Supreme People’s Court Interpretation of Some Questions Concerning the Concretely Applicable Law in Hearing Criminal Cases Involving Illegal Publications

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(Passed at the 1032nd meeting of the Supreme People’s Court Trial Committee, promulgated on 17 December 1998, implemented on 23 December 1998)

In order to punish illegal publications criminal activities, according to the relevant provisions of the Criminal Law, some questions concerning the concretely applicable law when hearing criminal cases involving illegal publications are interpreted as follows:

Article 1: Where, knowing that publications contain content inciting to break up the country, destroy the unity or the country or inciting subversion of the country’s regime or overthrow the socialist system, these works are published, printed, duplicated, distributed or broadcasted, it will be penalizes according to the provisions of Article 103, Paragraph 2 or Article 104, Paragraph 2, under the crome of inciting to break up the country or overthrowing the country’s regime.

Article 2: With the aim of profit, carrying out one of the copyright infringement activities listed in Article 217 of the Criminal Law, if the amount of unlawful gains of individuals is higher than 5.000 Yuan, or the amount of unlawful gains of work units is higher than 25.000 Yuan, falls under “a relatively large amount of illegal gains”; where it contains one of the following circumstances, it falls under “other serious circumstances”:

(1) where administrative or civil liability for copyright infringement has been found more than two times, and within two years one again carries out one of the copyright infringement activities listed in the provisions of Article 217 of the Criminal Law;

(2) where the amount of illegal business volume of individuals is higher than 20.000 Yuan, or the amount of illegal business volume of work units is higher than 100.000 Yuan;

(3) where other grave consequences are created.

With the aim of profit, carrying out one of the copyright infringement activities listed in the provisions of Article 217 of the Criminal Law, if the amount of unlawful gains of individuals is higher than 20.000 Yuan, or the amount of unlawful gains of work units is higher than 100.000 Yuan, falls under “a huge amount of illegal gains”; if it contains one of the following circumstances, it falls under “other especially serious circumstances”:

(1) where the amount of illegal business volume of individuals is higher than 100.000 Yuan, or the amount of illegal business volume of work units is higher than 500.000 Yuan;

(2) where other especially grave consequences are created.

Article 3: “Duplication and distribution” as stipulated in the provisions of Article 217, Paragraph (1) of the Criminal Law, refers to where the actor with the aim of profit, without the permission of the copyright holder has engaged in activities of duplication, distribution or redistribution of already duplicated versions of his literary works, musical, cinematographic, television and videotape works, computer software and other works.

Article 4: With the aim of profit, engaging in one of the activities listed in the provisions of Article 218 of the Criminal Law, if the amount of unlawful gains of individuals is higher than 10.000 Yuan, or the amount of unlawful gains of work units is higher than 50.000 Yuan, will be punished under the criminal definition of selling infringing duplications, according to the provisions of Article 218 of the Criminal Law.

Article 5: Where one engages in one of the copyright infringement activities stipulated by the provisions of Article 217, and also sells those infringing copies, and the illegal gains are huge, only the crime of copyright infringement will be charged, no combined punishment for different offences will be implemented. Where one engages in one of the copyright infringement activities stipulated by the provisions of Article 217 of the Criminal Law, and also knowingly sells infringing copies of other persons, and it constitutes a crime, combined punishment for different offences will be implemented.

Article 6: Open humiliation of other persons or libel of others with fabricated facts in a publication, where the circumstances are serious, will be penalized under the charge of respectively humiliation or libel, according to the provisions of Article 246 of the Criminal Law.

Article 7: Publishing works in magazines and newspapers with content discriminating or humiliating ethnic minorities, where the circumstances are loathsome and cause grave consequences, will be penalized under the charge of publishing works discriminating or humiliating ethnic minorities, under the provisions of Article 250 of the Criminal Law.

