Opinions concerning the Present Flourishing of Literature and Art Creation

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Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Radio, Film and Television

Since more than a year, under the guidance of the Centre’s policy of “grasping rectification with one hand and grasping flourishing with one hand”, through the common efforts of all levels’ leaders and the broad literature and art workers, and new improvements have occurred on the cultural front, rectification work has obtained clear achievements, the overall cultural undertaking has had new developments, literature and art creation has also had new and heartening results.

In order to further promote and stimulate the flourishing of literature and art creation, provide literature and art products that are rich, varied, healthy and exquisite, in order to satisfy the popular masses’ incessantly developing spiritual and cultural life needs, all levels’ Party propaganda departments, culture departments, radio, film and television departments, literature and art organizations, art production work units must earnestly implement the spirit of the documents, and on the basis of their own conditions, adopt effective measures, exert great efforts to thoroughly grasp literature and art creation well.

We must organize creation teams well, and strive to provide conditions to let creation flourish. All localities, all departments and all work units must start from reality, and strive for the support of all relevant sides, to create beneficial conditions for creation as much as possible; we must care for creative personnel in terms of ideology, profession and life, and fully muster their vigour and initiative to stimulate the flourishing of creation.

We must strengthen scientific management and grasp creation plans. All localities’ culture departments, radio, film and television departments, literature and art troupes and art production work units must, on the basis of investigation and research, abide by the laws or art, and on the basis of requirement and possibility, complete creation planning well. Planning is divided into two categories: long-term and short-term. Long-term planning may arrange for focus creation in three to five years, clarify programmes and their implementation methods, and guarantees for completion; short term planning must revolve around the activities to celebrate 70th anniversary of the Party’s founding in 1991 and the 42nd anniversary of founding the nation. The Ministry of Radio, Film and Television organizes film exhibitions as a contributory ceremony to the 70th anniversary of the Party’s founding, CCTV shall organize the broadcast of television dramas commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Party’s foundation, the Central People’s Radio Station shall also broadcast literature and art programmes eulogising the brilliant process of the Party.

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal cultural offices (bureaus), radio and television offices (bureaus), the Chinese Cultural Federation, the Chinese Writers’ Association and all artistic associations are requested to implement these Opinions and creative plans, and respectively report this to the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Radio, Film and Television

Opinions concerning the Present Flourishing of Literature and Art Creation

The flourishing of literature and art creation incessantly provides literature and art works of excellent quality and satisfactory numbers, that are varied and colourful, and is the central work of literature and art departments in order to adapt to the development of Socialist modernization construction and satisfy the popular masses’ daily increasing needs in many aspects of their spiritual and cultural lives, and is a glorious mission and sacred duty of the whole body of literature and art workers.

The flourishing of literature and art creation must persist in taking Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought as guidance, persist in the orientation of “serving the people and serving Socialism”, and the principle of “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend”, persist in uniting the many sorts of functions of literature and art, persist in uniting developing diversification and giving prominence to the main melody. Our literature and art works should strive to reflect real life, express the spirit of the times, and make the required contributions to raising the people’s quality, fostering and creating a new generating of people who have ideals have morals, have culture and have discipline, and constructing a Socialist spiritual civilization; we must unite, educate and encourage the popular masses to, under the leadership of the Party, strive and struggle to stimulate Socialist modernization construction, realize the ten-year plan and the “Eighth Five-Year Plan”.

In order to muster the vigour and creativity of the broad writers and artists, and further let Socialist literature and art creation flourish, on the basis of the experience of our country’s revolutionary literature and art development and the literature and art production plan, the following opinions are put forward:

I, Organize and guide writers and artists to study Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, study the Party line, principles and policies, and study scientific and cultural knowledge

Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, and the Marxist-Leninist theory of literature and art, and Mao Zedong Thought on literature and art they contain are the guiding ideology for cultural work; the Party line, principles and policies since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress are the outcome of a high integration of Marxism-Leninism with the reality of contemporary China, and a new development of Mao Zedong Thought. Organizing and guiding writers and artists to conduct study, and ensuring that they grasp the basic viewpoints and methods of historical materialism and dialectical materialism, establish scientific worldviews, correctly understand the time, analyse society, appraise life, guide literature and art practice, and strengthen their ability to consciously resist bourgeois liberalization thinking trends and all sorts of mistaken ideologies and theories, are basic guarantees for the flourishing of Socialist literature and art. All levels’ Party propaganda departments and government cultural departments, radio, film and television departments, literature and art organizations, writers and artists must fully understand the importance and urgency of studying Marxism-Leninism and strengthening ideological construction for the flourishing of literature and art creation. At present, we must first and foremost organize and guide writers and artists to link up with reality, deeply study the basic theories of scientific Socialism and the documents of the Centre concerning building Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and with a firm belief in Socialism, raise their consciousness of correctly expressing the spirit of the Socialist times. At the same time, in order to assist writers and artists in perfecting knowledge structures, and following the pace of the times and literature and art development, we must also guide them to study the necessary scientific and cultural knowledge, and strive to raise cultural self-cultivation.

All work units must, on the basis of different situations, formulate realistic and feasible study plans and concrete measures. Apart from daily study, leave for training, on-the-job study and other methods may also be adopted. We must, in a planned and phased manner, organize specialist creative personnel to participate in concrete training, select a batch of specialist personnel with the correct orientation, the right approach and relatively large achievements to participate in literature and art cadre training classes organized by the Central and local Party Schools, and participate in training classes on Marxist-Leninist literature and art theory organized by art academies, universities or colleges, to pursue advanced studies. Literature and art cadre schools and universities organized by all levels’ government culture departments, radio, film and television departments and literature and art groups, as well as all sorts of training classes, study classes and research classes must put assisting creative personnel in studying Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Theory in the first important position. On-the-job training must be based on the concrete situation of different work units and different specialties, adopt flexible and varied forms, which are both studyable and have regular assessment, short-time reading classes may also be organized.

