Central Committee Resolution concerning Some Important Questions in Strengthening Socialist Spiritual Civilization Construction
(Passed on 10 October 1996 by the 6th Plenary Meeting of the 14th Party Congress of the Chinese Communist Party)
The 6th Plenary Meeting of the 14th Party Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, on the basis of the requirements of completely implementing the “9th Five-Year Plan” for our country’s national economy and society and the long-term objectives for 2010, has analysed the circumstances faced by Socialist spiritual civilization construction, and has summarized experiences and lessons. In view of the fact that the Centre has already completely deployed the development of education and science, this Plenum mainly discussed questions in the aspect of ideological, moral and cultural construction, and has made the following resolution.
I, Strengthening the Socialist spiritual civilization construction is an important strategic task.
(1) From 1996 to 2010, is an important period for inheriting the past and ushering in the future, continuing the cause and forging into the future for constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. In this period, we must consolidate and develop the great achievements made since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, stimulate the basic transformation of economic structures and economic growth models, promote economic development and complete social progress; we must face the mutual agitation of all sorts of ideologies and cultures at the global level and the swift development of science and technology, meet the challenges of violent competition between comprehensive national strength; we must defeat all sorts of difficulties on the road ahead, and persist without wavering in the Party’s basic line. All of this not only requires that material civilization has a large development, but also requires that spiritual civilization has a large development. It must be pointed out that the Socialist spiritual civilization is an important characteristic of Socialist societies, and is an important objective and an important guarantee for modernization construction. Constructing a Socialist spiritual civilization, relates to the complete realization of the magnificent cross-century blueprint, and relates to our country’s flourishing and growth of the Socialist cause. The material civilization is the base, this centre that is economic development must be closely grasped, and there must be no wavering, but if spiritual civilization is done wrong, material civilization will also be destroyed, and even society may go bad. At the same time as doing material civilization construction even better, realistically raising spiritual civilization construction to an even more prominent level, earnestly resolving a series of present and urgent problems, further initiating a new picture of spiritual civilization construction under new circumstances; have already become large matters that the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country are extremely concerned about.
(2) In the 18 years since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, our country has undergone a historical transition and a large development of undertakings that has attracted worldwide attention. This is a great progress in our Party’s leading the people of all ethnicities in the entire country to reverse the grave situation created in the decade of chaos of the “Cultural Revolution”, to rise again with force and spirit out of difficulties and opening up a new path for the development of Chinese Socialist; it also is a great progress in our withstanding of the severe domestic and international tests at the end of the Eighties and the beginning of the Nineties, and moving our reform and opening up, and Socialist modernization construction towards a new phase. This sort of historical achievement is inseparable from the reestablishment of the ideological line of liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts and taking practice as the sole criterion to examine truth, and from the reunderstanding of what is Socialism and how to construct Socialism; it is inseparable from the arousal of the creative spirit of the pioneering and enterprising masses to make the country rich and strong, and the people happy, it is also inseparable from carrying forward of a spirit of the nation standing on its own feet and to not believe in heresies, not fearing pressure, safeguarding national sovereignty and breaking through Western sanctions. In the final analysis, it is inseparable from the forming and development basic line of Deng Xiaoping, to construct Socialist theory with Chinese characteristics and that the Party is at the initial stage of Socialism. Without this sort of historical leap in the Party’s leading ideology, , without this sort of deep transformation in the spiritual outlook of the entire nation, there would not have been the energy of brave charges and brave trials and the wisdom of timely summarizing experience, it would have been impossible to march on a good path, and a new undertaking would have been impossible. To assess the circumstances of spiritual civilization construction, this essential aspect must be fully understood.
As soon as reform and opening up had begun, the Party Centre, with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at the core, stressed the strategic principle of grasping both civilizations together. At the previous important meetings of the Party, a series of major decisions have been made, and the 6th Plenum of the 12th Party Congress also specially formulated the “Resolution Concerning Guiding Policies in Constructing a Socialist Spiritual Civilization“, which clarified the strategic positions, basic tasks and major policies of spiritual civilization construction, guided the entire Party and the people in the entire country to progressively deepen their understanding of spiritual civilization construction, launched work in all aspects and promoted the development of the economy and society. But, concerning the principle of grasping these two civilizations together, inconsistent situations have emerged in the process of implementation. At the end of the Eighties, Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out that, the larges mistake in that decade was education, and was mainly that ideological and political education had weakened, one hand was relatively hard, one hand relatively soft. After the 4th Plenum of the 13th Party Congress, the Party Centre with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the centre persisted in the principle of grasping with both hands, and both hands must be hard, strengthened spiritual civilization construction from many aspects, and made vigorous and effective efforts.
In 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s Southern Talks and the 14th Party Congress opened up a new phase in reform and opening up, and Socialist modernization construction. These talks answered many major questions concerning understandings puzzling us regularly and fettering out thoughts, and put forward the strategic thought of seizing opportunities and developing ourselves, and at the same time clarified that important position of spiritual civilization in the cause of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. The 14th Party Congress scientifically summarized the basic practice and basic experience of the Party since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress, established the guiding position of Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the Party, and clearly required to raise spiritual civilization construction to new levels at the same time as establishing a Socialist market economy system. Since the 14th Party Congress, under the leadership of the Party Centre with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core, we have persisted in using Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics to arm the Party, in propagating and implementing the basic line and basic policies of the Party; in stressing to preach study, preach politics, preach righteousness and serve the people wholeheartedly; in implementing the strategy of “rejuvenating the country through scientific education”, stimulating the development of the cause of science, technology and education; persisted in the correct public opinion guidance, letting Socialist culture flourish, and carrying forward the main melody; broadly advancing patriotic, collective and Socialist education, prominently propagating a batch of advanced models and launching widespread mass spiritual civilization construction activities; in strengthening Party style and clean government construction and democracy and legal system education, expanding the fighting strength against corruption, to clear away repulsive social phenomena and attacking criminal achievements. Spiritual civilization construction has obtained vigorous progress and clear achievements, and has an important function in stimulating reform, development and stability.
