Concerning Some Issues in Carrying Forward the Excellent Culture of the Nation

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Li Ruihuan

(10 January 1990)

The Exchange Forum on the Nationwide Culture and Art Work Situation is an important conference convened in the first spring of the Nineties by the Central Propaganda Department and the Ministry of Culture. At the beginning of the new year, inviting comrades from all localities and relevant departments to come and exchange the situations relating to Implementing the spirit of the 4th Plenum and the 5th Plenum of the 13th Party Congress, study the important works of Comrade Deng Xiaoping concerning culture and art work, summarizing the culture and art work of the previous period, and making deployments for work deployments in the future, is a good way of going about. At the time where this meeting is about to conclude, and the nationwide theatre and xiqu creation forum will begin, I’d like to discuss some opinions on carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation.

At present, the people in our entire country are concentrating their strengths in conducting Socialist modernization construction. In this magnificent historical process, culture and art work is an important area, and has an extremely important significance. The popular masses urgently require healthy, rich and varied spiritual cultural lives, require even more excellent literature and art works, which reflect their magnificent practice, enlighten their pursuit of new ideals, encourage and inspire them to progress. This is the common aspiration of the cultural departments and the comrades in the literature and art circles.

Concerning cultural work and literature and art work in the new period, I’d like to focus on talking a little about issues in carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation today, this is an important issues that the entire Party and the entire society are concerned about and focus on, and it is an urgent task faced on the cultural front. Because literature and art are important component parts of culture, and because the focus of these few meetings of yours has been on researching literature and art work, I’d like to speak of the flourishing of literature and art, and discuss the fact that relatively much of the culture of the nation involved the literature and art of the nation. Everyone knows that the scope of the issue of carrying forward the culture of the nation is extremely broad, the connotations are extremely rich, and there have always been differences of opinion, it is not easy to make these matters clear in one go. I have selected twenty relevant problems that I’d like to deliberate with the comrades, some among these are to put forward questions, and my opinions are very immature. If I am able to guide the comrades focus by my narrow view, let everyone come to explore and research the, and adopt effective measures to do work in this area well, then that is my greatest hope.

I

(1) Continuing to persist in grasping “sweeping pornography” with one hand and grasping literature and art flourishing with one hand.

Once the Party Centre started with “sweeping pornography”, the flourishing of Socialist literature and art and the enlivening of the masses’ cultural lives have become prominent questions that have been put in front of literature and art workers. Since some time, following the permeation of Western degenerate culture and the excess of bourgeois liberalization thinking trends, sexual and obscene publications and audiovisual products have been produced and disseminated in great numbers, which gravely corroded people’s souls, poisoned the air of society, and has become an inducement minors to commit crime. Since a few months, with the support and endorsement of the people in the entire country, and through the joint efforts of all relevant departments, “sweeping pornography” has seen great achievements, and the appearance of the cultural market has clearly improved. Now, the struggle to “sweep pornography” and against the “Six Evils” is being deeply conducted, and the circumstances are good. The top priority task is to grasp the creation of sufficiently many healthy spiritual products, to go and occupy the cultural market and all sorts of entertainment venues, and occupy the people’s after-hours time and spiritual space. If this work is not followed up, degenerate things cannot be pushed out, and things that were swept away can resurrect from death, and stage a comeback. We should be aware that we must create a large batch of healthy and useful literature and art works that the popular masses love to see and hear, and that this is not as easy as banning and capturing pornography things, but requires exerting even greater strength, mobilizing and organizing the whole body of comrades on the cultural front to engage in persistent struggle. Comrades on the literature and art front must clearly understand the importance and urgency of this issue, consciously assume this great historical responsibility, not waste any opportunity in grasping this work, and obtaining results as rapidly as possible.

Naturally, our struggle with bourgeois liberalization mainly still isn’t “sweeping pornography”. Where the literature and art front is concerned, the influence of bourgeois liberalization is grave, some articles and works violate the Four Cardinal Principles, and disseminate feelings of doubting or distrusting the Party and Socialism; some people have been involved in the political storm of the late spring and early summer of last year, and an extremely small number of people even stood against the Party and the people. Concerning this sort of situation, the comrades in literature and art circles must have a sober understanding, they cannot underestimate this, and can certainly not cover faults. Since the 4th Plenum of the 13th Party Committee, all levels’ Party Committees have conducted education and struggle concerning persisting in the Four Cardinal Principle and opposing bourgeois liberalization on the cultural front, and have conducted investigation and clean-up work of the Centre’s policies and deployments, certain results have already been obtained, but this work must be led deeper still. At the same time, we must forcefully push the practice of letting Socialist literature and art flourish further, use healthy and excellent literature and art works to occupy the ideological and cultural battlefields, in order to effectively reduce and eliminate the influence of bourgeois liberalization in the cultural area, consolidate and expand the results of opposing bourgeois liberalization . It is just because of such considerations, that the Centre has put forward that we must grasp with both hands from the beginning. Practice proves that this policy is correct, the results of implementing it are good, it has received the welcome from the broad masses, and must be continuously implemented unwaveringly in the future.

(2) Fully giving rein to the vigorous function of literature and art in stabilizing the society and heartening the people.

Our current conducting of political rectification and deepening reform is an extremely onerous task. To realize this task, we must first, maintain social stability and second, hearten people’s spirits. In these two areas of stability and enthusiasm, literature and art have an irreplaceable and especially important function.

The flourishing of literature and art is a sort of method to stabilize society, and is an objective for social stability. The harmony and peace of all under heaven lies in the happiness of the people Striving to ensure that our stages are full of beautiful flowers, to ensure that our screens are bright and colourful, to ensure that our books and periodicals are hundreds of flowers contending in beauty, this sort of atmosphere of itself benefits the creation and maintenance of a situation of stability and unity. Since stopping the riots and putting down the counterrevolutionary riot that occurred in Beijing, we have integrated the events to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the foundation of the People’s republic of China, we have grasped the work or propagating the huge achievements made since founding the nation and to enliven the masses’ cultural lives, and must also grasp the cultural entertainment activities during the Spring Festival period, this has had and continues to have a positive function in enlivening the atmosphere, relieving contradictions, smoothening the masses emotions. At present, clean-up and rectification has entered the attacking phase. During the previous phase, although clean-up and rectification have obtained preliminary results, some deep issues influencing economic stability have not yet been basically resolved, and following the process of clean-up and rectification, some new contradictions may still emerge. In the face of this sort of circumstances, stability overwhelms everything. To stabilize the economy, stabilize politics and stabilize the society, we must first and foremost stabilize the emotions of the masses. We must realistically resolve difficulties in the people’s lives, strengthen ideological and political work, and must at the same time launch many sorts and varieties of mass culture activities, enliven the spiritual and cultural lives of the masses by any means, and create a stable and agreeable social environment. This requires that the broad literature and art workers must first, do all literature and art work will with a spirit of clean-up and rectification, run the things that should be run and can be run well, resolve issues that should be resolved and have not been resolved for a long time well, and firmly do away with those afflictions that need to be done away with; second, they must vigorously utilize literature and art methods to contribute strength to stabilizing the situation, clean-up and rectification, eulogize the heroic achievements and glorious accomplishments of the popular masses in clean-up, rectification, deepening reform and modernization construction, to inspire and strengthen the people’s conviction in vanquishing difficulties; third, they must, through creating large amounts of healthy and excellent literature and art works, launch rich and varied culture and entertainment activities, to ensure that people’s spiritual lives are cheerful and satisfied, in order to maintain the harmony of the social atmosphere and the stability of social life; fourth, they must incorporate teaching into entertainment, and forcefully bring the spirit that Comrade Deng Xiaoping proposed at the 5th Plenum into all sorts of literature and art works and cultural activities, have a spirit of revolution and death-defying effort, and a spirit of strictly observing discipline and self-sacrifice, a spirit of selflessness and the public interest, and putting others before oneself, a spirit of overpowering all enemies and overcoming all difficulties, and a spirit of revolutionary optimism and overcoming all obstacles to seize victory, in order to encourage people to rise with force and spirit, meet difficulties and overcome them. This is the duty-bound responsibility of the broad literature and art workers, and is the contribution that literature and art workers should make under new circumstances.

(3) Striving to satisfy the popular masses’ daily increasing spiritual and cultural life needs.

Following the development of our country’s reform, opening up and economic construction, the problems of warm dress and food have been resolved for the absolute majority of urban masses, and the lives of a number of masses are now progressing towards moderate prosperity. Wealth makes one think about culture, and think about entertainment, the popular masses requirements of seeking knowledge, seeking entertainment and seeking beauty are ever higher and ever more urgent. This has put forward even higher requirements towards the Socialist literature and art undertaking. Satisfying the people’s needs in the area of spiritual and cultural life, is a basic objective of Socialist spiritual construction, and is a task that literature and art workers bear that cannot be replaced by other departments.

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, our country’s literature and art undertaking has abided by the Comrade Mao Zedong’s literature and art thought that has been expounded in “The Yan’an Talks on Literature and Art” and other works, and the series of important instructions of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, has persisted in the policy of “serving the people and serving Socialism”, there has been exploration and creation in many areas, and clear progress has been achieved in reflecting the depth and breadth of real life and in artistic expressiveness. Novels, reportage literature, poems, films, television dramas, theatre, xiqu, music, dance, fine art, photography, quyi, acrobatics, calligraphy and all other areas have seen the emergence of a great batch of good works. The literature and art undertaking has had a vigorous and beneficial function in stimulating the liberation of thought, encouraging the people to vigorously throw themselves into Socialist modernization construction, reform and opening up, enriching the masses’ spiritual and cultural lives. These huge achievements must be recognized, no-one can deny them. But we should also consider that, excellent literature and art works that are adapted or matched to the huge achievements of a decade of reform and construction, and that live up to our magnificent people and magnificent times, or works that have given rise to strong echoes, are still few in number. This is because on the one hand, the masses feel that their spiritual and cultural lives cannot be fully satisfied, and on the other hand, many literature and art books and periodicals cannot be sold, and many films or theatre plays cannot sell seats. Naturally, there are social atmosphere and the cultural quality of members of society, and many other reasons for this, but the literature and art front itself should also search for reasons. In recent years, the State has expended great amounts of funds to set up radio stations, television stations and all sorts of cultural entertainment infrastructure, the broad masses have lived frugally to buy radios and television sets, but we have not provided better works to them, this in itself is a sort of waste, and also harms the interest of the popular masses. Talking about the people’s needs, I’d also like especially to discuss the needs of minors, who count for half of the population of the entire country, they are cross-century people, and the large construction army for the 21st Century.. Whether or not we can provide them with rich and high-quality spiritual nourishment, relates to whether or not these millions of youths can grow up healthily, and relates to the prospects and future of our nation. Our literature and art workers must have a high sense of responsibility towards society and towards history, through themselves into letting the sublime undertaking of Socialist literature and art flourish, strive to contribute the best spiritual nourishment to the people, and satisfy the people’s daily increasing spiritual and cultural life needs.

(3) The flourishing of literature and art is a central task of cultural departments at all levels.

Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out that the Party’s leadership over literature and art work is “on the basis of the characteristics and development rules of literature and art, assisting literature and art workers in obtaining conditions to incessantly let the undertaking of literature and art flourish, raise literature and art levels, and create excellent literature and art works and performance art results that live up to our magnificent people and the magnificent times”. From the Centre to the localities, all levels’ Party and government cultural leading departments and leading cadres must, with a high sense of responsibility, devote themselves with their entire spirit to fully mustering the vigour and creativity of the broad literature and art workers, and arouse them to provide sufficient numbers of high-quality spiritual products to the whole society. Comrade Chen Yun pointed out to storytelling artists: “publish books, foster people, walk the right path”, this spirit applies to the entire literature and art work. The basic standard for inspecting whether or not literature and art leadership work has results and how large these results are, is whether or not healthy Socialist literature and art is flourishing. If one locality or one department is unable to produce excellent work for a long time, or foster outstanding talents, or even create a situation where the masses don’t have books to read or plays to watch, it will be the same as the masses not having grain to eat or food to eat, such leadership cannot be said to be competent, and can also not gain the endorsement and support of the broad masses.

There are, in fact, some matters of principle in literature and art circles where right and wrong must be divided clearly, unify thoughts, otherwise, it may influence unity, obstruct creation, and it will be impossible to guide the literature and art undertaking to develop along the healthy Socialist orientation. Bourgeois liberalization must be severely criticized; as for some different ideas, understandings and issues, we shall mainly seek to progressively resolve them through studying Marxism and the practice of literature and art, in the process of letting literature and art flourish, and seek consensus on major issues while differing in small matters. As for that sort of personal feelings that where amassed in a long period of history, and all sorts and varieties of sectarianism, in many cases, these are not disputes of principle, we should not and cannot contend for an idea of right and wrong of me high, you low. The responsibility of leaders is to guide everyone while emphasizing the larger picture, and devote their main energy to letting the literature and art undertaking flourish, understand that where it is impossible to unify for the time being it is permitted to leave this for the time being, and let practice pass a verdict. Under the precondition of persisting in “one centre, two basic points”, it is always possible to find common points. Stopping work and falling into ceaseless disputes can only disrupt the larger matters. I believe that the comrades are able to understand this point, and will be happy to act like this, and may make their own outstanding work into the proper achievements of letting Socialist literature and art flourish as soon as possible. Especially in the face of the present international and domestic circumstances, the Party and the people eagerly look forward to literature and art work, hope the comrades will bring good tidings soon, and develop a new picture of vigorous and flourishing literature and art for the people in the entire country, of contending for excellence and struggling for beauty.