We must carry forward a study style of linking theory with practice, research new circumstances, resolve new issues, raise ideological understanding and specialist capacities, prevent that work becomes a mere formality. We must make study achievement into an important standard for observing and using cadres, and evaluating their professional position.

II, Adopt many sorts of forms, organize writers and artists to go deeply into life.

Literature and art works are the outcomes of the reflection of social life in people’s minds. Rich and varied real lives are an inexhaustible and endless source for literature and art creation. Writers and artists may gain raw material for all subjects, themes, content and forms from life, enrich their own wisdom, and derive enthusiasm and inspiration. In recent years, under the influence of some mistaken ideological trends, an umber of creative personnel have displayed some tendencies of becoming separated from the people and becoming separated from life; turning one’s back on reality and working in isolation cause creation to drift away from the popular masses. Because of this, all levels’ Party propaganda departments, government cultural departments, radio, film and television departments, literature and art groups and literature and art production work units must all fully give regard to this work, and make the flourishing of literature and art creation into an indispensable and important measure. We must call for and promote the broad creative personnel to vigorously throw themselves into the living torrent of modernization construction, integrate with the masses of the new times, go deep into matters, not waver, and contribute to the atmosphere.

All work units must adapt to new life conditions and social environments, and put forward different requirements on the basis of the age, life experience and health situation of creative personnel, specialist characteristics, individual artistic personalities, thematic areas and other differences, adopt different methods, formulate plans, provide conditions, arrange and implement matters in a planned and organized manner, and prevent the simple methods of “cutting with one knife” and adjustment to uniformity. We must create all sorts of conditions to establish a basis for life for creative personnel in a planned manner, organize that they can go deeply into life at certain locations and certain times. For some, it may be arranged that they go to the grass roots for a concurrent job or an acting position, some may contact with certain localities or visit the, everything must be done to resolve the real difficulties that they meet when going to the grass roots, they are to be given the necessary economic subsidy, to guarantee the smooth conduct of this work.

Going deeply into life requires integration with creative needs, and a stress on practical results. We must as much as possible, ensure that writers and artists go to the places that are most beneficial to giving rein to their potential, go deeply into reality, and lay a foundation among the masses; at the same time, we must also strive to provide conditions to ensure that creative personnel is able to conduct visits within a relatively broad scope, in order to broaden their horizons and understand the overall picture.

III, Strengthening creative planning and leadership over focus creation.

The realization of formulating and promoting creation plans is one effective means to organize literature and art creation, and stimulating the flourishing of creation, we must give utter regard to and earnestly grasp this segment.

Literature and art creation is a sort of creative spiritual labour, and the autonomy of writers and artists to rely on their own conditions and wishes in conducting creation under the orientation of the “two fors” must be fully respected. In terms of topics, themes, forms, methods, styles, schools and other matters, creators enjoy broad freedom. But, writers and artists are engineers of human souls, bear a sacred task in raising the cultural quality, ideological and moral level of the popular masses, and are responsible for providing healthy and beneficial spiritual products to society. Because of this, at the same time as planning creation, we must forcefully advocate and encourage writers and artists to create works that have a distinctive spirit of the Socialist times, deeply reflect real life, eulogize the new Socialist man, and are rich in ethnic characteristics. In the diversification of creative content, we must give prominence to the main melody of the times and life; in the diversification of artistic expression, we must stress the ethnic character and the mass character. Concerning the creation of this sort of works, we must give even more support and assistance, including providing guarantees in terms of material conditions. Major reality-themed and revolutionary history-themed creation, as well as the adaptation, filming or rehearsing of major classic works must be suitably planned by government culture departments, radio, film and television departments and art management departments, and this must be gradually implemented in an organized manner. All localities, all departments and al art production work unit must also, on the basis of their own condition, plan for creation in their regions, departments and work units, aimed at the characteristics of different forms and categories of art. All art production organs and art performance troupes controlled by localities’ culture departments and radio, film and television departments are responsible to organize  their subordinate creative personnel to diligently create works that reflect real life, and are rich in the spirit of the times, there must be clear requirements concerning this, and these must be listed in creation plans. Culture departments and radio, film and television departments must supervise the implementation of plans, and on the basis of the implementation situation and actual results, arrange economic subsidies and rewards. Focus works with special needs may be organized in a collective creation manner; normally, individual creation should be given first place, and matters should be completed by experienced writers and artists.

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal Party Committee Propaganda Departments and government culture departments and radio, film and television departments must concentrate their strength to organize the production of cultural and artistic products in a planned and focused manner, just like grasping focus construction projects. Within 1991, they must bring out a high-quality books, a good play, an excellent film or television drama, one or some original and persuasive literature and art theory articles, and on this basis, formulate plans for focus creation for three to five years including all literature and art categories. For programmes that have been listed as focus programmes, hard measures must be adopted to implement then item by item, and examine them.

IV, Do secondary creation well, muster the vigour of directors, performers, conductors, instrumentalists, musicians, art designers, cameramen, recorders and all other sorts of creative personnel, joint forces to roll out high-level and high-quality art works.

Music, dance, quyi, acrobatics, drama, film, television and other comprehensive art, in terms of the completion of their creation, the realization of their art, and the rise of their overall quality, cannot do without secondary creation. Secondary creation equally is a creative spiritual labour, artists must not only deeply understand primary creation, but must also fully give rein to their specialist skills and their artistic personality, giving expression to their uniqueness. Secondary creators, apart from grasping specialist skills in a proficient manner, must raise their ideological level and cultural cultivation, understand life, be well-versed in the expressed content and targets, and ensure that creation arrives at higher planes. All levels’ culture departments, radio, film and television departments, literature and art groups and relevant literature and art work units must progressively establish and complete secondary creative personnel team, pay regard to their study and training, and provide the necessary conditions for them to engage in creation.

We must deal with the relationship between secondary creation and primary creation well. Secondary creators should, as much as possible, be faithful to the original work, fully respect the original author’s artistic creation and his lawful rights and interest. When making major changes, the agreement from the original author should be sought. Primary creators must also as much as possible respect the reasonable creation of secondary creators, and as much as possible provide vigorous cooperation.

