(19 February 1991)
Ten years ago, the Centre put forward a policy on comprehensive public order governance. This policy has been reiterated many times afterwards in Centre documents and State Council documents. In ten years, all localities have done large amounts of highly effective work in the area of comprehensive public order governance, creating not a little experience and obtaining great achievements, this has had an important function in safeguarding public order and social stability. But, when looking at the present situation, comprehensive public order governance work in all localities has developed without balance, not a few regions have not implemented it in all departments and grass roots work units, this situation is far from suitable to the requirements of the circumstances for development. At present, our country’s public order circumstances are still severe, crime and other public order problems increase steadily, and popular masses in many places lack a sense of security. In order to implement the spirit of the 7th Plenum of the 13th Party Congress, safeguard a long period of peace and order for the country, guarantee the smooth progression of Socialist modernization, reform and opening up, comprehensive public order governance work must be further strengthened forcefully on a nationwide level. To this end, the following is hereby decided.
I, Fully understand the special importance of strengthening comprehensive public order governance under new circumstances.
Comprehensive public order governance is the correct policy put forward by the Centre through summarizing historical experience. The practice of ten years proves that strengthening comprehensive public order governance has an important significance for many areas: (1) it is the basic way out to resolve our country’s public order problems. Public order problems are the synthesized reflection of many social contradictions and negative influences. We must persist for a long time in strictly, rapidly and severely attacking criminal acts gravely harming public order according to the law, but only relying on attack cannot effectively reduce the complex factors engendering crime and public order problems, only through comprehensive public order governance can we be successful. (2) It is an important guarantee to create a stable and favourable social order for the implementation of the ten years development plan for the national economy and society and the “Eighth Five-Year Plan”. (3) It is an important component part of the construction of a Socialist spiritual civilization. Much of comprehensive public order governance work is important content of spiritual civilization construction, by doing comprehensive governance well, spiritual civilization construction can be promoted. (4) It is a sort of important form of and channel for persisting in the people’s democratic dictatorship, and an important reflection of the superiority of the Socialist system. (5) It is an urgent need to closely link up with the popular masses, and a major matter in complying with the popular will, and enjoying popular support. (6) It is an important measure in strengthening the construction of the Socialist legal system. Through governance according to the law and administration according to the law, we can bring all management work onto legal system tracks. (7) It is a new development to persist in the principle of integrating the work of specialist organs and the mass line under new circumstance, and is a new path having Chinese characteristics to resolve public order problems.
II, The tasks of, requirements and objectives for comprehensive public order governance.
The basic tasks of comprehensive public order governance are: under the uniform leadership of all levels’ Party Committees and governments, all departments are to coordinate and reach consistency, grasp matters neatly and manage them jointly, rely on the broad popular masses, utilize political, economic, administrative, legal, cultural, educational and many other such methods to deal with public order, attack crimes and prevent crimes, guarantee social stability, and create a favourable social environment for the construction of Socialist modernization construction, reform and opening up.
The requirements for comprehensive public order governance work are: (1) all levels’ Party Committees and governments must list comprehensive governance on the important matters agenda, complete comprehensive public order governance leadership organs and working organs, and regularly research deployment work. (2) All departments and all work units are to grasp and manage matters together, shaping a picture of “who controls is responsible”. (3) All measures are to be implemented to the level of town and village grass-roots work units, mass prevention and mass-treatment networks are to be shaped, broad mass legal system conceptions are to be universally strengthened, dare to struggle with unlawful and criminal acts.
The main objectives for comprehensive public order governance are: social stability, major malicious cases and frequently occurring cases to be controlled and progressively reduced, a great reduction in social repulsive phenomena, the appearance of regions and work units with chaotic public order to thoroughly change outlook, public order to improve, the masses to have a sense of security.
III, The work scope of comprehensive public order governance.
The work scope of comprehensive public order governance mainly includes the six areas of “attack, prevention, education, management, construction, reform”.
Attack is the first and foremost sector of comprehensive governance, and is the precondition to implement all other comprehensive governance measures. We must, for a long time, persist in strictly, rapidly and severely attacking grave criminal activities violating public order according to the law; persist in eradicating the “Six Evils” year in, year out, at any time where they are discovered, they must be banned, there can be no slackening at any time. We must both further strengthen the specialist work of political-legal departments, to raise their capacity to ferret out and solve cases and deal with crime otherwise, and must fully mobilize and rely on the broad popular masses under the vigorous coordination of all departments and all work units, shaping a situation where everyone bravely struggles with ruffians and resists the “Six Evils”.
