Provisional Rules on Publishing House Reform

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Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, our country’s publishers have rapidly recovered and developed At present, there are more than 460 publishers in our country regional distribution is relatively widespread, they are largely complete in specialization categories, and the main body of publisher distribution has been largely completed. At present, the main tasks are conducting reform and striving to run the existing publishers well.

In recent years, publishing reform has seen relatively clear progress in a number of areas. Publishers have changed the situation of taking class struggle as the key link and revolving around political campaigns, and broadened the book publishing sphere, have diligently propagated Marxism and the Party line, principles and policies, have diligently served reform and opening up, and have diligently served the construction of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Local publishers’ operational policies have changed from localization, popularization and vulgarization to being based in a location and facing the entire country, and have changed from comprehensive publishing into specialized publishing. Publishers have conducted job title reform and have conducted evaluation and appointment in a specialized position system. Large numbers of publishers conduct enterprise management, and begin to pay regard to operations, pay regard to self-organized distribution, and are changing from a production model to a production-operations model. Some publishers have conducted trials and explorations concerning a director responsibility system, cooperative publishing, self-funded publishing and contracted responsibility systems. But, many issues that require reform still exist in publishers’ work, State macro-level management over publishing work is insufficient, and control is excessive and lethal at the micro level, book topic selection and structuring are insufficiently rational and perfect, book quality remains to be raised, book publishers lack the necessary decision-making power, etc. Inside publishers, Party and State are not separated, politics and business are not separated, there is egalitarianism in allocation and operational mechanisms lack the necessary vitality. Because of this, it is necessary to further liberate thoughts, dare to explore, and further move publishing house reform forward.

On the basis of the practice of publishing house reform in the past few years, hereby, the following trial rules on the present issue of publishing house reform (mainly being the issue of internal reform in publishing houses) are hereby put forward:

I, Guiding ideology for publishing house reform

The basic objective of publishing house reform is to establish and develop a Socialist publishing system full of vitality, even better persist in the principle of serving the people and serving Socialism, raise the quality of books, publish even more good books, and contribute to material civilization and spiritual civilization construction.

Under conditions of developing the planned Socialist commodity economy, publishers must transform from production models to production-operation models, ensuring that publishers are both publishers of books and managers of books. In order to adapt to this sort of transformation, reform needs to be conducted both vigorously and reliably over the original structure of publishers, including leadership structures, operational structures, management structures, human affairs structures, allocation structures, etc., in order to raise the adaptability, competitiveness and self-development capacity of publishers.

Publishers must both give high regard to social effect and give high regard to economic effect, and must put social effect first. But publishers who assume sole responsibility for profits and losses, if they do not stress economic interests, will also face difficulty in realizing social interest. In dealing with concrete questions, where a contradiction occurs between economic effect and social effect, economic effect must submit to social effect. In short, efforts must be made to integrate social effect and economic effect.

Publishing more good books is the basic indicator to measure the effect of publishing house reform. Conducting reform of publishing house structures, strengthening and improving operations, is for the sake of creating conditions in all aspects, to guarantee the publication of more good books and stimulate the construction of a Socialist spiritual civilization

II, Optimizing topic selection, adjusting book structures

Optimizing topic selection, adjusting and perfecting book structures is the key to raising book quality and publishing more good books. In reform, publishers must fix eyes upon earnestly editing and publishing books that reflect and promote the progress of the times, disseminate and accumulate excellent ideological, moral, scientific and cultural achievements of humankind, and enrich the spiritual and cultural life of the popular masses, in order to satisfy the needs of all kinds and all levels of readers.

Topic selection planning must be grasped from beginning to end. In formulating topic selection plans, a method integrating bottom-up and top-down may be employed, it is necessary to guarantee and support the vigour of editorial and writing groups, and to submit to needs of overall planning of the whole publishing house. In order to broaden sources for contributions and timely grasp important selected topics, writing groups may be established inside and outside publishing houses for compilation.

Efforts must be made to grasp focus books. Publishers and editorial offices must have their own focus book publishing plans, and guarantee completion on the basis of quality and quantity. Focus books must strive to explore and innovate, fill in gaps and give prominence to the characteristics of their publishers.

