Minutes of the Punishing Illegal Publication Criminal Activities According to the Law Work Symposium

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All provincial, autonomous region and municipal Higher People’s Courts and People’s Procuratorates, Liberation Army Courts Martial, Military Procuratorates:

In order to completely implement the “Notice Concerning Severely Attacking Illegal Publication Activities of the State Council, the General Administration of Press and Publication, the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Radio, Film and Television, State Administration of Industry and Commerce held a joint work symposium in Beijing from 25 through 28 December, attended by a part of provincial and municipal Press and Publication Bureaus, Courts, Procuratorates, Public Security Departments (Bureaus) on punishing illegal publication criminal activities according to the law. After the symposium, the General Administration of Press and Publications, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Radio, Film and Television, State Administration of Industry and Commerce issued on 8 March 1988 the “Minutes of the Punishing Illegal Publication Criminal Activities According to the Law Work Symposium” under the number (88)GAPP No. 216. The relevant summary of these “Minutes” is hereby transferred to you, please consult it in your work.

Attachment: Minutes of the Punishing Illegal Publication Criminal Activities According to the Law Work Symposium (Summary) (88)GAPP No. 216.

I, Concerning the meaning of “illegal publication”, State Council document (1987)65 has clearly provided the meaning for illegal publication:

All newspaper, periodicals, books, audiotapes, videotapes, etc., not printed by a State-approved publication work unit and openly distributed to society, are considered illegal publications.

Non-publication work units compiling and printing, and duplicating non-commercial reference books, newspapers and periodicals and audiovisual products for internal use, must be reported to the controlling work unit in charge for approval, and pass approval by county-level or higher (including county-level) administrative press and publications (culture) organs or provincial-level or higher (including provincial-level) audiovisual management organs and be issued a printing permit, and may only then be printed; if not, printed publications shall be considered as illegal publications.

The abovementioned regulation differentiates lawful and illegal boundaries, on the basis of whether or not publication themselves have obtained approval from relevant State entities, according to relevant administrative regulations and rules, work units are lawful publication work units only after undergoing State publication management entity examination, approval and registration and undergoing the local administrative industry and commerce management organ registration and obtaining a business licence. All publications openly published and printed by non-lawful publication work units are all illegal publication. The forms of this sort of illegal publication are mainly:

Printed publications falsely named to not existing publication work units;

Printed publications misappropriating the name of State-approved publication work units;

Publications pirating lawful publications and openly distributed and sold to society;

Publications openly distributed to society, not naming the publishing work unit or naming a non-publication work unit;

Publications printed or produced by the printed without authorization with the aim of gaining illegal profit;

Publications reprinted without organization or published under the name of the original editorial department by members of publication work units ordered to be cancelled;

Other publications printed by illegal publication work units and openly distributed.

Apart from the abovementioned illegal publications, publications with illegal and reactionary content are also illegal publications; even if a State-approved publication work unit publishes publications containing obscene or reactionary content, it should be regarded as illegal publications.

(…)

III, Concerning the issue concerning how to define “grave circumstances” for illegal publication criminal cases punished under the crime of profiteering in the “Notice” of the SPC and SPP. The participating comrades believe, the definition of “grave circumstances” shall take a relatively large illegal business volume or illegal gains value as a starting point, and integrate it with considering other grave circumstances. Because illegal publication activities themselves have special characteristics, such as not paying remuneration, a large printing amount, high profits etc., if the provisions of the “(Trial) Reply Concerning Some Issues on the Present Concrete Applicable Law Handling Economic Criminal Cases” of the SPC and SPP are completely applied to illegal publication criminal cases, it will not be appropriate. But, at present, judicial organs handle a small number of these cases, the illegal publication situation is also relatively complex, it is necessary to put forward a relatively suitable penalty value standard, the conditions are not mature enough, and the judicial practice experience must be summed up. At present, all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities may, with reference to values the SPC and SPP provisions of 1985, according to the real situation of their localities, provide value standards for control in their locality. Simultaneously, they shall integrate other grave circumstances and comprehensively consider them. Other grave circumstances are mainly: high toxicity or harmfulness or illegal publication content; engaging in illegal publication activities for a long time or repeatedly; not repenting after administrative punishment; using official powers to engage in illegal publication activities; illegal publications have already been distributed to society, etc.