Forcefully strengthening prevention work is a vigorous measure to reduce all sorts of criminal activities and safeguard public order. We must strengthen ideological and political work, broadly mobilize and organize the masses, adopt all sorts of prevention mechanisms, eliminate factors leading to instability and hidden dangers for insecurity. We must especially vigorously enlighten and accommodate all sorts of social contradictions and popular disputes, correctly deal with contradictions among the people, avoid the aggravation of contradictions. We must strengthen security protection work and technological prevention measures in organs, schools, enterprise and undertaking work units; strengthen security prevention measures for urban residence compounds, and list it in urban construction plans. We must broadly organize staff members and masses to vigorously assist the People’s Armed Police, strengthen joint town and country public order defence, strengthen mass prevention and mass treatment mechanisms, and fully give rein to the function of people’s militia in safeguarding public order. In large and mid-size cities, coastal and border regions, we must organise joint army, police and popular defence. Under the presupposition of strengthening management, give rein to the function of security service companies. Mass prevention and mass treatment teams may be voluntary, and may be paid-for services. Where they are paid-for services, apart from proper funding allocation from local finances, after the local People’s Government approves it according to regulations, enterprise and undertaking work units, and residents my appropriately collect some money, or provide some people, to be used to safeguard public order on that work unit or that region. But we must persist in the principles of voluntarily, benefit, moderation and directed fund use, reducing the burden on enterprises and the mass as much as possible. People who dare to struggle with lawbreakers and criminal elements shall be rewarded and commended. Some localities have established rules on “award foundations for those ready to battle for the just cause”, which merits popularization. Judicial organs shall determinedly provide support and guarantees for legitimate defence taken when struggling with lawbreakers and criminal elements according to the law.
The basic problem lies in strengthening education, we must especially strengthen education for the young. This is the strategic measure in safeguarding public order. All departments and all work units must earnestly conduct education on persisting in the Four Cardinal Principles and opposing bourgeois liberalization, continue to launch education on the “Five Loves” and the “Four Haves”, oppose extreme individualism and anarchism. We must continue to broadly, deeply and solidly launch law popularization education and all sorts of legal system propaganda and education among the whole body of the people, further raise the legal consciousness of the entire people, and strengthen a notion of upholding the law and abiding by the law. The focus of school education lies in educating people, they must ruthlessly rasp the moral education of students, earnestly organize good legal system classes, and must especially do ideological transformation work of “doubly poor students” and reform school students well. Propaganda, cultural, art, film, television, publishing and other departments and work units must put social effect first, publish more healthy and beneficial spiritual products, and reject cultural rubbish. The Communist Youth League, labour unions and Women’s Federations must closely combine with work units, neighbourhoods (villages), schools and households, strengthen ideological and political education of the young, and must especially do education and remedial work of youth that is lagging behind and of lightly unlawful or criminal youth. Grass Roots Party and government organizations and public security stations must implement assistance, education and settlement work for people who are released after serving a sentence or released from re-education through labour.
Strengthening administrative management work in al areas is an import method to block loopholes for crime, reduce public order problems, and establish a favourable social order. At present, we must give prominence to grasping all public order management work, and must especially strengthen management over the floating population, management of inns, waste recycling points, dance halls, video screening points and other special sectors, cultural market and publication management, county fair management and management over crucial points such as treasuries and important goods warehouses.
Strengthening grass-roots organization construction and institutional construction is the key for implementing comprehensive governance. All levels’ Party Committees and government must earnestly implement the spirit of relevant Centre instructions, firmly grasp rectification, construction and building of town and village grass-roots organization, we must especially strengthen village-level organisation construction with Party branches at the core, ensuring that all comprehensive governance measures are implemented down to the grass roots, and implement them among the people. We must establish and complete all sorts of public order prevention systems, and must especially universally practice all sorts of comprehensive governance responsibility systems. Accelerate the formulation and perfection of comprehensive governance laws and regulations.
Reform work is special prevention work to educate the people, save the people and prevent reoccurrence of crime. Reform through labour and re-education through labour organs must strive to overcome difficulties, persist in the policies of “reform first, production second” and “education, persuasion and remedy”, and further raise reform quality. We must continue to implement the “extension forward, outward and backward” of reform work, mobilize the entire society to participate and support in reform work. Labour departments must, according to State employment policies integrating recommending employment, voluntary organization of employment and finding employment by oneself, vigorously and appropriating employment for people released after serving their sentence or after reform through labour. Enterprise and undertaking work units shall, when recruiting workers treat people released after serving their sentence or after reform through labour equal to urban unemployed persons, and may not discriminate against them.