In order to guarantee book quality, in principle, a three-examination system shall be persisted in. The final examination and dispatching of manuscripts must certainly be the responsibility of the general editor, the vice-general editor or an editor or vice-editor entrusted by the general editor or vice-general editor who is approved by the publishing house director

Reprinting books must be grasped well. On the basis of book content and market situations, arrange for reprints in a planned manner, progressively accumulate the retained book lists of the publisher, and shape one’s own characteristics. At present, mediocre and roughly made books are excessive in number, paper and other resources are in extremely short supply, decisions must be made to control the variety of published books, to guarantee book quality.

Publishers’ specialist division of labour is a requirement of development and progress in publishing work, and shall be persisted in. In order to stimulate the publication of academic theory monographs and science or technology books, publishing houses with a relatively narrow specialization (science and technology publishing houses and academic publishing houses) may loosen up somewhat, and are permitted to publish small numbers (not exceeding 3-5% of the overall topic selection of one year) of books related to or near to their discipline. Book topic selections exceeding the specialist division of labour must be reported for approval in advance with the higher-level controlling department.

III, Progressively carrying out the director responsibility system

The system of director and general editor responsibility under Party Committee leadership is no longer suited to the present needs of publishing reform, and the director responsibility system must be practiced progressively. The director is the legal representative. Party organizations have a supervising and guaranteeing function.

Directors have complete leadership over publishers’ editing work and operational management work. The personnel power, financial power and topic selection, examination and approval power that the State provides publishers should have, are exercised by the director. Editorial departments and operational management departments are responsible to the director. The director may directly be appointed by the higher levels; publishers meeting conditions may generate one thought democratic election, who is appointed by higher levels. A term of office system is implemented for directors, they may renew their term. If they are unqualified, they may be reappointed or dismissed.

Whether or not publishers have a general editor, whether this is an independent position or concurrently held by the director, may differ between publishers, and no uniform provision is made. General editors, vice-general editors and vice-directors are put forward by the director, and reported to the higher level controlling department for assessment and appointment.

The publisher’s affairs committee is a discussion organ, is chaired by the director, the director shall earnestly listen to the opinions of the publisher’s affairs committee members, but has the power of decision in discussed issues.

Publishers establish an employees’ representative conference or a staff conference system. The employees’ representative conference or staff conference conducts supervision of the director. Higher-level controlling departments must listen to the opinions of the employees’ representative conference or staff conference when assessing the director.

IV, Vigorously promoting many kinds of responsibility system

Many kinds of responsibility systems are implemented in all publishing house departments, progressively integrating responsibility, power and interest.

Editorial departments must implement a specialist position appointment system and a post responsibility system. Specialist positions must not only be coupled with salary income, but must also be coupled with a post responsibility. Other specialist positions in publishing houses shall also have these requirements.

Continue to implement and perfect all sorts of internal publisher responsibility contracting systems. Editorial departments, when trying out responsibility contracting systems, must have requirements and measures guaranteeing social effect, it is not permitted to ignore publishing policies and book quality, and one-sidedly pursue economic gain. Consider the characteristics of editorial work, profit targets should not be broken down to individuals.

In order to rationally use talent, integrate the establishment of a post responsibility system with progressively achieving the optimization of staff composition in publishers. Publishers may conduct trials to organize staff by the editorial office chair or editors, and establish suitable forms of responsibility system collectives.

Publishers meeting conditions may  try out a contracted business responsibility system to the State (higher-level controlling organ). The main contracted content shall include book publishing varieties, quality, quantity and profit.

V, Persist in allocation according to work done, dare to open up differences.

For salary and bonuses, persist in the principle of allocation according to work done, overcome egalitarianism, reward the diligent and punish the lazy, reward the excellent and punish the bad, in order to benefit mustering vigour and raise book quality.

Awards shall be allocated according to the size of the contribution, differences must be opened up. Those making special contributions shall be given a large award. The contribution must be measured completely, including the quality and quantity of labour, social effect and economic effect.