II

(5) In the flourishing of literature and art, attention must be paid to carrying the excellent culture of the nation forward.

Even though, in the wake of the increase of relations between countries, and between nations, cultural mutual exchanges and leaning meetings have become ever more frequent; generally speaking, the country of one culture still has clear national characteristics. Because of this, when we put forward the flourishing of literature and art, we should at the same time carry forward the excellent culture of the nation. In recent years on our cultural front, disputes revolving around issues of the culture of the nation, have essentially embodied major ideological and political struggles. Completely negating the culture of the nation, and carrying forward national nihilism or historical nihilism, is a part of the “complete westernization” advocated by the people who obstinately persist in bourgeois liberalization viewpoints. Under the present international and domestic circumstances, carrying forward the culture of the nation not only directly relates to the rise or fall of our country’s culture, but also has an important significance in politics. In the face of the Western offensive of the monopolistic bourgeoisie and peaceful evolution, carrying forward the culture of the nation is an important condition for inspiring the spirit of the nation, raising the nation’s self-respect and self=confidence, carrying forward a patriotic spirit and withstanding all foreign pressures. In the process of the grand cause of achieving national unification, carrying forward the culture of the nation is a bridge to link up the two shores of the Taiwan Straits, and is an important force in deepening the mutual understanding of the descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di inside and outside the country and strengthening the cohesion of the Chinese nation.

Regardless of whether it is the East or the West, all nations in the world have cultures with their own unique characteristics. Culture and art is inseparable from the lives, habits, thoughts and feelings of the people. The languages of all nations and peoples are different, historical developments are different, geographical environments are different, economic and social development circumstances are different, therefore, culture and art is always a matter of the form of the nation and the style of the nation. Relatively speaking, the national conservatism of culture and art is relatively strong, many old things may even be preserved for centuries or millennia, and posterity inherits them and likes them. This is a common phenomenon that is a law in the long stream of human development. Talking about Russian national culture, people may associate it with the poetry of Pushkin or the long novels of Tolstoy; talking about the Germanic national culture, people may think about the poetry or plays of Goethe or Heine, or the music of Beethoven; talking about Italian national culture, people may think about Dante’s “Divine Comedy” and the paintings of Da Vinci. This culture and art is rich in national characteristics, are a crystallization of the life, labour and struggle of the nation and the wisdom of the people, are the creation of the nation, and are the result of attracting human civilization, they are also contributions to human civilization. They constitute mental bonds binding together the members of a nation, and are an important component part of the life of the nation. If a nation wants to realize flourishing in literature and art, it must pay attention to researching and inheriting the characteristics and styles of the culture of the nation and other excellent legacies. In the process of deep social reform, and in the process of rapid modernization, the content and forms of culture inevitably may see many new changes, but research of the characteristics of the nation and the culture of the nation cannot be overlooked. Losing the excellent cultural inheritance of the nature is not only a tragedy for the nation itself, it is also a loss for humankind.

(6) Forcefully carrying the glorious and resplendent culture of the Chinese nation.

The culture of the Chinese nation is a rich and broad organic whole, it includes the culture of the Han nation, and also includes the cultures of ethnic minority nations; it includes the long-lasting classic culture, and includes modern and contemporary culture. The culture of the Chinese nation occupies and extremely important position in the history of world civilization. It has the following clear characteristics:

First, it is long-standing and well-established. Our country is one of the countries whose economy and culture developed earliest in the world, and has a written history with a duration of five thousand years. The people of our country relied on their own industry and wisdom, and developed agriculture and handicrafts very early. Many important crops have been bred successfully from wild plants the earliest by the Chinese ancients, and by the sixth century AD, there was a complete body of agricultural plowing theory writing. During the Spring and Autumn period, pig iron was smelted, many years before Europe. Our ancestors had the four world-famous major inventions: papermaking, printing technology, the compass and gunpowder, and was the first country to use the compass in maritime navigation. In the area of astronomy, our ancestors also created miracles. Our country still maintains the earliest and richest ancient astronomical records and materials until the present, and discovered and recorded the comet that was later named Halley already during the Spring and Autumn period, as far back as the Warring States Period, it had had compiled star charts. In the year 132 AD, our country invented the seismograph, which began humankind’s history of using instruments to observe earthquakes. Our ancestors not only were far ahead of the world in the struggle to subjugate Nature, but were also in the global forefront through many achievements in the cultural and ideological area. As far back as the Zhou Dynasty, our country created the monumental literary work “Book of Odes”. China’s xiqu art also has a long history, the xiqu-Northern drama that developed from ancient song and dance is the height of Chinese classic xiqu. The age in which the famous playwright Wu Hanqing was active was three hundred years before the world-famous English playwright Shakespeare.

Second, it is wide-ranging and profound. The traditional cultural content of the Chinese nation is extremely rich, it not only includes theory and thinking in politics, economics, culture, military affairs, historiography, education, philosophy, morals, religion and other areas, it also includes scientific and technological achievements, literature and art creation, cultural relics, historic sites, folk customs, etc. In many of the above areas, our ancestors respectively reached the summit of contemporary global levels. Our country’s literature and art works are rich, achievements are brilliant and famous names are great in number, they occupy a prominent position in global literary history. Taking poetry as an example, after the “Book of Odes” and the “Songs of Chu”, the Han Music Bureau, the Tang Poetry, the Song songs, the Yuan melodies have been successively inherited and innovated. Talking about novels, the “Romance of the Three Kingdoms”, the “Journey to the West”, the “Water Margin”, the “Dream of the Red Chamber”, the “Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio” and other monumental literary works are even more world famous. Our country’s ancient fine art, not only includes masterpieces such as the “Han Xi Dinner Painting” or the “River Scene on Tomb Sweeping Day”, and many artistic treasures left behind by many famous artists from many schools, there are also the four great caves of Dunhuang, Mount Maiji, Yungang and Longmen, and the Qin terracotta warriors, which can be rated as wonders of the world of painting and sculpture above and under the ground. Our country’s ancient learning, the hundred schools of thinkers from the Late Zhou, the classics, history, philosophers and literary collections, have undergone thousands of years of multiplication and development, and some have become complete systems, even though there are feudal dregs among them, not a few of them have a quintessence that merits to be absorbed.

Third, its influence is profound and far reaching. The culture of our nation has developed in the footsteps of the development of the Chinese nation, it has had an irreplaceable, huge function in the shaping, multiplication, unification and stabilization of the nation, and establishing it in the forest of nations in the world, and has had a profound and far-reaching function that transcends time. Also, the national spirit of working hard without complaining, ardently loving freedom, defying brute force, heroic struggle, and never yielding to foreign pressure, is the collective reflection of the excellent cultural traditions of the Chinese nation. During endless years, our nation has repeatedly met with complications and tribulations, and has even met with the misfortune of near-collapse a few times, but it rejuvenated time after time from decline, it fell and buoyed back up, it pulled through into peace, and stood rock-firm. In the present world, as long as the conscience of all descendants of Yan Di and Huang Di, regardless of to which places they have walked, does not vanish, they cannot but feel proud about the brilliant and magnificent culture of the Chinese nation.

The culture of the Chinese nation has engendered a profound and far-reaching influence on the progress and development of humankind. The contribution of our country’s four ancient great inventions to human civilization is self-evident, academic thinking achievements in some areas have also enriched the global treasure house of thought and culture. China’s ancient dialectics, thoughts on education, military theory, etc., still have an undeclining charm for the world of today.

In short, our ancestors have left us an extremely rich and extremely precious cultural treasure. What must we leave later generations? This is in fact a serious question. We should cherish, protect and excavate the excellent cultural heritage of the Chinese nation, and on the basis of inheritance, create somewhat and advance somewhat. Otherwise, we not only shame or great ancestors, but we will also shame our later generations, our sons and grandsons.

(7) Critically dealing with the historical nihilism of national culture.

In dealing with the issue of the cultural traditions of our nation, different attitudes and standpoints have existed since “May Fourth”. China’s Marxists advocate critical inheritance, this is a correct viewpoint. Comrade Mao Zedong has made a penetrating elucidation of this sort of correct viewpoint in “On New Democracy” and other works. He has repeatedly stressed that in dealing with the traditional culture of the nation, we must persist in the historicism of Marxism, clearly pointed out that we should not be cut off from history, and we should summarize it from Confucius to Sun Yat-sen, and inherit this precious heritage. At the same time, he also pointed out that in dealing with historical heritage, we must summarize it critically, reject its feudal dregs, and absorb its democratic quintessence. Comrade Mao Zedong is extremely learned in the culture of our country’s nation, and has flexibly operationalized this in the long period of revolution and construction. His speeches and works masterfully handle the Motherland’s language, historical quotations, expression and vocabulary, and endow them with new meaning, this is something everyone knows.

As for mistaken attitudes in dealing with the culture of the nation, they mainly have two sorts of manifestations: one sort is uncritically incorporating anything, and being half-baked pedants; another sort is historical nihilism that completely denies the culture of the nation, and preaches “wholesale Westernization”. After “May Fourth”, there were the so-called “full Westernization” and “wholehearted Westernization” viewpoints. During the great debate between Chinese and Western culture in the Thirties, there were people who even more clearly put forward that China’s way out was “wholesale Westernization” in culture, the economy and politics. This sort of viewpoint belittles and denies the excellent culture of our country’s nation, and at that time, met with forceful refutation. Comrade Mai Zedong pointed out clearly back in 1940 that “the so-called viewpoint of ‘wholesale Westernization’ is a sort of mistaken viewpoint”. The magnificent victory in our country’s New Democratic Revolution and the huge achievements of Socialism have proclaimed the bankruptcy of this sort of ethnic nihilism and “wholesale Westernization” with irrefutable facts.

In recent years, the prominent manifestation of the flood of bourgeois liberalization thinking trends, has preached up ethnic nihilism and historical nihilism. Fang Lizhi, Liu Xiaobo and the writers of “River Elegy”, and other bigwigs of bourgeois liberalization have said about the culture of the Chinese nation that it has “already been aborted” and “is unable to conceive a new culture”, it can only march towards a “suicidal” “loess culture”, the millennia of history of the Chinese nation have only brought “ignorance and backwardness”, they advocate a view of the world, of history and of values that indiscriminately imitates the Western bourgeoisie. These so-called “cultural viewpoints” that defame the culture of the nation and distort the history of the nation, are consistent with their viewpoint that we must copy Western private ownership systems in the economy and must copy Western multiparty systems in politics, and is their denial of the Socialist system and their denial of serving the political objectives of Communist Party leadership. Some so-called “cultural elites” who persist in bourgeois liberalization viewpoints, have become “rioting elites” during the political storm of last year’s late spring and early summer. After the bankruptcy of the counterrevolutionary riot, some people among them have fled in betrayal of their country, and have marched from ethnic nihilism to selling the country. This fact most clearly illustrates that preaching ethnic nihilism and historic nihilism not only is a cultural issue, but also is a political issue; it is not only an issue of attitude in dealing with history, but even more importantly, it is an issue of attitude in dealing with reality. The negative influence created by this sort of thinking trend on politics and ideology cannot be overlooked in this regard. Since some time, in the minds and eyes of some people, it is as though in China, nothing will do, and the repulsive phenomena that in everything, the foreign is better, whenever they talk, they talk about the West, they open their mouth and curse the ancestors, they worship foreign things and fawn over foreigners, and they lose national dignity and human dignity occur now and then. Deeply criticizing ethnic nihilism and historical nihilism not only relates to carrying forward the excellent culture of the Chinese nation, but also relates to carrying forward a patriotic spirit and safeguarding the dignity of our nation, and relates to the great issue of into what direction to lead people or even which path China must march.

(8) Giving regard to and researching the construction of a new culture of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The basic theory concerning constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics that Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forward, is a new development of Mao Zedong Thought, and is a keen weapon to guide our construction of a strong modern Socialist country. Comrade Mao Zedong said in “On New Democracy”, that us Communist Party members have one objective for all struggle, which is constructing a new society and a new country for the Chinese nation, and in this new society and new country, not only have new politics and a new economy, but also have new culture. Similarly, constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics not only requires the construction of Socialist politics and economics with Chinese characteristics, but also requires the construction of Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.

A certain culture (culture acting as ideology) is the reflection of a certain politics and economics, and renders a mighty influence and function towards the politics and economy of a certain society; economy is the basis, politics is the concentrated manifestation of economics. When we discuss issues of Chinese culture, we cannot forget this basic Marxist viewpoint. To have a new Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics, a new culture that integrates the form of our nation with the content of Socialism, essentially and subjectively speaking, it should conform to China’s national circumstances, display the life of Socialist times and the spirit of the times, reveal the essence and historical development tendencies of social relationships, and should reflect the spirit of Socialist times. This sort of new culture inevitably has Socialist politics and economics with Chinese characteristics as a basis, and conversely is given a mighty influence and function on politics and economics. If we cannot build this sort of new culture, it is impossible that the historical task of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics can be truly completed.