Work in the above six areas must be efficient, complement each other, none is dispensable, it cannot be so that one thing is done and another is neglected. In short, we must persist in combining attack and prevention, treat both causes and symptoms, the focus is on root principles, and realistically implement all measures in comprehensive governance. This is to be persisted for several years, and there must be large results.
IV, Ruthlessly grasp the implementation of the principle “who manages is responsible”.
The principle of “who manages is responsible” is implemented this is the core of realizing comprehensive public order governance. This principle is used for all Party, Government and Army departments and all people’s organizations. All departments must, on the basis of comprehensive public order governance tasks, requirements and work scopes, actively seek for their own position, clarify the duties of their departments and systems, and realistically bear the social responsibility of jointly safeguarding public order.
All departments’ joint responsibilities mainly include the following three aspects: one is that all Party, Government and Army departments and all people’s organizations, from the centre to the localities, must give rein to their own functions, integrate their professions, earnestly grasp the work of their system in participating in comprehensive public order governance, prevent that negative influences on public order are created due to errors in the work of their departments, actively bear the comprehensive responsibility for reducing law-breaking and crime, safeguarding public order and social stability. Second, all Party, Government and Army departments and all people’s organizations must grasp the comprehensive governance work of their system, and prevent that major crimes and major public order problems occur. Third, all organs, factories, schools, enterprise and undertaking work units and people’s organizations must “manage their own people, look after their own doors, and handle their own matters”, realistically strengthen ideological education for internal personnel and all security protection work. As soon as problems occur, the responsibility of relevant department or work unit directly responsible leaders must be prosecuted taking circumstances into consideration.
Implementing the principle of “who manages is responsible” must be progressively systematized and legalized. Concerning the questions of which responsibilities controlling departments shall bear, how to bear them, and how to deal with departments not bearing them, laws, regulations or rules must be promulgated, clear provisions must be made, ensuring that there is law to rely on and there are rules to follow.
Comprehensive public order governance requires the organic integration of “grasping systems, systemic grasping” with “integrating horizontal and vertical management, and giving first place to horizontal management”, a localized management principle is implemented. Relevant departments’ subordinate enterprise and undertaking work units shall submit to the unified leadership of the Party Committee and government of their locality, controlling departments must vigorously coordinate with local Party and government organizations, and supervise their subordinate work units in doing comprehensive public order governance work well, eliminate horizontal and vertical fragmentation, and the phenomenon that each does things their own way, and no one takes up responsibility.
V, Strengthening leadership, striving to implement comprehensive public order governance down to the grass roots.
Leadership is crucial in doing comprehensive public order governance well. All levels’ Party and government leaders must strengthen leadership over comprehensive governance in terms of ideology, organization and work, earnestly organize and coordinate the work of all departments, and resolve problems in implementation, guaranteeing the satisfactory implementation of all measures.
(1) All levels’ leaders must truly grasp and realistically manage matters. They must list comprehensive public order governance on the important matters agenda of all levels’ Party Committees and governments, earnestly research and resolve all sorts of problems existing in implementation work. All levels’ Party and government leaders must take matters in their own hands, one level grasping another level, one level guaranteeing another level, grasping everything to the bottom, and implement layer upon layer. They must timely mobilize and deploy, grasp the implementation of one matter after another, have one department after another grasp implementation, grasp matters and not let them go, persevere, and earnestly inspect and supervise matters, reward, punish and honour commitments.
(2) Complete leadership mechanisms, substantiate and strengthen working organs. Comprehensive public order governance work involves all aspects of the entire Party and the entire society, and must be led uniformly by Party Committees. At the same time, governments must also bear important leadership responsibilities, large amounts of work must be organized and implemented by governments. Comprehensive public order governance leadership mechanisms are, under the uniform leadership of Party Committees, Party and government jointly grasping matters, working organs concretely guiding and coordinating matters, all departments and all work units taking responsibility. The most important is that all levels’ main Party and government leaders must take an interest themselves, integrate broad appeals with concrete guidance, and truly take up the responsibility for grasping public order.
