Some Opinions Concerning Supporting and Stimulating Cultural Industry Development

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All provincial, autonomous region and municipal culture offices (bureaus), the Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps Culture Bureau, all plan-designated culture cities, all departments and bureaus of this Ministry, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage:

 

In order to deeply implement the spirit of the 16th Party Congress, and at the same time as forcefully making cultural undertakings flourish, vigorously develop cultural industries, hereby, integrating the culture work reality, the following opinions on supporting and stimulating cultural industry development are put forward.

 

I, Fully understanding the strategic significance of cultural industry development

(1) Cultural industry refers to business-type sectors engaging in cultural product production and providing cultural services. Cultural industry is a concept parallel to cultural undertaking, both are important component parts of socialist culture construction. Cultural industries are necessary outcomes of social productivity development, are burgeoning industries that started to develop following the progressive perfection of our country’s socialist market economy system and the incessantly progressing modern production methods. At present, the cultural industries have already formed into categories such as the performance sector, the television sector, the audiovisual sector, the cultural entertainment sector, the cultural tourism sector, the network culture sector the books and periodicals sector, the cultural heritage and artwork sector as well as the art training sector, etc. Socialist cultural industries are required to put social interest first, and strive to realize the economic value of cultural products and cultural services through the market.

 

(2) Developing the cultural industries is an important channel for making socialist culture flourish under market conditions and satisfying the popular masses’ spiritual culture needs; it is an important step in accelerating the development of the service sector, stimulating our country’s economic restructuring and industrial structure upgrading; it is a major step in adapting to economic globalization, vigorously participating in international competition, strengthening our country’s comprehensive national strength. It has enormous practical significance and a profound strategic significance for realizing our country’s economic, political and culture coordinated development and the magnificent objective of constructing a relatively well-off society.

 

(3) Following the development of domestic and foreign circumstances and the drive ahead in the progress of constructing a relatively well-off society, the new emerging development tendencies demanded of culture by our country and society are: people realizing  their own complete development consciousness further activates, even more paying attention to the richness of spiritual culture life, culture requirements incessantly grow; culture and market integration is even closer, diversified and multi-level culture requirement realization is even more geared towards the market; the popular masses’ requirements of cultural product and cultural services quality raises incessantly, culture consumption choice is more autonomous; cultural product production, transmission and consumption methods and means are made more scientific and modern; international culture exchange is even more frequent, cultural-area foreign opening-up incessantly expands; development of the cultural industries function in carrying forward and cultivating ethnic spirit and strengthening the cohesiveness, creativity and competitiveness of Chinese culture is ever more important. Our country’s cultural industries face a historical development opportunity and broad expansion space.

 

II, Our country’s cultural industry development status and its problems.

(4) Since reform and opening up, and especially in the last few years, all localities have conducted vigorous exploration and bold practice, accumulated precious experiences and have obtained remarkable achievements in the aspect of stimulating cultural industry development. Cultural work units’ industrial mentality has clearly strengthened, and a batch of culture enterprises and enterprise groups facing the marked and developing innovatively have emerged. Each cultural industry category has developed and flourished, leading to vigorous functions in stimulating cultural structural reform, liberating and developing art productivity, strengthening cultural work unit vitality, making cultural markets flourish and standardized, broadening attraction of social capital participation, enriching and enlivening the masses’ spiritual culture life, improving people’s life and consumption patterns, broadening internal demand, strengthening employment, opening up taxation sources and promoting development of third industries.

(5) Looking from the overall picture, our country’s cultural industries are still in the beginning stage of start-up, exploration, fostering and development, and the difference with development countries is very large. This concretely manifests as cultural industry development not being full, quantities and scales are on the small side, market mechanisms are not perfect, cultural industry development speed and efficiency still need a relatively large rise. The main problems influencing cultural industry development: firstly, the understanding of the importance and urgency of developing the cultural industries is insufficient, thoughts and concepts cannot adapt to the development requirements of socialist market economy structures. Secondly, Commercial culture industries are mixed up with public service-type culture undertakings, separated from the market, and lacking vitality. Thirdly, cultural industry policies are not perfect, the order of legislation is low. Fourthly, cultural structural reform is lagging, industry restructuring is feeble, socialization and marketization levels are low. Fifthly, entities are divided, the phenomena of administrative monopolies and local barriers are grave, and it is hard to shape uniform and open, competitive and ordered market setups. Sixthly, cultural product science and technology content is relatively low, innovative capacity is insufficient, competitive capacity is not strong.