At the same time, we must soberly be aware that, in some localities and departments’ leading work, ideological education is overlooked, spiritual civilization is overlooked, and problems of “one hand being relatively hard and one hand being relatively soft” has not been resolved. Not a few problems exist in aspects of social spiritual life, and some are still considerably grave. Moral standards have been lost in some areas, mammonism, hedonism and individualism are thriving; feudal superstitious activities and pornography, gambling, drugs and other repulsive phenomena and dregs of society are gaining the upper hand; faking, falsifying and swindling activities have become a public nuisance in society; cultural undertaking are under grave attack from negative factors, tings endangering the spiritual and physical health of minors cannot be stopped despite repeated bans; the appearance of corruption as sprawled in a number of places, Party style and government style have taken large damage; a part of the people have lost interest in the concept of the country, and are puzzled or are wavering concerning the future of Socialism. In assessing the circumstances of spiritual civilization construction, we can absolutely not overlook the existence of these problems.
If we cannot see the essential aspects of spiritual civilization construction in these 18 years, we may lose confidence, which is mistaken; if we cannot see the gravity and urgency of problems, we may lose our guard, which is dangerous. Only by persisting in complete, historical and developmental points of view, putting spiritual civilization construction in the middle of the larger picture of the overall cause of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics to observe and study it, and put it in the larger picture of the entire world to observe and study it, will it be possible to raise understanding, unify thought and strengthen self-confidence and a sense of responsibility in constructing spiritual civilization.
(3) Constructing Socialist spiritual civilization under conditions of developing the Socialist market economy and opening up to the outside world is a huge and historical mission for the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese people. Establishing the Socialist market economy system is the only way to vitalize our country’s economy and society, and is an unprecedented great pioneering undertaking. This sort of economic system not only is integrated with the basic Socialist economic system and political system, but is also integrated with the Socialist spiritual civilization. Our country’s’ practice has already demonstrated that developing the Socialist market economy benefits liberating and developing the productive forces of Socialist societies, strengthening the comprehensive national strength of Socialist countries, raising the people’s life levels, and also benefits strengthening the people’s mentality to stand on their own feet, their consciousness of competition, consciousness of efficiency, understanding of democracy and the legal system and pioneering a spirit of innovation, giving further rein to the superiority of Socialism. At the same time, the own weak points and negative aspects of the market may also reflect in spiritual life. Establishing and perfecting the Socialist market economy system, must be closely integrated with the practice of reform and opening up, completing the Socialist legal system, strengthening Socialist spiritual civilization, guiding the people to correctly deal with the relationship between competition and cooperation, initiative and supervision, efficiency and fairness, getting rich first and getting rich together, economic effect and social effect, etc., opposing forgetting integrity when seeing gains and seeking only profit, shaping a Socialist view of justice and benefit that puts the interest of the country and the people first and also fully respects the individual rights and interests of citizens, shaping healthy and orderly market and society life standards.
The development of China cannot be separated from the world, opening up to the outside world is a basic national policy to construct Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Grasping opportunities from the changes in the international situation and expanding opening up, benefits our country’s expansion of the Socialist economy on the basis of maintaining independence and initiative, benefits attracting and learning from the advanced science and technology, operation and management methods and all other beneficial knowledge and culture from all countries in the world, and constructing Socialist spiritual civilization. Opening up to the outside world may also bring dangers, capitalist decadence may seize the opportunity to come in. As long as we persist in developing social productive forces, guarantee that the publicly-owned economy occupies the main position, political power remains in the hands of the people and persist in education of the Four Cardinal Principles, and spiritual civilization construction will be able to develop healthily in the middle of reform and opening up.
It should be pointed out that constructing Socialist spiritual civilization is long in duration and complex. This is because of the many major changes in economic and social life brought about by the transformation towards a Socialist market economy, and the perfection of structures, laws, policies and management requires a relatively long process; it is because grave complications have emerged within Socialism at the global level, and the pressure from developed capitalist countries’ upper hand in science and technology and the infiltration of western ideology will remain for a long time; it is also because feudal society and semi-colonial feudal society handed down degenerate ideologies and small-scale production habits that still have considerable influence. Sufficient mental preparation must be made concerning this long-term nature and complexity, and Socialist spiritual civilization must be constantly grasped untiringly.
Strengthening spiritual civilization construction under new circumstances is an important test for the comrades in the entire Party. How to make material civilization construction and spiritual civilization construction mutually stimulate each other, develop co-ordinately, prevent and overcome one hard hand and one soft hand under the presupposition of having economic construction at the centre; how to shape common ideologies, value concepts and moral standards benefiting Socialist modernization construction, prevent and restrain decadent ideologies and repulsive phenomena to thrive and sprawl under conditions of deepening reform and establishing the Socialist market economy; how to attract excellent foreign civilization achievements, carry forward the traditional cultural quintessence of the motherland, prevent and cancel the dissemination of cultural thrash, resist hostile forces’ plotting to “Westernize” and “divide” use under circumstances of broadening opening up to the outside world and welcoming the new global technological revolution, these are historical problems that must be earnestly resolved in the process of Socialist modernization construction.