In order to strengthen leadership and concrete guidance over comprehensive public order governance work, the Centre has decided to establish a Comprehensive Public Order Governance Committee, and a subordinate Office. All levels from province, autonomous region and municipality to prefecture, city, county and district, must establish and complete leadership organs for comprehensive public order governance, with a leading comrade from the Party Committee at the head, a government deputy as assistance, and participation by responsible comrades of all relevant departments. County-level or higher comprehensive public order governance working offices must be further substantiated and strengthened, and jointly handle business with the political-legal committees. Villages, towns and neighbourhoods must establish corresponding comprehensive public order governance leadership organs, complete working organs and allocate special persons who are responsible. It is permitted that higher levels assign an experienced public security or judicial cadre to act as a deputy in neighbourhood working offices or town (village) governments, and specially grasp comprehensive public order governance work.
All levels’ comprehensive public order governance leading organs are the advisors and assistants of Party Committees and governments leading comprehensive public order governance, their main duties are: (1) researching and implementing Party and State principles and policies concerning comprehensive public order governance. (2) Making general deployments of comprehensive public order governance work in their regions or departments for a specific period and supervising implementation. (3) Organizing and guiding all departments and all work units in implementing comprehensive governance measures. (4) Summarizing and popularizing model experiencing, rewarding advances, and promoting the rising generation. (5) Dealing with relevant matters submitted by Party Committees and governments. Comprehensive public order governance leading organs put the leadership of the same level’s Party Committee first, and at the same time accept guidance from higher-level comprehensive public order governance organs.
(3) Establish multi-layer comprehensive public order governance objective management responsibility systems. Between all local levels’ Party and government leaders, between Party and government leaders, and departments and work units, between factory directors, managers and responsible persons for workshops and teams, multi-layer letters of responsibility must be signed. We must require them to divide comprehensive public order governance tasks into some concrete objectives, formulate measures that are easy to implement and inspect, establish strict supervision and inspection mechanisms, quantitative assessment structures and comparative reward and punishment systems. We must integrate public order tasks with economic responsibility systems and leadership office term responsibility systems, link up comprehensive public order governance target management with the political honour, achievement assessment, rank promotion and economic benefits of responsible persons, link it up with the selection and promotion of civilized work units and enterprises, and implement comprehensive public order governance veto power systems. The implementation of responsibility systems must be regularly inspected and assessed, earnest summary and assessment must be conducted annually, progress must be rewarded, and an upsurge of learning and catching up shaped. But we must prevent formalism and unrealistic high targets, avoid the emergence of filing falsified cases, employing trickery and other mistaken methods.
(4) Strengthen categorized guidance, integrate promotion of model experiences with focus governance. All levels’ Party Committees and governments must integrate their real situations, make plans as quickly as possible, and phase in that all sorts of comprehensive public order governance experiences are progressively popularized and coverage is broadened, ensuring that nationwide comprehensive public order governance work greatly forges ahead. We must pay high regard to theoretical research, timely raise practical experience into theoretical understanding, and strengthen theoretical guidance over comprehensive public order governance work.
Focus governance is an effective method to rapidly change the public order situation in a particular region. In nationwide terms, large and mid-size cities, coastal open regions and main communications arteries are focus points for comprehensive governance, and must be dealt with first. In terms of the regions, forces most be concentrated to rectify and deal with the small number of regions, neighbourhoods, towns, villages, hamlets, communications lines and work units where there is disorder or relatively many public order problems.
(5) Strive to implement all comprehensive public order governance measures down to the grass roots. For it to be possible that all comprehensive public order governance measures are implemented down to the grass roots, county, city, town, village and neighbourhood Party and government leaders bear an especially important responsibility. The basic main objectives of implementing comprehensive public order governance measures down to the grass roots are: grass-roots Party and government leaderships give it high regard, and establish comprehensive public order governance work consultation systems; leadership organs and working organs for comprehensive public order governance are completed, and have special persons handling work; certain types of target management responsibility systems are established; mass prevention and mass treatment teams and close prevention measures are in place; the masses are fully mobilized and dare to struggle with crime; crime and public order problems go down, problems that arise can be timely dealt with.
VI, Fully giving rein to the function of political-legal departments and especially public security organs in comprehensive public order governance.
Political-legal departments are important tools of the people’s democratic dictatorship, they are special organs to punish unlawful acts and safeguard social order. Strengthening comprehensive public order governance does not reduce demands of political-legal departments, but they have become higher.