 

(6) Facing the new tendencies of the mutual agitation of all the world’s thoughts and cultures, it is necessary to stand on the height of  carrying forward and fostering the ethnic spirit, reviving the Chinese ethnic culture, strengthen a sense of historic responsibility and urgency, and raise the level of cultural industry development consciousness. Both soberly understanding the situation and problems of our country’s cultural industries, and fully noticing our country’s relatively superior and beneficial conditions for cultural industry development. Both being good at studying successful experiences of reform in the economic area, and vigorously absorbing and leaning from beneficial foreign cultural industry development achievements. Facing the market, facing the masses, grasping opportunities, accelerating development, striving to make our country’s cultural industry appearance to change relatively largely in a short time.

 

III, Guiding opinions, development objectives and basic thinking

(7) The first twenty years of the new century are an important strategic opportunity period for our country, and are also and important strategic opportunity period for cultural industry development. For developing the cultural industries, it is necessary to, under the guidance of the important “Three Represents” thought and the spirit of the 16th Party Congress, closely integrated with the struggle objective of completely realizing a relatively well-off society and satisfying the popular masses’ spiritual culture requirements, closely integrating the requirements of implementing development of an advanced culture and promoting the construction of a socialist spiritual civilization, closely integrating  the incessant move forward in cultural system and mechanism innovation, closely integrating promoting national economy development and promoting economic restructuring and industrial structure upgrading. Liberating thoughts, learning truth from facts, moving forward with the times, expanding innovation, incessantly researching new circumstances, resolving new problems, striving to explore grasping the internal rules of cultural industry development, summarizing successful experiences of cultural industry development, starting from reality, marching a road of cultural industry development with Chinese characteristics.

 

(8) Our country’s cultural industry development objectives are: under national macro-economic control, fully giving rein to the basic function of market mechanisms in cultural resource allocation. All cultural industry categories to have reasonable structuring, advanced technology, shaping a batch of cultural enterprises with strong competitiveness and influential cultural brands, establishing modern cultural product production, service and sales networks with a certain scope, comprehensive cultural industry strength and competitiveness to clearly strengthen, occupying a certain proportion in the international market. Cultural industry growth speed to be clearly higher than the national economic growth speed, the proportion of cultural industry consumption in daily consumption to clearly increase. By 2010, shaping relatively complete policy and regulatory setups beneficial to cultural industry development, shaping relatively developed cultural product production systems as well as uniform and open, competitive and orderly culture market setup, making the cultural industries become a pillar industry and new growth point in the national economy.

 

(9) Stimulating cultural industry development, must conform to the characteristics and rules of socialist spiritual civilization construction as well as cultural development rules, must be adapted to the requirements of socialist market economy development, vigorously moving forward the integration of culture with market economy, high and new technology, persisting in grasping together market construction and economic development, taking cultural enterprises as the main subjects, taking reform as driver, taking scientific progress as methods, taking policies and regulations as guarantees, adjusting industrial deployment, optimizing industrial structures and resource allocation, shaping a cultural industry setup with many channels and diversified investment, taking State-owned enterprises as main subjects, jointly developing with many kinds of ownership systems.

 

IV, Main cultural industry development steps

(10) Promoting State-owned commercial culture work unit reform. Innovating structures and mechanisms, fostering market subjects. Conducting enterprise structure reform, implementing company system reform, perfecting legal person governance organs, establishing modern enterprise system with clear property rights, clear rights and duties, division of politics and enterprises, with scientific management. Deepening internal enterprise reform, establishing scientific and high-efficiency policy-making management mechanisms. Accelerating personnel and labour system reforms, moving forward allocation mechanism reform, persisting in the principle of participating of production factors such as labour, capital, technology and management, etc., in allocation according to contributions, permitting culture and art talents and management talent with special abilities as well as the immaterial assets they have such as intellectual property rights, creative achievements and scientific research or technological achievements, etc. to participate in profit distribution. Implementing supervision and management over culture enterprise State-owned assets according to the law, efficiently using State-owned assets, guaranteeing and maintaining their added value.