II, Guiding ideology and struggle objectives for Socialist spiritual civilization construction
(4) According to the historical task of the Party in the primary stages of Socialism and according to the historical experience since the founding of the country and especially since reform and opening up, our country’s Socialist spiritual civilization construction must have Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics as guidance, persist in the basic line and basic principles of the Party, strengthen ideological and moral construction, develop education of science and culture, arm the people with scientific theory, guide the people with correct public opinion, mould the people with noble spirits, hearten the people with excellent works, foster Socialist citizens with ideals, morals, culture and discipline, raise the ideological and moral quality and scientific and cultural quality of the entire nation, unite and mobilize the people of all ethnicities to construct our country into a rich and strong, democratic and civilized modern Socialist country. This is the guiding ideology of spiritual civilization construction and is also the general requirement of spiritual civilization construction.
(5) Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the result of integrating basic Marxist-Leninist principles with modern China’s reality and the characteristics of the times, is the inheritance and development of Mao Zedong Thought, is the Marxism of contemporary China, and is the basic principle of our Party in all work matters in the new period and a strong spiritual pillar for the Chinese nation’s vitalization. Completely, correctly and vigorously persisting in and practicing this theory is the basic guarantee for our Party and country to withstand all sorts of risks and tests and realize Socialist modernization.
Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics embodies extremely rich thoughts concerning spiritual civilization construction. Comrade Deng Xiaoping stresses that the Socialist country that we must construct, must not only have a high-level material civilization, but must also have a high-level of spiritual civilization, both civilizations must be done well, and only that is having Socialism with Chinese characteristics, doing modernization absolutely must persist in having economic construction at the centre, it must have two hands, only having one hand is no good. He stresses that spiritual civilization construction includes ideology and moral construction and education and science construction, and must educate the people to become people with the “Four Haves”, educate cadres to be come cadres with the “Four Haves” and especially must educate youth well and educate the next generations well. He stresses that we must persist in Marxism, the belief in Marxism is our spiritual driver, seeking truth from facts is the quintessence of Marxism, liberating thoughts and reform and opening up must be implemented in the complete process of Socialist modernization persisting in the four Cardinal Principles and opposing bourgeois liberalization must also be implemented in the complete process of Socialist modernization, doing liberalization is having to lead China according to the capitalist development path, which will destroy the political picture of stability and unity. He stresses that reform and opening up is the hope for resolving China’s problems, implementing the policy of opening up will also bring some bad things that influence our people, and to use education and legal methods to resolve these problems. He stresses that we must inherit and carry forward the excellent cultural traditions of the nature and the excellent traditions of the Party, attract and learn from all civilization achievements of human society, oppose the influence of the remains of feudalism and resist the corrosion by degenerate capitalist ideology. He stresses that we must respect knowledge and respect talent, foster a batch of excellent scientists and educators, literators and artists and all other experts, comrades at the ideological, cultural and educational battle lines shall all be engineers of the human soul. He stresses that ideological and political work and ideological and political work teams may absolutely not be weakened, and must mainly react against incorrect ideological tendencies by persuasion and education, launching criticism and self-criticism cannot be simple and rough, and can also be done disinterestedly. He stresses that the Party must strengthen leadership over spiritual civilization construction, must grasp matter ruthlessly, may not loosen its grasp for one day, and grasp from concrete matters, the key is Party style construction and leading cadres setting the example.
The practice since reform and opening up demonstrates that deeply understanding Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics and earnestly practicing Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s thoughts concerning spiritual civilization construction, can certainly reflect the desires of the people and the requirements of the times, and that spiritual civilization construction must be incessantly pushed forward.
(6) Our conducting spiritual civilization construction, is spiritual civilization construction with economic construction at the centre, persisting in the Four Cardinal Principles and persisting in reform and opening up, is spiritual civilization construction that inherits and carries forward excellent traditions and also fully reflects the spirit of the time, that stands in this country and also faces the world. In the next 15 years, the main objectives for our country’s Socialist spiritual civilization construction are: firmly establishing a common ideal of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the entire nation, firmly establishing a firm and unwavering belief in the basic Party line; realizing a clear rise of citizens’ quality with ideological and moral cultivation, scientific and educational levels and democratic and legal system concepts as the main content, realizing a clear rise in cultural life quality with vigour and health, richness and variety, and serving the people as main requirements, realizing a clear rise town and country civilization levels with social atmospheres, public order and life environment as main symbols; shaping a desirable picture of coordinated development of material civilization construction and spiritual civilization construction nationwide.
III, Striving to raise the entire nation’s ideological and moral quality.
(7) Socialist ideology and morality concentrate reflects the nature and orientation of spiritual civilization construction, and has a huge dynamic function in social, political and economic development. In the overall process of reform and opening up, and modernization construction, the basic tasks of ideology and moral construction are: persisting in patriotic, collective and Socialist education, strengthening the construction of social morals, professional morals and household virtue, guiding people to firmly establish a common ideal of the construction of Socialism with Chinese characteristic and correct world views, views of life and value systems. The final objective of our present construction and development of Socialism with Chinese characteristics is Communism, and Socialist and Communist ideology and morals shall be earnestly advocated in society. At the same time, we must integrate the requirements of advance with the requirements of being widespread, encourage and support all ideologies and morals that are beneficial to resolve and develop Socialist social production forces, all ideologies and morals that benefit national unity, ethnic unity and social progress, all ideologies and morals benefiting the pursuit of the true, the good and the beautiful and rejection of the false, the evil and the ugly, and carry forward healthy tendencies, all ideologies and morals that benefit the implementation of citizens’ rights and obligations, and use honest labour to obtain a glorious life, unite and guide the hundreds of millions of people to be vigorous and upward, and incessantly raise the ideological moral level of the entire nation.