Lenin said: “Proletarian culture has not fallen from heaven, and has also not been written out by those self-designated proletarian culture experts, if we believe this is so, we are talking complete nonsense. Proletarian culture should be the complete knowledge created by humanity under the oppression of capitalist society, landlord society and bureaucratic society that conforms to development of rules”. Actually, it is a certain historical development, and a certain phase in the long stream of history. Modern culture has in all cases been established on existing material and cultural foundations. Because of this, to construct a new Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics, we must absolutely take root in the profound soil of the culture of the Chinese nation, deeply research China’s historical culture, and carry forward the excellent traditions of the culture of the Chinese nation.

Since “May Fourth”, our Party’s leadership of the new proletarian cultural movement and the new democratic cultural revolution movement has achieved outstanding success. In the forty years since the establishment of the New China, our country’s Socialist cultural construction has seen important progress. Especially after Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forward the basic theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and at the same time as obtaining huge achievements in reform, opening up and economic construction, the undertaking of Socialist culture construction has seen important developments. But, we must be soberly aware that constructing a new Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics is a huge systemic task, and is an extremely arduous and extremely complex task that must be resolved. Actually, how to realize the organic integration of the form of the nation and the content of Socialism, and what kind of content, structures, systems and development tendencies exist in all branches and all area of the new Socialist culture and how they are mutually related, are major tasks that must be earnestly practiced and explored, this will be a long-term process. But, we believe that, as long as we have clarified the orientation, strengthened convictions, unite in struggle, and with the unwavering efforts of one and many generations, following our country’s Socialist political and economic development, we will certainly be able to carry forward and enhance the excellent traditions of the Chinese nation, and establish a new Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics that lives up to our ancestors and the present times.

III

(9) Vigorously learning from all foreign culture that is useful to us.

Carrying forward the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation absolutely does not mean a rejection of foreign culture. Especially today, as international cultural exchange becomes more flourishing every day, rejecting foreign culture and sealing ourselves up culturally can only delay the development process of the culture of our nation. Vigorously learning from and absorbing all things from foreign cultures that are useful to us, is an important condition in stimulating the development of the culture of the nation. In the history of our country, the Han and Tang eras were times where the absorption of foreign culture was the most vigorous and the boldest, and at the same time, they were times when the overall mentality of the nation was raised high, and the culture of the nation developed and thrived. Since “May Fourth”, the revolutionary writers and progressive writers represented by Lu Xun, Guo Moruo, Mao Dun and Lao She have been the best at learning from and absorbing foreign culture, and at the same time have made outstanding contributions to the development of the culture of the nation. Under Socialist conditions, and in today’s reform and opening up, the boldness with which we absorb foreign culture should be even larger, and should have an even more global vision. Regardless of whether we talk about capitalist countries or Socialist countries, regardless of whether we talk about the Third World or developed countries, regardless of whether we talk about the past, the modern or the present, all vigorous spiritual wealth created by humankind, all new achievements of the development of human civilization, and everything that belongs to the excellent artistic forms of expression created by all nations of the world, must be vigorously understood, introduced, studied and learned by us.

The objective of attracting and learning from foreign culture is not to use it to replace the culture of the nation, but is to enrich and develop the culture of our country’s nation. Because of this, learning from foreign culture must be based on the practice of this nation, and must, from ideological content to art forms, be examined and assessed on the basis of the needs of stimulating the construction of Socialist modern culture and developing the culture of our country’s nation, use Marxist standpoints, viewpoints and methods to analyse, distinguish, select and transform matters, to ensure that “foreign things serve China”. Only by carrying forward the excellent traditions of the culture of our nation ensures that our culture has a profound national basis, will we be able to strengthen our capacity to absorb foreign culture.

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, and following the development of opening up to the outside world and Sino-foreign cultural exchange, we have seen great expansions in the area of research and absorption of foreign culture. Sino-foreign culture is large in scale, great in quantity, broad in content, and quick in information communication, to an unprecedented extent. This has enabled people and especially cultural workers to broaden horizons, expand knowledge and enliven their thoughts, and have enabled the content, themes, styles, expressive techniques and creative methods of our country’s literature and art to become even more rich and varied, and has had a great stimulating function towards the modernization of our country’s cultural facilities and literature and art dissemination methods. At the same time, we should also consider that, in the past few years, correspondingly grave and confusing phenomena existed in the area of dealing with foreign culture as well, and an even more grave matter is that some people used the opportunity of opening up to forcefully propagate Western bourgeois worldviews and political views, preach degenerate views of life and views of value, and have fomented the flood of liberation thinking trends. We must give this high regard, and earnestly clean this up and change it.

The magnificent Chinese nation should and can make even greater contributions to global culture. To achieve this point, we can only rely on effort to create excellent cultural and artistic works that have clear characteristics of the Chinese nation. The more it is national, the more it is global. This point has been proven by innumerable facts.

(10) Correctly dealing with the relationship between inheritance and development.

Carrying forward the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation does not mean that we want to have a doctrine of “back to the ancients”. Historical cultures are all the outcome of a certain period. It is the same as with any thing, the cultural heritage of the Chinese nation also has a dual nature. The narrowness and conservatism of feudal culture established on a basis of small farming production, such as despising labour, clannish concepts, patriarchal behaviour, following the beaten tracks, feudal superstition, treating women as inferior to men, etc., have been the roots of the thinking that guided the society of our country into a long period of stagnation. Because of this, we should absolutely not refrain from dividing good and bad in historical cultural heritage, or incorporate anything, but we shall critically inherit it, absorb what is best, and reject its dregs. The basic objective of our carrying forward the culture of the nation is because we want to remove the old and bring out the new, use the past for the present, and is in order to look ahead, and not in order to look back.

In treating the cultural heritage of the nation, we must adapt an attitude of historical materialism, and analyse whether or not something is progressing on the basis of the historical condition, and we cannot make excessive demands of history or ancestors with today’s standards. Making excessive demands inevitably leads to historical nihilism. During the “Cultural Revolution” period, Lin Biao and the “Gang of Four” categorically denounced the cultural heritage of the nation as the “Four Olds”, and violently destroyed it, which led to disastrous consequences, this sort of grievous historical lesson should be kept firmly in mind and remembered forever.

We should also consider that cultural heritage has a corresponding stability, many of its aspects are not exclusive to some phase or some era, and are not only useful in some phase or in some era. We both must consider the phase nature and the nature of the times of cultural heritage, and must give regard to its inheritance nature and learning nature. Our ancestors have left great amounts of precious experience that we can learn from to us in terms of governing the country, cultivating moral character, and accomplishing undertakings, many of the admonitions and maxims that they put forward flicker with the light of philosophy even today, there are some things among them that at some time have been endowed with new meanings, and that may become component parts of Socialist spiritual civilization.

Concerning the achievements of the culture of the nation that have been created by our ancestors, we must conduct necessary arrangement and processing with Marxism as guidance and with new ideologies and new artistic methods, conduct new research and elucidation, and develop and innovate somewhat on the basis of inheritance. This is the historical responsibility that we should fulfil to the fullest. In this area, much work must be done. I will give a small example, for example, “Butterfly Lovers”, from the revision of the play’s manuscript to the production of the film, and to the creation of the symphony, has obtained generally acknowledged achievements, and also has influence internationally. Another example, “Jade Hall Spring” is a play that the masses loved as soon as it came out, if the piece with the brothel in the beginning is removed, and only the mediation and trial is left over, it will be a lot better. There still are some scripts and librettos that with changes to a few characters, may become even more precise and lustrous. Naturally, in this sort of processing and arrangement, a very cautious attitude must be adopted, we cannot harm or weaken the original artistic achievement. But, our historical responsibility does not just lie in arranging, processing and researching the things already created by ancestors. Even more important is that we must use all sorts of artistic forms and artistic experiences in the traditional culture of the nation, go and reflect new lives, display new thought, and create new works that have forms of the nation and Socialist content. And the innovation of the content of works, certainly requires innovation in artistic forms. This is an even more important implication and task for developing and innovation on the basis of inheritance. Since “May Fourth”, the mainstream of new literature and art creation has been made in this way. Since the Yan’an Talks on Literature and Art, the consciousness to act in this way has been greatly raised even more.

In short, only by inheriting the excellent cultural achievements of ancestors, by reflecting new historical requirements and conducting new creation, can people of today bring out their own splendour. Only by exceeding the ancestors can we live up to the ancestors, and can we increase new things to be handed down to posterity. This is the rule of historical progress, and is the rule of cultural development.

(11) Striving to eulogize the spirit of Socialist times.

When we advocate carrying forward the culture of the nation and giving regard to national forms and national styles, we do not want to not reflect real life, but this is for the sake of even better display the spirit of Socialist times. Our literature and art must hold high the banner of Socialism, eulogize all beautiful things in Socialism with full enthusiasm, encourage the popular masses to throw themselves into the magnificent undertakings of Socialist modernization construction, reform and opening up. We do not require literature and art to be a part of temporary, concrete and direct political tasks, but this does not mean in the slightest that literature and art may deviate from the political orientation of Socialism. The great achievements established by our country’s people, under Communist Party leadership in order to obtain victory in the New Democratic Revolution, the huge achievements that our country’s people have made in Socialist construction during the forty years since the founding of the nation and especially in the decade of reform and opening up, the overall trends of historical development that Socialism must inevitably replace capitalism, should be displayed and eulogized by us by fully giving rein to the many sorts of functions of literature and art. And only when this sort of Socialist life of the times and spirit of the times is displayed through artistic forms that the common people of China today like to see and hear, can these be accepted by the broad masses and truly become the literature and art of the people.

In the area of literature and art reflecting the life of Socialist times and spirit of the times, it isn’t that there isn’t anything that can be written about, but that not enough is written. There are rich themes and subjects without parallel in real life, that wait for writers and artists to reflect and express them, all ambitious writers and artists may fully display their own creative ability here. We hope that the broad literature and art workers go into social practice, and go into the popular masses, to understand the people’s lives and work, labour and creation, joy and sorrow, and derive themes, subjects, storylines and language from fervent life, and use them into literature and art works that have Chinese styles and a Chinese mood, go and recreate truthfully and deeply the inner world of new Socialist people and their heroic achievements, create artistic images that have flesh and blood, that are vivid and moving, express the revolutionary ideals, scientific attitudes, noble sentiments and creative abilities of the creators of a new era, their broad horizons and spirit of seeking truth. We have already had many literature and art workers that did this, and hope that even more literature and art workers can do this.

(12) We must face the popular masses.

In Socialist society, popular masses are the masters of our country and society. They demand to satisfy their daily increasing spiritual cultural life needs through literature and art, and gain beautiful enjoyment. because of this, serving the broadest popular masses, both is the orientation of literature and art and the objective of literature and art. Where healthy works are concerned, viewers are ever more, and their social effect is increasingly large. And if we want to truly ensure that the broad masses like to see and here things, these must have national forms and national styles. It is very difficult to imagine that works that lack characteristics of the nation that can gain the love of the broad popular masses, and have a long-lasting glamour. Our literature and art workers should strive to research the cultural psychology of the popular masses and their enjoyment habits, and forcefully create literature and art works that have strong national styles and local characteristics. Our country has a population of 1.1 billion, and the absolute majority is in the countryside, in facing the popular masses, we must pay special attention to facing the countryside. Concerning the things that the broad workers, peasants and intellectuals need and what they love to see and hear, including what the flesh-and-blood compatriots on both sides of the Straits and overseas Chinese compatriots need and love to see and hear, we are responsible to vigorously excavate, arrange, process, create, perform and disseminate them.

The literature and art of the nation is the literature and art that is the easiest to disseminate, and is also the literature and art of the masses. It can be discussed from this sort of meaning, that the revolutionization, nationalization and massification of literature and art cannot be separated. Nationalization and massification have natural links. We must give regard to and organize good mass-type self-entertainment culture activities, because the masses are both our service target, and are the drivers to carry forward the culture of the nation. They write and perform themselves, accompany their own songs, and are both performers and audiences, they have both enlivened cultural life and coordinate it with production and work, and are able to produce many good works, and foster many literature and art talents, they have both promoted the dissemination of the culture of the nation, and have provided soil for raising the culture of the nation. At the same time, the popular masses’ demands of the culture of the nation, can also be absolutely raised incessantly on the basis of dissemination. The overall appreciation levels of the entire society towards the culture of the nation have risen, and even higher demands will inevitably be put forward, and promote the culture of the nation to advance and develop. Just like there are now more people who understand drama, and those singing drama find it hard to sing, they cannot but raise their own performance levels. We believe that following the dissemination and deepening of carrying forward the cultural life of the nation, the broad popular masses inevitably will increase the splendour of the artistic treasure house of the culture of the nation, and there will inevitably be many new creations.

(13) Completely implementing the policy of “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend”.