 

Article 11: Progressively broadening market access policies. All cultural industry categories managed by administrative cultural entities must lower thresholds, and open up towards people-run capital. Vigorously absorbing foreign capital to participate in artwork business, audiovisual product retail, mass entertainment operation as well as culture facility construction, reform and operation. Exploring cultural theatres and groups, and performance intermediary organs cooperating with foreign capital, doing well pilot projects, obtaining experience. In all cultural spheres encouraging and permitting foreign capital entry, also encouraging and supporting domestic capital, and especially people-operated capital to enter in methods such as exclusive investment, joint venture, cooperation, joint operation, share-holding, franchising, etc., encouraging and permitting listed companies to enter in methods such as asset reorganization new issue of shares. Non-State owned economic investment culture industry programme and construction of cultural venues, in aspects such as market access, land use, credit, tax collection, financial listing, etc., enjoy equivalent treatment with State-owned economic investment.

 

(12) Vigorously integrating cultural resources. Fully giving rein to the basic function of the market under State macroeconomic control in resource allocation, smashing regional, departmental, sector and ownership barriers, conducting integration of cultural resources again, raising intensification of operational levels and industrial concentration. Supporting cultural industries to invest and do business across regions and across sectors, incessantly expand business scope, adjust industrial structures and expand development space. Encourage and rely on powerful enterprises, with the market as guidance, with capital and business as nodes, utilizing joint, reorganization, merger, going to the market and other methods, to integrate superior resources, focusing on developing a batch of large-scale cultural industry groups having indigenous intellectual property rights and cultural innovation capacity, prominent core business, and strong core competitiveness. Establishing asset and business responsibility systems, those meeting conditions may implement asset authorization business. Supporting the forging of a batch of State-owned cultural holding companies and State-owned asset management companies. At the same time encouraging and supporting the development of cultural enterprises, spurring them to give rein to their vigorous function in adjusting industrial structures, expanding internal demand, strengthening employment and other aspects.

 

(13) Using high and new technology to raise cultural industry competitiveness. Moving the integration of high and new technology achievements with the cultural industries forward, raising the science and technology content of cultural product production and cultural service methods. Using high and new technology and applied technology to transform traditional cultural industries, cultivate and exploit burgeoning cultural industries. Forcefully developing burgeoning cultural industries closely integrated with high and new technology such as he audiovisual sector, the network culture sector, etc., guiding domestic software developers, network operators, content providers and all sorts of other enterprises to launch high and new technology cultural products having advanced global technology levels, indigenous intellectual property rights and ethnic characteristics, as soon as possible reduce the deficit with the outside world.

 

(14) Implementing the “marching out” development strategy. Vigorously striving for support from relevant departments to grant preferences to export of cultural products and cultural services, creating the necessary conditions in aspects such as finance, insurance, foreign exchange, taxation, talents, law, information services, immigration and emigration management, etc., for cultural enterprises’ expansion into international market, expansion of market share and raising of international competitiveness. Adopting measures to foster and support large-scale State-owned cultural enterprises having a relatively strong innovation capacity and competitiveness, making a batch of large and strong foreign-oriented exchange brands, introducing our country’s excellent performing arts troupes and art exhibitions of a certain status, and especially modern cultural products reflecting contemporary Chinese styles to international markets. Expanding cooperation with famous foreign cultural groups with standardized management, advanced technology, that are friendly to us, throwing our country’s cultural products and cultural services into international markets as far as possible.

 

(15) Supporting the development of focus cultural industry programmes having a demonstration function and a guiding function. Striving for a certain amount of government investment, to act as cultural industry guidance funds, granting financial subsidies, credit discount and other support to focus cultural industry programme exploitation and operation, and especially content industry cultural product production. Broadening cultural industry funding channels, shaping multi-channel import mechanisms. Strengthening contacts and communications with financial organs, vigorously recommending cultural industry products with good development prospects and desirable effects, striving for credit support granted by banks.

 

(16) Accelerating the construction of socialized modern circulation organization. Doing market base establishment well, encouraging circulation enterprises to develop in a grouped, systematized, networked and branded direction. Utilizing modern market organization forms and chain operation, logistics and delivery, electronic commerce, cinema chains and other modern retail methods to reduce circulation segments, broaden circulation channels, effectively integrate markets, stimulate cultural product circulation and raise the effect of capital use and enterprise business quality.

 

(17) Grasping cultural industry talent training work well. Perfecting talent incentive mechanism, broadening talent selection channels, creating an environment for excellent talents to come to the fore. Forcefully fostering and attracting business management talents, cultural management talents and science and technology innovation talents, and all other sorts of talents urgently needed in the cultural sector, attracting and employing foreign high-level talents, implementing a talent strategy of attracting them well, retaining them and vividly using them. Encouraging and supporting State cultural industry innovation and development research bases as well as comprehensive universities meeting conditions to participate in cultural industry talent fostering and training work, saving human capital for sustainable cultural industry development.