(8) Strengthening ideological construction must persist in Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought and especially use Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics to arm the entire Party, educate cadres and the people. We must closely grasp this quintessence of liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts, and revolve around these basic questions of what is Socialism and how to construct Socialism, persist in linking theory and reality, move studying, researching and propagating this theory deeply into society forward. Guiding the broad cadres and masses to correctly understand the rules of social development, correctly understand the destiny and future of countries, clarifying the wrong viewpoints and blurred understanding in Socialist questions, firmly establish the belief in Socialism with Chinese characteristics. All levels’ leading cadres must pioneer the study of this theory, and earnestly study Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s strategic thoughts and theoretical viewpoints, earnestly study his scientific attitude and creative spirit of using Marxist positions, viewpoints and methods to research new situations, resolve new problems, strive to grasp theoretical scientific structures and spiritual essences, persist in dialectical materialism and historical materialism, incessantly raise their own ideological and political quality, strengthen their capacity to grasp the entire picture and resolve real problems.
(9) Patriotism has constantly been one banner under which the Chinese people have struggled unitedly. In contemporary China, patriotism is organically integrated with Socialism in the great practice of constructing with Chinese characteristics, and is a strong driver to hearten the people in the entire country to realize vitalization of the nation. We must deeply and lastingly launch patriotic education, and help the people to clearly persevere the truth that only with Socialism, it is possible to save China, and only with Socialism, it is possible to develop China, carrying forward a national spirit of self-respect, self-confidence and self-strengthening in the entire society, having constructing and defending the Socialist motherland by contributing all forces as the greatest honour, having damage to the national interest and national honour as the greatest shame. We must make the great achievements and magnificent objectives of modernization construction, Chinese modern and contemporary history, the history of the Communist Party and the basic national situation, the excellent traditions and revolutionary traditions of the Chinese nation, the unity of the nation and unification of the motherland, national defence and national security into the main content of patriotic education for the new era. Using mass-media, books, periodicals, film, television, art performances and classroom education, using major commemoration days, major historical events and major social activities, using national flag raising, singing the national anthem and other ceremonies to forcefully carry forward a patriotic spirit. All localities must strengthen patriotic education base construction, the country must determine a batch of focus bases.
In education on strengthening ethnic unity and safeguarding the unity of the motherland, we must persist in the Party’s ethnic policies and religious policies, and propagate Marxist views of ethnicity and views on religion.
(10) Establishing a spirit of arduous work and enterprise in the entire nation is an important ideological guarantee for realizing Socialist modernization. Our country is a developing country, its economy and culture are relatively backward, and are in a pioneering period. the great practice of pioneering requires a great spirit of enterprise. Even if the economy has seen great development, and the people’s lives have had great change, it is still necessary to preserve and carry forward this sort of spirit. We must deeply and lastingly conduct education on arduous work and enterprising spirits for the broad cadres, guide the people to correctly understand the national conditions and correctly understand the long-term and enormous nature of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, firmly establish an ideology of building up the country through thrift and hard work, going about all undertakings with thrift and hard work, forcefully carry forward a spirit of working diligently in spite of difficulties, exertion to make the country prosperous, advancing despite difficulties, and continuous self-strengthening. All levels’ Party and government organs, all enterprise and undertaking work units must practice strict economies, oppose waste, prohibit ostentatiousness, extravagance and squandering of public funds.
(11) Socialist moral construction must have serving the people at the core, have collectivism as principle, have loving the motherland, loving the people, loving labour, loving science and loving Socialism as basic requirements, developing education on social morals, professional models and household virtues, shaping interpersonal relationships of working together and helping one another, equality and friendliness and advancing together in the whole society.
Serving the people is the concentrated reflection of Socialist morals. Under the conditions of developing the Socialist market economy, it is even more necessary to advocate the spirit of serving the people and collectivism advocate respecting people and caring about people, loving the collective, being enthusiastic about promoting public interest, helping the poor and those in difficulties, doing more good things for the people and society, opposing and resisting mammonism, hedonism and individualism amongst the whole people. In economic activities, the State protects the interests of enterprises and individuals according to the law, encourages people to gain proper economic benefits through lawful business and honest work; at the same time, it guides people to be responsible towards society, to be responsible towards the people, correctly deal with the relationship between the State, the collective and the individual, oppose small-group mentalities and selfish departmentalism, oppose feathering one’s nest at public expense and benefiting oneself at others cost. Strictly opposing to bring the principle of commodity exchange from economic activities into the Party’s political life and the government life of State organs
Completely strengthening Socialist moral construction, forcefully initiating public morals of civilized manners, finding pleasure in helping others, protecting the environment, obeying discipline and abiding by the law, forcefully initiating professional morals of loving positions and respecting work, being honest and sincere, being fair and just in handling matters, serving the masses, and contributing to society, forcefully advocating household virtues of respecting the old and cherishing the young, gender equality, harmony between husband and wife, running households diligently and thriftily, and uniting with the neighbourhood. At present, we must focus on strengthening professional moral construction and rectify unhealthy tendencies in sectors.