The “Double Hundred” policy is the basic policy to let Socialist literature and art flourish. Literature and art creation is a sort of creative spiritual labour that is unique and complex, it is extremely necessary that literature and art workers give rein to their individual creative spirit and artistic ability. Every literature and art worker’s individual understanding, cultivation and practice always is limited in certain ways, other works also always have a process of rise, it is impossible not to have any mistake, and it is also impossible to attain perfection immediately. Such a process should especially be permitted to middle-age and young literature and art workers. This requires that we strive to create a democratic, harmonious, united and bravely advancing environment for literature and art workers. Practice of many years proves that, whenever we persisted in and implemented the “Double Hundred” policy, the undertaking of Socialist literature and art flourished and prospered full of vitality; whenever we abandoned or departed from the “Double Hundred” policy, the undertaking of Socialist literature and art withered and declined, and become cold and cheerless. In the decade of chaos, the historical lesson of “eight plays for one billion people” must serve as a warning.

Persisting in the “Double Hundred” policy is a necessity for letting literature and art flourish, and is an objective necessity for carrying the culture of the nation forward. In the past few years, some foreign cultural forms, such as ballet, symphonic music, Disney, etc., have been loved by many people, we should continue to encourage and support them, and let them develop even more healthily and vigorously. The culture of our nation itself is a vast display of dazzling colours, rich and varied, it is an oven in which the culture of many nations are blended, and a garden of many flowers gathering the essence of all schools. This is the characteristic and superiority of the culture of our Chinese nation. We must pay attention to this characteristic and carry forward this superiority, launch creative competitions and academic contention with a free hand, to ensure that the culture and art of all fraternal ethnicities compete with the beautiful flowers in the great garden of Socialism, contend in glory and compete in elegance, and all display their graceful bearing.

Practice proves that an important matter in persisting in the “Double Hundred” policy is grasping the following few points: first, we must launch comradely discussion and contention. In politics, under the presupposition of not violating the Four Cardinal Principles, all sorts of styles, all sorts of schools, all sorts of viewpoints are permitted to exist, are permitted to compete freely and discuss freely, are permitted to criticize and are permitted to counter criticize, do not engage in bludgeoning, do not put hats on people. We must dare to persist in truth and dare to rectify mistakes. This should become the regular order of literature and art work. Second, we must respect practice and respect the masses. Whether all literature and art works are good or bad, must be tested through practice, the popular masses must pass judgment on right and wrong, rule on superiority and inferiority, it cannot be the case that a small minority has the last world on the basis of individual likes, dislikes or needs. Third, we must grasp the dialectical relationship of the “two fors” and the “double hundred” well. The “two fors” are the general requirement and orientation for our country’s literature and art development, the “double hundred” are the only way to realize the “two fors”. Both are closely linked, and are inseparable, one cannot talk about the “two fors” separately from the “double hundred”, and can also not talk about the “double hundred” separately from the “two fors”. Fourth, we must respect the characteristics and rules of literature and art. Leaders should maintain close relationships with literature and art workers, regularly hear their opinions, prevent dealing with the artistic creations of writers and artists in a simple and rough manner.

(14) The culture of the nation must incessantly absorb the achievements of modern science and technology.

The development of culture has always been closely related to the development of science and technology. Modern science and technology inevitably has engendered a huge influence on the development of culture, and has brought new vitality and vigour to the culture of our nation. With film and television as examples, these are artistic forms that have burgeoned after the development of modern industry, science and technology, and have had a very large function in the dissemination of the culture of the nation. With the help of modernized science and technology methods, quite high levels have been achieved in the protection and restoration of ancient buildings, the collection and reproduction of ancient books and the excavation and preservation of antique cultural relics. In the future, we must, on the basis of need and possibility, utilize all modern scientific and technological methods in a planned and progressive manner, and especially progressively adopt electronic technology, laser technology, modern audio technology, modern building materials and other scientific and technological achievements in stage design, theatre construction and performance facilities, in order to enrich and raise the expressive capacity of the nation’s art.

To adopt modern scientific and technological means in the culture of the nation, we must both be vigorous and cautious. Absorbing modern scientific and technological means is for the sake of enriching and developing the characteristics of the culture of the nation even better, and not is in order to weaken it, dilute it or destroy it. We must ensure that both are integrated scientifically, and are accepted and welcomed by the broad masses. For example, the family name of Peking opera is “Peking”, regardless of whatever scientific and technological means are utilized, they must always have not destroying its artistic characteristics as yardstick. If Zhou Cang holds a pistol, and Guan Yu holds a walkie-talkie, how could that not make people laugh their head off?

Using modern science and technology in the culture of the nation is a long-term and complex process. It involves many aspects, and there are both problems of funding, and problems of technology, there are both problems of cultural departments, and problems of non-cultural departments. Cultural departments and cultural workers must incessantly pay attention to the situation and information of modern science and technology development, scientific departments and other relevant areas should also, on the basis of the real needs of cultural work, conduct scientific research, create all sorts of conditions to assist cultural departments to use the newest science and technology research, and ensure that the culture of the nation brings forth new colours.

IV

(15) We must create a public opinion environment that pays regard to the culture of the nation.

Aimed at the thinking trends of national nihilism from the past few years, all sorts of public opinion work units and cultural organs must realistically strengthen propaganda and dissemination work on the culture of the nation. Newspapers, radio stations, television stations and related periodical and publishing departments must adopt opening special columns, organizing special subject lectures and all sorts of writers’ meetings, as well as publishing monographs, dictionaries, book series and many other methods, to use historical materialist viewpoints to assist people in correctly understanding the excellent traditions of the culture of our nation, and especially the glorious tradition of the Chinese revolutionary history and revolutionary culture since “May Fourth”. We must strengthen introduction and comment on the culture of the nation, and strengthen reporting and appraisal of outstanding personalities who have made prominent contributions to developing the culture of the nation.

We must fully utilize all sorts of national holidays to launch activities carrying forward the culture of the nation. These national holidays, such as Spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival as well as the Tibetan New Year, Water Sprinkling Festival, the Corban Festival, etc., have a long history and a strong mass nature, they have dense national characteristics and are the strong carriers of the culture of the nation. We must, through correct guidance, organize all sorts of mass-type folk activities and cultural entertainment activities during holidays, make them full of life and excitement, and make national holidays into distinguished gatherings for reviewing the cultural achievements of the nation and carrying forward the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation.

We must closely link up with strengthening and improving ideological and political work, and infuse them with the content of the excellent culture of the nation. We must integrate patriotic, collectivist and Socialist education, education on arduous pioneering, diligence and thrift, education on the national circumstances and education on the situation with education on the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation and the fine traditions of the revolution, and pay attention to adopting even more culture of the nation activity forms to bring even more ethnic style and an ethnic air to our ideological education, even better reflect the spirit of incorporating teaching into play, and achieve the objective of warmly loving the culture of the nation and vitalizing the aspirations of the nation.

We must regularly organize nationwide and local xiqu, quyi and ethnic opera, music, dance, fine art and acrobatics performances, competitions and exhibitions, and through these activities, discover excellent works and outstanding talents, promoting the development and flourishing of the art of the nation. At the same time, we must also run performances and screenings of plays, films and television dramas that have clear national characteristics well, and organize that experts and the masses launch criticism and selection work, excellent works that have clear national characteristics must be forcefully honoured, creative and performing personnel with prominent contributions must be given material awards, some may also be given different levels of honorary titles, in order to shape a social morality of respecting the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation in the whole society.

(16) We must grasp children and the youth.

Carrying forward the culture of the nation, establishing and strengthening the self-respect, self-confidence and self-pride of the nation, are long-term tasks with strategic significance. This work must be grasped from nursery schools and primary schools, by implementing the integration of school, household and society, to conduct education on the history of the nation and the culture of the nation towards children and minors year per year, in a phased manner.

First, we must compile all sorts of reading materials. In our country’s history, there are many stories that reflect hard work and studiousness, intelligence and wisdom, morality and integrity, there is no lack of national heroes, people with noble ideals, literary giants and scholars, skilled craftsmen and talented persons, all have literary excellence, and there still are all sorts of legends on the “Heroes of Youth from Ancient Times”, these have a very educational significance towards minors. We must write these historical stories and historical characters into all sorts of popular literature, produce a batch of audiovisual products and cartoons, in order to conduct education on the long history and resplendent culture of the Chinese nation to the youth through many kinds of vivid, vigorous and fascinating forms. At the same time, relevant departments must also make the necessary adjustments to the primary, secondary and tertiary textbooks they use, and stress educational content on the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation in language, history, geography, system reform and other subjects.

Second, we must progressively create a cultural environment that has clear characteristics of the nation. For example: in urban construction, we must, under the presupposition of practicality and economy, as much as possible pay attention to reflecting national characteristics in housing design and bridge building, as well as the decoration and renovation of factories, schools, organs, parks and other public venues, and especially when building children’s cultural palaces, science parks and other activity centres, it is also permitted to make ethic historical figures and historical stories into content for sculpture and murals, to ensure that minors are influenced by their surroundings from an early age, in an environment and atmosphere of the culture of the nation, are influenced and educated.

Third, we must organize the youth to vigorously organize activities on the culture of the nation. For example: organizing students to launch knowledge competitions on the culture of the nation, conducting essay competitions centred on historical themes and national art contests, participating in all sorts of ethnic literature and art performances, visiting ethnic artistic performances, participating in festival celebration activities with characteristics of the nation, visiting and traveling to scenic sports and historic sites, etc.

In short, we must raise the subjective national consciousness and cultivation of the culture of the nation among minors through all channels and all sorts of educational activities, to ensure that they not only have knowledge and abilities in this area, but even more important is letting them inherit and carry forward the fine moral qualities of the traditions of the Chinese nation, mould and shape the spirit of the modern Chinese nation.

(17) We must have an overall plan.

The Socialist culture construction with carrying forward the culture of the nation as important content involves many areas, and requires the mustering of forces from all sides of society, coordination, cooperation and joint organization. This requires consideration from all possible angles, gradual planning, and implementation with an organized and well-led manner. The culture of the nation has clear local characteristics, and we must pay special attention to reflecting the reality of regions in formulating plans. We must closely link up social and economic development planning, and integrate closely with the real work in work units. Regardless of whether they are cultural departments, including education, scientific, literary, artistic, press, publications, radio, film, television, hygiene, sports, cultural heritage, library, museum or other departments, or whether they are other departments such as urban construction, traffic and transportation, farming, forestry, hydropower, commerce, foreign trade, etc., as well as factories, mines, villages and other grass roots work units, when formulating development plans for their departments and work units, they must consider Socialist culture construction, which benefits carrying forward the culture of the nation, and inspiring the spirit of the nation.

We must pay attention to integrating planning with programmes, on the basis of the requirements of general plans, formulate programmes for annual implementation plans. For example, in the excavation, arrangement, adaptation and reform of traditional theatre, and the arrangement, publishing and distribution of ancient works, the recording and processing of all ethnic or folk oral literature, the protection and use of cultural relics, etc., we must, on the basis of real needs and the principle of acting within ability, formulate concrete implementation objective. Cultural construction plans must, be guaranteed to be completed on time, similarly to completing economic construction plans.

(18) We must research and formulate corresponding economic policies.

In order to carry forward the culture of the nation, we must give the necessary support in financial and material resources. First, we must reasonably adjust and use existing cultural investment. Present cultural construction funds are relatively tight, the State’s financial strength is limited and it is impossible to bring up a lot of money at once, it is only possible that, under the principle of comprehensive planning, all levels’ squeeze some money, as far as possible, from cultural expenses, to be used for the construction of the culture of the nation. Second, we must adopt preferential policies in the area of taxation. We must give support and encouragement to the development of a healthy Socialist cultural undertaking, including the development of the undertaking of the culture of the nation, and must implement low taxation rates over income gained through the publishing, distribution, performance, screening and exhibition of excellent spiritual products in these areas, for some, we must also reduce taxation of exempt taxation, and must implement relatively high tax rates on income from those bestselling books and performance activities of which the cultural or academic value is not great, strive to help the lean with the fat, do not let work units and individuals who create or perform healthy and excellent works to lose out economically. Third is researching and improving existing allocation policies. We must, according to the principle of allocation on the basis of labour, and on the basis of the financial strength of the nation, progressively change the situation of all literature and art personnel’s income being insufficiently reasonable. We must give munificent treatment in salary, as well as housing and other areas to top-notch talents who have made prominent contributions to reflecting the spirit of Socialist times and the flourishing of the undertaking of the culture of the nation. Fourth, we must advocate run cultural undertakings with hard work and thrift, strive to achieve matters are run with less money, and matters are run without spending money. In recent years, our expenses in the cultural undertaking were on the one hand far from sufficient, and on the other hand, the phenomena of extravagance and waste existed as well, especially a number of films of inferior quality have cost huge sums of money, and have not been performed in public. If we are somewhat more strict in this area, we can organize many beneficial things.

(19) We must establish a line of huge teams of workers for the culture of the nation.

Fostering and training a large batch of excellent workers for the culture of the nation is a basic measure in inheriting and developing the excellent culture of the nation, and is an urgent task facing us at present. We must adopt all sorts of forceful measures, including organizing all sorts of cultural and art academies, fostering and training specialist talents in all areas. We must give higher regard to giving rein to the function of old experts and old artists, and doing teaching, helping and leading well. We must create conditions to let self-educated workers for the culture of the nation develop their own strong points. We must care for and support folk artists who are scattered around society, help them raise levels, and fully give rein to their function in carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation.

