Some Opinions Concerning Further Deepening Film Sector Reform

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In order to deepen the implementation of the spirit of the 15th Party Congress, further make flourish and develop our country’s socialist film undertakings, satisfy the daily increasing spiritual and cultural needs of the people, strengthen film sector development vitality and vigour, some opinions on further deepening film sector reform are hereby put forward.

I, Film reform and development situation since the 14th Party Congress

(1) Since the 14th Party Congress, Chinese film, in order to adapt to socialist market economy system requirements, has conducted vigorous and beneficial reform. The distribution model of China Film Company having a monopoly for purchasing and marketing under a planned economy system has been broken, all movie-making work units have obtained self-distribution rights; the appearance of distribution and projection methods such as profit sharing, cinema chains, etc., has stimulated the formation of new profit distribution systems and competition systems; reform experiments such as film and television confluence, the single dragon of movie making, distribution and projection, etc., have promoted industrial structure adjustment and optimization; film-making limits have been further opened up, film distribution and projection work units and television work units have obtained exclusive film export rights; organization of film groups has explored the development path of intensification; a part of film enterprises have reformed their operational setup, deepened personnel allotment system reform; in the countryside, 16mm film trading market establishment and rural film distribution and projection self-help rights development, projection systems coexisting in many kinds of economic sector, have made the rural film market more dynamic every day. Reform has brought our country’s film sector vitality and vigour, film creation levels rise every day, and present a desirable development tendency.

(2) At the same time as fully affirming achievements, it is also necessary to look at the many problems still facing the film industry that urgently need resolution. Film enterprise distribution is scattered, structuring is not reasonable, mechanism operation is lifeless, market competition is lacking; excellent domestic films cannot yet satisfy market and audience requirements; film circulation channels are divided, distribution is divided, there are too many segments, the film market monopolization phase has not yet been fundamentally reformed, it is difficult to shape a market environment with fair competition; film market operation is not standardized, management is weak, film smuggling and piracy has not been curbed despite repeated efforts, the phenomena of tax evasion and false box-office reports, and debts are grave, film distribution funds are lacking, etc. The above problems have gravely restricted film undertaking development, and there must be purposeful enlargement of reform strength, stimulating the continued development of the film undertakings.

II, Reform guiding ideology, principles and objectives

(3) The guiding ideology of deepening film sector reform is: persisting in taking Deng Xiaoping theory as guidance, persisting in the basic Party line policies and principles, abiding inherent film development laws, and also vigorously adapting to the requirements of the socialist market economy and accession to the WTO, earnestly learning from successful experiences in the economic reform area, having the courage to explore, boldly practicing, facing the market, serving the masses, even better giving free reign to the function of excellent products in inspiring people.

(4) The guiding principles of reform are: persisting in the direction of the “Two Serves and policy of the “Two Hundreds”, carrying forward the main melody, advocating diversification, firmly grasp the correct orientation, correctly handle the relationship between social effect and economic effect, guaranteeing that social effect is placed first. Persisting in the control of Party and government, correctly dealing with the relationship between state-owned capital and other social capital, and foreign capital, guaranteeing the dominant role of State-owned economic components. Persisting in giving our country the first place, all for our country, correctly handling the relationship between vigorous import and developing our country’s film, guaranteeing that the socialist nature of our film sector does not change. Persisting in the mutual adaptation of reform strength with the level of completion  of macro management, correctly dealing with the relationship between vigorous initiative and cautious reliability, guaranteeing that reform is conducted in a healthy and orderly manner.

(5) The objectives of reform are: through deepening reform, establishing management systems and operating systems having abundant vitality and mustering zeal from all aspects, issuing more outstanding personnel; establishing a completed film market system, shaping a nationwide unified and open, competitive and orderly film market distribution; shaping a batch of large-scale film groups and modern film enterprises having film and television sector as the beginning, and having competitive power, promoting the development and expansion of our country’s film sector.

III, Main reform steps

(6) Standardizing organization of enterprise groups. It is necessary to take strong film enterprises as the beginning, and through reorganization, optimize resource allocation, transform operational systems, raise film and television production and operation capacity, realizing enterprise economies of scale; it is necessary to further deepen film and television confluence reform, accelerate establishment of film and television recording unification, “one-dragon” film-making, distribution and projection film enterprise groups, shaping principal film industry forces; it is necessary to progressively rationalize internal group property relations on the basis of general enterprise asset checks and demarcation of property, taking capital as the main associating bond, diligently construct mother and son company systems conform to modern enterprise system requirements; it is necessary to complete legal person administration structures, establish management systems guaranteeing Party leadership over film groups. Within the groups, wholly State-owned and State-controlled enterprises’ party committee responsible persons may enter into the board of directors, board of supervisors through the legal procedures, the Party Committee secretary and statutory representative posts may be assumed by one person; leadership ranks’ main responsible persons shall be agreed to by the higher-level controlling entity (work unit) after examination, and appointed and dismissed according to corresponding management powers.

