Central Committee Some Opinions Concerning Further Flourishing of Literature and Art

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(17 February 1989)

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, a new picture of flourishing and prosperity has emerged in our country’s literature and art undertakings. Following the vigorous development of Socialist modernization construction and the incessant deepening of reform and opening up, literature and art undertakings are facing new circumstances and tasks. Earnestly implementing the basic Party line in the primary stage of Socialism, summarizing the historical experiences since founding the country and especially in the decade of the new period, reforming and strengthening Party leadership over literature and art undertakings, and persisting in principles and policies for the long-term and stable development of literature and art, has an important meaning for consolidating and developing stability and unity, a democratic and harmonious political picture, stimulating the Socialist material civilization and spiritual civilization construction as well as the further flourishing Socialist literature and art.

I, Correctly appraising the present circumstances of literature and art

(1) Since ten years, major historical changes have occurred our country’s literature and art. This sort of changes mainly are: the broad literature and art workers have shaken off the shackles of “leftism” from “taking class struggle as the key link” for a long time after the basic completion of the Socialist revolution, and have broken through a narrow understanding of the funding of literature and art, ideology has obtained a great liberation, creation has obtained large freedoms, spiritual outlooks have taken on an entirely new look. Literature and art works not only increase in unprecedented quantities, but also have made clear progress in reflecting the breadth and depth of social life, an have made important contributions in stimulating ideological liberation, encouraging the people to throw themselves into Socialist modernization construction, persist in the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up, and enriching the spiritual and cultural life aspects of the popular masses. At the same time as carrying forward the fine traditions of the nation’s culture, many literature and art works have vigorously attracted beneficial culture from outside, there have been new breakthroughs at the artistic level, and in content, themes, forms and styles, a diversified and flourishing picture has emerged. Literature and art commenting and literature and art theory is becoming gradually more vivid, literature and art ideology concepts have been renewed and developed. Mass-type cultural life activities develop more prosperously, broadly and flourishingly every day. New literature and art practices have created new literature and art talents, a batch of excellent young literature and art talents have come to the fore, giving vitality and life to literary circles and artistic circles, a line of Socialist literature and art teams welcomed by the popular masses and composed by older, middle-aged and younger members is being progressively developed and expanded. It ma be said that, these ten years are the period in which literature and art battle lines and ideologies were dynamic, achievements substantial and talents came forth in large numbers.

(2) The good situation at the cultural battle line, comes from the deep implementation of the Party line since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, comes from the Party bringing order out of chaos at the literature and art battle line in the last ten years and the major adjustment of literature and art principles and policies, and comes from the creative labour of the broad cultural workers. After the decade of chaos ended, the Party organized a reversal of unjust and false verdicts of a large batch of cultural workers, and rehabilitated the reputation of a large batch of excellent literature and art works that had been denounces; according to changes in the objective situation, we no longer raise the slogan the “literature and art serve politics”, and make “serving the people and serving Socialism” into literature and art work; we reiterate persistence in the principle of “letting a hundred flowers bloom, and a hundred schools contend”, and formulated a series of policies aimed at liberating literature and art productive forces; at the same time, the Party conducted appropriate criticism and persuasion concerning some negative phenomena appearing in the literature and art world. The Party’s guidance of the transformation in ideological and leadership methods, has aroused the vigour and creativity of the broad literature and art workers, and has created a beneficial environment and atmosphere for them to engage in literature and art free from anxiety.

(3) At present, the main problems still existing in literature and art work are: literature and art leading work and literature and art structures are not very well adapted to the requirement of the new circumstances, under the circumstances of the Socialist commodity economy, economic policies related to cultural work are insufficiently compete; remarkable literature and art works deeply reflecting social transformation and the spirit of the times are insufficient in number, and a number of works have appeared that are negative, vulgar, make people’s mind lax, and have a harmful influence of society; scientific literature and art criticism that seeks truth from facts has not been launched regularly and dynamically; some comrades in literature and art teams lac an understanding of the historical culture of the motherland, and lack a spirit of hard work and study concerning essential specialist skills; some comrades lack a sense of social responsibility, and the situation of being removed from life and reality exists in different degrees. Because of this, further liberating thoughts, strengthening a mentality of construction, enhancing unity, letting creation flourish, and strengthening theoretical research, have become issues that are urgently awaiting resolution in literature and art work under new circumstances.