We must advocate that the workers for the culture of the nation strive to study Marxism, study the line, principles and policies of the Party since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, study literature and art theory and modern scientific and cultural knowledge, go deeply into life, increase an accumulation of live, strive to raise ideological levels and professional qualities. We must advocate that cultural workers and especially specialist personnel earnestly study the excellent traditions of the culture of the nation, and cultivate a strong environment of academic research, concentration on creation and diligent practice of basic technique, and incessantly raise the fostering of the culture of the nation and professional levels.

Here, I’d like to discuss the issue of strengthening the unity of literature and art teams. Our workers for the culture of the nation, both in quality and in quantity, cannot suit the needs of the circumstances by far, because of this, strengthening unity and shaping joint forces is especially important. All categories, all schools and all masters in the culture of the nation have their own strong points. Carrying forward the culture of the nation includes the joint rise of all categories and schools, everyone must mutually respect, mutually study and mutually learn from one another, and draw on others’ strong points to compensate for own shortcomings. Those who are workers for the culture of the nation should continue to inherit and carry forward the excellent virtue of the Chinese nation, put the great undertaking of the people first, have broad minds, and a generosity of tolerance to the other, free themselves from narrow and small circles, and abandon those knotty and bumpy things, look ahead in everything, and unite around the great objective of serving the people and serving Socialism, make concerted efforts, and contribute their own forces to promote the undertaking of the culture of the nation.

(20) We must strengthen Party leadership over the work of carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation.

This issue must be put in the agenda of leaders, there must be special persons who are responsible for this part of work, and at the same time as constructing a Socialist material civilization, grasp carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation as an important matter in constructing a Socialist spiritual civilization. We must regularly research and discuss matters, and timely supervise and examine matters. We must strengthen the ideological and political work of cultural workers, care for them politically, help them consciously persist in the “two fors” policy, when matters occur, tell them in advance, and ensure that their ideologies are able to follow the development of circumstances; at the same time, we must also as much as possible help cultural workers to solve real difficulties in work and life; we must respect the results of their labour, and create a good work environment for them, to enable them to fully give rein to their own intelligence and talent. All levels’ leading cadres must be intimate friends of cultural workers, regularly communicate thoughts with them, and closely unite the broad cultural workers around the Party, organize them to provide even more and even more beautiful spiritual products to the people, and satisfy the popular masses’ spiritual cultural life needs even better.

Comrades! The development of our Chinese nation is at a major historical juncture! From the middle of this century until the middle of next century, we must use one hundred years of time, struggle arduously, cast off poverty and backwardness, and basically realize modernization on the basic of Socialism. Forty years of time have already passed, and there have been huge achievements and experiences, and there also have been many complications and lessons. We have already stridden into the Nineties. This decade of the nineties is a crucial step, if this step is done well, it can lay a good basis for smooth development in the next century. This is so in economic construction, it is also so in cultural construction. On the eve of founding the nation, Comrade Mao Zedong put forward the task of rejuvenating the magnificent culture of the Chinese nation in his article criticizing the United States’ white paper. The “Central Committee Resolution Concerning Guiding Policies for the Construction of a Socialist Spiritual Civilization” put forward: the Party line since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Committee has endowed this rejuvenation with new and strong vitality and vigour; this rejuvenation, will create a highly developed Socialist spiritual civilization with Marxism as guidance, which critically inherits historical traditions and fully reflects the spirit of the time, has a footing in this country and faces the world. Today, our discussing the issue of carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation, has com out of such an historical height and an ideological height. We have complete confidence and ability to seize an even more brilliant future for the culture of the Chinese nation. Let us arise, unite and act, and diligently struggle to construct a new culture of Socialism with Chinese characteristics!

关于弘扬民族优秀文化的若干问题
李瑞环
(一九九○年一月十日)

全国文化艺术工作情况交流座谈会,是中宣部、文化部在九十年代第一春召开的一次重要会议。新年伊始,把各地和有关部门的同志请来,交流贯彻党的十三届四中全会和五中全会精神的有关情况,学习邓小平同志关于文化艺术工作的重要论著,对前一时期的文化艺术工作进行总结,对今后的文化艺术工作做出部署,这是一个好的做法。在这个会议即将结束、全国话剧戏曲创作座谈会开始举行之际,我想就弘扬民族优秀文化的问题讲几点意见。

当前我们全国人民正在集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设。在这个伟大的历史进程中,文化艺术工作作为一个重要方面,有着极其重要的意义。人民群众迫切需要健康的丰富多彩的精神文化生活,需要更多优秀的文艺作品,反映他们的伟大实践,启迪他们追求新的理想,激励和鼓舞他们前进。这也是文化部门和文艺界同志们的共同愿望。

关于新时期的文化工作和文艺工作,今天我想着重地说一下弘扬民族优秀文化的问题,这是全党全社会关心瞩目的一个重要问题,也是文化战线面临的一项迫切任务。由于文艺是文化的重要组成部分,也由于你们这几个会议的重点是研究文艺工作,我想从繁荣文艺谈起,讲民族文化也较多地涉及民族文艺。大家知道,弘扬民族文化问题的范围非常广泛,内涵极为丰富,而且历来众说纷纭,不容易一下子讲清楚。我选择了二十个有关的问题和同志们商榷,其中有些只是提出了问题,意见还很不成熟。如果能够以我的一孔之见,引起同志们的重视,大家都来探讨研究,并采取切实措施做好这方面的工作,那就是我的最大愿望了。

(1)继续坚持一手抓“扫黄”一手抓繁荣文艺。

党中央从“扫黄”一开始,就把繁荣社会主义文艺、活跃群众文化生活作为一个突出问题提到文艺工作者面前。一个时期以来,随着西方腐朽文化的渗入和资产阶级自由化思潮的泛滥,色情、淫秽的出版物和音像制品大量制作、传播,严重腐蚀了人们的心灵,毒化了社会空气,成为青少年犯罪的一人诱因。几个月来,在全国人民的拥护和支持下,在各有关部门的共同努力下,“扫黄”已经取得很大成果,文化市场面貌明显改观。现在,“扫黄”和除“六害”的斗争正在深入进行,形势是好的。当务之急是,抓紧创作足够多的健康的精神产品,去占领文化市场和各种娱乐场所,占领人们的业余时间和精神空间。如果这项工作跟不上去,腐朽的东西就不可能被挤走,扫掉了的东西还会死灰复燃,卷土重来。应当看到,要创作大批健康有益的、为人民群众喜闻乐见的文艺作品,并不像查禁和收缴黄色的东西那样容易,而是要下更大的力量,动员组织文艺战线的全体同志进行坚持不懈的努力。文艺战线的同志们要认清这个问题的重要性和紧迫性,自觉地担当起这个历史重任,不失时机地把这项工作抓起来,并尽快取得成效。

当然,我们同资产阶级自由化的斗争主要还不是“扫黄”。就文艺战线来讲,资产阶级自由化的影响是严重的,有些文章和作品违背四项基本原则,散布对党对社会主义的怀疑和不信任情绪;有些人卷入了去年春夏之交的政治风波,极少数人甚至站到了党和人民的对立面。对于这种状况,文艺界的同志要有清醒的认识,绝不可低估,更不能护短。党的十三届四中全会以来,各级党委在文艺战线开展了坚持四项基本原则、反对资产阶级自由化的教育和斗争,按照中央的政策和部署进行清查清理工作,已经取得了一定的成效,必须进一步把这项工作引向深入。与此同时,必须大力推进繁荣社会主义文艺的实践,用健康的、优秀的文艺作品占领思想文化阵地,以有效地缩小以至消除资产阶级自由化在文艺领域的影响,巩固和扩大反对资产阶级自由化的成果。正是出于这样的考虑,中央从一开始就提出要两手抓。实践证明,这个方针是正确的,实行的效果是好的,受到了广大群众的欢迎,今后要坚定不移地继续贯彻执行。

(2)充分发挥文艺对稳定社会和鼓舞人民的积极作用。

我们正在进行的治理整顿、深化改革是一项极其繁重的任务。实现这个任务,一要保持社会的稳定,二要振奋人们的精神。在稳定和鼓劲这两个方面,文艺都有其不可替代的特殊重要的作用。

繁荣文艺,既是稳定社会的一种手段,也是社会稳定的一个标志。天下和静在于民乐。努力使我们的舞台姹紫嫣红,使我们的屏幕绚丽多彩,使我们的书刊百花争艳,这种气氛本身就有利于造成和保持安定团结的局面。制止动乱和平息在北京发生的反革命暴乱以来,我们结合中华人民共和国成立四十周年庆祝活动,抓了建国以来的巨大成就的宣传和活跃群众文化生活的工作,还要抓好春节期间的文化娱乐活动,这对于活跃气氛、疏解矛盾、理顺群众情绪已经发挥并将继续发挥积极的作用。当前,治理整顿已进入攻坚阶段。前一段时间治理整顿虽然取得了初步成果,但一些影响经济稳定的深层次问题还没有从根本上解决,而随着治理整顿的进展还会出现一些新的矛盾。在这种形势面前,稳定是压倒一切的。而稳定经济、稳定政治、稳定社会,首先要稳定群众情绪。要切实解决好人民生活中的困难,加强思想政治工作,同时要开展多种多样的群众文化活动,千方百计地活跃群众的精神文化生活,创造安定融洽的社会气氛。这就要求广大文艺工作者一要以治理整顿的精神搞好各项文艺工作,把该办和可能办的事情办好,把该解决而长期没有解决的问题解决好,把该去掉的毛病坚决改掉;二要积极运用文艺方式,为稳定局面和治理整顿贡献力量,满腔热情地歌颂人民群众在治理整顿、深化改革和现代化建设中的英雄业绩和辉煌成就,鼓舞和坚定人们战胜困难的信心;三要通过创作大量健康优秀的文艺作品,开展丰富多彩的文娱活动,使人们的精神生活得到愉悦和满足,以保持社会气氛的和谐和社会生活的稳定;四要寓教于乐,在各类文艺作品和文化活动中,大力发扬邓小平同志所倡导的五种情神,即革命和拼命精神,严守纪律和自我牺牲精神,大公无私和先人后己精神,压倒一切敌人、压倒一切困难的精神,坚持革命乐观主义、排除万难去争取胜利的精神,以激励人们振奋起来,迎难而上。这是广大文艺工作者义不容辞的责任,也是新形势下文艺工作者应当做出的贡献。

(3)努力满足人民群众日益增长的精神文化生活需要。

随着我国改革开放和经济建设的发展,城乡绝大多数群众的温饱问题已经得到解决,部分群众的生活正在向小康水平迈进。富而思文,富而思乐,人民群众求知、求乐、求美的要求越来越高、越来越迫切。这就向社会主义文艺事业提出了更高的要求。满足人民精神文化生活多方面的需要,既是社会主义精神生产的根本目的,也是文艺工作者负有的其他部门所不能替代的职责。

党的十一届三中全会以来,我国文艺事业遵循毛泽东同志《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》等著作中所阐述的文艺思想和邓小平同志的一系列重要指示,坚持“为人民服务,为社会主义服务”的方向,在反映现实生活的深度和广度上,在艺术表现力上,进行了多方面的探索和创造,取得了显著的进步。小说、报告文学、诗歌、电影、电视剧、话剧、戏曲、音乐、舞蹈、美术、摄影、曲艺、杂技、书法等各个方面,都出现了一大批好作品。文艺事业对于促进思想解放,鼓励人们积极投身于社会主义现代化建设和改革开放,丰富群众的精神文化生活,都起到了积极有益的作用。这些巨大成就是必须肯定的,是任何人也否定不了的。但也应该看到,与十年改革和建设的伟大成就相适应、相匹配,无愧于我们伟大人民和伟大时代的优秀文学艺术作品,在全国引起强烈反响的作品,还不是很多。这也就是为什么一方面群众感到精神文化生活得不到充分满足,另一方面许多文艺书刊又卖不出去,许多电影、戏剧卖不上座的一个重要原因。当然,这里面有社会风气和社会成员的文化素质等诸多因素,但文艺战线本身也应该找一找原因。近几年来,国家花了大批资金兴建电台、电视台和各种文化娱乐设施,广大群众节衣缩食买了录音机、电视机,可是我们没能给他们提供更多更好的作品,这本身就是一种浪费,也损害了人民群众的利益。说到人民的需求,我还要特别讲一讲占全国人口一半的青少年的需求,他们是跨世纪的人,是二十一世纪的建设大军。能不能为他们提供丰富优质的精神食粮,这关系到几亿青少年能不能健康成长,关系到我们民族的前途和未来。我们的文艺工作者要以对社会、对历史的高度责任感,投身于繁荣社会主义文艺的崇高事业,努力把最好的精神食粮贡献给人民,满足人民日益增长的精神文化生活的需要。