(12) Strengthening the ideological and moral education of minors is a large matter relating to the destiny of the country. We must help minors to establish ambitious ideals and foster a fine moral character. All levels and all sorts of schools must completely implement the education policies of the Party, persist in the Socialist orientation of organizing learning, strengthening moral education work, strive to foster Socialist constructors and successors that are completely developed in moral, knowledge, physical and other aspects. According to the different characteristics of higher, secondary and primary education, realistically strengthening and improving ideological and moral character courses and political theory courses, integrating passing on knowledge with moulding characters and personalities, and cultivating desirable actions and habits, integrating individual achievement with the future of the country and social needs, shaping an atmosphere of loving the Party and loving the country, caring about the collective, respecting teachers, diligent study, working in unison and helping another, obeying discipline and abiding by the law. Vigorously organizing students’ participation in production labour and social practice, helping them to understand society, understand the national situation, and strengthen their sense of responsibility for the construction of the motherland and revitalize China. Fully giving rein to the important function of the Communist Youth League and the Yong Pioneers in uniting and guiding the broad minors to progress, deeply launching the “hope project”, the “youth volunteers”, the “hand in hand” and other activities, carrying forward a spirit of mutual care and finding pleasure in helping others. Giving high regard to the vigorous function of old comrades in youth education. The entire Party and the entire society must be fully concerned about the ideological and moral construction of minors, schools, households and society must closely cooperate, and create a good environment for them to grow up healthily.
(13) The shaping, consolidation and development of Socialist moral customs must rely on education, and must also rely on the legal system. The Socialist legal system reflects the determination of the people. We must conduct education on observing the Constitution and laws within the entire people, disseminate common legal knowledge, strengthen concepts of the democratic legal system, making people understand the rights and obligations of citizens, understand laws relating to their own work and life, handle matters according to the law, discipline themselves according to the law, safeguard their own lawful rights and interests according to the law, and be good at utilizing legal tools to struggle with unlawful and criminal activities. We must establish and complete relevant laws, regulations and systems, strengthen management of social life in all aspects according to the law, sanction and attack illegal activities endangering society, law enforcement must be strict, and lawbreakers must be dealt with. Comprehensively utilizing education, law, administration, public opinion and other methods, standardizing and cultivating desirable activities and habits, restraining and preventing uncivilized activities, shaping a social atmosphere of fighting for justice against evil, celebrating good deeds and punishing evil.
IV, Vigorously developing Socialist cultural undertakings
(14) Developing literature and art, press and publications, philosophy and social science and other cultural undertakings, satisfying the popular masses’ daily increasing spiritual culture needs, have an important function in raising the quality of the nation, and stimulating economic development and overall social progress. The great practice of reform and opening up and Socialist modernization construction has poured new vitality into cultural construction, and at the same time urgently requires cultural undertaking to have a large rise and development. Only by deeply taking root in the historical creation activities of the popular masses, inheriting and carrying forward the excellent culture of the nation and the traditions of revolutionary culture, vigorously attract the excellent achievements of global culture, our cultural undertakings can develop healthily and flourish increasingly.
(15) The main task for letting literature and art flourish is to turn out more excellent works. We must persist in the orientation of serving the people and serving Socialism, implement the policy of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend, carry forward the main melody and advocate diversity. Establishing a consciousness of excellent products, implementing excellent product strategies, striving to create a batch of excellent works integrating ideology and artistry, having a strong influence and infectiousness, that are deeply welcomed by the people, in all categories of literature and art, driving the complete flourishing of Socialist literature and art undertakings.
The people require literature and art, and literature and art require the people even more. The broad literature and art workers must go deeply into the people and deeply into life, derive nourishment, enrich themselves, establish correct creative ideologies, earnestly and strictly consider the social effect of their works, and contribute the best spiritual nourishment to the people. We must both prevent flagrant interference and also prevent negligent guidance when leading literature and art work. We must respect the rules of literature and art creation, strive to shape a good atmosphere that is vivid and vigorous, united and upward, make literature and art workers’ creative spirit gain even more free rein, so that artistic styles and artistic forms are able to develop freely. We must vigorously launch healthy literature and art criticism, give rein to the guiding function of literature and art criticism. That sort of tendency of indifference to the orientation of the “Two Fors” and being far removed from the masses and practice, that sort of tendency of pandering to vulgar and bad tastes or “putting money above all else”, and that sort of tendency of despising revolutionary literature and art traditions and esteeming degenerate literary and artistic trends are all wrong, and should be determinedly opposed.
(16) News and propaganda must persist in the principle of the Party nature, persist in seeking truth from facts, persist in encouraging unity and stability, mainly propagate the positive side, and closely grasp the correct public opinion orientation. Party newspapers, Party periodicals, State news agencies and radio and television stations must give rein to their guiding function. They must strengthen guidance and public opinion supervision concerning hot issues, help the Party and the government to improve their work, tighten the relationship of the Party and government with the popular masses, and strengthen the confidence and enthusiasm of the popular masses in constructing Socialist modernization. News media must give rein to their own superiority, improve methods and stress effect. Radio and television must strive to raise programme quality, increase the quantity of domestically-produced excellent programmes, and prevent the broadcast of programmes with vulgar styles and unhealthy content.