Award measures must fully reflect the characteristics of the spirit borne in editorial departments and production tasks, award rules may be varied. Individual awards may be set up, comprehensive awards may also be set up. Awards may be given on the basis of exceeding quota, may be given through selection, and may be given on the basis of contract conditions.

Where there are awards, there should be punishments. Those violating publishing orientation, not completing their provided tasks, where accidents and negligence occur, and publishing discipline is violated, shall be punished correspondingly on the basis of the gravity of circumstances. The work position of unqualified personnel shall be changed.

VI, Open up many kinds of channels, expand publishing capacity

Publishers may open up many sorts of channels and use social forces to expand funding sources and strive to publish more books.

Cooperative publishing is a new method that emerged in publishing reform. On the basis of the experiences and lessons from trials in the past few years, the scope of cooperatively published books shall be limited to academic works and works in the natural sciences, engineering and technology at present; the targets for cooperation shall at present be limited to State scientific research and education work units and organs and State-run enterprise and undertaking work unit, they cannot be collectives and individuals; cooperatively published books must be subject to final examination and final proofreading by the publisher; both cooperative sides must sign agreements in advance. It is strictly prohibited for publishers to sell book numbers under the guise of cooperative publishing.

Self-funded publishing benefits the resolution of the issue that it is difficult to publish academic works, provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities meeting conditions may appoint a publisher to comprehensively plan and arrange self-funded publishing business. Central first-level publishers meeting conditions may engage in self-funded publishing works after examination and agreement by the Administration of Press and Publications. Self-funded publications at present are limited to academic works and works in the natural sciences, engineering and technology; self-publishers may be work units and may not be individuals; the entire process of self-funded publications’ editing, printing and distribution is the uniform responsibility of the publisher; an agreement must also be signed in advance for self-funded publishing.

We must vigorously develop foreign-oriented publishing cooperation, including cooperative publishing work foreign publishers, and cooperative publishing with Hong Kong as well as Taiwan publishers. Foreign cooperative publishing mainly shall use the foreign side’s financial, technology and distribution channels, and strive to enter more books into the Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and foreign markets. The first stage of this work saw slow progress, and it shall be promoted more.

Publishers may entrust external printing shops to print books, and entrust external distribution work units to distribute books, but may not entrust this to individuals. Contracts must be signed in advance for entrusted printing and distribution, and it must be approved by higher-level controlling departments of both sides, otherwise it is considered an illegal publishing activity. It is prohibited that publishers covertly sell book numbers under the guise of printing or distribution agency.

Where it is truly necessary, publishers may, under the presupposition of not changing the purpose of running the publishing house and the management powers and with the approval of the controlling department, attract funding from State-owned work units and collectively-owned work units for use in developing production; science, technology and academic publishers meeting conditions may, with the agreement of the provincial-level government and the ministerial-level controlling department, and with the approval of the Administration of Press and Publications, try out joint operations with foreign capital, but the proportion of the foreign capital must be lower than 1/2, and the editorial department shall be controlled by our side.

VII, Constructing a line of high-quality publishing teams in reform

Doing publishing house reform well requires a line of high-quality teams, and this line of high-quality teams only can be built and mature during the process of reform.

The construction of publishing teams must pay regard to establishing new concepts beneficial to the construction of a Socialist spiritual civilization, and incessantly strengthening the sense of culture, sense of management and sense of competition of publishing house members. Conditions must be created to give rein to the function of all talents, dare to put these talents who are vigorous in change, have a broad outlook, stress practical results, are proficient in their work, and are rich with an exploratory spirit in editorial and management sides in important positions.

Publishers are important work units in constructing a Socialist spiritual civilization, and attention must be paid to raising the ideological and political levels of publishing house members, and especially all levels’ backbones, and to consciously persist in “one centre, two basic points”; foster the social responsibility professional morals and spirit of contribution of publishing house members, establish a sense of honour in carrying out the publishing undertaking, strengthen publishing teams’ centripetal force and cohesiveness. The necessary conditions must be created to ensure that publishing house members, and especially editors and publishing staff have the time for study, coursework, investigation, research, and participation in academic activities, to raise policy levels, knowledge levels and professional capacities, strengthen discipline and raise efficiency.

Under the precondition of completing their duties, editorial staff is recommended to engage in writing.