(4)繁荣文艺是各级文化部门的中心任务。

邓小平同志指出,党对文艺工作的领导,就是“根据文学艺术的特征和发展规律,帮助文艺工作者获得条件来不断繁荣文学艺术事业,提高文学艺术水平,创作出无愧于我们伟大人民、伟大时代的优秀的文学艺术作品和表演艺术成果”。从中央到地方,党政各级文化领导部门和领导干部都必须以高度的责任感,全神贯注地致力于充分调动广大文艺工作者的积极性和创造性,发动他们为全社会提供足够数量的优质精神产品。陈云同志向评弹说书艺人提出,“出书、出人、走正路”,这个精神对整个文艺工作都是适用的。检验文艺领导工作是否有成绩以及成绩大小,根本标准就是看健康的社会主义的文艺是否繁荣。如果一个地方、一个部门长期出不了优秀作品,出不了杰出人才,甚至搞得群众没书看、没戏看,就如同搞得群众没粮吃、没菜吃一样,这样的领导不能说是称职的,也是不会取得广大群众的拥护与支持的。

文艺界确有一些原则问题需要分清是非,统一思想,否则就会影响团结,妨碍创作,就不能引导文艺事业沿着社会主义方向健康发展。对于资产阶级自由化,必须进行严肃的批判;对于某些不同的思想认识问题,则主要应当通过学习马克思主义和文学艺术的实践,在繁荣文艺的过程中逐步求得解决,求大同存小异。至于那种历史上长期积存下来的恩恩怨怨,各种各样的门户之见,许多都是无原则纠纷,不应该也不可能争出个我高你低和是非曲直来。领导者的责任是,引导大家以大局为重,把主要精力放在繁荣文艺事业上,认识一时统一不了的可以先放一放,让实践来做结论。在坚持“一个中心、两个基本点”的前提下,总是能够找到共同点的。把工作停下来,陷入无休止的争论,只能贻误大事。我相信,同志们能够理解这一点,也会乐于这样做,并且会以自己卓越的工作为尽快繁荣社会主义文艺做出应有的成绩。特别是面对当前的国际国内形势,党和人民对文艺工作的殷切期待,希望同志们很快传来佳音,为全国人民展现一个文学艺术蓬勃繁荣、争奇斗妍的新局面。

(5)繁荣文艺必须注意弘扬民族优秀文化。

尽管随着国家与国家、民族与民族之间交往的增加,文化的互相交流、互相借鉴会越来越频繁;但从总体上来说,一个国家的文化,仍然具有鲜明的民族特色。因此,当我们提出繁荣文艺的时候,应该同时提出弘扬民族优秀文化。近几年来,在我国文化战线上,围绕着民族文化问题的论争,实质上包含着重大的思想政治斗争。全盘否定民族文化,宣扬民族虚无主义和历史虚无主义,是顽固坚持资产阶级自由化立场的人所主张的“全盘西化论”的一部分。在当前的国际和国内形势下,弘扬民族文化不仅直接关系到我国文化的兴衰,而且在政治上具有重要意义。面对西方垄断资产阶级和平演变的攻势,弘扬民族文化是振奋民族精神,提高民族自尊心和电信心,发扬爱国主义精神,顶住一切外来压力的一个重要条件。在实现祖国统一大业的进程中,弘扬民族文化又是沟通海峡两岸的桥梁,是加深海内外炎黄子孙的相互理解,增强中华民族凝聚力的一个重要力量。

无论是东方还是西方,世界各民族都有自己独具特色的文化。文化艺术离不开人民的生活、习惯、思想、感情。而各民族人民语言不同,历史发展不同,地理环境各异,经济和社会发展形态有别,所以,文化艺术总是有一个民族形式、民族风格的问题。相对来说,文化艺术的民族保守性是比较强的,许多古典的东西,甚至可以保持几百年、几千年,后人还是继承它、喜欢它。这是人类发展历史长河中一个带规律性的共同现象。提起俄罗斯民族文化,人们就会联想到普希金的诗歌和托尔斯泰的长篇小说;提起日尔曼民族文化,人们就会想到歌德、海涅的诗歌、剧作和贝多芬的音乐;提起意大利民族文化,人们就会想到但丁的《神曲》和达·芬奇的绘画。这些富有民族特色的文化艺术,是民族生活、劳动、斗争和人民智慧的结晶,是民族的创造,是吸收人类文明的成果,又是对于人类文明的贡献。它构成了维系民族成员的心理纽带,是民族生命的重要组成部分。一个国家要实现文艺的繁荣,必须注重研究和继承民族文化的特点、风格及其优秀遗产。在深刻的社会变革过程中,在急剧的现代化过程中,文化的内容和形式必然会有许多新的变化,但是决不能忽视民族特色和民族文化的研究。丢掉民族的优秀文化遗产,不仅是民族自身的悲剧,也是人类的损失。

(6)大力弘扬灿烂辉煌的中华民族文化。

中华民族文化是一个丰富博大的有机整体,既包括汉民族的文化,也包括各少数民族的文化;既包括悠久的古代文化,也包括近代和现代文化。中华民族文化在世界文明史上占有极其重要的地位。它有以下几个显著特点:

一是源远流长。我国是世界上经济、文化发展最早的国家之一,有文字记载的历史长达五千年之久。我国人民依靠自己的勤劳和智慧,很早就有了发达的农业和手工业。许多重要的农作物都是中华的先民最早从野生植物培育而成的,在公元六世纪就有了完整的农耕理论著述。在春秋时期就炼出了生铁,早于欧洲很多年。我们的祖先有举世闻名的造纸、印刷术、指南针、火药四大发明,并且是第一个将指南针用于航海的国家。在观天测地方面,我们的祖先也创造过奇迹。我国至今还保留着世界上最早最丰富的古代天象记录资料,在春秋时期就发现并记录了后来以哈雷命名的彗星,早在战国时期就编制出了恒星表。在公元132年我国就发明了地震仪,开始了人类使用仪器观测地震的历史。我们的祖先不仅在征服大自然的斗争中曾经遥遥领先于世界,而且在文化思想领域也有许多成就居于世界前列。早在周朝,我国便产生了文学巨著《诗经》。中国的戏曲艺术也有悠久的历史,从古代歌舞发展起来的戏曲–元杂剧是中国古典戏曲的高峰。著名的剧作家关汉卿活动的时代比世界著名的英国戏剧家莎士比亚要早三百年。

二是博大精深。中华民族的传统文化内容极其丰富,不仅包括政治、经济、文化、军事,史学、教育、哲学、道德、宗教等方面的理论、思想,还包括科技成就、文艺创作、文物古迹和民风民俗等等。在上述许多领域,我们的祖先都曾分别达到过当时世界水平的巅峰。我国的文学艺术,就其作品的丰富、成就的辉煌和名家的众多来说,在世界文学史上占有突出地位。以诗歌为例,继《诗经》、《楚辞》之后,汉乐府、唐诗、宋词、元曲,递相继承又各有创新。就小说而论,《三国演义》、《西游记》、《水浒》、《红楼梦》、《聊斋志异》等文学巨著更是闻名世界。我国古代的美术,不仅有《韩熙载夜宴图》、《清明上河图》这样的杰作和诸多画派名家留下的大量艺术珍品,还有敦煌、麦积山、云冈、龙门四大石窟和秦陵兵马俑这样堪称世界奇观的地上地下的绘画雕塑宝藏。我国古代的学术,诸子百家,经史子集,经过千百年的繁衍和发展,有些已形成了完备的体系,其中尽管有封建性的糟粕,但也有不少值得吸取的精华。

三是影响深远。我们的民族文化是随着中华民族的发展而发展起来的,它对于中华民族的形成、繁衍、统一、稳定和自立于世界民族之林,都起了不可取代的巨大作用,有着超越时代的深远影响。而刻苦耐劳,酷爱自由,不畏强暴,英勇奋斗,从不屈服于外来压迫的民族精神,正是中华民族优秀文化传统的集中体现。在漫长的岁月中,我们的民族屡经曲折磨难,甚至几临倾覆厄运,却一次再一次地衰而复兴,蹶而复振,转危为安,巍然屹立。在当今世界上,凡是炎黄子孙,不管走到什么地方,只要他良知未泯,都不能不为辉煌灿烂的中华民族文化而感到骄傲。

中华民族文化对于人类的进步和发展产生了广泛深远的影响。我国古代的四大发明对于人类文明的贡献自不待言,若干领域的学术思想成就也丰富了世界思想文化宝库。中国古代的辩证法、教育思想、军事理论等,在当今的世界上仍然具有不衰的魅力。

总之,我们的祖先给我们留下了一份极其丰厚、极其珍贵的文化宝藏。我们要为后代留下点什么?这的确是个严肃的问题。我们应该珍惜、保护和发掘中华民族的优秀文化遗产,并在继承的基础上,有所创造,有所前进。否则,不仅愧对我们的伟大祖先,也愧对我们的后世子孙。

(7)批判对待民族文化的历史虚无主义。

在对待我们民族文化传统的问题上,“五四”以来就存在着不同的态度和主张。中国的马克思主义者主张批判地继承,这是唯一正确的主张。毛泽东同志的《新民主主义论》等著作,对这种正确主张作了透彻的闸述。他多次强调对待民族传统文化,要坚持马克思主义的历史主义,明确指出我们不应当割断历史,从孔夫子到孙中山,我们应当给以总结,继承这一份珍贵的遗产。同时,他又指出,对待历史遗产,要给以批判的总结,剔除其封建性的糟粕,吸收其民主性的精华。毛泽东同志对我国的民族文化有极深的造诣,并在长期的革命和建设实践中加以灵活地运用。他的讲演和论著对祖国语言、历史典故、诗词语汇的运用自如和赋予新意,是众所周知的。

对待民族文化的错误态度,主要有两种表现:一种是毫无批判地兼收并蓄,食古不化;另一种是全面否定民族文化的历史虚无主义,鼓吹“全盘西化”。“五四”之后,就有所谓“充分西化”、“一心一意的西化”的主张。在三十年代的中西文化大讨论中,有人更明确提出中国的出路就是从文化到经济到政治都要“全盘西化”。这种主张是对我国民族优秀文化的贬低和否定,当时就遭到有力的批驳。毛泽东同志早在一九四○年就明确指出“所谓’全盘西化’的主张,乃是一种错误的观点”。我国新民主主义革命的伟大胜利和社会主义建设的巨大成就,用无可辩驳的事实宣告了这种民族虚无主义和“全盘西化论”的破产。

最近几年来,资产阶级自由化思潮泛滥的一个突出表现,就是鼓吹民族虚无主义和历史虚无主义。方励之、刘晓波和《河殇》的作者等资产阶级自由化的头面人物,把中华民族的文化说成“已经夭亡了”,“孕育不了新的文化”,是只能走向“自杀”的“黄土文化”,中华民族几千年的历史只有“愚昧和落后”,主张照搬西方资产阶级的世界观、历史观和价值观。这些诋毁民族文化、歪曲民族历史的所谓“文化主张”,是与他们在经济上要照搬西方的私有制、在政治上要照搬西方的多党制的主张相一致的,是为他们否定社会主义制度、否定共产党领导的政治目的服务的。一些坚持资产阶级自由化立场的所谓“文化精英”,在去年春夏之交的政治风波中成了“动乱精英”。在反革命暴乱破产后,他们中的一些人叛国出逃,从民族虚无主义走向了卖国主义。这个事实,最清楚不过地说明,鼓吹民族虚无主义和历史虚无主义思潮,不仅是个文化问题,而且是个政治问题;不仅是个对待历史的态度问题,而且更重要的是个对待现实的态度问题。这种思潮在政治上、思想上造成了恶劣的影响,对此不可低估。一个时期以来,在一些人心目中,似乎中国什么都不行,一切都是外国的好,言必称西洋,张口骂祖宗,崇洋媚外、丧失国格人格的丑恶现象时有发生。深入批判民族虚无主义和历史虚无主义,不但关系到弘扬中华民族优秀文化,而且关系到发扬爱国主义精神、维护我们民族尊严,关系到引导人们坚持什么方向乃至于中国走什么道路的大问题。

(8)重视和研究建设有中国特色的社会主义新文化。

邓小平同志提出的关于建设有中国特色的社会主义的基本理论,是毛泽东思想的新发展,是指导我们建设社会主义现代化强大国家的锐利武器。毛泽东同志在《新民主主义论》中说,我们共产党人,一切奋斗的目标,在于建设一个中华民族的新社会和新国家,在这个新社会和新国家中,不但有新政治、新经济,而且有新文化。同样地,建设有中国特色的社会主义,不但要建设有中国特色的社会主义的政治和经济,而且要建设有中国特色的社会主义的文化。

一定的文化(作为观念形态的文化)是一定的政治和经济的反映,又给予伟大影响和作用于一定社会的政治和经济;而经济是基础,政治则是经济的集中的表现。我们讨论中国文化问题,不能忘记这个马克思主义的基本观点。有中国特色的社会主义新文化,即我们的民族形式与社会主义内容相结合的新文化,就其本质和主体上说,它应该是符合中国国情的,表现社会主义的时代生活和时代风貌,揭示现实社会关系的本质和历史发展趋势的,应该是体现社会主义的时代精神的。这种新文化必然是以有中国特色的社会主义的政治和经济为根据的,反转过来又给予政治、经济以伟大的影响和作用。如果不能建成这种新文化,建设有中国特色的社会主义的历史任务就不可能真正完成。