(4)In the process of reform and opening up and developing the Socialist commodity economy, social phenomena are intricate and complex, very large changes have taken place in people’s ideologies, concepts and enjoyment habits, this cannot but be reflected in their understanding of literature and art problems. Because of this, we must put objective and dialectical analysis into the process of development concerning the situation of the literature and art battle line, and we can absolutely not simplify this. We must both prevent only looking at the bright side, and not squarely facing these problems that must be resolved; and prevent that when flaws are popping up, we use old concepts and old methods to observe and resolve new problems.

II, Persisting in the orientation of the “Two Fors”, persisting in the principle of “Double Hundred”

(1) Persisting in the orientation of literature and art “serving the people and serving socialism”, persisting in the policy of “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend” is the basic guarantee for a long-time and stable development of our country’s Socialist literature and art undertaking.

The Socialist literature and art undertakings are an important component part of Socialist spiritual civilization construction. We must inspire the spirit of the nation, raise the quality of the popular masses, enlighten people’s wisdom, beautify people’s souls, incessantly satisfy the broad masses’ diversified and multi-level culture life requirements, influence, infect, educate and hearten the people, and stimulate social progress through fully giving rein to the many functions of literature and art. Our literature and art must raise high the banner of patriotism and Socialism, carry forward Socialist humanitarianism and struggle untiringly to realize the Four Modernizations and revitalize China. We must advocate all excellent works benefiting to Socialist modernization construction and complete reform, advocate all excellent works benefiting setting people to make the country strong, pioneer and innovate, and vigorously forge ahead, advocate all works benefiting to moulding people’s morals and personalities, this shall become the main melody of our country’s literature and art. We must earnestly extol revolution and construction, and all beautiful things, and must castigate evil and degenerate things, the objective and fundamental key should be to raise the nation’s self-confidence, strengthen the nation’s cohesion, stimulate the development of Socialist construction and reform. As long as it does not violate the Constitution, the laws and relevant State regulations, all works that are harmless ideologically, desirable artistically and that can give people an appreciation of art and entertainment are permitted to exist.

Our literature and art workers must inherit and carry forward the fine traditions of our country’s revolutionary literature and art, correctly present the relationship of individuals with the country and society, put social and the people’s interest first, conform to historical development rules, understand their sacred mission in Socialist spiritual civilization construction, fully give rein to their creative talent, and make due contributions to helping the people and especially youth, become a generation of new people with ideals, with morals, with culture and with discipline.

(2) Literature and art creation is considered as a sort of special spiritual labour, and must especially give free rein the creative spirit of individuals. We must further create a stable and united, democratic and harmonious social environment that lets literature and art workers be able to concentrate on creation. Literature and art creators shall enjoy full freedom in what to write and how to write it. We must realistically guarantee creative freedom and freedom of comment, encourage creation, advocate different styles and schools of thought and learning to compete freely, and advocate criticism and countercriticism through science and seeking truths from fact. Problems in literature and art creation shall be discussed, researched and explored by literature and art creators themselves,  and progressively resolved in literature and art practice, Party organizations and government organs may not flagrantly interfere.

Creative freedom  has been our Party’s correct standpoint for many years, it has been protected and constrained in the Constitution and laws. We both cannot let creative freedom become bourgeois liberalization, or deny and cancel it when we see that a few problems emerge in creation, and cannot understand it understand it as an abolition of literature and art’s social meaning and social responsibility.

(3) Literature and art basically is a social and cultural phenomenon. Literature and art is not equal to politics, and it cannot be required that literature and art is subordinate to politics, it can even less be required that literature and art belongs to contemporary, concrete and direct political tasks. But, literature and art can also not be removed from politics. We should consider that, a number of literature and art works has a very large function in influencing people’s ideology and politics, but we may also not exaggerate this function.

(4) We must correctly understand and deal with the relationship between carrying forward the cultural traditions of the nation and attracting culture from outside. Developing Socialist literature and art must protect and inherit the excellent cultural heritage of all ethnicities in the entire country, and must also learn from excellent cultural achievements from abroad. Concerning our country’s traditional culture, we cannot adopt a despising or denying attitude, and must persist in the principle of critical inheritance, absorb what is best, and abandon its dregs; concerning foreign culture, we must persist in implementing the policy of opening up, and attract all beneficial things, and abandon all evil and degenerate things. We must overcome and resist the influence of feudalist and capitalist degenerate ideologies and morals. We must, on the basis of inheriting the good cultural traditions of the Chinese nation, select and attract excellent culture from all countries in the world, create and produce a new brilliant and dazzling culture for the Chinese nation having the spirit of the times.