VIII, Strengthening leadership over publishing house reform

Publishing house reform has just started in many aspects, lacks practical experience, and will run in all sorts of difficulties and problems. All levels’ Party Committee propaganda departments and administrative publishing leading departments must enthusiastically give support and help publishers to explore boldly, earnestly summarize experience and timely resolve emerging problems, ensuring the healthy development of reform.

Publishing house reform is a systematic project, and requires comprehensive governance. Doing publishing house reform well not only depends on publishers themselves, but is also closely related to reform in printing, distribution and other aspects of the publishing system, and is also restricted by conditions external to the publishing system. All levels’ publishing leading departments must do both levels of macro-level management and micro-level vitalization well, and must streamline administration and institute decentralization, promote publishers to manage their own matters, and must conduct the necessary planning, guidance, supervision and coordination.

It is proposed that all relevant central and provincial, autonomous region and municipal departments strengthen leadership over publishing reform, and provide the necessary support in financial, credit, taxation, asset and other aspects. The situations of all localities and all departments’ publishing houses are different, the requirements for and progress of reform should also be different. Especially ethnic minority publishers, shall be given direct financial subsidy by the State, and special policies need to be continuously be implemented in reform, to stimulate development and even better serve ethnic minority economies, science and culture.

出版社改革试行办法
党的十一届三中全会以来,我国出版社迅速恢复和发展。全国现有出版社460多家,地区分布相当普遍,专业门类大体齐全,出版社布局的主体大体完成。目前的主要任务是进行改革,努力把现有出版社办好。

近几年来,出版社的改革在有些方面取得了比较明显的进展。出版社改变了以阶级斗争为纲、围绕政治运动转的状况,拓宽了出书领域,努力宣传马克思主义和党的路线、方针、政策,努力为改革开放服务,为建设有中国特色的社会主义服务。地方出版社的办社方针由地方化、群众化、通俗化改变为立足本地,面向全国,由综合出版社逐步分为专业出版社。出版社进行了职称改革,实行了评定和聘任专业职务的制度。大多数出版社实行企业管理,开始重视经营、重视自办发行,正在由生产型向生产经营型转变。一些出版社对社长负责制、协作出版、自费出版和承包责任制进行了试验和探索。但是,出版社工作还存在许多亟待改革的问题,国家对出版工作在宏观上管理不够,微观上统得过多、过死,图书的选题和结构不够合理和完善,图书质量亟待提高,出版社缺少应有的自主权,等等。在出版社内部,党政不分,政企不分,分配上平均主义,经营机制缺少应有的活力。因此,要继续解放思想,勇于探索,进一步推进出版社的改革。

根据出版社几年来改革的实践,现就目前出版社改革问题(主要是出版社内部改革问题),提出如下试行办法:

一、出版社改革的指导思想

出版社改革的根本目的是建立和发展充满活力的社会主义出版体制,更好地坚持为人民服务,为社会主义服务的方针,提高图书质量,出版更多的好书,为物质文明和精神文明建设做出贡献。

在发展社会主义有计划的商品经济的条件下,出版社必须由生产型向生产经营型转变,使出版社既是图书的出版者,又是图书的经营者。为适应这种转变,就需要积极而又稳妥地对出版社原来的体制,包括领导体制、经营体制、管理体制、人事体制、分配体制等进行改革,以提高出版社的应变能力、竞争能力和自我发展能力。

出版社既要重视社会效益,又要重视经济效益,必须把社会效益放在首位。但作为自负盈亏的出版社,如不讲经济效益,也难以实现社会效益。在具体问题的处理上,如果经济效益与社会效益发生矛盾,经济效益要服从社会效益。总之,要努力使社会效益与经济效益统一起来。

多出好书是衡量出版社改革成效的根本标志。对出版社的体制进行改革,加强和改善经营,是为了从各方面创造条件,以保证多出好书,促进社会主义精神文明建设。

二、优化选题,调整图书结构

优化选题,调整完善图书结构,是提高图书质量、多出好书的关健。出版社在改革中要着眼于认真编辑出版反映和推动时代前进、传播和积累人类优秀思想、道德、科学、文化成果,丰富人民群众精神文化生活的图书,以满足各方面、各层次读者的需要。