Concerning secondary creation with relatively high ideological, artistic, political and cultural value, relevant departments and work units must provide vigorous support, and create conditions for them to rehearse, produce, perform or screen creations, and strive to resolve existing difficulties in funding, humanpower, venues, etc.

V, Establish a line of immense creation teams integrating specialists and amateurs

Establishing a line of immense creation teams with a high level of cultural cultivation and a high sense of Socialist mission, is the key to letting literature and art creation flourish. Specialist writers and artists are the backbone of literature and art creation teams, and must fully muster their vigour and creativity, to give rein to their core function. At the same time as providing necessary conditions for creation to them, their sense of responsibility and sense of mission must be strengthened in relation to the creation orientation and social effect. Communist Party members among them should firmly establish the concept that they are Communist Party members first and foremost, and are literature and art workers afterwards, they must, according to the requirements of the Communist Party nature, consciously reflect the guidance of the Marxist concept of literature and art and the Mao Zedong Thought on literature and art in their creation, implement the Party’s literature and art policies in an exemplary manner, and use their actual creative achievements to promote the development and flourishing of Socialist literature and art. As for writers and artists who undertake administrative or organizational work in government culture departments, radio, film and television departments of literature and art group, they must be given certain time to make it convenient for them to go deeply into life and engage in creation. Existing specialist writer and artist management structures must, on the basis of investigation and research, be vigorously and reliably reformed. The specialist writer creation contract system and creation leave system that has been implemented in a number of localities, benefits overcoming of some malpractices concerning specialist writers, experiences must be earnestly summarized, management perfected, and matters improved and raised. All levels’ mass art museums and cultural centres found everywhere in the entire country possess large amounts of creative personnel, they are both creators and the core and knot to launch mass-type creation activities. The work units in which they are employed and higher-level relevant departments must provide necessary care and concern in areas of ideology, profession, life and job description, fully muster their vigour, and ensure that they give rein to and even greater function.

The broad amateur creators are a line of forces that should not be ignored in literature and art creation teams. They live among the masses, place themselves into fervent struggle, and have special superiorities. In recent years, new literature and art people have incessantly emerged in great numbers, reflecting the strong creative potential hidden among the masses. Creative amateur talents that burst into the limelight, must be given special attention and support. First, attract them in a planned manner to participate in all levels’ specialist training classes, to raise their ideological and theoretical levels, cultural cultivation and writing ability; second, under conditions where there are reliable creation ideas and preparations for creation, they are to be given creation leave, and time guarantees are to be provided. Concern must also be given to their creative ideology, artistic work style and work quality, and there must be some requirements.

We must pay full regard to unity in the literature and art circles, and under the presupposition of consistency with the general orientation, must unite all writers and artists that can be united to strive jointly for the flourishing of Socialist literature and art creation.

VI, Strengthen literature and art work dissemination method management.

The publication of literature and art books, periodicals and audiovisual products, the performance, broadcast and exhibition of literature and art works, etc., are the dissemination means for literature and art, and are the media for literature and art creation to build links with the popular masses. Literature and art works can only give rein to a social function when disseminated through these means, and realize literature and art flourishing. In order to perfect dissemination means and let dissemination channels flow smoothly, we must pay attention to and strengthen the construction of editing teams, performance management teams, film and video distribution and screening teams and art exhibition and management teams, raise the political and cultural quality of employees, their literature and art theory cultivation, and a conscience to implement literature and art policies and principles, strengthen a sense of social responsibility, in order to do publishing, distribution, performance, screening, exhibition, sales and other work well. Culture departments, radio, film and television departments, publishing departments and literature and art organizations must on the one hand assist their subordinate publishing work units, audiovisual, film and television production organs, literature and art newspapers and periodicals, performance companies, theatres, cinemas, bookstores, exhibition halls, etc., to rectify professional orientations, clarify their policies and tasks, and correctly deal with the relationship between social effect and economic effect; and must on the other hand help them to strengthen management, establish and complete clear reward and punishment work regulations, and inspect supervision and management structures. We must realistically reflect the spirit of the times, have characteristics of the nation, benefit the physical and mental health of people, and push excellent works with a relatively high artistic value towards society.

In order to guarantee the production and dissemination of excellent works that require national levels of civilization and give prominence to the main melody, we must adopt economically suitable protection measures, and be somewhat biased in policy. We must implement low prices, low taxes or tax exemption for the publishing, distribution, performance, screening, exhibition and sales of literary and artistic works (including theoretical treatises) that have relatively high academic or artistic value, are serious and healthy, there must be reliable financial subsidies for the losses they incur. Art varieties that require urgent protection and development must be given more creation support. At the same time, high tax rates must be implemented for literature and art products that lack cultural and artistic value and sell well, and commercial performances with high income, and the taxation gained is to be used to develop literature and art creation.

VII, Strengthening and improving comment on literature and art creation.

Launching comment on literature and art creation is an important means of strengthening and improving Party leadership over literature and art, persisting in the Socialist orientation, and raising literature and art creation ideology and artistic quality. All levels’ Party propaganda departments and government culture departments, radio, film and television departments and literature and art groups must make literature and art comment into an important work for letting literature and art flourish. We must pay attention to the construction of literature and art comment teams; we must organize and assist literature and art commentators to study Marxism and Mao Zedong Thought, study Marxist-Leninist literary theory, Mao Zedong’s treatises on literature and art and “Deng Xiaoping on Literature and Art”, which is the inheritance and development of Mao Zedong Thought on literature and art under new historical conditions, study relevant theory, principles and policies, go deeply into reality, timely understand the situation of literature and art, raise ideological, theoretical and professional levels. Apart from specialist literature and art comment, attention must also be paid to launching mass-type literature and art comment. Especially where concrete literature and art phenomenon, writers and works are concerned, the opinions of the popular masses must be broadly hear, and a virtuous circle of dissemination and feedback realized.