列宁说过:“无产阶级文化并不是从天上掉下来的,也不是那些自命为无产阶级文化专家的人杜撰出来的,如果认为是这样,那完全是胡说。无产阶级文化应当是人类在资本主义社会、地主社会和官僚社会的压迫下创造出来的全部知识合乎规律的发展。”现实是历史的发展,是历史长河的一定阶段。现代文明无一不是在已有的物质和文化基础上建立起来的。因此,建设有中国特色的社会主义新文化,一定要植根于中华民族文化的深厚土壤,深入地研究中国的历史文化,弘扬中华民族文化的优秀传统。

自“五四”以来,我们党领导的无产阶级新文化运动即新民主主义的文化革命运动是卓有成就的。新中国成立四十年来,我国的社会主义文化建设取得了重要的进展。特别是在邓小平同志提出建设有中国特色的社会主义的基本理论以后,在改革开放和经济建设取得巨大成就的同时,社会主义文化建设事业又有重要的发展。但是,我们必须清醒地看到,建设有中国特色的社会主义新文化,是一项浩大的系统工程,是一个非常艰巨、非常复杂而又非解决不可的任务。究竟怎样实现民族形式与社会主义内容的有机结合,社会主义新文化各门学科和各个领域的内容、构架、体系、发展趋势及其相互关系究竟应当是怎样的,这是一个需要认真实践和探索的重大课题,是一个长期的过程。但是,我们相信,只要我们明确了方向,坚定了信心,团结奋斗,经过一代和几代人的坚持不懈的努力,随着我国社会主义经济、政治的发展,就一定能够发扬光大中华民族文化的优秀传统,建立起无愧于先人和当今时代的有中国特色的社会主义新文化。

(9)积极借鉴一切对我有用的外来文化。

弘扬民族文化的优秀传统,绝不意味着排斥外来文化。尤其是在国际间文化交流曰益频繁的今天,排斥外来文化,在文化上把自己封团起来,只会延缓我们民族文化的发展进程。积极地借鉴、吸收外来文化中一切对我有用的东西,是促进民族文化发展的一个重要条件。在我国历史上,汉、唐时代既是吸收外来文化最为积极最有气魄的时代,同时也是民族主体意识高扬、民族文化蓬勃发展的时代。“五四”以来,以鲁迅、郭沫若、茅盾、老舍为代表的革命作家和进步作家,都最善于借鉴、吸收外来文化,同时又都对民族文化的发展做出了卓越贡献。在社会主义条件下,在改革开放的今天,我们吸收外来文化的气魄应该更大一点,更要有世界眼光。不管是资本主义国家的还是社会主义国家的,不管是第三世界的还是发达国家的,不管是古代的还是近代、现代的,凡是人类创造的积极的精神财富,凡属人类文明发展的新成果,凡属世界各民族创造的优秀艺术表现形式,我们都要积极地了解、介绍、学习、借鉴。

吸收、借鉴外来文化的目的不是用它来取代本民族的文化,而是为了丰富和发展我国的民族文化。因此,借鉴外来文化必须立足于本民族的实践,从思想内容到艺术形式,都要根据促进社会主义现代化建设和发展我国民族文化的需要加以检验和考察,用马克思主义的立场、观点和方法加以分析、鉴别、选择和改造,做到“洋为中用”。把我们民族文化的优秀传统弘扬起来,使我们的文化具有深厚的民族基础,才会增强我们吸收外来文化的能力。

党的十一届三中全会以来,随着对外开放和中外文化交流的发展,我们在研究和吸收外来文化方面有了很大的拓展。中外文化交流规模之大、数量之多、内容之广、信息传递之快都是前所未有的。这就使人们特别是文化工作者开阔了眼界,增长了知识,活跃了思想,使我国文艺的内容、题材、样式、表现技巧和创作方法更加丰富多样,对我国文化设施和艺术传播手段的现代化也起了很大的促进作用。与此同时,我们也应该看到,近几年来,在对待外来文化方面也存在着相当严重的混乱现象。在翻译、出版、评介外来文化艺术作品和进口音像制品方面,不加选择、粗制滥造、盲目吹捧的作法在相当大的范围内存在曹,更严重的是有些人利用开放之机,极力宣扬西方资产阶级的世界观和政治观,鼓吹腐朽的人生观和价值观,助长了自由化思潮的泛滥。对此我们必须高度重视,认真加以清理和改变。

伟大的中华民族应该而且可以对世界文化做出更大的贡献。要做到这一点,只能靠努力创造具有鲜明中华民族特色的文化艺术精品。越是民族的,越是世界的。这一点,已经为无数的事实所证明。

(10)正确处理继承和发展的关系。

弘扬民族文化的优秀传统,并不是要搞复古主义。历史文化都是一定时代的产物。同任何事物一样,中华民族的文化遗产也具有两重性。建立在小农生产基础上的封建文化的狭隘性和保守性,诸如鄙视劳动、宗法观念、家长作风、因循守旧、封建迷信、男尊女卑等等,曾经是导致我国社会长期停滞的思想根源之一。因此,对历史文化遗产绝不应不分良莠,兼收并蓄,而应当批判地继承,吸取其精华,剔除其糟粕。我们弘扬民族文化的根本目的,是要推陈出新,古为今用,是为了向前看,而不是向后看。

对待民族文化遗产,必须采取历史唯物主义的态度,就其所处的历史条件去分析它进步与否,而不能用今天的标准苛求历史和前人。苛求势必导致历史虚无主义。“文化大革命”时期,林彪、“四人帮”把民族文化遗产一概斥之为“四旧”,横加扫荡,导致了灾难性的后果,这种沉痛的历史教训是应当永远牢牢记取的。

还应当看到,文化遗产具有相对的稳定性,它的许多方面并不是为某一个阶级、某一个时代所独有的,也不只是为某一个阶级、某一个时代所利用的。我们既要看到文化遗产的阶级性、时代性,又要重视它的继承性和借鉴性。我们的先辈在治理国家、修养品德、成就事业等方面,为我们留下了大量可资借鉴的宝贵经验,他们提出的许多警句格言,至今仍然闪烁着哲理的光辉,其中有些东西一旦赋予新意,便可成为社会主义精神文明的组成部分。

对于前人已经创造的民族文化成果,我们要以马克思主义为指导,要以新的思想和新的艺术手段,进行必要的整理和加工,进行新的研究和阐述,在继承的基础上有所发展和创新。这是我们应尽的历史责任。这方面要做的工作很多。举几个小例子,比如《梁山伯与祝英台》,从戏剧的改稿,到电影的拍摄,到交响诗的创作,成就是公认的,国际上也有影响。再如《玉堂春》,是一出群众喜爱的戏,如果把前面嫖院一段去掉,只剩下起解和会审,就会好得多。还有的戏文唱词,稍改动几个字,也会更加确切、增色。当然,这种加工、整理要采取很谨慎的态度,不能损害、减弱原有的艺术成就。但是,我们的历史责任还不仅仅在于对前人已经创造的东西进行整理、加工和研究。更重要地是要利用民族传统文化的种种艺术形式和艺术经验,去反映新的生活,表现新的思想,创作有民族形式和社会主义内容的新作品。而作品内容的创新,又必然要求艺术形式的创新。这是在继承的基础上发展和创新的更重要的含义和任务。“五四”以来新文艺创作的主流,就是这样做的。延安文艺座谈会以来,更是大大提高了这样做的自觉性。

总之,只有继承前人的优秀文化成果,又反映新的历史要求,进行新的创造,今人才能放出自己的光彩。超越前人才能无愧于前人,才能增添新的东西遗留给后人。这是历史进步的规律,是文化发展的规律。

(11)着力讴歌社会主义的时代精神。

我们提倡弘扬民族文化,重视民族形式和民族风格,并不是不要注意反映现实生活,而是为了更好地表现社会主义的时代精神。我们的文艺必须高举社会主义的旗帜,满腔热情地歌颂一切社会主义的美好事物,激励人民群众投身于社会主义现代化建设和改革开放的伟大事业中去。不要求文学艺术从属于临时的、具体的、直接的政治任务,丝毫不意味着文艺可以偏离为社会主义服务的政治方向。对我国人民在共产党的领导下,为夺取新民主主义革命胜利所建立的丰功伟绩,对我国人民在建国四十年来特别是改革开放十年来所取得的社会主义建设的巨大成就,对社会主义必然要代替资本主义的历史发展总趋势,我们都应当充分发挥文艺的多种功能加以表现和歌颂。而这种社会主义的时代生活和时代精神,只有通过为当代中国老百姓所喜闻乐见的艺术形式加以表现,才能为广大群众所接受,真正成为人民的文艺。

在文艺创作反映社会主义时代生活和时代精神方面,不是没有什么东西可写,而是写得还不够。现实生活中有着无比丰富的题材、主题在等待作家、艺术家们去反映去表现,一切有志气的作家、艺术家在这里都可以充分施展自己的创造才能。我们希望,广大文艺工作者到社会实践中去,到人民群众中去,了解人民的生活和工作,劳动和创造,欢乐和苦恼,从火热的生活中汲取题材、主题、情节、语言,用具有中国风格和中国气派的文艺作品,去真实而深刻地再现社会主义新人的内心世界及其英雄业绩,创作出有血有肉、生动感人的艺术形象,表现新时期创业者的革命理想和科学态度,高尚情操和创造能力,宽阔眼界和求实精神。我们已经有许多文艺工作者这样做了,希望有更多的文艺工作者也这样做。

(12)必须面向人民大众。

在社会主义社会,人民群众是我们国家和社会的主人。他们需要通过文艺来满足自己日益增长的精神文化生活需求,获得美的享受。因此,为最广大的人民群众服务,既是文艺的方向,也是文艺的目的。对于健康的作品来说,看的人越多,它的社会效益就越大。而要真正做到为广大群众喜闻乐见,就必须具有民族形式、民族风格。很难设想,缺乏民族特色的作品会赢得广大人民群众的喜爱,会具有长久的魅力。我们的文艺工作者,应当下功夫研究人民群众的文化心理和欣赏习惯,大力创作具有浓郁的民族色彩和地方特色的文艺作品。我国有十一亿人口,绝大多数在农村,面向人民大众,要特别注意面向农村。对于广大工人、农民、知识分子所需要、所喜闻乐见的,包括海峡两岸骨肉同胞和海外侨胞所需要、所喜闻乐见的,我们都有责任积极地加以挖掘、整理、加工、创作、表演和传播。

民族的文艺,是最易于普及的文艺,因而也是大众的文艺。正是从这种意义上讲,文艺的革命化、民族化、大众化是不可分割的。民族化和大众化有着天然的联系。要重视并组织好群众性的自娱自乐文化活动,因为群众既是我们的服务对象,又是弘扬民族文化的动力。他们自编自演、自拉自唱,既是演员又是观众,既活跃了文化生活,配合了生产和工作,又能产生出很多好作品,培养出很多艺术人才,既推动了民族文化的普及,又为民族文化的提高提供了土壤。与此同时,人民群众对民族文化的需求,也一定会在普及的基础上不断提高。整个社会对民族文化的鉴赏水平提高了,必然会提出更高的要求,推动民族文化向前发展。好比懂戏的人多了,唱戏的就难唱了,非得提高自己的表演水平不可。我们相信,随着弘扬民族文化活动的普及和深入,广大人民群众必将为我们民族文化的艺术宝库增添新的光彩,必将有许许多多新的创造。

(13)全面贯彻“百花齐放、百家争鸣”的方针。

“双百”方针是繁荣社会主义文艺的基本方针。文艺创作是一种独特而复杂的创造性精神劳动,非常需要文艺工作者发挥个人的创造精神和艺术才能。每个文艺工作者的个人认识、修养和实践总是有一定的局限,其作品也总有一个提高的过程,既不可能丝毫不出差错,也不可能一下子臻于完美。特别是对中青年文艺工作者更应当允许他们有这样一个过程。这就要求我们努力为文艺工作者创造一个民主、和谐、团结、奋进的环境。多年来的实践证明,什么时候坚持和贯彻了“双百”方针,社会主义文艺事业就繁荣兴旺,生气勃勃;什么时候放弃或背离了“双百”方针,社会主义文艺事业就枯萎凋零,冷冷清清。十年动乱中,“十亿人民八个戏”的历史教训,必须引以为戒。

坚持“双百”方针,既是繁荣文艺的需要,也是弘扬民族文化的客观需要。这几年来一些外来文化形式,如芭蕾舞、交响乐和迪斯科等,已被许多人所喜爱,应当继续给予鼓励和扶持,使之更加健康蓬勃地发展。我们的民族文化本身就是万紫千红、丰富多彩的,是融众多民族文化于一炉、汇各家精粹于一体的百花园。这是我们中华民族文化的特点和优势。我们要重视这个特点,发扬这个优势,放手开展创作竞赛和学术争鸣,使各兄弟民族的文化艺术在社会主义的大花园中奇葩竞放,争辉斗艳,各显风采。