Article 8: With the aim of personal gain, engaging in activities listed in the provisions of Article 363 Paragraph 1 of the Criminal Law, where it contains one of the following circumstances, will be penalized under the charge of making, duplicating, publishing, peddling, broadcasting obscene goods for personal gain:

(1) making, duplicating, publishing more than 50-100 obscene video discs, software, video tapes, more than 100-200 obscene audio discs, audio tapes, obscene playing card sets, more than 100-200 books and periodicals, picture albums, more than 500-1000 obscene photographs, pictures;

(2) peddling more than 100-200 obscene video discs, software, video tapes, more than 200-400 obscene audio discs, audio tapes, more than 200-400 playing card sets, books and periodicals, picture albums, more that 1000-2000 obscene photographs, pictures;

(3) broadcasting obscene materials towards more than 200-500 people, or organizing the broadcast of obscene films, more than 10-20 times;

(4) making, duplicating, publishing, peddling, broadcasting obscene products, obtaining profits of more than 5.000-10.000 Yuan.

With the aim of personal gain, engaging in activities listed in the provisions of Article 363, Paragraph 1 of the Criminal law, where it contains one of the following circumstances, shall be charged with the crime of making, duplicating, publishing, peddling, broadcasting obscene goods for personal gain “with grave circumstances”:

(1) making, duplicating, publishing more than 250-500 obscene video discs, software, video tapes, more than 500-1000 obscene audio discs, audio tapes, more than 500-1000 obscene playing card sets, books and periodicals, picture albums, more than 2500-5000 obscene photographs, pictures;

(2) Peddling more than 500-1000 obscene video discs, software, video tapes, more than 5000-10.000 photographs, pictures;

(3) broadcasting obscene materials towards others, reaching more than 1000-2000 people, or organizing the broadcast of obscene films, more than 50-100 times;

(4) making, duplicating, publishing, peddling, broadcasting obscene goods, obtaining profits of more than 30.000-50.000 Yuan.

With the aim of personal gain, engaging in one of the activities listed in the provisions of Article 363, Paragraph 1 of the Criminal law, where the amounts (values) reach more than five times the amounts (values) listed in the preceding Paragraph, shall be charged with the crime of making, duplicating, publishing, peddling, broadcasting obscene goods for personal gain “with especially grave circumstances”:

Article 9: Furnishing book numbers, periodical numbers to others, where obscene books are published, will be penalized under the charge of furnishing book numbers to others for publication of obscene books and periodicals, according to the provisions of Article 363, Paragraph 2 of the Criminal Law.

Furnishing publication numbers to others, were obscene audiovisual products are produced, will be charged and penalized according to the provisions of the preceding Paragraph.

Knowing other persons to furnish book numbers or periodical numbers used for publication of obscene books and periodicals , will be penalized under the charge of publishing obscene goods for personal gain, according to the provisions of Article 363, Paragraph 1 of the Criminal Law.

Article 10: Broadcasting obscene publications such as books and periodicals, films, audiovisual pictures, etc. towards others, reaching more than 300-600 people or creating loathsome societal influence, falls under “grave circumstances”, and will be penalized under the charge of broadcasting obscene materials, according to the provisions of Article 364, Paragraph 1 of the Criminal Law.

Organizing the broadcast of obscene audiovisual works such as films, video recordings etc., more than 15-30 times, or creating loathsome societal influence, will be penalized under the charge of organizing broadcast of obscene audiovisual works, according to the provisions of Article 364, Paragraph 2 of the Criminal Law

Article 11: In violation of national regulations, publishing, printing, duplicating, distributing illegal publications otherwise gravely harming social order and disrupting market order, other than those listed in Articles 1 through 10 of this Interpretation, where the circumstances are grave, will be penalized under the charge of illegal business conduct, according to the provisions of Article 225, Paragraph 3 of the Criminal Law.

Article 12: Where an individual engages in the activities listed in the provisions of Article 11 of this Interpretation, and where it contains one of the following circumstances, it falls under illegal business activities with “grave circumstances”:

(1) business volume of more than 50.000-100.000 Yuan;

(2) unlawful gains of more than 20.000-30.000 Yuan;

(3) dealing in more than 5.000 newspapers or 5.000 periodicals or 2.000 books or 500 audiovisual products or electronic publications.