Literature and art comment must be close to life, and must forcefully launch comment and research on our country’s existing literature and art works, creative ideologies and creative tendencies, timely carry forward results, rectify mistakes and promote propaganda. Attention should be paid to the creative experience of excellent writers and artists, and advanced literature and art work units, these are to be summarized and propagated.

Literature and art comment must raise its fighting strength. We must fully affirm and forcefully comment on excellent works reflecting real life, which are rich in the spirit of the times and carry forward national cultural traditions, and give rein to the social function they should have. Praise must seek truth from facts, respect science, and overcome the harmful tendencies of unprincipled flattery. We must launch persuasive criticism against bourgeois liberalization and all sorts of mistaken tendencies reflected in creation and theory, effect radical reforms, in order to guarantee that literature and art develops along a healthy track, and the same time, raise the masses’ aesthetic emotions and appreciation ability through literature and art criticism, and guide the masses cultural consumption.

Launching literature and art comment must implement the “Double Hundred” policy, and advocate the discussion and contention of different opinions. We must enliven the academic sphere, create a situation of both persisting in principles, and uniting in harmony, to create a good cultural environment for the flourishing of literature and art creation and the development of literature and art comment.

VIII, Strengthening foreign propaganda and recommendation of literature and art, and Sino-foreign cooperative creation management.

Following the expansion of Sino-foreign cultural exchange, propaganda and recommendation or our country’s excellent ethnic culture and literature and art creation achievements to the outside world, has become more pressing every day. This is a glorious duty of literature and art workers, and is an important aspect in letting literature and art creation flourish. In recent years, in music, dance, theatre, film, television, acrobatics, fine art, photography, literature and a mass of other international competitions, contexts, exhibitions and performance activities, our country’s participating candidates have acquitted themselves very well, our country’s literature and art creations have gained heartening achievements, and received the praise of international public opinion, which symbolizes the actual achievements of our country’s literature and art marching towards the world. All levels’ Party propaganda departments, cultural departments, and radio, film and television departments must give full regard to this work, vigorously support it, strengthen management, and stimulate its healthy development.

Concerning propaganda and recommendation of literature and art works, including participation in exhibitions, competitions and other programmes, regardless of whether it concerns intergovernmental cultural exchange, or all sorts of international cultural activities organized by all sorts of popular literature and art organizations, we must implement the principle of putting ourselves in first place, select and recommend truly excellent works, and vigorously strengthen propaganda and introduction in a focused manner, to make it convenient for foreign persons to understand and comprehend them. Works that win prizes in international competitions or award activities, must be somewhat differentiated in terms of domestic propaganda and recommendation, and the good must be chosen for action. We must respect and earnestly understand all sorts of international opinions and reflections concerning our literature and art works, and propagate their useful opinions, including critical discourse; but some prejudices based on political or ideological grounds should not be disseminated domestically without analysis or selection. Regardless of whether it concerns foreign recommendation or domestic propaganda, full attention must be paid to the orientation of literature and art, strive to correctly understand and implement the Party’s literature and art policies and foreign propaganda policies.

A vigorous and cautious attitude must be adopted for Sino-foreign cooperative art creation and rehearsal, including the cooperative production of film and television programmes. We must respect our country’s relevant laws, regulations and rules, build mutual respect, and can absolutely not abandon political and ideological principles. Where matters concern historical topics, history must be respected. Important content in cooperative creation must be fully talked over, and signed into a contract afterwards, matters are to be implemented according to agreement.

Foreign recommendations and Sino-foreign cooperative creation should take place on the basis of investigation and research, management rules are formulated as soon as possible, and this is to be brought into scientific management.

IX, Establish creative funds, improve award systems.

All levels’ culture departments and radio, film and television departments must strive to create conditions to facilitate the establishment of literature and art creation funds as soon as possible. The main sources of funding are, first, requesting special funds from all levels’ financial administration, second, arrangement from all levels’ culture, film and television funding, and third, broadly striving for support from all walks of society. The objective of establishing funds is to encourage and support the production and dissemination of excellent works, including financial assistance to writers, artists, and commentators to participate in study, conduct visits and go deeply into life, financial assistance for the writing, publishing, rehearsal, production, broadcast of focus works that have a good social effect, awards to excellent works and excellent theoretical research results, awards to creative and comment personnel having attained prominent achievements, to stimulate the flourishing of creation. All levels’ cultural departments and radio, film and television departments must establish special organs for the management of funds, formulate realistic regulations, and implement matters according to regulations.

Running all levels and all sorts of literature and art awards well, is an effective method to stimulate flourishing. The task at present is to summarize experience, overcome chaos, formulate laws and regulations and strengthen management.

All sorts of literature and art contests and competition activities must have a clear goal of letting creation flourish and promoting talent, and be organized (or co-organized) by corresponding departments who meet conditions to do so, and approval from the corresponding cultural controlling department or radio, film and television controlling department is to be obtained. Literature and art awards must fully pay attention to orientation and authoritativeness. Awards must conform to the orientation that the award advocates; there must be clear award standards and implementation rules; attention must be paid in the composition of award organs to being able to reflect the representative opinions of experts, leaders and masses. Strive for correct orientations, fair judgements and proper awards, strive to concretely reflect the Party’s literature and art principles and policies into all sorts of literature and art awards. For funds raised for literature and art contests and competitions, financial rules must be strictly observed, they are to be used to reward creation and let creation flourish, and may not be diverted to other uses. Government culture departments and radio, film and television departments must, on the basis of summarizing experience, formulate rules for performance, contests and awards for all sorts of literature and art creation as soon as possible, and spur the organized, planned and orderly development of these activities.

X, Strengthen literature and art legal system construction, stimulate literature and art creation and flourishing, guarantee the healthy development of the literature and art undertaking.