 

(18) Creating a desirable cultural market environment. Striving to construct cultural markets and complete cultural market systems. Accelerating cultural product market and factor market construction, developing intermediary market organizations. Expanding internal cultural demand, guiding cultural consumption, fostering cultural consumption markets, advocating healthy and civilized cultural consumption methods. Expanding cultural market law enforcement strength, perfecting cultural market management mechanisms. Adapting to the development situation of burgeoning cultural industries, building cultural market management information network systems, adopting high technology methods to strengthen cultural market supervision and management. Granting vigorous support and providing good services to cultural enterprises doing business according to the law and with standardized management, those upsetting market order must be punished according to the law, shaping a market environment that is beneficial to fair enterprise competition.

 

(19) Realistically strengthening intellectual property rights protection. Cultural enterprises must strengthen an intellectual property rights protection consciousness and a legal system concept, vigorously formulate intellectual property rights strategies to participate in market competition, implement intellectual property protection in the entire process of research, creation, exploitation, production and retail. Before commercial cultural products and cultural services enter the market, patent applications, trademark registration and work or software registration must be timely conducted, in order to obtain legal protection and they must be used correctly and according to the law. Forcefully supporting cultural innovation, encouraging the broad cultural workers to create and use even more intellectual property rights. Substantially raising our country’s indigenous intellectual property rights quality and quantity, fostering and developing national cultural industries’ core competitiveness. Strictly investigating, prosecuting and punishing piracy, illegal publishing, illegal retail and all other sorts of activities infringing intellectual property rights, protecting the lawful rights and interests of intellectual property rights holders.

 

(20) Strengthening cultural industry theory and policy, law and regulation research. Focusing on researching strategic, perspicacious and overall questions relating to cultural industry development, grasping the general trends of cultural industry development, researching and formulating cultural development strategies in this region. Paying attention to research the common rules and different characteristics of our country’s cultural industries and foreign cultural industries, researching common rules and different characteristics in all categories. Incessantly formulating and perfecting original cultural industry policies, researching and formulating new cultural industry policies and at the same time, vigorously stimulating cultural industry law and regulation research and formulation.

 

V, Strengthening foreign-oriented cultural industry work leadership

(21) Liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts, progressing with the times, bringing ideologies in line with the spirit of the 16th Party Congress. Consciously liberating thoughts and understandings from the fetters of concepts, methods and systems no longer suited to the times, establishing new cultural development view conform to the characteristics and rules of the Socialist civilization construction, and adapted to the requirements of the Socialist market system. Persisting in taking development and flourishing at the centre, taking satisfying the people’s spiritual cultural requirements as goal, grasping public interest cultural enterprises with one hand, and grasping commercial cultural industries with one hand. Persisting in putting social interest first, striving for the integration of social interest with economic interest.

 

(22) Putting cultural industries in an important position, and listing them in the important matters agenda of the Ministry of Culture. Persisting in grasping with both hands and strengthening both hands, uniformly planning requirements, uniformly deploying implementation and uniformly supervising and inspecting cultural undertakings and cultural industries. Paying attention to draw experience from selected units to promote the larger picture, timely summarizing the model experiences of cultural industry development, fostering a batch of cultural industry development demonstration bases, in order to guide overall work. It is necessary to vigorously strive for the support from the leadership of Party Committees and relevant governments departments, bring cultural industries into overall planning for local national economic development and reform, determine middle and long term development objectives, and adopt realistic and feasible methods for implementation.

 

(23) Further transforming government functions, raising macro-level control capacity. Strengthening government regulation, government supervision, government service and social management and other administrative functions, realizing the transformation from planned economic management to market economy management, from “organizing culture” to “managing culture”, from managing government cultural work units to managing the overall cultural sector. According to government openness principles, rationalizing relationships with enterprises, establishing new types of enterprise relationships conform to modern administrative systems’ and modern market economy requirements. Transforming work styles, raising service levels. Perfecting administrative examination and approval procedures, reducing administrative examination and approval programmes. Establishing scientific cultural industry statistical target systems. Establishing and completing cultural industry sector associations, strengthening sector self-discipline.