Where it contains one of the following circumstances, it falls under illegal business activities with “especially grave circumstances”:

(1) business volume of more than 150.000-300.000 Yuan;

(2) unlawful gains of more than 50.000-100.000 Yuan;

(3) dealing in more than 15.000 newspapers or 15.000 periodicals or 5.000 books or 1.500 audiovisual products or electronic publications.

Article 13: Where a work unit engages in the activities listed in the provisions of Article 11 of this Interpretation, and where it contains one of the following circumstances, it falls under illegal business activities with “grave circumstances”:

(1) business volume of more than 150.000-300.000 Yuan;

(2) unlawful gains of more than 50.000-100.000 Yuan;

(3) dealing in more than 11.000 newspapers or 15.000 periodicals or 5.000 books or 1.500 audiovisual products or electronic publications.

Where it contains one of the following circumstances, it falls under illegal business activities with “especially grave circumstances”:

(1) business volume of more than 500.000-1.000.000 Yuan;

(2) unlawful gains of more than 150.000-300.000 Yuan;

(3) dealing in more than 50.000 newspapers or 50.000 periodicals or 10.000 books or 5.000 audiovisual products or electronic publications.

Article 14: Engaging in the activities listed in the provisions of Article 11 of this Interpretation, if business volume, illegal gains or business quantity is close to the minimum threshold values of “grave circumstances” and “especially grave circumstances”, and it contains one of the following circumstances, may be found to be illegal business activities with “grave circumstances” and “especially grave circumstances”

(1) where within two years, administrative punishment has been received more than two times for publishing, printing, duplicating, distributing illegal publications;

(2) where publication, printing, duplication, distribution of illegal publications has created loathsome societal influence or other grave consequences.

Article 15: Where illegally being engaged in the publishing, printing, duplication, distribution sectors of publications, gravely disrupting market order, with especially grave circumstances, constituting a crime, it may be penalized under the charge of illegal business, under the provisions of Article 225, Paragraph 3 of the Criminal Law.

Article 16: Where publications work units collude with other persons in advance, and sell, rent or transfer in another manner the name, book number, periodical number, publication number of that publication work unit, and others engage in the activities listed in the provisions of Articles 2, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 of this Interpretation, where it constitutes a crime, that publications work unit shall be punished as an accessory.

Article 17: “business volume” as named in this Interpretation, refers to the list price value of the illegal publications multiplied with the amount and gains of illegal publications handled by the actor.

“Unlawful income” as named in this Interpretation, refers to the amount of profit;

Where illegal publications do not have a list price or a price in foreign currency, its unit price shall be determined according to the actor’s actual sale price

Article 18: All provincial, autonomous region, municipal high-level People’s Court may fix the concrete standard applied in that locality on the basis of the that locality’s situation and public order state, within the scope of the standards of value and quantity of the provisions of Articles 8, 10, 11, 13 of this Interpretation, and report it to the Supreme People’s Court for filing.

最高人民法院关于审理非法出版物刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释

最高人民法院关于审理非法出版物刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释

《最高人民法院关于审理非法出版物刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》已于1998年12月11日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1032次会议通过,现予公布,自1998年12月23日起施行。

为依法惩治非法出版物犯罪活动,根据刑法的有关规定,现对审理非法出版物刑事案件具体应用法律的若干问题解释如下:

第一条 明知出版物中载有煽动分裂国家、破坏国家统一或者煽动颠覆国家政权、推翻社会主义制度的内容,而予以出版、印刷、复制、发行、传播的,依照刑法第一百零三条第二款或者第一百零五条第二款的规定,以煽动分裂国家罪或者煽动颠覆国家政权罪定罪处罚。

第二条 以营利为目的,实施刑法第二百一十七条所列侵犯著作权行为之一,个人违法所得数额在五万元以上,单位违法所得数额在二十万元以上的,属于”违法所得数额较大”;具有下列情形之一的,属于”有其他严重情节”:

(一) 因侵犯著作权曾经两次以上被追究行政责任或者民事责任,两年内又实施刑法第二百一十七条所列侵犯著作权行为之一的;

(二) 个人非法经营数额在二十万元以上,单位非法经营数额在一百万元以上的;

(三) 造成其他严重后果的。

以营利为目的,实施刑法第二百一十七条所列侵犯著作权行为之一,个人违法所得数额在二十万元以上,单位违法所得数额在一百万元以上的,属于”违法所得数额巨大”;具有下列情形之一的,属于”有其他特别严重情节”:

(一) 个人非法经营数额在一百万元以上,单位非法经营数额在五百万元以上的;

(二) 造成其他特别严重后果的。

第三条 刑法第二百一十七条第(一)项中规定的”复制发行”,是指行为人以营利为目的,未经著作权人许可而实施的复制、发行或者既复制又发行其文字作品、音乐、电影、电视、录像作品、计算机软件及其他作品的行为。

第四条 以营利为目的,实施刑法第二百一十八条规定的行为,个人违法所得数额在十万元以上,单位违法所得数额在五十万元以上的,依照刑法第二百一十八的规定,以销售侵权复制品罪定处罚。

第五条 实施刑法第二百一十七条规定的侵犯著作行为,又销售该侵权复制品,违法所得数额巨大的,只定侵犯著作权罪,不实行数罪并罚。实施刑法第二百一十七条规定的侵犯著作权的犯罪行为,又明知是他人的侵权复制品而予以销售,构成犯罪的,应当实行数罪并罚。

第六条 在出版物中公然侮辱他人或者捏造事实诽谤他人,情节严重的,依照刑法第二百四十六条的规定,分别以侮辱罪或者诽谤罪定罪处罚。

第七条 出版刊载歧视、侮辱少数民族内容的作品,情节恶劣,造成严重后果的,依照刑法第二百五十条的规定,以出版歧视、侮辱少数民族作品罪定罪处罚。

第八条 以牟利为目的,实施刑法第三百六十三条第一款规定的行为,具有下列情形之一的,以制作、复制、出版、贩卖、传播淫秽物品牟利罪定罪处罚:

(一) 制作、复制、出版淫秽影碟、软件、录像带五十至一百张(盒)以上,淫秽音碟、录音带一百至二百张(盒)以上,淫秽扑克、书刊、画册一百至二百副(册)以上,淫秽照片、画片五百至一千张以上的;

(二) 贩卖淫秽影碟、软件、录像带一百至二百张(盒)以上,淫秽音碟、录音带二百至四百张(盒)以上,淫秽扑克、书刊、画册二百至四百副(册)以上,淫照片、画片一千至二千张以上的;

(三) 向他人传播淫秽物品达二百至五百人次以上,或者组织播放淫秽影、像达十至二十场次以上的;

(四) 制作、复制、出版、贩卖、传播淫秽物品,获利五千至一万元以上的。

以牟利为目的,实施刑法第三百六十三条第一款规定的行为,具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为制作、复制、出版贩卖、传播淫秽物品牟利罪 “情节严重”:

(一) 制作、复制、出版淫秽影碟、软件、录像带二百五十至五百张(盒)以上,淫秽音碟、录音带五百至一千张(盒)以上,淫秽扑克、书刊、画册五百至一千副(册)以上,淫秽照片、画片二千五百至五千张以上的;

(二) 贩卖淫秽影碟、软件、录像带五百至一千张(盒)以上,淫秽照片、画片五千至一万张以上的;

(三) 向他人传播淫秽物品达一千至二千人次以上,或者组织播放淫秽影、像达五十至一百场次以上的;

(四) 制作、复制、出版、贩卖、传播淫秽物品,获利三万至五万元以上的。

以牟利为目的,实施刑法第三百六十三第一款规定的行为,其数量(数额)达到前款规定的数量(数额)五倍以上的,应当认定为制作、复制、出版、贩卖、传播淫物品牟利罪”情节特别严重”。