Literature and art legal system construction is a component part of our country’s Socialist democracy and legal system construction, is one important method for Socialist literature and art management, and is an indispensible condition for letting Socialist literature and art creation flourish and develop. It benefits guaranteeing the leadership of the Party over the literature and art undertaking, and benefits the guarantee of the correct orientation in Socialist literature and art creation. We must, under the presupposition of persisting in the Four Cardinal Principles, guarantee the freedom of writers, artists and other persons engaging in literature and art activities to conduct literature and art creation, and guarantee the basic cultural rights endowed by the Constitution on all citizens. We must protect the regular rights and interests of writers and artists, and the broad literature and art workers according to the law, rationally adjust the relationships of interests between authors, disseminators and the broad social masses, and protect the right to the achievements of spiritual labour. All work units must organize the broad literature and art workers to earnestly study the “Copyright Law”, and help them to master legal tools to safeguard their own lawful rights and interests. Government culture departments and radio, film and television departments must grasp the formulation of laws and regulations supplementing the “Copyright Law” and guarantee the implementation of the “Copyright Law”.

Using legal means to manage the literature and art undertaking is a new theme. All levels’ cultural departments and radio, film and television departments must raise their understanding of cultural legal system construction, establish and complete cultural legal system organs and legal system work teams, vigorously assist the State and local legislative departments to do cultural legal system construction work well, strive to create a fine legal environment for the flourishing, development of the literature and art undertaking.

At present, the cultural front must continue to implement the principle of “grasping rectification with one hand, and grasping flourishing with one hand”. At the same time as conducting the necessary organizational rectification, we must stress grasping the rectification and construction of cultural teams’ ideologies and work styles; at the same time as grasping rectification, we must sue even more energy to grasp the flourishing of culture and art. We must revolve around the objectives of strengthening unity, concentrating minds, and inspiring spirits, fully mobilizing all levels’ cultural departments, radio, film and television departments, literature and art groups and the broad literature and art workers to rapidly start an upsurge of literature and art creation, strive to roll out high-quality literature and art products that are rich and varied, healthy and upward, that the broad masses love to see and hear.

中宣部、文化部、广播电影电视部印发《关于当前繁荣文艺创作的意见》的通知
中宣部、文化部、广播电影电视部

 

一年多以来,在中央“一手抓整顿,一手抓繁荣”方针的指引下,经过各级领导和广大文艺工作者的共同努力,文化战线出现了新的转机,整顿工作取得了显著的成绩,整个文化事业有了新的发展,文艺创作也有了新的可喜的收获。
为了进一步推动和促进文艺创作的繁荣,提供丰富多采的健康优美的文艺作品,以满足人民群众不断增长的精神文化生活的需求,各级党的宣传部门和文化部门、广播影视部门、文艺团体、艺术生产单位,要认真贯彻文件精神,并依据自身条件,采取有效措施,花大力气,切切实实地
抓好文艺创作。
要组织好创作队伍,努力为繁荣创作提供条件。各地区、各部门、各单位要从实际出发,争取各有关方面的支持,尽可能为创作创造有利的条件;要从思想上、业务上、生活上关心创作人员,充分调动他们的积极性和主动性,促进创作的繁荣。
要加强科学管理,抓好创作规划。各地文化部门、广播影视部门、文艺团体和艺术生产单位,要在调查研究的基础上,尊重艺术规律,依据需要和可能,做好创作的规划。规划分长期和短期两种。长期规划可安排三至五年的重点创作,明确项目及实施办法、完成保障;短期计划要围绕
1991年建党70周年、建国42周年庆祝活动,及第三届中国艺术节,做出安排,组织创作。文化部将有计划地选调若干优秀作品,进京演出、展出。广播影视部将组织向建党70周年献礼影片展映,中央电视台将组织纪念建党70周年电视剧展播,中央人民广播电台也将播放歌颂党
的光辉历程的文艺节目。
请各省、自治区、直辖市文化厅(局)、广播电视厅(局)、中国文联、中国作协及各艺术家协会,将贯彻意见及创作规划,分别报送中宣部、文化部及广播影视部。