(5) Socialist literature and art is the continuity of the political orientation and the unification of content, form, style, and diversity in schools. Our literature and art creators shall be together in the basic orientation of “serving the people and serving Socialism”, and shall be consistent in the basic tasks of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics and safeguarding the unity of the motherland. We must completely and correctly understand the relationship between the “Two Fors” and the “Double Hundred”, departing from the “Two Fors” and the “Double Hundred” is to lose the orientation; departing from the “Two Fors” and the “Double Hundred” cannot be brought about. Both are unified, cannot be departed from, and they should not be considered as mutually opposed and mutually exclusive.

III, Striving to reform and strengthen Party leadership over literature and art undertakings

(1) The Party leadership over literature and art undertakings is a leadership of political principles and political orientation. This mainly refers to formulating and adjusting literature and art principles and policies, doing ideological and political work, and guaranteeing that literature and art develops along the correct development orientation; launching work through Party organizations’ guarantee and supervision functions and Party members’ vanguard model function; on the basis of the standard of having both ability and integrity, recommending important cadre candidates to literature and art departments, and strengthening leadership rank constructions. The Party cannot substitute the function of government organs in literature and art management, and can also not run the whole show of mass literature and art troupe activities. If the Party’s leadership organs depart from the above principles, and manage other aspects of literature and art undertakings too much or to concretely, it may limit the creativity of literature and art troupes and literature and art creators, and cause themselves to get bogged down in concrete matters, influencing the correct political orientation, and does not benefit giving rein to an adjusting and guiding function to the literature and art world.

(2) The Party’s leadership organs must fully respect the characteristics and rules of literature and art, and must intervene less and interfere less in concrete literature and art work and academy questions. Literature and art work quality, shall be determined by the broad readers, audiences and the literature and art world themselves, and must be examined by history. There are some literature and art questions of which the right and wrong is difficult to distinguish for the time being, these shall be permitted to be discussed unhurriedly, and we must not be anxious to bring answers, some also do not needs to be concluded uniformly. Apart from violations of the Constitution and laws, which must be prohibited, normal academic and artistic questions cannot be resolved using the method of administrative decrees, and only democratic and fair discussion can be discussed. We must advocate correct and good things through vigorous and healthy commentary, criticize and oppose incorrect and bad things, promote the development of academia and art. In literature and art and academic discussion, we must implement the principle of equal opportunities in argument and competition between all sides; newspapers and periodicals that are the battlefield of comment cannot only publish the views that they enjoy, and refuse to publish different kinds of views, and especially must prevent to let unhealthy ideologies and emotions to monopolize the comment battlefield. Concerning literature and art creators and works, we must persist in concrete analysis of concrete questions, and must no take a part for the whole, affirm everything or deny everything. We must prevent that widespread administrative measures are adopted towards toe overall literature and art world or a certain literature and art department because of errors a few works or a few people.

(3) Leadership must correctly implement the Party line, principles and policies, strive to explore and research methods and ways to lead literature and art work well under new historical conditions. We must respect, understand and care for the broad literature and art workers, strengthen exchange and dialogue with them, and make the literature and art world understand the efforts of our Party in realizing the Four Modernizations and revitalizing China, the work it is now conducting, the problems it faces and the methods for resolution, and at the same time, also listen to the opinions of literature and art workers. Where leaders acting as readers or audiences and expressing their individual opinions concerning literature and art works, literature and art workers may not consider them as decrees that must be implemented.

In order to make our country’s literature and art undertakings gain long-term and stable development, we must safeguard all rights and interest that the Constitution and laws grant to literature and art creators and literature and art troupes, further establish and perfect all laws and regulations in the literature and art sphere. All works that must be prohibited because they are unlawful, are to be dealt with by judicial organs or government and other authorized departments according to laws or relevant regulations.

IV, Strengthening and deepening cultural structural reform

(1) The objectives of literature and art structural reform are to further develop literature and art productive forces, let Socialist literature and art flourish, satisfy our country’s people’s daily increasing cultural life needs. In recent years, the structural reform of the literature and art system has obtained a number of achievements in aspects such as rationalizing relations, transforming functions, adjusting structures, improving management, etc., but the steps are not large. The situation that relationships are not smooth, efficiency is not high, management structures are overly concentrated has not fundamentally changed, and reform must be accelerated.