要始终抓紧选题规划。制定选题规划可以采取自下而上和自上而下相结合的方式,既要保护和支持编辑组稿的积极性,又要服从全社统筹安排的需要。为了扩大稿源,及时抓到重要选题,可在社内社外设组稿编辑。

要下力气抓好重点书。出版社和编辑室都要有自己的重点书出版规划,保证按质按量地完成。重点书要力求开拓创新,填补空白,突出本社特色。

为了保证图书质量,原则上应该坚持三审制。终审发稿,一定要由总编辑、副总编辑或由总编辑、副总编辑委托并经社长同意的编审、副编审负责决定。

要抓好重印书。根据图书内容和市场情况,有计划地安排重印,逐步积累本社的保留书目,形成自己的特色。目前平庸、粗制滥造的图书过多,纸张等资源又十分紧张,要下决心控制出书品种,确保图书质量。

出版社的专业分工是出版工作发展和进步的需要,应当坚持。为了促进学术理论著作、科技图书的出版,对一些专业面较窄的出版社(科技出版社和学术出版社),可以有所放宽,允许出版少量(不超过当年全部选题的3—5%)相关或相近学科的图书。超过专业分工的图书选题,要事前向上级主管部门报批。

三、逐步推行社长负责制

党委领导下的社长、总编辑负责制已不适应当前出版改革的要求,要逐步实行社长负责制。社长是法人代表。党组织起监督保证作用。

社长全面领导出版社的编辑工作和经营管理工作。国家规定的出版社应有的人权、财权和选题审批权,由社长行使。编辑部门和经营管理部门都对社长负责。社长可以直接由上级任命;有条件的出版社也可以民主选举产生,再由上级任命。社长实行任期制,可以连任。如不称职,可以调换或罢免。

出版社是否设总编辑,是单独设置还是由社长兼任,可以因社而异,不做统一规定。总编辑、副总编辑、副社长由社长提名,报上级主管部门考核、任命。

社务委员会为议事机构,由社长主持,社长应认真听取社务委员会成员的意见,但对所讨论的问题,社长有决定权。

出版社建立职工代表大会或职工大会制度。职工代表大会或职工大会对社长进行监督。上级主管部门在考核社长时,要听取职工代表大会或职工大会的意见。

四、积极推行多种形式的责任制

在出版社各个部门实行多种形式的责任制,使责、权、利逐步统一起来。

编辑部门要实行专业职务聘任制和岗位责任制。专业职务不仅要同工资收入挂钩,而且要同岗位责任挂钩。出版社的其他专业职务也应这样要求。

继续试行和完善出版社内部的各种承包责任制。编辑部门试行承包责任制时,要有保证社会效益的要求和措施,不允许不顾出版方针和图书质量,片面追求经济效益。考虑到编辑工作的特点,利润指标不宜分解到个人。

为了合理使用人才,结合建立岗位责任制,逐步做到优化出版社的人员组合。出版社可进行试点,由编辑室主任或编审组织人员,建立适当形式的责任制集体。

有条件的出版社可以试行向国家(上级主管机关)的承包经营责任制。承包的主要内容,应包括出书的品种、质量、数量和利润。

五、坚持按劳分配,敢于拉开差距

工资和奖金,都应当坚持按劳分配的原则,克服平均主义,奖勤罚懒,奖优罚劣,以利于调动积极性,提高图书质量。

奖金应根据贡献大小分配,要拉开差距。对有特殊贡献的应当给以重奖。贡献要全面衡量,包括劳动的质量和数量、社会效益和经济效益。

奖励的措施要充分体现编辑部门承担精神生产任务的特点,奖励的办法可以多种多样。可以设单项奖,也可以设综合奖。可以根据定额超额给奖,可以通过评选给奖,也可以按承包条件给奖。