附:关于当前繁荣文艺创作的意见
繁荣文艺创作,不断提供质量优良、数量充足、多姿多采的文艺作品,以适应社会主义现代化建设的发展,满足人民群众日益增长的精神文化生活多方面的需要,是文艺部门的中心工作,是全体文艺工作者的光荣使命和神圣职责。
繁荣文艺创作,必须坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想为指导,坚持“为人民服务、为社会主义服务”的方向和“百花齐放、百家争呜”的方针,坚持文艺的多种功能的统一,坚持发展多样化和突出主旋律的统一。我们的文艺作品,应当努力反映现实生活,表现时代精神,为提高人
民素质,培养和造就有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律的一代新人,建设社会主义精神文明,作出应有的贡献;要团结、教育和鼓舞人民群众,在党的领导下,为促进社会主义现代化建设,实现十年规划和“八五”计划而努力奋斗。
为了调动广大作家艺术家的积极性和创造性,进一步繁荣社会主义的文艺创作,根据我国革命文艺发展的经验和文艺生产规律,提出如下意见:
一、组织和引导作家艺术家学习马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想,学习党的路线、方针、政策,学习科学文化知识。
马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想,其中包括马列主义文艺理论和毛泽东文艺思想,是文化工作的指导思想;党的十一届三中全会以来的路线、方针和政策,是马列主义与当代中国实际高度结合的产物,是毛泽东思想的新发展。组织和引导作家艺术家进行学习,使他们掌握历史唯物主义和
辩证唯物主义的基本观点和方法,树立科学的世界观,正确地认识时代,分析社会,评价生活,指导文艺实践,增强自觉抵制资产阶级自由化思潮和各种错误思想理论的能力,是繁荣社会主义文艺的根本保证。各级党的宣传部门和政府文化部门、广播影视部门、文艺团体,作家艺术家,都
要充分认识学习马列主义、加强思想建设对于繁荣文艺创作的重要性和迫切性。当前,首先要组织引导作家艺术家联系实际深入学习科学社会主义的基本理论和中央关于建设有中国特色的社会主义的文献,以坚定社会主义的信念,提高正确表现社会主义时代精神的自觉性。同时,为了帮助
作家艺术家完善知识结构,跟上时代与文艺发展的步伐,还须引导他们学习必要的科学文化知识,努力提高文化修养。
各单位要根据不同情况,制定切实可行的学习规划和具体措施。除日常学习外,还可以采取离职培训和在职学习等方式。要有计划地分期分批组织专业创作人员参加集中培训,挑选一批方向对、路子正、成就较大的专业人员参加中央或地方党校开办的文艺干部培训班,参加艺术院校或
大专院校开办的马列主义文艺理论进修班学习深造。各级政府文化部门、广播影视部门和文艺团体举办的文艺干部院校,以及各类进修班、培训班、研究班,都要把帮助创作人员学习马列主义、毛泽东思想放在头等重要的位置。在职学习要根据不同单位、不同专业的具体情况,采取灵活多
样的形式,既可自学,定期考核,也可举办短期读书班。
要发扬理论联系实际的学风,研究新情况,解决新问题,提高思想认识和专业能力,防止流于形式。要把学习的实绩作为考察、使用干部和评定业务职称的重要标准之一。
二、采取多种形式,组织作家艺术家深入生活。
文艺作品是社会生活在人的头脑中反映的产物。丰富多采的现实生活,是文艺创作取之不尽、用之不竭的源泉。文学家、艺术家可以从生活中获得一切题材、主题、内容和形式的原料,充实自己的心智,汲取激情和灵感。近年来,在一些错误思潮的影响下,部分创作人员中出现了某种
脱离人民、脱离生活的倾向;背对现实,闭门造车,使创作与人民群众疏远了。因此,各级党的宣传部门、政府文化部门、广播影视部门、文艺团体和文艺生产单位都必须充分重视这项工作,把它作为繁荣文艺创作不可缺少的重要措施。要号召和推动广大创作人员积极投身于现代化建设的
生活激流,与新时期的群众相结合,深入下去,坚持不懈,蔚为风气。
各单位要适应新的生活条件和社会环境,根据创作人员年龄、生活经历、健康状况和专业特点、艺术个性、题材领域等差别,提出不同的要求,采取不同的方式,制定规划,提供条件,有计划、有组织地安排落实,防止“一刀切”和整齐划一的简单做法。要创造各种条件有计划地为创
作人员建立生活基地,组织他们定点定时深入生活。有的可安排他们到基层兼职、代职,有的可定点联系或参观访问,并尽力解决他们在深入基层时遇到的实际困难,给予必要的经济补助,保证这项工作能顺利进行。
深入生活力求结合创作的需要,讲求实效。要尽可能使作家艺术家到最有利于发挥他们潜力的地方去,深入实际,扎根群众;同时也要尽力提供条件,使创作人员能够到较大范围参观访问,以便开阔眼界,了解全局。
三、加强创作规划和对重点创作的领导。
制订并推动创作规划的实现,是组织文艺创作、促进创作繁荣的有效手段之一,要十分重视和认真抓好这个环节。
文艺创作是一种创造性的精神劳动,应充分尊重作家艺术家在“二为”方向下依据自身条件和意愿进行创作的自主权。在题材、主题、形式、方法、风格与流派等方面,创作者享有广泛的自由。但是,作家艺术家是人类灵魂的工程师,担负着提高人民群众文化素质和思想道德水平的神
圣任务,有责任向社会提供健康有益的精神产品。因此,在规划创作时,要大力提倡和鼓励作家艺术家创作具有鲜明的社会主义时代精神、深刻反映现实生活、讴歌社会主义新人、富有民族特色的作品。在创作内容的多样化中,要突出时代和生活的主旋律;在艺术表现的多样化中,要强调
民族性和群众性。对于这类作品的创作,要给予更多的支持和扶植,包括从物质条件上提供保证。重大的现实题材和革命历史题材的创作,以及重要名著的改编、摄制、排演,政府文化部门、广播影视部门和艺术管理部门要作出适当的规划,有组织有步骤地施行。各地区、各部门、各艺术
生产单位也要依据自身的条件,针对不同的艺术形式、艺术门类的特点,规划本地区、本部门、本单位的创作。各地文化部门、广播影视部门主管的艺术生产机构、艺术表演团体,都有责任组织其所属的创作人员努力创作反映现实生活,富于时代精神的作品,对此要有明确的要求,并列入