Publishing work must establish and complete management mechanisms, strive to raise publication quality, push out more works, and not publish bad work. We must timely reflect domestic and international new excellent culture achievements, give high regard to excellent traditional cultural publishing works and academic works having value, vigorously support ethnic minority publishing, incessantly satisfy the popular masses’ multi-level and multi-aspect requirements. Press media and publications must be a model of correct use of motherland language and writing.
Strengthening macro-level management over the press and publications sector, adopting forceful measures to resolve the current problems of fragmentation and overflow such as quantities being overly large, imbalanced structures, duplicate construction, overlooking quality, etc., strive to realize a transformation from mainly broadening scope and quantity towards raising quality and effect. Earnestly rectifying press and publishing work units where problems of violating regulations happen regularly and that do not have basic conditions, those not meeting requirements must be closed down.
(17) Philosophy and social science must persist in the leadership of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping’s theory of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in linking theory with practice, serving the policy decisions of Party and government, and serving the construction of the two civilizations. We must make major theoretical and practical questions in reform and opening up, and modernization construction into the main direction of attack of research, vigorously explore the development rules for Socialist economics, politics and culture with Chinese characteristics. We must give regard to basic theoretical research, and strengthen focus discipline construction. Concerning new changes and all sorts of ideological trend in the contemporary world, we must pay attention to research, scientifically analyse and correctly understand them. Earnestly performing philosophy and social science research planning work, we must organize forces and attack major topics, push out more research achievements having value.
Persisting in the policy of letting a hundred schools contend, advocating a rigorous scientific learning style, encouraging different academic points of view to mutually learn from group discussion. We must pay attention to differentiate academic problems and political problems. We must vigorously guide questions of ideological understanding. We must clearly show our colours in questions relating to political orientation and relating to major principles, clearly differentiate right and wrong, and guarantee that philosophy and social science research develops in line with the correct orientation.
(18) Grasping flourishing with one hand, grasping management with one hand, stimulating the healthy development of cultural markets. Cultural markets are an important battleground in Socialist spiritual civilization construction, and may absolutely not be permitted to become a venue for the propagation and sprawl of degenerate ideology and culture. We must vigorously foster and perfect cultural markets, forcefully support healthy cultural products, guide beneficial culture and entertainment activities adapted to the consumption levels of the broad masses, even better enliven and enrich cultural life. We must safeguard lawful business, protect intellectual property rights, manage cultural product import well. Persisting in unremittingly launching struggles to sweep away pornographic publications and attack illegal publishing activities. Grasping the formulation and perfection of relevant laws and regulations, expanding law enforcement strength, completing management systems, giving rein to the supervision function of the masses, and standardizing cultural market activities.
(19) Reforming the cultural structure is the basic path for the flourishing and development of cultural undertakings. The objective of reform is to strengthen the vitality of cultural undertakings, fully muster the vigour of cultural workers, push out more excellent works and push out more excellent talents. Reform must conform to the requirements of spiritual civilization construction, abide by the internal rules of cultural development and give rein to the vigorous function of market mechanisms. Cultural products have particular properties that are different from material products, and have influence on people’s ideological, moral, scientific and cultural quality. We must persist in putting social interest first, strive to realize the best integration of realizing social interest and economic interest. Reform must differentiate situations, classify guidance, and rationalize the relationship between the State, work units and individuals, progressively shaping a development structure with State guarantees as focus, encouraging society to start up cultural undertakings. Cultural enterprise and undertaking work units must deepen reform, strengthen management, establish and complete mechanisms that both encourage competition and have a responsibility to restrain.
V, Deeply and lastingly launching mass-type spiritual civilization construction activities.
(20) Mass-type spiritual civilization construction activities launched broadly by all localities nationwide, are great creations for the people to transform traditions and trends, and reform society, and benefit the organic integration of constructing both civilizations and implementing them to the grass roots. We must deeply and lastingly launch civilized households, civilized work units, joint army and civil construction efforts, joint police and civil construction efforts and other spiritual civilization construction activities, launching mass-type culture, hygiene, sports and scientific dissemination activities, proposing civilized and healthy ways of life, constructing community culture, town culture, enterprise culture and campus culture. Persisting in launching activities to support soldiers and their dependents, support the government and cherish the people and activities for ethnic unity and progress, strengthening the unity of army and politics, army and the people and the unity of the ethnicities.
We must make raising the quality of urban residents and urban civilization levels into objectives and launch civilized city creation activities. Every work unit must revolve around realizing exquisite environment, fine order, high-grade service and promoting spiritual civilization construction. Municipalities, provincial capital cities, autonomous region capital cities and large coastal main communication cities must take the lead in conducting construction activities. All provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities must formulate plans, to construct a batch of civilized cities and civilized districts having a demonstration function by 2010. We must fully give rein to the main force function of the working class in spiritual civilization construction.
We must make raising the quality of rural residents, going straight towards relative welfare and constructing a new Socialist countryside into objective and launch civilized village activities. We must have market towns as focus, have townships drive villages, formulate plans, and progressively move matters forward. Civilized village and town construction must be integrated with strengthening Party grass-roots organization construction and consolidating grass-roots political power, be integrated with expanding collective economic strength and strengthening village collective economic organizations’ function of serving the broad peasants, and be integrated with birth planning, economizing on land, and environmental construction. We must formulate rules set by villagers, do away with outmoded customs and habits, and oppose illegal religious activities according to the law. Continuing to perform culture, science and technology to go down to the countryside and poverty relief work. Fully giving rein to the function of rural Party members and cadres, teachers, intellectual youth and demobilized specialist soldiers in spiritual civilization construction.
