4.关于非法出版物的鉴定问题。与会同志一致同意对非法出版物,特别是淫秽出版物,司法机关应委托当地的省、自治区、直辖市出版物主管部门组织具有专门知识和一定政治素质的人进行鉴定。出版物的鉴定,必须有3名以上经出版物主管部门指派、经司法机关聘请的人进行;鉴定后,应写出鉴定书;鉴定人、指派鉴定人的单位应在鉴定书上签字或加盖印章;鉴定书应较具体地写明鉴定结论的根据。对鉴定结论发生争议或有异义时,属图书、报刊的,应提请国家新闻出版署组织专人复核;属音像的,应提请广播电影电视部组织专人复核。鉴定淫秽出版物的标准,是国务院1985年4月发布的《关于严禁淫秽物品的规定》中的有关规定。
5.关于如何对待已处理的案件。对两高《通知》下发前已作过处理的案件,一般不再变动,但对下列少数案件要重新处理:非法获利或非法经营数额特别巨大,而原判量刑畸轻的案件;犯罪活动情节恶劣,而原判量刑畸轻的案件;依法本应严惩,而只作了行政处罚的案件;受到行政处罚仍不悔必,继续从事非法出版活动或其他犯罪活动的案件等。
6.关于证据问题。在查处非法出版犯罪案件时,要重证据,重调查研究,不轻信口供;要把证据搞扎实;对非法经营和非法获利的数额,要证据确凿,计算准确,不能估算。
7.关于如何处理国家机关、企事业单位从事非法出版活动的问题。与会同志反映,目前在查处国家机关、企事业单位的非法出版活动中,阻力很大,处理困难。与会同志认为,办理这一类案件时,一定要坚持“在法律面前人人平等”的原则,刚正不阿,秉公执法,严格按照两高在《关于当前办理经济犯罪案件中具体应用法律的若干问题的解答(试行)》中的有关规定办案,即:国家机关、企事业单位进行非法出版活动,为本单位牟取不正当利益的,一般由工商行政管理机关按工商法规处理;对其中主管人员和直接责任人员中饱私囊、情节严重、构成犯罪的,应依法追究其刑事责任;上述单位进行非法出版活动,数额特别巨大,或者给国家造成重大损失的,对其主管人员和直接责任人员也应依法追究刑事责任。与会同志强调,查处非法出版犯罪活动既是一项紧迫的任务,又是一项政策性很强的工作。各有关部门会后应进一步加强联系,互通情况,互相支持,配合行动,不要互相推诿,也不要越权插手不应属于本部门处理的案件。新闻出版、广播电影电视、文化等管理部门要会同公安、工商行政管理等部门切实加强对出版活动的各个环节的管理;工商行政管理部门对非法出版违法活动,要尽快查清,依法作出行政处罚;公安部门对非法出版犯罪活动,特别是对制作淫秽出版物的犯罪活动,要迅速立案、侦破、移送检察机关;检察院、法院受理案件后,对严重的非法出版犯罪分子,应当依法惩处。会议希望各地抓住若干典型案例,特别是大案要案,尽快查清处理,广为宣传,以推动查处非法出版犯罪活动工作的深入开展。

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