Political-legal departments’ main tasks in comprehensive public order governance are (1) Being good assistants and advisors for Party Committees and governments in leading comprehensive public order governance work, leading the implementation of the general deployment of Party Committees and governments, vigorously participating in comprehensive public order governance activities uniformly organized by Party Committees and governments, and regularly reflecting the situation to Party and government leaders and comprehensive public order governance leading organs, reporting work and putting forward suggestions. (2) Strictly attacking criminals gravely harming public order according to the law, timely investigating, prosecuting and banning “Six Evils” activities, firmly preventing the intrusion of foreign underworld forces and repulsive phenomena. (3) Straitening all public order management measures, inspecting and guiding all work units’ internal security protection work, grass-roots security protection organization, mass prevention and mass treatment team work. (4) Adopting all sorts of measures to change the phenomenon of handling case by case, striving to broaden the social effect of case handling, and vigorously putting forward judicial suggestions and procuratorial suggestions, assisting relevant departments with summarising experiences and lessons, completing management systems, perfecting prevention mechanisms. (5) Summarizing all professional work, launching legal system propaganda and education, and safeguarding education on national security. (6) Public security organs, procuratorates and courts must all vigorously cooperate with administrative judicial departments, forcefully strengthening reform through labour and re-education through labour work, raising reform quality, and ensuring assistance work for light criminals and persons released after serving their sentence or re-education through labour. (7) Strengthening leadership over people’s mediation work organizations, vigorously enlightening and mediating all sorts of popular disputes and dissolving social contradictions. (8) Researching the causes for the increase of crime and public order problems and their rules, putting forward effective countermeasures.
Public security organs are the controlling departments of public order work, and occupy an especially important position in comprehensive public order governance. Public security organs shall, on the basis of strengthening comprehensive public order governance demands, adapt to the restructuring of focus work points, police strength deployment and service systems, improve work methods, and use more human power and energy to strengthen their basic grass roots public order work, in order to give rein to their function well.
All political-legal departments must lower their centre of gravity, reduce upper levels and substantiate basic levels, transform work styles, solve more real problems at the grass roots, and forcefully strengthen the construction of public security stations, People’s Courts, legal service centres and other political-legal grass roots organizations. All levels’ People’s Governments must strive to produce some funds to improve the equipment of grass-roots political-legal work units, improve their work conditions and life conditions.
VII, The focus work tasks of this year.
This year, we must, at the same time as comprehensively strengthening comprehensive public order governance work and forcefully launching public opinion propaganda, solidly grasp the following work points: (1) Strengthening leadership. Adjust and complete all levels’ comprehensive public order governance leadership organs and working organs, ensuring that there are people in the lead at all levels, people doing work at all levels, and real action is grasped at all levels. (2) Formulating plans. From provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities to districts, cities, regions and countries, all levels’ Party Committees and governments must formulate five-year and annual implementation plants adapted to the “Eighth Five-Year Plan”, to implement comprehensive public order governance. Starting this year, this is to be implemented city by city and county by county, every year,, it is to be implemented in a part of cities and counties, strive to achieve that by the end of 1995, all comprehensive public order governance measures are basically implemented in many cities and counties. (3) Focus on governance. All localities must, on the basis of investigation and research, ferret out regions and work units where public order problems occur often, concentrate forces to conduct focused governance and rectification, ensuring that these localities change their appearance as soon as possible. (4) Build the grass roots. Decisively conduct thorough rectification of the small number of paralysed and half-paralysed grass roots Party and government organization in towns and villages, and implement all comprehensive governance measures. (5) Mass prevention and mass treatment. In regions and work units where this is possible, organize mass prevention and mass treatment teams, formulate and implement all kinds of objective management responsibility systems. First and foremost, the internal responsibility systems of organs, enterprise and undertaking work units must be implemented well, ensuring a clear reduction of public order problems within work units. (6) Formulate laws and regulations. The National People’s Congress Standing Committee is suggested to strengthen their resolve on strengthening comprehensive public order governance. All provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities that have not yet formulated comprehensive public order governance regulations must formulate them within this year, and put them into practice. (7) Selection and advancement. All provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities must, on the basis of solid work, launch a one-time assessment of advanced work units and advanced individuals in comprehensive public order governance by the end of this year, and convene an award ceremony. Next year, a comparative assessment event is launched on a nationwide scope, and a nationwide comprehensive public order governance advanced work unit and individual award ceremony will be convened at a suitable time.
Comprehensive public order governance is a formidable and complex systemic project, and is a major matter that the people nationwide pay extreme attention to. It directly relates to the country’s long-time peace and order, and relates to the smooth implementation of the second-phase strategic objectives of our country’s Socialist modernization. All levels’ Party Committees and governments must lead the broad Party members, cadres and masses, be of one heart and mind, make common efforts, do solid work, and strive even harder to create a favourable public order in our country.