IV, Concerning the issue of appraising obscene publications. The participating comrades unanimously agree that for obscene publications, judiciary organs shall entrust the local provincial, autonomous region and municipal publication controlling entities to organize personnel having specialized expertise and a certain political level to engage in appraisal. Obscene publication appraisal must be conducted by more than three persons appointed by the publication controlling entity, and engaged by the judiciary organs; after appraisal, an appraisal letter shall be written; the appraising persons and the work unit appointing the appraising persons shall sign or stamp the appraisal letter; the appraisal letter shall relatively concretely describe the basis for the appraisal conclusion.

最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于摘要转发《依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会纪要》的通知

各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院、人民检察院,解放军军事法院、军事检察院:

为全面贯彻落实国务院《关于严厉打击非法出版活动的通知》,新闻出版署、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、广播电影电视部、国家工商行政管理局于1987年12月25日至28日在北京联合召开了部分省、市新闻出版局、法院、检察院、公安厅(局)有关负责人参加的依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会。会后,新闻出版署、公安部、广播电影电视部、国家工商行政管理局于1988年3月8日以(88)新出发字第216号通知印发了《依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会纪要》。现将此《纪要》中的有关部分摘要转发给你们,请在工作中参考。

附:新闻出版署公安部广播电影电视部国家工商行政管理局依法查处非法出版犯罪活动工作座谈会纪要(摘要)(88)新出版字第216号

一、关于“非法出版物”的含义,国务院〔1987〕65号文件对非法出版物的含义作了明确规定:

凡不是国家批准的出版单位印制的在社会上公开发行的报纸、期刊、图书、录音带、录像带等,都属于非法出版物。

非法出版单位编制、翻录内部使用的非营利性的资料性图书、报刊和音像出版物,须报经主管单位批准,并经县级以上(含县级)新闻出版(文化)行政机关或省以上(含省级)音像管理机关核准并发给准印证,方可印刷;否则,所印制的出版物,亦视为非法出版物。

上述规定区分合法与非法的界限,以出版物本身是否取得国家有关部门认可为依据,按照有关行政法规定,只有经国家出版管理部门审批登记、经所在地工商行政管理机关注册并领取了营业执照的出版单位,才是合法出版单位。凡不是合法出版单位印制的供公开发行的出版物,均是非法出版物。这类非法出版的形式主要有:

伪称根本不存在的出版单位、印制的出版物;

盗用国家批准的出版单位的名义、印制的出版物;

盗印、盗制合法出版物而在社会上公开发行销售的出版物;

在社会上公开发行的、不署名出版单位或署名非出版单位的出版物;

承印者以牟取非法利润为目的,擅自加印、加制的出版物;

被明令解散的出版单位的成员,擅自重印或以原编辑部名义出版的出版物;

其他非出版单位印制的供公开发行的出版物。

除上述非法出版物外,内容淫秽、反动的出版物,也是非法出版物;即使国家批准的出版单位出版的具有淫秽、反动内容的出版物,也应视为非法出版物。

……

三、关于两高《通知》中对以投机倒把罪论处的非法出版犯罪案件如何认定“情节严重”的问题。与会同志认为,认定“情节严重”应当以非法经营的数额或非法获利的数额较大为起点,并结合考虑其他严重情节。由于非法出版活动本身具有的不付稿酬、印制量大、利润高等特点,如果对非法出版犯罪案件完全适用两高《关于当前办理经济犯罪案件中具体应用法律的若干问题的解答(试行)》中关于“数额”的规定,就不恰当了。但是,目前司法机关处理这类案件较少,非法出版活动的情况又较复杂,要提出一个比较适当的量刑数额标准,条件还不够成熟,需要通过司法实践总结经验。当前,各省、自治区、直辖市可参照两高1985年规定的数额,根据本地区的实际情况,规定本地区应掌握的数额标准。同时,应结合其他严重情节综合加以考虑。其他严重情节主要有:非法出版物内容的毒素大、危害性大;长期从事或多次搞非法出版活动;经行政处罚仍不悔改;利用职权搞非法出版活动;非法出版物已发行到社会上,等。

四、关于淫秽出版物的鉴定问题。与会同志一致同意对淫秽出版物,司法机关应委托当地的省、自治区、直辖市出版物主管部门组织具有专门知识和一定政治素质的人进行鉴定。淫秽出版物的鉴定,必须有3名以上出版物主管部门指派、经司法机关聘请的人进行;鉴定后,应写出鉴定书;鉴定人、指派鉴定人的单位应在鉴定书上签字或加盖印章;鉴定书应较具体地写明鉴定结论的根据。

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