(2) Literature and art structural reform first and foremost must rationalize the relationship between the Party, government and mass literature and art troupes, and clarify the functions of each. The Party must implement political leadership, and strengthen macro-level guidance over literature and art. Government mainly is to conduct guidance, planning, coordination, service, supervision and management over literature and art undertakings through legal, administrative, economic and other methods. The main function of cultural federations is to be responsible for liaising with all troupes and members, coordinate and serve them, associations, apart from the abovementioned functions, are also responsible for the duties of doing comment work well, associating periodicals well, and guaranteeing the members’ proper rights and interests. Cultural federations and associations shall closely relate to the masses, improve mechanisms, become genuine mass groups representing literature and art creators, and become channels and bridges for consultation and dialogue between the Party, the government, and all walks of society as well as literature and art creators.

(3) Concerning literature and art management structures, we must expand the decision power of all literature and art undertaking work units, bring in competitive mechanisms, stimulate talent circulation, and muster the vigour and creativity of literature and art workers by strengthening literature and art undertaking work units’ vitality and life. Literature and art management system reform is a systemic project, and we must research and formulate complementing reform measures. We must vigorously but cautiously practice a “two-track system” in art performance troupes; State-operate art performance troupes must become fewer but better, art performance troupes representing national and local artistic levels or having characteristic values preserving history, are to be organized by government cultural controlling departments; non-State operated art performance troupes are composed of artists themselves, and implement collective ownership or individual ownership, independent operations and independent accounting, and assume sole responsibility for profit and loss. The State puts forward different requirements, and formulates different management methods concerning art performance troupes in different ownership systems, we must both prevent that new phenomena of eating from the “large cauldron” and extreme “iron rice bowls” emerge again in State-operated art performance troupes, and we must also ensure that non-State operated art performance troupes obtain due support.

(4) Establishing and perfecting Socialist culture market, correctly guiding mass cultural consumption. At present, one a cultural market providing spiritual products and cultural entertainment services to the people is being formed in our country. Governments implement macro-level management and indirect leadership over the cultural market, utilize market mechanisms to organize and guide the masses’ cultural consumption, which is one of the methods to raise the quality of spiritual products and service quality. Our literature and art work must  put social effect in the highest position. We must strive to raise the quality of spiritual products, improve business management, raise economic efficiency, and integrate social effect with economic effects well.

(5) Formulating and perfecting all economic policies in aspects of literature and art undertakings. Spiritual product production is different from material product production, the State must grant benefits to literature and art undertakings in taxation, and appropriately loosen up pricing policies. We must encourage and support excellent spiritual product production, limit the production of inferior spiritual products, guide the healthy development of literature and art products. The state must grant even more support and assistance to old, minority, order and poor regions, where literature and art undertakings are relatively backwards.

V, Strengthening the self-construction of literature and art teams

(1) The flourishing of Socialist literature and art undertakings, requires our literature and art workers to strive to raise their ideological quality and professional quality, We must advocate literature and art creators to earnestly study Marxism, study the Party line, principles and policies since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, study literature and art theory and scientific cultural knowledge, go into the practice of reform and construction, incessantly raise their ideological level and creative levels. Life is the source of literature and art creation, the great practice of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the fertile soil for literature and art creation, linking with the popular masses’ flesh and blood is where the artistic life of all progressive literature and art workers is found. Closely linking with social life and practice and the popular masses, is the basis for the flourishing development of Socialist literature and art undertakings. Literature and art creation removed from the times and removed from the popular masses has no future. The Party and government must adopt realistic measures to resolve real problems met by literature and art workers going deeply into life.

(2) Strengthening literature and art team unity is an important question in construction Socialist literature and art undertakings. Since more than half a century, revolutionary literature and art movements under Party leadership have obtained different achievements at different times; one batch after another of literature and art workers has made outstanding contributions to revolutionary literature and art undertakings through undergoing severe tests. Today, the great objective of realizing the four modernizations and revitalizing China, and the huge task of letting Socialist literature and art undertakings flourish, requires literature and art workers to unite even more closely, carry forward fine revolutionary traditions, seek for the great harmony, preserve small differences, eliminate all difficulties and interferences, and strive for new victories.

It is hard to avoid that under the circumstances of violent social transformation, a number of ideological divergences and confusions have emerged in literature and art teams. This is a problem for the future but should not be feared. Comrades in the literature and art world must make uniting understanding into one centre and two basic points in the process of deeply studying the Party’s basic line in the primary stage of Socialism and in the practice of life and creation, and concentrate their mental powers on pushing out works and talents. The final achievements of literature and art teams’ unity and self-construction must be reflected in providing even more excellent spiritual products to the people.