 

(24) According to the spirit of the 16th Party Congress, on the basis of this Opinion and under the leadership of local Party Committees and governments, all levels’ cultural departments must fully consider the cultural differences and economic imbalances between the regions, start from reality, suit measures to local conditions in developing cultural industries. At the same time as stimulating the speedy growth of cultural industries in economically developed regions, vigorously promoting cultural industry development in Western regions, supporting them to transform their unique cultural resources into industrial superiority. It is necessary to implement the construction of all localities’ “large cultural provinces” “strong cultural provinces” “cultural cities”, etc., utilizing local cultural resources, developing superior cultural industries and characteristic cultural industries. Not aiming for formalism, and not aiming for “cutting things even with one stroke”, is not an excessive target requirement or not suited to reality, earnestly and satisfactorily implementing all concrete policy measures stimulating cultural industry development.

 

Ministry of Culture of the People’s Republic of China

4 September 2003

文化部关于支持和促进文化产业发展的若干意见

各省、自治区、直辖市文化厅(局)、新疆生产建设兵团文化局、各计划单列市文化局,本部各司局、国家文物局:
为深入贯彻落实党的十六大精神,在大力繁荣文化事业的同时,积极发展文化产业,现结合文化工作实际,就支持和促进文化产业发展提出以下意见。

一、充分认识发展文化产业的战略意义

(一)文化产业是指从事文化产品生产和提供文化服务的经营性行业。文化产业是与文化事业相对应的概念,两者都是社会主义文化建设的重要组成部分。文化产业是社会生产力发展的必然产物,是随着我国社会主义市场经济的逐步完善和现代生产方式的不断进步而发展起来的新兴产业。目前,文化产业已形成演出业、影视业、音像业、文化娱乐业、文化旅游业、网络文化业、图书报刊业、文物和艺术品业以及艺术培训业等行业门类。社会主义文化产业要求把社会效益放在首位,努力通过市场实现文化产品和文化服务的经济价值。
(二)发展文化产业是市场经济条件下繁荣社会主义文化、满足人民群众精神文化需求的重要途径;是加快服务业发展、促进我国经济结构调整和产业结构升级的重要步骤;是适应经济全球化、积极参与国际竞争、增强我国综合国力的重大举措。对实现我国经济、政治、文化协调发展和全面建设小康社会的宏伟目标有巨大的现实意义和深远的战略意义。
(三)随着国内外形势的发展和全面建设小康社会进程的推进,我国社会对文化的需求呈现新的发展趋势:人们实现自身全面发展的意识更加自觉,更多关注精神文化生活的丰富,文化需求不断增长;文化与市场的结合更加紧密,多样化、多层次文化需求的实现更加依赖于市场;人民群众对文化产品和文化服务质量的要求不断提高,文化消费选择更具自主性;文化产品的生产、传播、消费手段和方式更加科技化和现代化;国际文化交流更加频繁,文化领域对外开放不断扩大;发展文化产业对弘扬培育民族精神和增强中华文化凝聚力、创造力、竞争力的作用显得越来越重要。我国文化产业面临着历史性的发展机遇和广阔的拓展空间。

二、我国文化产业的发展现状及其问题

(四)改革开放以来,特别是近几年来,各地在促进文化产业发展方面,进行了积极探索和大胆实践,积累了宝贵经验,取得了明显成绩。文化单位的产业意识明显增强,涌现出一批面向市场、创新发展的文化企业和文化产业集团。各个文化产业门类蓬勃发展,对促进文化体制改革、解放和发展艺术生产力、增强文化单位活力,对繁荣和规范文化市场、广泛吸引社会资本参与,对丰富活跃群众精神文化生活、改善人们的生活消费结构,对扩大内需、增加就业、开辟税源、推动第三产业发展起到了积极作用。
(五)从整体上看,我国文化产业仍处于起步、探索、培育、发展的初级阶段,与发达国家相比差距很大。具体表现为文化产业发展很不充分,总量规模偏小,市场机制不完善,文化产业的发展速度和效益都需要有一个较大的提高。影响文化产业发展的主要问题:一是对发展文化产业的重要性、紧迫性认识不足,思想观念不能适应社会主义市场经济体制的发展要求。二是经营性文化产业混同于公益性文化事业,脱离市场,缺乏活力。三是文化产业政策不完善,立法层次低,统计指标体系不健全,专门人才缺乏。四是文化体制改革滞后,产业结构调整乏力,社会化、市场化程度低。五是部门分割、行业垄断和地区封锁现象严重,难以形成统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系。六是文化产品科技含量较低,创新能力不足,竞争能力不强。
(六)面对世界各种思想文化相互激荡的新形势,要站在弘扬和培育民族精神、复兴中华民族文化的高度,增强历史责任感和紧迫感,提高发展文化产业的自觉性。既清醒认识我国文化产业的现状及其问题,又充分看到我国发展文化产业的比较优势和有利条件。既善于学习经济领域改革的成功经验,又要积极吸收借鉴国外文化产业发展的有益成果。面向市场,面向群众,抢抓机遇,加快发展,争取短时间内,使我国文化产业面貌有较大的变化。