We must have serving the people and contributing to society as purpose, and launch activities to create civilized sectors. All sectors and all trades, and especially the “window sectors” that are closely related to the masses’ lives, must conduct education on professional responsibilities, professional morals and professional discipline to workers, strengthen on-the-job training, standardize sector activities and establish a new sector style on the basis of their own characteristics.
All spiritual civilization construction activities must be integrated with resolving real questions that the widespread popular masses are concerned about, and with stimulating economic development and social progress, persevere, strive for actual results, making the masses receive education through participation, and gaining rises in practice. Determinedly oppose formalism.
(21) Advanced collectives and advanced individuals emerging in large numbers in Socialist modernization constructions are the models for the practice of Socialist spiritual civilization. We must adopt many kinds of methods to forcefully propagate their achievements and ideologies, and shape an atmosphere of respecting advances and learning from advances in the entire society. We must reward those having prominent achievements in spiritual civilization construction. We must be enthusiastically interested in heroic models making contributions to the benefit of the people and advanced personnel that battles for the just cause, and help them to resolve real problems.
VI, Input for realistically strengthening spiritual civilization construction
(22) Constructing a Socialist spiritual civilization must have material guarantees. Without the necessary material guarantees, many tasks in spiritual civilization construction will be difficult to implement. We must start from the complete picture of Socialist modernization construction, and bring spiritual civilization construction into overall planning for economic and social development, and guarantee the necessary funding. We must adapt to the requirements of the Socialist market economy, establish standardized and effective fundraising mechanisms, and progressively shape a system with many channels of input for spiritual civilization construction.
(23) Realistically resolving the present problems that propaganda and culture undertaking input quantities are on the low side, and proportions are on the low side. Earnestly implementing the State Council “Some Regulations Concerning Further Perfecting Cultural Economic Policies“. Central and local financial department input into propaganda and culture undertakings must increase following economic development, and the extent of increase may not be lower than the extent of financial departments’ income increase. Completing propaganda and culture undertaking special financial fund systems. Utilizing taxation, borrowing, pricing and other economic methods to support propaganda and cultural departments. Further perfecting preferential financial and taxation policies for propaganda and culture undertakings. Encouraging social forces to financially assist propaganda and culture undertakings. We must adopt effective measures to strengthen input into cultural undertakings in Central and Western underdeveloped regions and ethnic minority regions. We shall grant financial guarantees to the government setting up libraries, museums, science and technology institutes, cultural centres, revolutionary history remembrance halls and other public interest-type undertaking work units. We must expand support strength for excellent products reflecting national and ethnic academic and artistic levels, art schools and performance troupes representing national levels, State focus cultural heritage protection work units, localities having a representative nature and art troupes having ethnic characteristics.
(24) According to the requirements of rational distribution, optimal structuring and giving prominence to focus points, strengthening the basic construction of propaganda and culture work units. We must use limited funding even more to construct important propaganda and culture work units and cultural facilities that directly serve the masses. In urban construction, we must allocate for and construct public cultural facilities. In large and middle cities, we should focus on constructing good libraries and museums, and those meeting conditions should also build science and technology institute. Counties and townships should mainly construct comprehensive cultural centres and cultural stations. We must have raising central and provincial-level radio and television coverage as focus point, and strengthen radio and television coverage network construction. In a planned manner, constructing State libraries, State grand theatres and other State focus culture projects having an important influence.
Persisting in organizing culture undertakings in a hardworking and thrifty manner, striving to raise the effectiveness of finance application. Fully giving rein to the function of existing cultural facilities. Strictly controlling the construction of upmarket entertainment venues. It is prohibited to construct venues propagating feudal superstitions in the name of culture or tourism.
VII, Strengthening and improving Party leadership over spiritual civilization construction
(25) The Chinese Communist Party is the leading core of our country’s Socialist modernization cause. The key of constructing a material civilization is with the Party, and the key of constructing a spiritual civilization is also with the Party. All levels’ Party Committees must completely persist in grasping with both hands, and both hands must be strong, make the two civilizations into a unified struggle objective, plan together, implement together and assess together. In assessment and evaluation of Party and government leadership ranks and main leading cadres, we must not only look at the actual achievements and skills in leading material civilization construction, we must also look at actual achievements and skills in leading spiritual civilization construction. This must become an essential basis for appointment, reward and punishment of cadres.
All levels’ Party Committees must realistically strengthen leadership over propaganda, ideology and culture work departments and work units, when undertaking important task in spiritual civilization construction. Propaganda and public opinion battlegrounds must be closely grasped in the hands of the Party, we must select those comrades that are faithful to Marxism, persistedly march the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, that are dedicated to their work and have a sense of responsibility, obey political and legal discipline and are well acquainted with their work.
Ideological and political work is the fine tradition and political superiority of our Party, and is a basic work in spiritual civilization construction and a basic guarantee for doing the construction of both civilizations well, we can only strengthen this under new circumstances, and cannot weaken it. All levels’ Party Committees must put this work in an important position, regularly research the ideological and political situation in their regions, departments and work units, and use forceful political and ideological work to stimulate the completion of all tasks. Organs, enterprise and undertaking work units, rural, school and neighbourhood Party organizations must realistically perform ideological and political work, strive to implement the tasks of spiritual civilization construction down to the grass roots. We must implement the principle of democracy and the policy of the positive orientation, and according to different targets, adopt different methods and strengthen the effectiveness of political and ideological work.