创作规划。文化部门、广播影视部门要督促规划的执行,并依据执行情况和实绩,安排经济补助和奖励。有特殊需要的重点作品,可以组织集体创作;一般应以个人创作为主,由有经验的作家艺术家去完成。
各省、自治区、直辖市的党委宣传部门和政府文化部门、广播影视部门,要象抓重点建设工程那样,集中力量有计划有重点地组织文化艺术产品的生产。1991年内,要拿出质量上乘的一本好书、一台好戏、一部优秀影片或电视剧、一篇或几篇有创见有说服力的文艺理论文章。并在
此基础上,制定出三至五年包括各种文艺门类在内的重点创作的规划。对于列为重点的项目,要采取硬性措施加以逐项落实和考核。
四、搞好二度创作,调动导演、表演、指挥、演奏、音乐、美工、摄像、录制等各类创作人员的积极性,合力推出高水平高质量的艺术品。
音乐、舞蹈、曲艺、杂技、戏剧、电影、电视等综合性艺术,其创作的完成,艺术的实现,以及整体质量的提高,都离不开二度创作。二度创作同样是创造性的精神劳动,艺术家不但要深刻理解一度创作,而且要充分发挥自己的专业特长和艺术个性,给予独特地表现。二度创作者除了
熟练地掌握专业基本功之外,还必须提高思想水平和文化修养,了解生活,熟悉表现的内容和对象,使创作达到较高的境界。各级文化部门、广播影视部门、文艺团体和有关文艺单位,要逐步建立健全二度创作人员的队伍,重视对他们的学习培训,为他们进行创作提供必要的条件。
要处理好二度创作与一度创作的关系。二度创作人员应当尽量忠实原作,充分尊重原作者的艺术创造和他们的合法权益。作重大改动,应当征得原作者的同意。一度创作人员也要尽量尊重二度创作人员的合理创造,并尽可能给予积极合作。
对于有较高的思想、艺术、政治或文化价值的二度创作,有关部门和单位要给予积极支持,为它们的排练、制作、上演、上映创造条件,努力解决资金、人力、场地等方面存在的困难。
五、建立一支宏大的专业与业余相结合的创作队伍。
建立一支有高度文化修养和高度社会主义使命感的宏大的创作队伍,是繁荣文艺创作的关键。专业作家、艺术家作为文艺创作队伍的骨干,要充分调动他们的积极性和创造性,发挥其核心作用。在为他们提供必需的创作条件的同时,要就创作方向、社会效益等提出必要的要求,加强其
责任感和使命感。他们当中的共产党员,应牢固树立首先是共产党员,然后是文艺工作者的观念,要按照共产党员党性的要求,在创作中自觉地体现马克思主义文艺观和毛泽东文艺思想的指导,模范地贯彻执行党的文艺方针,用创作实绩推动社会主义文艺的发展和繁荣。对于担负政府文化
部门、广播影视部门或文艺团体的行政或组织工作的作家艺术家,要给予一定的时间,便于他们深入生活和从事创作。现行的专业作家、艺术家管理体制,要在调查研究的基础上,积极稳妥地进行改革。一些地方试行的作家专业创作合同制、创作假制,有利于克服专业作家制的某些弊端,
要认真总结经验,完善管理,改进提高。遍布全国的各级群众艺术馆和文化馆,拥有大量的创作人员。他们既是创作者,又是开展群众性创作活动的核心和纽带。他们所在单位和上级有关部门要在思想、业务、生活与职称待遇方面给予必要的关心照顾,充分调动他们的积极性,使他们发挥
更大的作用。
广大业余创作者是文艺创作队伍中一支不可忽视的力量。他们生活在群众之中,置身于火热的斗争,有着特殊的优势。近年来文艺新人不断涌现,表现了蕴藏在群众中的强大的创作潜力。对于崭露头角的业余创作人才,要给予特别关注和扶植。一是有计划地吸收他们参加各级专业培训
班,提高他们的思想理论水平、文化素养和写作能力;二是在有可靠的创作设想和创作准备的情况下,给予创作假,提供时间保证。对他们的创作思想、艺术作风和作品质量,也要予以关心,并有所要求。
要十分重视文艺界的团结,在大方向一致的前提下,要团结一切可能团结的作家艺术家,共同为繁荣社会主义的文艺作出努力。
六、加强文艺作品传播手段的管理。
文艺书刊、音像制品的出版,文艺作品的演出、播放和展览等,是文艺作品的传播手段,是文艺创作与人民群众发生联系的媒介。文艺作品只有通过这些手段进行传播,才能发挥社会作用,实现文艺的繁荣。为了传播手段的完善和传播渠道的畅通,要重视和加强编辑队伍、演出管理队
伍、电影和录像发行放映队伍及艺术展览管理队伍的建设,提高从业人员的政治文化素质、文艺理论修养和贯彻党的文艺方针政策的自觉性,加强社会责任感,以做好文艺作品的出版发行、上演上映和展出销售等工作。文化部门、广播影视部门、出版部门和文艺团体对其所属的出版单位、
影视和音像制作机构、文艺报刊、演出公司、剧场影院、书店、展厅等,一方面要帮助他们端正业务方向,明确方针任务,正确处理社会效益和经济效益的关系;一方面要帮助他们加强管理,建立和健全奖惩分明的工作规章,完善检查监督制度。要切实把表现时代精神,具有民族特色,有
益于人们身心健康,又有较高艺术价值的优秀作品推向社会。
为保证代表国家文明水准和突出主旋律的优秀作品的生产和传播,经济上要采取适当的保护措施,政策上要有所倾斜。对于具有较高的学术、艺术价值的严肃健康的文学艺术作品(含理论著述)的出版、发行、演出、播映、展览和销售,要实行低价格、低税率或减免税,其亏损部分要
有可靠的财政补贴。对于某些亟待保护和发展的艺术品种,在创作上应多加扶植。同时,对于缺乏文化艺术价值的畅销的文艺制品和高收入的赢利性演出,要实行高税率,并将所得税金用于发展文艺创作。
七、加强和改进对文艺创作的评论。
开展对文艺创作的评论,是加强和改善党对文艺的领导,坚持社会主义方向,提高文艺创作的思想和艺术质量的重要手段。各级党的宣传部门和政府文化部门、广播影视部门、文艺团体,都要把文艺评论作为繁荣文艺的一项重要工作来抓。要注重文艺评论队伍的建设;要组织和帮助文
艺评论家学习马列主义、毛泽东思想,学习马列文论、毛泽东文艺论著和作为毛泽东文艺思想在新的历史条件下的继承和发展的《邓小平论文艺》,学习有关理论、方针、政策,深入实际,及时了解文艺情况,提高思想、理论和业务水平。除专业文艺评论之外,还要重视开展群众性的文艺
评论。特别是对于具体的文艺现象和作家作品,要广泛听取人民群众的意见,实现传播和反馈的良性循环。
文艺评论要切合实际,要大力开展对于我国现在的文艺作品、创作思想、创作倾向的评论和研究,及时发扬成绩,纠正错误,推动创作。应重视优秀作家艺术家和先进文艺单位的创作经验和生产经验,加以总结和宣传。