(7) Trying share-holding systems, adjusting property structures. Film-making work unit share-holding system transformation, must be controlled by radio, film and television system State capital, and may attract State-owned capital investment from other systems; single-department film-making may attract non-State capital and foreign capital; distribution work units’ share holding transformation, must be controlled by State-owned capital, and may attract domestic non-State capital investment (except China Film Group Company); projection work units share holding transformation may attract non-State capital and foreign capital investment, but must be controlled by domestic capital, and report to relevant authorities for examination and approval according to procedures.

(8) Vigorously promoting cinema chain systems, stimulating interregional operation. Lowering distribution division, increasing distribution channels. It is necessary to fully use existing distribution and projection resources, establish regional cinema chains and interprovincial cinema chains, encourage film distribution and projection companies meeting conditions to conduct cinema chain transformation, progressively establish film supply systems with the cinema chain in the first position, through competitive and vital film market, stimulate film income to be reasonably allocated between the three segments of production, distribution and projection.

(9) Stimulating operational means diversification, diligently raising the two effects. Encouraging film enterprises in giving film the first place, excavating internal resources, efficiently using available assets, shaping many sorts of operational structures; supporting film-making enterprises to cooperatively run programmes and columns with provincial or provincial capital or higher television stations; on the basis of the existing 35mm film revenue-sharing distribution, and lump sum distribution right methods, add 35mm single film copy sale methods as supplement; encouraging film enterprises meeting conditions to establish national 35mm film tape trading centres under competition, stimulating 35mm film tape trading market to further improve; encouraging conducting domestic film propagation, promotion and trade on the Internet.

(10) Deepening film enterprise internal management mechanism reform, establishing and completing competition systems, incentive mechanisms, control mechanisms. Carrying out personal responsibility systems, labour contract systems and cadre appointment systems, trying out entrusted film producer systems, entrusted agent systems and filming pay contract systems, promoting main creating personnel rewards and economic film effect-related distribution methods., mustering film sector personnel vitality, raising film enterprises’ economic effect.

(11) Adjusting film supply policies, encouraging distribution of domestic films. According to the provision that projection of domestic films by projection work units’ may not be less than two thirds of the total projection time, strengthening yearly domestic film projection assessments, and adjusting imported film supply policies according to the assessment circumstances, in order to encourage film work units to project more domestic films; properly adjusting projection schedules, during important political activities and important holiday periods, in the entire country centralizing and propagating distribution and projection of excellent domestic films.

(12) Depending on technological progress, accelerating the pace of technological transformation. Vigorously importing, developing, applying and spreading high technology, raising technological innovation capacity; diligently promoting digital technology application in film production, strengthening domestic film audiovisual experience and enjoyment, raising domestic film technology content and international competitiveness; accelerating urban cinemas to transform and renovate, improving viewing conditions, raising service quality, accelerating implementation of urban cinema computerized ticketing and computerized networking, raising cinema and distribution and projection sector modernized management levels.

(13) Further opening the rural film market, driving the implementation of the “2131” objectives (referring to the basic implementation of the goal that the peasantry can see one film in one village in one month at the beginning of the 21st century). Continuously implementing subsidy policies, encouraging filming and projecting more good films for the peasantry; encouraging filming even more educational films having applied and popularizing value; county-level film companies must direct all strength to the countryside, serve the peasantry, accelerate conduct of operational system reform, truly become a legal person entity having market competitiveness; supporting rural film distribution and projection achieving many kinds of economic components to coexist as well as operational form diversity, powerfully supporting rural individual film projection teams; further developing and completing 16mm film trading centres, dredging 16mm film copy circulation channels.

(14) Expanding foreign opening and cooperation, vigorously, reasonably and efficiently using foreign capital. Film making work units must fully utilize export rights, further expand film product export. It is necessary to earnestly summarize and complete foreign film import and distribution rules, persist in importing with exporting. It is permitted to import foreign capital to reform film base facilities and technological equipment, it is permitted to reconstruct cinemas with Sino-foreign joint venture and cooperation methods, managerial authority must be controlled by the Chinese side.