第九条 为他人提供书号、刊号,出版淫秽书刊的,依照刑法第三百六十三条第二款的规定,以为他人提供书号出版淫秽书刊罪定罪处罚。

为他人提供版号,出版淫秽音像制品的,依照前款规定定罪处罚。

明知他人用于出版淫秽书刊而提供书号、刊号的,依照刑法第三百六十三条第一款的规定,以出版淫秽物品牟利罪定罪处罚。

第十条 向他人传播淫秽的书刊、影片、音像图片等出版物达三百至六百人次以上或者造成恶劣社会影响的,属于”情节严重”,依照刑法第三百六十四条第一款的规定,以传播淫秽物品罪定罪处罚。

组织播放淫秽的电影、录像等音像制品达十五至三十场次以上或者造成恶劣社会影响的,依照刑法第三百六十四条第二款的规定,以组织播放淫秽音像制品罪定罪处罚。

第十一条 违反国家规定,出版、印刷、复制、发行本解释第一条至第十条规定以外的其他严重危害社会秩序和扰乱市场秩序的非法出版物,情节严重的,依照刑法第二百二十五条第(三)项的规定,以非法经营罪定罪处罚。

第十二条 个人实施本解释第十一条规定的行为,具有下列情形之一的,属于非法经营行为”情节严重”:

(一) 经营数额在五万元至十万元以上的;

(二) 违法所得数额在二万元至三万元以上的;

(三) 经营报纸五千份或者期刊五千本或者图书二千册或者音像制品、电子出版物五百张(盒)以上的。

具有下列情形之一的,属于非法经营行为”情节特别严重”:

(一) 经营数额在十五万元至三十万元以上的;

(二) 违法所得数额在五万元至十万元以上的;

(三) 经营报纸一万五千份或者期刊一万五千本或者图书五千册或者音像制品、电子出版物一千五百张(盒)以上的。

第十三条 单位实施本解释第十一条规定的行为,具有下列情形之一的,属于非法经营行为”情节严重”:

(一) 经营数额在十五万元至三十万元以上的;

(二) 违法所得数额在五万元至十万元以上的;

(三) 经营报纸一万一千份或者期刊一万五千本或者图书五千册或者音像制品、电子出版物一千五百张(盒)以上的。

具有下列情形之一的,属于非法经营行为”情节特别严重”:

(一) 经营数额在五十万元至一百万元以上的;

(二) 违法所得数额在十五万元至三十万元以上的;

(三) 经营报纸五万份或者期刊五万本或者图书一万五千册或者音像制品、电子出版物五千张(盒)以上的。

第十四条 实施本解释第十一条规定的行为,经营数额、违法所得数额或者经营数量接近非法经营行为”情节严重”、”情节特别严重”的数额、数量起点标准,并具有下列情形之一的,可以认定为非法经营行为”情节严重 “、”情节特别严重”:

(一) 两年内因出版、印刷、复制、发行非法出版物受过行政处罚两次以上的;

(二) 因出版、印刷、复制、发行非法出版物造成恶劣社会影响或者其他严重后果的。

第十五条 非法从事出版物的出版、印刷、复制、发行业务,严重扰乱市场秩序,情节特别严重,构成犯罪的,可以依照刑法第二百二十五条第(三)项的规定,以非法经营罪定罪处罚。

第十六条 出版单位与他人事前通谋,向其出售、出租或者以其他形式转让该出版单位的名称、书号、刊号、版号,他人实施本解释第二条、第四条、第八条、第九条、第十条、第十一条规定的行为,构成犯罪的,对该出版单位应当以共犯论处。

第十七条 本解释所称”经营数额”,是指以非法出版物的定价数额乘以行为人经营的非法出版物数量所得的数额。

本解释所称”违法所得数额”,是指获利数额。

非法出版物没有定价或者以境外货币定价的,其单价数额应当按照行为人实际出售的价格认定。

第十八条 各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院可以根据本地的情况和社会治安状况,在本解释第八条、第十条、第十一条、第十三条规定的有关数额、数量标准的幅度内,确定本地执行的具体标准,并报最高人民法院备案。

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