Our slogan is still: liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts, uniting as one and looking ahead. People tenaciously defending fossilized viewpoints and people denying Marxism are very few in number. We must not say that ideology not being able to catch up with the pace of reform for the time being is fossilization, we may also not say that a few excessive words means bourgeois liberalization.

Communist Party members among literature and art workers shall have a model and pioneering function in stimulating literature and art team unity and letting literature and art flourishing. They shall become models of implementing the Party line, principles and policies, be models of vigorously forging ahead, and exerting themselves in works, and models of sincerely dealing with people and uniting comrades. Especially leading comrades and old comrades in the literature and art world, must even more set examples and establish models for the youth.

We must unite all patriotic literature and art creators that support Socialism, unite all literature and art creators that safeguard the unity of the motherland, protect literature and art creators who are Taiwan compatriots, Hong Kong and Macau compatriots and overseas compatriots, to contribute to the great cause of unifying the motherland and further letting literature and art further flourish.

(3) Our country is in a great time of deep reform and marching towards the revitalization of the nation. Our literature and art workers must deeply understand that they bear a historical responsibility, strengthen their sense of destiny and sense of responsibility, cherish today’s beneficial conditions that are hard-earned, vigorously throw themselves into letting literature and art undertakings flourish, and jointly climb towards a peak of Socialist literature and art.

中共中央关于进一步繁荣文艺的若干意见   (一九八九年二月十七日)
党的十一届三中全会以来,我国文艺事业出现了繁荣兴旺的新局面。随着社会主义现代化建设的蓬勃发展和改革开放的不断深入,文艺事业面临着新的形势和任务。认真贯彻党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线,总结建国以来特别是新时期十年来的历史经验,改善和加强党对文艺事业的领导,坚持长期稳定地发展文艺的方针和政策,对于巩固和发展安定团结、民主和谐的政治局面,促进社会主义物质文明和精神文明的建设以及社会主义文艺的进一步繁荣,具有重要的意义。

一、正确估价当前的文艺形势

(一)十年来,我国的文艺事业发生了历史性的重大变化。这种变化的主要标志是:广大文艺工作者摆脱了在社会主义改造基本完成以后长期“以阶级斗争为纲”的“左”的桎梏,突破了对文艺功能的狭隘理解,思想获得很大解放,创作获得很大自由,精神面貌焕然一新。文艺作品不仅数量空前增加,而且在反映社会生活的广度和深度上有了明显进步,在促进思想解放,激励人们投身社会主义现代化建设,坚持四项基本原则和改革开放,丰富人民群众的精神文化生活方面,作出了重要贡献。在发扬民族文化优良传统的同时,许多文艺作品积极吸收外来的有益文化,在艺术上有了新的突破,内容、题材、形式、风格出现了多样化的欣欣向荣的局面。文艺评论和文艺理论研究逐渐活跃,文艺思想观念有了更新和发展。群众性的文化活动日益广泛蓬勃地开展起来。新的文艺实践,造就了新的文艺人才,一大批优秀的青年文艺家脱颖而出,给文坛、艺坛带来了生气和活力,一支为人民群众所欢迎和信赖的由老、中、青组成的社会主义文艺队伍正在逐步发展壮大。可以说,这十年是文艺战线思想活跃、成果丰硕和人才辈出的时期。

(二)文艺战线的好形势,来自党的十一届三中全会以来路线的深入贯彻,来自改革开放形势的鼓舞和推动,来自十年来党在文艺战线上的拨乱反正和对文艺方针、政策的重大调整,来自广大文艺工作者创造性的劳动。结束十年动乱以后,党组织为大批文艺工作者平反了冤假错案,为大批受到诬陷的优秀文艺作品恢复了名誉;根据客观形势的变化,不再提“文艺为政治服务”的口号,将“为人民服务、为社会主义服务”作为文艺工作的方向;重申坚持“百花齐放、百家争鸣”的方针,并制定了一系列旨在解放文艺生产力的政策;同时,党对文艺界出现的某些消极现象也进行了适当的批评和疏导。党在指导思想和领导方法上的转变,激发了广大文艺工作者的积极性和创造性,为他们心情舒畅地从事文艺创作创造了有利的环境和气氛。