IV, strengthening organizational leadership over deepening reform

(15) deepening film reform must strengthen Party leadership, all levels’ Party committees and governments must give regard to film reform and development, include it in their agenda, earnestly investigate, strengthen guidance, complete the whole set, vigorously and reliably promote reform. It is necessary that necessary support is given through policy and finance. All levels’ administrative film controlling entities must go down to the basic units, put forward plans, work soundly, implement all reform duties to reality. It is necessary to stricten the examination and approval system, movie-making work units that try out share-holding system transformation, establish film groups and establish interprovincial projection chains, must report to the SARFT for examination and approval.

(16) According to State laws and regulations, strengthening film management. All administrative film controlling entities must progressively implement the transformation from organizing films to managing films diligently raise administration level according to the law. It is necessary to enlarge management strength over the film market, strengthen macroeconomic regulation over the film market, strictly implement yearly examination over film operation work units, strictly attack unlawful business activities such as film smuggling and piracy, tax evasion, underreporting, create a desirable environment for film development and creation.

SARFT
Ministry of Culture

关于进一步深化电影业改革的若干意见

为深入贯彻落实党的十五大精神,进一步繁荣发展我国社会主义电影事业,满足人民群众日益增长的精神文化需求,增强电影业发展的生机与活力,特提出进一步深化电影业改革的若干意见。
一、十四大以来电影改革进展情况
(1)党的十四大以来,中国电影为适应社会主义市场经济体制的要求,进行了积极而有益的改革。计划经济体制下中影公司统购统销的发行模式被打破,各制片单位获得了自主发行权;符合国情的分帐制、院线制等发行放映方式的出现,促进了新的利益分配机制和竞争机制的形成;影视合流、制片发行放映一条龙等改革试点,推进了产业结构的调整与优化;制片权限进一步放开,电影发行、放映单位和电视单位获得了影片独立出口权;组建电影集团,探索了集约化发展道路;部分电影企业转变经营机制,深化了人事分配制度改革;农村16毫米影片交易市场的建立和农村电影发行、放映自主权的放开,多种经济成分并存的放映体制,使得农村电影市场日趋活跃。改革给我国电影业带来了生机和活力,电影创作水平日益提高,呈现出良好的发展势头。
(2)在充分肯定成绩的同时,也要看到电影业仍然面临许多亟待解决的问题。电影企业布局分散、结构不合理、机制运转不活,缺乏市场竞争力;优秀国产影片还不能满足市场和观众需求;电影流通渠道单一,发行层次、环节过多,电影市场垄断的局面尚未根本改革,难以形成公平竞争的市场环境;电影市场经营不规范,管理薄弱,电影走私盗版屡禁不止,偷漏瞒报票房和拖欠款现象严重;电影发展资金缺乏等。上述问题严重制约了电影事业的发展,必须有针对性地加大改革力度,促进电影事业持续发展。
二、改革的指导思想、原则及目标
(3)深化电影业改革的指导思想是:坚持以邓小平理论为指导,坚持党的基本路线方针、政策,既遵循电影发展的自身规律,又积极适应社会主义市场经济和加入世贸组织的要求,认真借鉴经济领域改革的成功经验,勇于探索,大胆实践,面向市场,服务观众,更好地发挥以优秀作品鼓舞人的作用。
(4)改革的方针原则是:坚持“二为”方向和“双百”方针,弘扬主旋律,提倡多样化,牢牢把握正确导向,正确处理社会效益同经济效益的关系,确保社会效益放在首位。坚持党和政府的控制力,正确处理国有资金同其它社会资金、境外资金的关系,确保国有经济成份的主体地位。坚持以我为主、为我所用,正确处理积极引进同发展我国电影的关系,确保电影业的社会主义性质不变。坚持改革的力度与宏观管理的完善程度相适应,正确处理积极主动同慎重稳妥的关系,确保改革健康有序进行。
(5)改革的目标是:通过深化改革,建立起充满活力、调动各方面积极性的管理体制和运行机制,多出优秀作品,多出优秀人才;建立起完善的电影市场体系,形成全国统一开放、竞争有序的电影市场格局;形成一批以影视产业为龙头的、有竞争力的大型电影集团和现代电影企业,推动我国电影业的发展壮大。

三、改革的主要措施

(6)规范组建企业集团。要以实力强的电影企业为龙头,通过重组,优化资源配置,转换经营机制,提高影视制作和经营能力,实现企业的规模效益;要进一步深化影视合流改革,加快建立影视录盘一体化,制片发行放映一条龙的电影企业集团,形成电影行业的主力军;要在清产核资、界定产权的基础上,逐步理顺集团内部产权关系,以资本为主要联结纽带,努力构建符合现代企业制度要求的母子公司体制;要完善法人治理结构,建立确保党对电影集团领导的管理体制。集团中国有独资和国有控股公司的党委负责人可以通过法定程序进入董事会、监事会,党委书记和法定代表人可由一人担任;领导班子主要负责人由上级主管部门(单位)考核同意,按相关管理权限任免。