Spiritual civilization construction penetrates into all aspects of economic and social life, the entire Party and entire society must give it high regard. Under the uniform leadership of Party committees, all Party and government departments and labour unions, the Communist Youth League, the Women’s Federation and other people’s organization must grasp management together, and joint forces. In spiritual civilization construction, we must give extremely high regard to the function of democratic parties. All departments formulating policies, must start from the overall picture of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and not only must benefit the development of the economy and all undertakings, but must also benefit Socialist spiritual civilization construction. At no time, we can get a period of economic development at the cost of sacrificing spiritual civilization construction.
(26) Persisting in linking theory with reality, practice being the sole criterion to examine truth, understanding and grasping the rules of Socialist spiritual civilization construction, summarizing new experiences, exploring new methods, working creatively, incessantly improving Party leadership over spiritual civilization construction. In a complex and changing international environment, and under the conditions of our country’s development of a Socialist market economy, leading cadres must make great efforts to strengthen study and raise their leadership level, especially their ideological and political theory level. We must clearly differentiate the boundaries between right and wrong, Marxism from anti-Marxism, dialectical materialism and historical materialism from idealism and metaphysics, the Socialist public ownership at the core and jointly developing with many sorts of elements from privatization, Socialist democracy from Western parliamentary democracy, Socialist ideology and culture from feudalism, capitalist degenerate ideology and culture and other major questions persist in the correct political orientation and political viewpoint, timely eliminate disturbance by all sorts of wrong ideological tendencies, and guarantee the healthy development of spiritual civilization construction.
(27) According to the requirements of strong politics, perfect work and a correct work style, brining up a line of high-quality propaganda, ideology and culture education teams is an urgent task in constructing the Socialist spiritual civilization. In all areas of spiritual civilization construction, we must strive to foster a large batch of specialist talents that ardently love the motherland, ardently love the people, and have genuine abilities. Supporting excellent talents to climb to new peaks. Selecting and fostering up and coming talents that have development prospects, providing work, giving them responsibilities, strict requirements, vigorous guidance, helping them to grow up healthily. All localities and all departments must adapt to the development requirements of the future 15 years, formulate plans, and strengthen the construction of reserve teams. Comrades engaged in grass-roots work unit propaganda, ideology and culture education work, bear the task of implementing spiritual civilization construction to thousands of households, we must be more concerned with them and support them more.
Establishing and completing regulatory systems, strengthening team education and management. Strictly prohibiting paid-for news, selling of book numbers and unreasonable demands of high remuneration. Those violating professional moral must be criticized and educated, and those who are impenitent must be strictly dealt with.
(28) To strengthen spiritual civilization construction, first and foremost, the Party must be strictly governed, and the Party style done well. The Chinese Communist Party is the vanguard of the Chinese working class. Communist Party Members must give rein to a model function to the whole society, leading Party cadres must give rein to a model function in the entire Party. We must strengthen strict requirements, strict management and strict supervision over Party members and especially leading cadres. Leading cadres must be dignified, self-examining, self-policing and self-encouraging, set an example, and act as they speak. When requiring others to do matters, they are to achieve them first, may certainly not do what they prohibit others to do, consciously accept supervision from the Party and the people, accept tests of their experience, finances and beauty. According to the deployment of the Centre, they must unwaveringly persist in strengthening Party style and clean government construction, deeply and lastingly launch anti-corruption struggles. In all questions of violations of law or discipline, regardless of whom they involve, obstacles must be determinedly eliminated, and they must be earnestly investigated and prosecuted.
The Party style of the ruling party relates to the life and death of the Party. The more that all policies of economic reform and opening up to the outside world are implemented, the more Communist Party members and especially Party leading cadres must strengthen Communist beliefs, practice what they preach in Communist morals, dedicate themselves to the public and not their selfishness, be upright, just, honest and clean, submit to the larger picture, work diligently in spite of difficulties, and serve the people with their entire hearts and minds. At present, the entire Party is launching activities to study theory and study Party rules. During these activities, we must concentratedly conduct a one-time Party nature and Party style education with preaching study, preaching politics and preaching the correct atmosphere as main content to leading cadres of the country level and higher. Education must link ideological realities and work realities, focus on resolving prominent problems existing in ideal concepts and ideological work style aspects, further raise understanding, unify thoughts, strengthen a consciousness and firmness to implement the Party’s basic theory, basic line and basic principles, and prevent that some leading cadres and especially middle-age and young cadres lose their orientation in the struggle that becomes more complex every day.
(29) In order to strengthen coordination, the Centre establishes a spiritual civilization construction leading committee. All provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities may establish corresponding organs.
(30) The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the Chinese People’s Armed Police are important forces in our country’s spiritual civilization construction. We must carry forward the fine traditions and fine work style of our Army, further raise the ideological and political quality of the whole body of officers and men, and strive to let them march in the forefront of the entire society in spiritual civilization construction. Concerning work on this aspect, the Central Military Commission will make deployments on the basis of the spirit of this Resolution.
The great cause of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics is a new great revolution. In this revolution, the Chinese Communist Party members and the Chinese people have confidence and have the ability to transform their subjective world at the same time as striving to transform their objective world, and construct a high-level Socialist spiritual civilization at the same time as constructing a high-level material civilization. The Plenum calls for the comrades in the entire Party and the people of all ethnicities in the entire country to closely unite around the Party Centre with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core, raise high the great banner of constructing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, with ten thousand masses and one heart, pioneer and forge ahead, work solidly, and make great efforts to struggle and construct our country into a rich, strong, democratic and civilized Socialist modernization country!