(三)当前文艺工作中存在的主要问题是:文艺领导工作和文艺体制与新形势的要求不太适应,社会主义商品经济条件下有关文艺工作方面的经济政策还不够健全;深刻反映社会变革和时代精神的杰出文艺作品不够多,还出现了一些消极、庸俗、涣散人心、对社会有不良影响的作品;科学的实事求是的文艺批评,未能经常地活跃地开展起来;文艺队伍中一些同志对祖国的历史文化缺乏了解,对专业基本功缺乏刻苦钻研的精神;有些同志缺乏社会责任感,存在着不同程度的脱离生活实际的情况。因此,进一步解放思想,强化建设意识,增进团结,繁荣创作,加强理论研究,就成为新形势下文艺工作亟待解决的课题。

(四)在改革开放、发展社会主义商品经济的过程中,社会现象错综复杂,人们的思想、观念、欣赏习惯发生着很大的变化,这不能不反映到对文艺问题的认识上来。因此,对于文艺战线的形势,必须放在发展过程中作客观的、辩证的分析,千万不能简单化。既要防止只看到好的一面,不去正视那些必须解决的问题;又要防止把缺点看过了头,用老观念、老办法去观察和解决新问题。

二、坚持“二为”方向,坚持“双百”方针

(一)坚持文艺“为人民服务、为社会主义服务”的方向,坚持“百花齐放、百家争鸣”的方针,是长期稳定地发展我国社会主义文艺事业的根本保证。

社会主义文艺事业是社会主义精神文明建设的一个重要组成部分。要通过充分发挥文艺的多种功能,来振奋民族精神,提高人民群众的素质,启迪人们智慧,美化人们心灵,不断满足广大群众对文化生活的多样化、多层次的需要,熏陶、感染、教育、鼓舞人民,促进社会进步。我们的文艺要高举爱国主义、社会主义的旗帜,弘扬社会主义人道主义精神,为实现四化、振兴中华而不懈奋斗。要提倡一切有利于社会主义现代化建设和全面改革的优秀之作,提倡一切有利于激发人们奋发图强、开拓创新、积极进取的优秀之作,提倡一切有利于陶冶人们道德情操的优秀之作,这应当成为我国文艺创作的主旋律。我们需要对革命和建设及一切美好事物的热忱歌颂,也需要对丑恶、腐朽事物的鞭挞,目的和基调都应该是提高民族的自信心,增强民族的凝聚力,促进社会主义建设和改革开放的发展。只要不违反宪法、法律和国家有关规定,一切思想上无害、艺术上可取、能给予人们以艺术享受和娱乐的作品,都允许存在。

我们的文艺工作者,要继承和发扬我国革命文艺的优良传统,摆正个人同国家、社会的关系,把国家和人民的利益放在首位,顺应历史的发展规律,认识自己在社会主义精神文明建设中的神圣使命,充分发挥自己的创作才能,为帮助人们特别是青少年成为有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律的一代新人作出应有的贡献。  (二)文艺创作作为一种特殊的精神劳动,尤其需要发挥个人的创造精神。要进一步创造一个让文艺家能够潜心创作的安定团结、民主和谐的社会环境。写什么,怎么写,文艺家应当享有充分的自由。要切实保障创作自由和评论自由,鼓励创造,提倡不同风格、流派、学派的自由竞赛,提倡科学的实事求是的批评和反批评。文艺创作上的问题,应当由文艺家们自己去讨论、研究和探索,在艺术实践中逐步求得解决,党组织和政府机构不要横加干涉。

创作自由是我们党多年的正确主张,它受到宪法和法律的保护和制约。既不能把创作自由说成是资产阶级自由化,看到创作中出点问题就否定和取消它,也不能把它理解为对于文艺的社会意义、社会责任的取消。

(三)文艺基本上是一种社会文化现象。文艺不等同于政治,不能要求文艺从属于政治,更不能要求文艺从属于临时的、具体的、直接的政治任务。但是,文艺又不能脱离政治。应该看到,一些文艺作品在影响人们的思想政治方面,具有很大作用,但又不可夸大它们的作用。

(四)要正确认识和处理发扬民族文化传统与吸收外来文化的关系。发展社会主义文艺,需要保护和继承我国各民族的优秀文化遗产,也需要借鉴外国的优秀文化成果。对我国传统文化,不能采取鄙薄、否定的态度,必须坚持批判继承的方针,取其精华,弃其糟粕;对外国文化,必须坚持实行开放政策,吸收一切有益的东西,摒弃一切丑恶腐朽的东西。要克服和抵制封建主义和资本主义腐朽思想道德的影响。要在继承中华民族优良文化传统的基础上,选择和吸收世界各国的优秀文化,创造出具有时代精神的光辉灿烂的中华民族新文化。