实践证明,坚持“双百”方针,重要的是把握住以下几条:第一,要开展同志式的讨论和竞赛。在政治上不违背四项基本原则的前提下,各种风格、各个流派、各种观点,都允许存在,允许自由竞赛和自由讨论,允许批评也允许反批评,不打棍子,不扣帽子。要勇于坚持真理,勇于修正错误。这应当成为文艺工作的正常秩序。第二,要尊重实践,尊重群众。一切文艺作品的优劣要经过实践检验,由人民群众来评判是非,裁定高下,不能由少数人凭个人好恶和需要说了算。第三,要把握好“二为”和“双百”的辩证关系。“二为”是我国文艺发展的总目标和方向,“双百”是实现“二为”的必由之路。二者紧密相联,不可分割,不能离开“双百”谈“二为”,也不能离开“二为”谈“双百”。第四,要尊重文艺的特点和规律。领导者应和文艺工作者保持密切的联系,经常听取他们的意见,防止简单粗暴地对待文艺家的艺术创造。

(14)民族文化要不断地吸收现代科学技术成果。

文化的发展历来与科技的发展有着密切关系。现代科学技术必然会对文化的发展产生巨大的影响,为弘扬我们的民族文化增添新的生机和活力。以电影、电视为例,这是近代工业和科学技术发展起来后新兴的艺术样式,对民族文化的传播和发展起了很大的作用。借助于现代化的科学技术手段,对于古建筑的保护、修复,古籍的珍藏、复制,古代文物的发掘、保存,都达到了相当高的水平。今后,我们必须根据需要和可能,有计划有步骤地把各种现代科技手段运用起来,特别是在舞台设计、剧场建筑和演出设施上,逐步采用电子技术、激光技术、现代音响技术、现代建筑材料等科技成果,以丰富和提高民族艺术的表现能力。

民族文化采用现代科技手段,既要积极,又要谨慎。吸收现代科技手段,是为了更好地丰富和发展民族文化的特色,而不是削弱它、冲淡它、破坏它。要使二者科学地结合起来,为广大群众所接受和欢迎。比如京剧就是姓“京”,不管运用什么现代科技手段,都必须以不破坏它的艺术特色为准绳。如果周仓拿着盒子炮、关公拿着报话机,岂不叫人笑掉大牙。

现代科技运用于民族文化,是一个长期的复杂的过程。它涉及到很多方面,既有资金问题,又有技术问题,既有文化部门的问题,也有非文化部门的问题。文化部门和文化工作者要不断关注现代科学枝术发展的情况和信息,科技部门和其他有关方面也应根据文化工作的实际需要,进行科学研究,创造各种条件,帮助文化部门使用最新科技成果,使民族文化放出新的光彩。

(15)要造成重视民族文化的舆论环境。

针对近几年来民族虚无主义的思潮,各种舆论单位和文化机关,要切实加强民族文化的宣传普及工作。报纸、电台、电视台和有关刊物、出版部门要采取开辟专栏、举办专题讲座和各种笔会,以及出版专著、辞典和系列丛书等多种方式,用历史唯物主义观点帮助人们正确地认识我们民族文化的优秀传统,特别是“五四”以来的中国革命历史和革命文化的光荣传统。要加强对民族文化的介绍和评论,加强对在发展民族文化做出突出贡献的卓越人物的报道和评介。

要充分利用各种民族节日,开展弘扬民族文化活动。这些民族节日,如春节、端午节、中秋节,以及藏历新年、泼水节、古尔邦节等等,历史悠久,群众性强,具有浓重的民族特色,都是民族文化的强大载体。要通讨正确的引导,组织好节日的各种群众性民俗活动和文化娱乐活动,搞得红火热闹,把民族节日办成检阅民族文化成果、发扬民族文化优秀传统的盛会。

要紧密结合加强和改进思想政治工作,注入弘扬民族优秀文化的内容。要把爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义教育,把艰苦创业、勤俭节约的教育,把国情教育和形势教育,与民族文化优秀传统和革命优良传统教育结合起来,并注意更多地采用民族文化活动形式,使我们的思想教育更加具有民族风格和民族气派,更好地体现寓教于乐的精神,达到热爱民族文化和昂扬民族志气的目的。

要经常举办全国和地方的戏曲、曲艺和民族歌剧、音乐、舞蹈、美术、杂技的调演、比赛和展览。通过这些活动发现优秀作品和优秀人才,推动民族艺术的发展与繁荣。同时,还要有计划地举办有鲜明民族特色的话剧、电影、电视剧的调演和集中播映,并组织专家和群众开展评选工作,对具有鲜明民族特色的优秀作品要大力进行表彰,对于贡献突出的创作和演出人员要给予物质奖励,有的还要授予不同级别的荣誉称号,以便在全社会形成尊重民族文化优秀传统的社会风尚。

(16)要从儿童和青少年抓起。

弘扬民族文化,树立和增强民族自尊心、自信心和自豪感,是一个长期的具有战略意义的任务。这项工作必须从幼儿园和小学校抓起,实行学校、家庭、社会相结合,对儿童和青少年分阶段依次递进地进行民族历史和民族文化的教育。

第一,要编写各种读物。我国历史上表现刻苦好学、聪明智慧、品德高尚的故事很多,民族英雄、志士仁人、文豪学者和能工巧匠,人才辈出,各领风骚,还有“自古英雄出少年”的种种传说,这些对青少年都很有教育意义。要把这些历史故事和历史人物编写成各种通俗读物,制作一批音像制品和动画片,以多种生动活泼、引人入胜的形式,向青少年进行中华民族悠久历史和灿烂文化的教育。同时,有关部门还要对现在使用的大、中、小学的课本作必要的调整,在语文、历史、地理、改治等科目中加重民族文化优秀传统的教学内容。

第二,要逐步创造有鲜明民族特色的文化环境。如:在城乡建设中,对房屋设计、桥梁建造,以及工厂、学校、机关、公园与其他公共场所的布置和装修,特别是修建青少年文化宫、科学园地等活动中心,要在实用、经济的前提下,尽可能地注意表现民族特色,有些还可以民族历史人物、历史故事作为雕塑和壁画的内容,使青少年从小就在民族文化环境和氛围之中耳濡目染,受到熏陶和教育。

第三,要组织青少年积极开展民族文化活动。如:组织学生开展民族文化知识竞赛,进行以历史题材为主的作文比赛和民族艺术评比,参加各种民族文艺演出,观摩民族艺术表演,参加有民族特色的节日庆典活动,参观游览名胜古迹,等等。

总之,要通过各种渠道和各种教育活动,提高青少年的民族主体意识和民族文化修养,使他们不仅具有这方面的知识和技能,更重要的是,让他们继承和发扬中华民族传统的优良道德品格,塑造与形成当代中国的民族精神。

(17)要有个总体规划。

以弘扬民族文化为重要内容的社会主义文化建设,涉及的方面很多,需要调动社会各方面的力量,协调合作,共同来办。这就必须通盘考虑,逐级作出规划,有组织有领导地进行。民族文化具有鲜明的地方特色,在制定规划中要特别注意反映本地区的实际。要同社会经济发展规划密切联系起来,同本单位的实际工作密切结合起来。不论是文化部门,包括教育,科学、文学艺术、新闻出版、广播影视、卫生、体育、文物、图书馆、博物馆等,还是其他部门如城市建设、交通运输、农林水利、商业外贸等,以及厂矿、农村等基层单位,在制定本部门、本单位发展规划的时候,都要考虑到社会主义文化建设,有利于弘扬民族文化,振奋民族精神。

要注意规划与计划相结合,根据总体规划要求,制定出每年实施规划的计划。比如,对传统剧目的挖掘、整理、改编和革新,古籍的整理、出版和发行,各民族民间口头文学的记录和加工,文物古迹的保护和利用,等等,都要根据实际需要和力所能及的原则,制定出具体的实施目标。文化建设计划要像完成经济建设计划一样,确保按期完成。

(18)要研究制定相应的经济政策。

为了弘扬民族文化,要从财力、物力上给以必要的支持。一是要合理调剂使用现有的文化投资。现在文化建设资金比较紧张,国家限于财力不可能一下子拿出很多钱,只能在统筹兼顾的原则下,各级都从文化经费中尽可能挤出一些钱来用于民族文化建设。二是要在税收方面采取倾斜政策。对于发展健康的社会主义文化事业,包括发展民族文化事业,要给予支持鼓励,对这些方面的优秀精神产品的出版、发行、演出、播映、展出所得的收入,在征税时要实行低税率,有的还要减税和免税,而对那些文化学术价值不大的畅销书和演出活动所得的收入实行较高的税率,努力以丰补歉,不让创作、演出健康优秀作品的单位和个人在经济上吃亏。三是研究和改进现有的分配政策。要按照按劳分配的原则,根据国家财力的可能,逐步改变各类文艺人员收入不够合理的状况。对为体现社会主义时代精神和繁荣民族文化事业做出突出贡献的尖子人才,要在工资以及住房等方面给予优厚待遇。四是要提倡勤俭办文化事业,努力做到少花钱多办事,不花钱也办事。近几年来,我们在文化事业中一方面经费严重不足,另一方面也存在着大手大脚、铺张浪费现象,特别是一些质量低劣的电影片,耗资巨大,却无法公演。在这些方面紧一紧,就能办很多有益的事情。

(19)要建设一支庞大的民族文化工作者队伍。

培养和造就一人批优秀的民族文化工作者,是继承和发展民族优秀文化的根本措施,也是当前面临的一项迫切任务。要采取各种有力措施,包括办好各种文化艺术院校,培养和造就各方面的专门人才。要重视发挥老专家、老艺人的作用,搞好传帮带。对于自学成才的民族文化工作者,要创造条件让他们各展其长。对于流散于社会的民间艺人,要给予关心和扶持,帮助他们提高水平,充分发挥他们在弘扬民族优秀文化中的积极作用。

要提倡民族文化工作者努力学习马克思主义,学习党的十一届三中全会以来路线、方针和政策,学习文艺理论和现代科学文化知识,深入生活,增加生活积累,努力提高思想水平和业务素质。提倡文化工作者特别是专业人员,认真学习民族文化的优秀传统,养成浓厚的学术研究、潜心创作和苦练基本功的风气,不断提高民族文化修养和业务水平。

这里我还要讲一讲加强文艺队伍的团结问题。我们的民族文化工作者无论从数量上、质量上都远不能适应形势的需要,因此,加强团结,形成合力,就尤为重要。民族文化有各种门类、各种流派,各有师承,各有所长。弘扬民族文化是包括所有门类、流派的共同提高,大家要互相尊重,互相学习,互相信鉴,取长补短。作为民族文化工作者更应该继承和发扬中华民族的传统美德,以民族大业为重,具有宽阔的胸怀,容人的雅量,从狭隘的小圈圈中解脱出来,摒弃那些疙疙瘩瘩的事情,一切向前看,在为人民服务、为社会主义服务的大目标下团结起来,齐心协力,为民族文化事业的振兴贡献自己的力量。

(20)要加强党对弘扬民族优秀文化工作的领导。

这个问题要摆上领导的议事日程,并有专人分工负责,在建设社会主义物质文明的同时,把弘扬民族优秀文化作为建设社会主义精神文明的大事来抓。要定期研究讨论,及时督促检查。要加强文化工作者的思想政治工作,从政治上关心他们,帮助他们自觉地坚持“二为”方向,遇事提前打个招呼,使他们的思想能够跟上形势的发展;同时也要尽可能地帮助文化工作者解决工作中和生活中的实际困难;要尊重他们的劳动成果,为他们创造一个良好的工作环境,使他们能够充分发挥自己的聪明才智。各级领导干部要做文化工作者的知心朋友,经常和他们沟通思想,把广大文化工作者紧紧团结在党的周围,组织他们为人民提供更多更美的精神产品,更好地满足人民群众精神文化生活的需要。

同志们!我们中华民族的发展,处在一个重大的历史关头。从本世纪中叶到下世纪中叶,我们要用一百年的时间,艰苦奋斗,摆脱贫穷和落后,在社会主义基础上基本实现现代化。四十年时间已经过去了,我们有巨大的成绩和经验,也有许多曲折和教训。我们已经跨入了九十年代。九十年代这十年是关键的一步,这一步走好了,就能为下个世纪的顺利发展打好基础。经济建设是这样,文化建设也是这样。还在建国前夕,毛泽东同志就在评美国白皮书的一篇文章里提出了复兴伟大的中国人民文化的任务。《中共中央关于社会主义精神文明建设指导方针的决议》指出:党的十一届三中全会以来的路线,赋予这个复兴以新的强大生机和活力;这个复兴,将创造出以马克思主义为指导的,批判继承历史传统而又充分体现时代精神的,立足本国而又面向世界的,高度发达的社会主义精神文明。我们今天讲弘扬民族优秀文化的问题,就是在这样的历史高度和思想高度上提出来的。我们完全有信心、有能力去夺取中华民族文化更加辉煌的未来。让我们振奋起来,团结起来,行动起来,共同为建设有中国特色的社会主义新文化而努力奋斗!

 

One thought on “Concerning Some Issues in Carrying Forward the Excellent Culture of the Nation

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    February 16, 2013 at 10:30 am

    […] Concerning Some Issues in Carrying Forward the Excellent Culture of the Nation (1990) […]

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