有奖就应有罚。对于违反出版方针、完不成规定任务、出现责任事故、违反出版纪律的,应根据情节轻重,给予相应的处罚。不称职的人员应当更换工作岗位。

六、开辟多种渠道,扩大出版能力

出版社可以开辟多种渠道,利用社会力量,扩大资金来源,争取多出好书。

协作出版是出版改革中出现的一种新作法。根据前几年试行中的经验教训,协作出版图书的范围,目前应限于学术著作、自然科学和工程技术方面的著作;协作的对象,目前应限于国家科研、教学单位、机关和国营企事业单位,不能是集体和个人;协作出版的书稿要经过出版社终审、终校;协作双方要事先签订合同。严禁出版社借协作出版之名出卖书号。

自费出版有利于解决学术著作出版难的问题,有条件的省、自治区、直辖市可以指定一家出版社统筹安排自费出版业务。有条件的中央一级出版社经新闻出版署审核同意后就可办理自费出版业务。自费出版的图书目前限于学术著作、自然科学和工程技术方面的著作;自费出版者可以是单位,也可以是个人;自费出版著作的编、印、发全过程统一由出版社负责;自费出版也要事先签订合同。

要积极发展对外合作出版,包括同外国出版社的合作出版,同港澳以及台湾出版社的合作出版。对外合作出版主要是利用对方的资金、技术和发行渠道,争取更多的图书进入港、澳、台和国外市场。这项工作前一段时间进展不快,应当加以推动。

出版社可以在外地委托印刷厂印制图书,并委托外地的发行单位发行图书,但不得委托给个人。委托代印代发要事先签订合同,并经双方上级主管部门批准,否则视为非法出版活动。禁止出版社以代印代发名义变相出卖书号。

确有需要的出版社在办社宗旨和经营主权不变的前提下,经上级主管部门批准,可以吸收全民所有制单位、集体所有制单位的资金,用于发展生产;有条件的科技和学术性出版社,经省级政府和部级主管部门同意,并经新闻出版署批准,可以试行同外资合营,但外资股金必须低于1/2,编辑部应由我方掌握。

七、在改革中建设一支高素质的出版队伍

搞好出版社的改革需要有一支高素质的队伍,而这支高素质的队伍只有在改革的进程中才能建设和成长起来。

出版队伍的建设要重视树立有利于社会主义现代化建设和改革开放的新观念,不断强化出版社成员的文化意识、经营意识和竞争意识。要创造条件发挥各种人才的作用,敢于重用那些积极变革、眼界开阔、讲求实效、精通业务、在编辑和经营方面富有开拓精神的人才。

出版社是建设社会主义精神文明的重要单位,要注意提高出版社成员特别是各级骨干的思想政治水平,自觉坚持“一个中心、两个基本点”;培养出版社成员的社会责任感、职业道德和献身精神,树立从事出版事业的荣誉感,增强出版队伍的向心力和凝聚力。要创造必要的条件,使出版社成员,特别是编辑、出版人员有时间进行学习、进修、调查研究、参加学术活动,提高政策水平、知识水平和业务能力,加强纪律和提高效率。

在完成本职任务的前提下,提倡编辑人员从事写作。

八、加强对出版社改革的领导

出版社的改革在许多方面刚刚起步,缺乏实践经验,将会遇到各种困难和问题。各级党委宣传部和出版行政领导部门要满腔热情地给予支持,帮助出版社大胆探索,认真总结经验,及时解决出现的问题,使改革健康发展。

出版改革是个系统工程,需要综合治理。搞好出版社改革不仅取决于出版社本身,还与出版系统中的印刷、发行等方面的改革密切相关,而且受到出版系统外部条件的制约。各级出版领导部门,要在宏观管理和微观搞活两个方面做好工作,既要简政放权,推动出版社自主经营,又要进行必要的规划、指导、监督和协调。

建议中央和各省、自治区、直辖市的有关部门,加强对出版改革的领导,并在财政、信贷、税收和物资等方面给以必要的支持。各地区、各部门的出版社情况不同,改革的要求和进度应有所不同。特别是各少数民族出版社,国家一直给予财政补贴,在改革中需要继续实行特殊政策,促其发展,更好地为各少数民族发展经济、科学、文化服务。

 

One thought on “Provisional Rules on Publishing House Reform

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    November 24, 2012 at 10:49 am

    […] Provisional Rules on Publishing House Reform (1988) […]

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