(五)社会主义文艺是政治方向一致性和内容、形式、风格、流派多样性的统一。我们的文艺家在“为人民服务、为社会主义服务”的根本方向上应当是共同的,在建设有中国特色的社会主义和维护祖国统一的根本任务上应当是一致的。我们要全面正确地理解“二为”与“双百”的关系,离开“二为”,“双百”就失去了方向;离开“双百”,“二为”就不能实现。二者是统一的,不可分离的,不应该把它们看成是相互对立和相互排斥的。(⑴⑷)

三、努力改善和加强党对文艺事业的领导

(一)党对文艺事业的领导是政治原则、政治方向的领导。这主要是指制定和调整文艺方针、政策,做好思想政治工作,保证文艺沿着正确的方向发展;通过党组织的保证监督作用和党员的先锋模范作用去开展工作;按德才兼备的标准向文艺部门推荐重要干部人选,加强领导班子建设。党不能取代政权机关管理文艺的职能,也不能包办群众文艺团体的活动。党的领导机关如果离开上述原则,对文艺事业中的其他方面管得太多太具体,就会限制文艺团体和文艺家创造性的发挥,也使自己陷入具体事务之中,影响政治领导,不利于在文艺界发挥宏观调节和引导的作用。

(二)党的领导机关要充分尊重文艺的特点和规律,对具体的文艺作品和学术问题,要少干预、少介入。文艺作品的优劣,应由广大读者、观众和文艺界自己去评判,并要经受历史的检验。有些文艺问题的是非一时难以分清,应允许从容讨论,不要急于下结论,有的也毋需作出统一的结论。除了违反宪法和法律,必须禁止的以外,一般学术和艺术问题,不能用行政命令的方式来解决,而只能进行民主的、平等的讨论。要通过积极的、健康的评论来提倡正确的、好的东西,批评和反对不正确的、不好的东西,推动学术和艺术的发展。在文艺和学术讨论中,要对争辩、竞赛的各方实行机会均等的原则;作为评论阵地的报纸、刊物,不能只发表自己欣赏的一种观点,而拒绝发表另一种不同的观点,特别要防止不健康的思潮和情绪垄断评论阵地。对文艺家和作品,要坚持具体问题具体分析,不要以偏概全,肯定一切或否定一切。要防止因个别作品、个别人的错误而对整个文艺界或某个文艺部门采取普遍的行政措施。

(三)领导者要正确执行党的路线、方针和政策,努力探索和研究在新的历史条件下领导好文艺工作的方式和方法。要尊重、理解和关心广大文艺工作者,加强同他们的交往和对话,使文艺界了解党为实现四化、振兴中华而进行的努力、正在进行的工作、面临的问题和解决的办法,同时也听取文艺工作者的意见。领导者作为读者或观众对文艺作品发表的个人意见,文艺工作者可以不视为必须贯彻执行的指令。

为了使我国文艺事业得到长期稳定的发展,要维护宪法和法律赋予文艺家和文艺团体的一切权益,并进一步建立和完善文艺领域的各项法规。凡因违法必须禁止的作品,由司法机关或政府及其授权的部门依照法律或有关规定作出处理。

四、加快和深化文艺体制改革

(一)文艺体制改革的目的是进一步发展文艺生产力,繁荣社会主义的文艺,满足我国人民日益增长的文化生活需求。近几年来,文艺系统的体制改革,在理顺关系、转变职能、调整布局、改善管理等方面取得了一些成绩,但步子不大。关系不顺,效率不高,管理体制过于集中的状况,尚未得到根本改变,必须加快改革。

(二)文艺体制改革首先要理顺党、政府和群众文艺团体之间的关系,明确它们各自的职能。党要实行政治领导,加强对文艺的宏观指导。政府主要是通过法律、行政、经济等多种手段,对文艺事业进行指导、规划、协调、服务、监督和管理。文联的主要职能是负责对各团体会员联络、协调和服务,协会除了上述职能外,还负有搞好评论、办好刊物、保障会员正当权益的职责。文联和协会应当密切联系群众,改善机制,成为真正代表文艺家的群众团体,成为党、政府、社会各界同文艺界以及文艺家之间协商对话的渠道和桥梁。