文艺评论要提高战斗力。要充分肯定和大力评介反映现实生活、富于时代精神、弘扬民族文化传统的优秀作品,发挥它们应有的社会作用。表扬要实事求是,尊重科学,克服无原则吹捧的不良风气。对于创作和理论中反映出来的资产阶级自由化思潮和各种错误倾向,要展开有说服力的
批评,正本清源,以保证文艺创作沿着健康的轨道发展。同时,通过文艺批评,提高群众的审美情趣和鉴赏能力,引导群众的文化消费。
开展文艺评论,必须实行“双百”方针,提倡不同意见的讨论与争论。要活跃学术空气,造成既坚持原则又团结和谐的局面,为文艺创作的繁荣和文艺评论的发展提供良好的文化环境。
八、加强文艺创作的对外宣传推荐和中外合作创作的管理。
随着中外文化交流的拓展,向世界各国宣传推荐我国优秀民族文化和文艺创作成果,日益迫切。这是文艺工作者的光荣职责,也是繁荣文艺创作的一个重要方面。近年来,在音乐、舞蹈、戏剧、电影、电视、杂技、美术、摄影和文学等众多的国际性竞赛、评比、展映和演出活动中,我
国的参赛选手都有好的表现,我国的文艺创作取得了可喜的成绩,受到国际舆论的赞誉,标示着我国文艺走向世界的实绩。各级党的宣传部门和文化部门、广播影视部门要十分重视这项工作,积极支持,加强管理,促其健康发展。
对外宣传推荐文艺作品,包括参展、参赛等项目,无论是政府间的文化交流,还是各种民间文艺组织举办的各项国际文化活动,都要贯彻以我为主的方针,选拔推荐真正优秀的作品,并积极地有针对性地加强宣传介绍,方便境外人士认识和了解。在各类国际竞赛、评奖活动中获奖的作
品,国内宣传介绍也要有所鉴别,择善而行。要尊重和认真研究国际上对我国文艺作品的各种意见和反映,宣传他们的有益意见,包括批评性言论;但对某些基于政治、思想原因的偏见,则不应无分析无选择地在国内散播。无论对外推荐,还是对内宣传,都要十分注意文艺的导向,力求正
确理解和贯彻党的文艺方针和对外宣传方针。
中外合作进行艺术创作排演,包括影视的合拍协拍,要采取积极而慎重的态度。要遵守我国的有关法律、法规和规章,相互尊重,绝不能放弃政治思想原则。属于历史题材,要尊重历史。合作创作中的重要内容,要充分协商后签订合同,按约行事。
对外推荐和中外合作创作,都应在调查研究的基础上,尽快订出管理办法,纳入科学管理。
九、设立创作基金,改进奖励制度。
各级文化部门、广播影视部门要努力创造条件,促成文艺创作基金尽早设立。基金的主要来源,一是向各级财政申请专款,二是从各级文化、影视经费中安排,三是广泛地争取社会各界资助。设立基金的目的,是鼓励和支持优秀作品的生产和传播,包括资助作家艺术家和评论家参加学
习、访问和深入生活,资助具有良好社会效益的重点作品的写作、出版、排演、制作、展播,奖励优秀作品、优秀的理论研究成果,奖励成绩突出的创作和评论人员,促进创作繁荣。各级文化部门、广播影视部门对基金的管理,要建立专门机构,制定切实的章程,照章施行。
办好各级各类文艺评奖,是鼓励创作、促进繁荣的行之有效的办法。当前的任务是,总结经验,克服混乱,制订法规,加强管理。
各种文艺评比、竞赛活动,必须明确以繁荣创作、推出人才为目的,由具备举办条件的相关部门、单位主办(或合办),并取得相应的文化主管部门、广播影视主管部门的批准。文艺评奖要十分注意导向性和权威性。评奖要符合提倡奖励的方向;要有明确的评奖标准和实施办法;评奖
机构的组成要注意能反映出专家、领导、群众的各方面具有代表性的意见。力求导向正确,评判公正,奖励得当,努力把党的文艺方针政策具体地体现在各类文艺评奖之中。为文艺评比、竞赛筹集的资金,要严格遵守财务制度,用于奖励创作和繁荣创作,不得挪作他用。政府文化部门、广
播影视部门要在总结经验的基础上,尽快制定出各类文艺创作的汇演、竞赛、评奖办法,促使这些活动有组织、有计划、有秩序地开展。
十、加强文艺法制建设,促进文艺创作繁荣,保证文艺事业健康发展。
文艺法制建设,是我国社会主义民主与法制建设的组成部分,是社会主义文艺管理的重要手段之一,是繁荣和发展社会主义文艺创作的一个必不可少的条件。它有利于保证党对文艺事业的领导,有利于保证社会主义文艺创作的正确方向。要在坚持四项基本原则的前提下,保障作家艺术
家和其他从事文艺活动者进行文艺创作的自由,保障宪法赋予每个公民的这项基本的文化权利。要依法保护作家艺术家和广大文艺工作者的正当权益,合理调整作者、传播者和社会大众的利益关系,保护精神劳动成果权。各单位要组织广大文艺工作者认真学习《著作权法》,帮助他们学会
运用法律的武器维护自身的合法权益。政府文化部门、广播影视部门要抓紧制定与《著作权法》配套的法规和规章,保证《著作权法》的贯彻执行。
运用法律手段管理文艺事业是一个新的课题。各级文化部门、广播影视部门都要提高对文化法制建设的认识,建立和健全文化法制机构和法制工作队伍,积极协助国家和地方立法部门做好文化法制建设工作,努力为文艺事业的繁荣与发展创造一个良好的法律环境。
当前,文化战线要继续贯彻执行“一手抓整顿,一手抓繁荣”的方针。在进行必要的组织整顿的同时,要着重抓好文化队伍思想、作风的整顿和建设;在抓整顿的同时,要用更多的精力抓文化艺术的繁荣。要围绕增强团结、凝聚人心、振奋精神的目标,充分发动各级文化部门、广播影
视部门、文艺团体和广大文艺工作者,迅速掀起繁荣文艺创作的热潮,努力推出丰富多采、健康向上、群众喜闻乐见的高质量文艺产品。

 

1991年3月1日

One thought on “Opinions concerning the Present Flourishing of Literature and Art Creation

    Latest updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    February 9, 2013 at 10:38 am

    […] Opinions concerning the Present Flourishing of Literature and Art Creation (1991) […]

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