(7)试行股份制,调整产权结构。制片单位的股份制改造,须由广播影视系统国有资本控股,可以吸收系统外国有资本入股;单部影片制作,可吸收非国有资本和外资参股;发行单位的股份制改造,须由国有资本控股,可以吸收境内非国有资本参股(中影集团公司除外);放映单位的股份制改造,可以吸收非国有资本和境外资本参股,但须由境内资本控股,并按程序报有关部门审批。

(8)积极推行院线制,促进跨地区经营。减少发行层次,增加发行渠道。要充分利用现有的发行放映资源,建立区域性院线和跨省院线,鼓励有条件的电影发行放映公司进行院线制改造,逐步建立以院线为主的供片机制,通过竞争活跃电影市场,促进影片收入在制片、发行、放映三个环节上的合理分配。

(9)促进经营方式多样化,努力提高两个效益。鼓励电影企业以影为主,挖掘内部资源,盘活存量资产,形成多种经营格局;支持电影制片企业与省或省会城市以上电视台合办节目、栏目;在现已实行的35毫米影片分帐发行、卖断发行权方式的基础上,增加35毫米影片单拷贝销售方式作为补充;鼓励有条件的电影企业在竞争中组建全国35毫米影片交易中心,促进35毫米影片交易市场进一步完善;鼓励在互联网上进行国产影片的宣传、促销和交易。

(10)深化电影企业内部管理机制改革,建立健全竞争机制、激励机制、约束机制。推行岗位责任制、劳动合同制和干部聘任制,试行委托制片人制、委托经纪人制和摄制酬金签约合同制,推行主创人员酬金与电影经济效益挂钩的分配方式,调动电影从业人员的积极性,提高电影企业的经济效益。

(11)调整供片政策,鼓励发行国产影片。根据放映单位年放映国产电影片的时间不得低于年放映时间总和的三分之二的规定,加强年度国产影片放映情况的考核,并根据考核情况调整进口影片供片政策,以鼓励电影单位多发行放映国产影片;适当调整放映档期,在重大政治活动和重大节日期间,在全国集中宣传发行放映优秀国产影片。

(12)依靠科技进步,加快技术改造步伐。积极引进、开发、运用和推广高新技术,提高技术创新能力;努力推动数字技术在电影制片中的运用,增强国产影片视听感受和观赏性,提高国产影片科技含量和国际竞争能力;加快城市影院更新改造,改善观看条件,提高服务质量;加快实行城市影院电脑售票和电脑联网,提高电影院及发行放映行业的现代化管理水平。

(13)进一步放开农村电影市场,推进实施“2131”目标(即21世纪初基本实现农民群众一村一月看一场电影的放映目标)。继续实施补贴政策,鼓励为农村群众多拍多放好片;鼓励拍出更多的具有实用、推广价值的科教片;县级电影公司要全力面向农村,服务农民,加快进行经营机制改革,真正成为具有市场竞争力的法人实体;支持农村电影发行放映实现多种经济成分并存以及经营形式多样化,大力扶持农村个体放映队;进一步发展与完善16毫米影片交易中心,疏通16毫米拷贝流通渠道。

(14)扩大对外开放与合作,积极合理有效地利用外资。电影制片单位要充分利用出口权,进一步扩大电影产品的出口。要认真总结和完善国外影片的引进和发行办法,坚持以进带出。允许引进外资改造电影基础设施和技术设备,允许以中外合资、合作方式改建电影院,均须由中方控制经营权。

四、加强对深化改革的组织领导

(15)深化电影改革必须加强党的领导,各级党委和政府要重视电影的改革和发展,列入议事日程,认真调研,加强指导,完善配套,积极稳妥地推进改革。要从政策上、资金上给予必要的支持。各级电影行政主管部门要深入基层,提出方案,扎实工作,把改革的各项任务落到实处。要严格审批制度,制片单位试行股份制改造、组建电影集团和组建跨省发行放映院线,必须报国家广电总局审核批准。

(16)依据国家法律法规,强化电影管理。各级电影行政主管部门要逐步实现由办电影到管电影的转变,努力提高依法行政水平。要加大对电影市场的管理力度,加强对电影市场的宏观调控,严格执行对电影经营单位的年检制度,严厉打击电影走私盗版、偷漏瞒报等违法经营活动,为电影发展创造良好的环境。

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