(三)在文艺管理体制上,要扩大各文艺事业单位的自主权,引入竞争机制,促进人才流动,以增强文艺事业单位的生机和活力,调动文艺工作者的积极性和创造性。文艺管理体制的改革是一项系统工程,要研究制定配套改革措施。要在艺术表演团体中积极而审慎地推行“双轨制”;国营的艺术表演团体要少而精,代表国家和地方艺术水平或者具有特殊历史保留价值的艺术表演团体,由政府文化主管部门主办;非国营的艺术表演团体,由艺术家自由组合,实行集体所有制或个体所有制,自主经营,独立核算,自负盈亏。国家对不同所有制的艺术表演团体提出不同的要求,制定不同的管理办法,既要防止国营的艺术表演团体出现新的吃“大锅饭”、端“铁饭碗”的现象,又要使非国营的艺术表演团体得到应有的支持。

(四)建立和完善社会主义文化市场,正确引导群众的文化消费。当前,一个以商品形式向人们提供精神产品和文化娱乐服务的文化市场正在我国形成。政府对文化市场实行宏观调节和间接领导,运用市场机制来组织和引导群众的文化消费,是提高精神产品质量和服务质量的方式之一。我们的文艺工作必须把社会效益作为最高标准。要努力提高精神产品的质量,改善经营管理,提高经济效益,使社会效益和经济效益很好地结合起来。

(五)制定和完善文艺事业方面的各项经济政策。精神产品的生产不同于物质产品的生产,国家对文艺事业要在税收上给予优惠,在价格政策上适当放活。要鼓励、扶持优秀的精神产品的生产,限制低劣的精神产品的生产,引导文艺事业健康发展。老、少、边、穷地区,文艺事业比较落后,国家要更多地给予扶持和帮助。

五、加强文艺队伍的自身建设

(一)社会主义文艺事业的繁荣,要求我们的文艺工作者努力提高自己的思想素质和业务素质。要提倡文艺家努力学习马克思主义,学习党的十一届三中全会以来的路线、方针和政策,学习文艺理论和科学文化知识,到改革和建设的实践中去,不断地提高自己的思想水平和创作水平。生活是文艺创作的源泉,建设有中国特色的社会主义的伟大实践是文艺创作的肥沃土壤,同人民群众之间的血肉联系是一切进步文艺工作者的艺术生命所在。同社会生活实践和人民群众保持密切的联系,是社会主义文艺事业兴旺发达的根基。脱离时代、脱离人民群众的文艺创作是没有前途的。党和政府要采取切实措施,解决文艺工作者深入生活所遇到的实际问题。

(二)加强文艺队伍的团结,是建设社会主义文艺事业的一个重要问题。半个多世纪以来,党领导下的革命文艺运动,在不同的时期取得了不同的成就;一批又一批的文艺工作者经受了严峻的考验,为革命文艺事业作出了卓越贡献。今天,实现四化、振兴中华的伟大目标,繁荣社会主义文艺事业的艰巨任务,要求文艺工作者更加紧密地团结起来,发扬革命优良传统,求大同,存小异,排除各种困难和干扰,去争取新的胜利。

在社会剧烈变革的情况下,文艺队伍中出现一些思想上的分歧和混乱是难以避免的。这是前进中的问题,并不可怕。文艺界的同志要在深入学习党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线的过程中,在生活和创作实践中,把认识统一到一个中心、两个基本点上来,把精力集中到出作品和出人才上来。文艺队伍的团结和自身建设的最终成果,要体现在为人民提供更多的优秀精神产品上。

我们的口号仍然是:解放思想,实事求是,团结一致向前看。固守僵化观点的人和否定马克思主义的人,都是极少数。不要把思想一时跟不上改革步伐说成是僵化,也不要把讲了点过头话说成是搞资产阶级自由化。

文艺工作者中的共产党员应当在促进文艺队伍团结和繁荣文艺方面起模范带头作用。他们应当成为执行党的路线、方针和政策的模范,积极进取、奋发工作的模范,真诚待人、团结同志的模范。特别是文艺界的领导同志和老同志,更要以身作则,为年轻一代树立楷模。

要团结一切爱国的、拥护社会主义的文艺家,团结一切维护祖国统一的文艺家,包括台湾同胞、港澳同胞和海外侨胞中的文艺家,为祖国的统一大业和文学艺术的进一步繁荣多作贡献。

(三)我们的国家正处在一个深刻变革,走向民族振兴的伟大时代。我们的文艺工作者要深刻认识自己所肩负的历史重任,增强使命感和责任心,珍惜今天来之不易的有利条件,积极投身于繁荣文艺的事业,共同攀登社会主义文学艺术的高峰。

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