三、指导思想、发展目标和基本思路

(七)新世纪的前二十年是我国重要的战略机遇期,也是文化产业发展的重要战略机遇期。发展文化产业,要在“三个代表”重要思想和党的十六大精神指导下,与实现全面建设小康社会的奋斗目标、满足人民群众精神文化需求紧密结合,与贯彻发展先进文化要求、推动社会主义精神文明建设紧密结合,与不断推进文化体制和机制创新紧密结合,与推动国民经济发展、促进经济结构调整和产业结构升级紧密结合。解放思想,实事求是,与时俱进,开拓创新,不断研究新情况,解决新问题,努力探索把握文化产业发展的内在规律,总结推广文化产业发展的成功经验,从实际出发,走出一条中国特色的文化产业发展道路。
(八)我国文化产业的发展目标是:在国家宏观调控下,市场机制在文化资源配置上的基础性作用得到充分发挥。文化产业各个门类结构合理、技术先进,形成一批实力雄厚、竞争力强的文化企业和有影响的文化品牌,建立一定规模的现代化文化产品生产、服务和销售网络,文化产业整体实力和竞争力明显增强,在国际市场上占有一定份额。文化产业增长速度明显高于国民经济增长速度,文化消费在日常消费中所占的比例明显提高。到2010年,形成比较完备的有利于文化产业发展的政策法规体系,形成比较发达的文化产品生产体系以及统一开放、竞争有序的文化市场体系,使文化产业成为国民经济的支柱产业和新的增长点.
(九)促进文化产业发展,必须符合社会主义精神文明建设的特点和规律以及文化发展规律,必须适应社会主义市场经济发展的要求,积极推进文化与市场经济、高新技术的结合,坚持市场建设和产业发展一起抓。按照创新体制、转换机制、面向市场、增强活力的要求,以提高人民群众文化生活水平和增强我国文化产业整体实力为出发点,以文化企业为主体,以深化改革为动力,以科技进步为手段,以政策法规为保障,调整产业布局,优化产业结构和资源配置,形成多渠道多元化投资、国有文化企业为主体、多种所有制共同发展的文化产业格局。

四、发展文化产业的主要措施

(十)推动国有经营性文化单位改革。创新体制机制,培育市场主体。进行企业改制,实施公司制改造,完善法人治理结构,建立产权清晰、权责明确、政企分开、管理科学的现代企业制度。深化企业内部改革,建立科学高效的决策管理机制。加快人事、劳动制度改革,推进分配机制改革,坚持劳动、资本、技术和管理等生产要素按贡献参与分配的原则,允许有特殊才能的文艺人才和管理人才以其拥有的知识产权、创作成果和科研技术成果等无形资产参与收益分配。依法实施对文化企业国有资产的监管,盘活国有资产,确保保值增值。
(十一)逐步放宽市场准入政策。文化行政部门管理的各个文化产业门类,要降低门槛,向民营资本开放。积极吸引外资参与艺术品经营、音像制品分销、大众娱乐项目的经营以及文化设施的建设、改造和经营。探索与外资合作办文艺院团和演出中介机构,搞好试点,取得经验。凡鼓励和允许外资进入的文化领域,均鼓励和支持国内资本,特别是民营资本以独资、合资、合作、联营、参股、特许经营等方式进入,鼓励和允许上市公司以资产重组或增发新股方式进入。非国有经济投资的文化产业项目和建设的文化场馆,在市场准入、土地使用、信贷、税收、上市融资等方面,享受与国有经济投资的同等待遇。
(十二)积极整合文化资源。充分发挥在国家宏观调控下市场对文化资源配置的基础性作用,打破地区、部门、行业、所有制界限,对文化资源重新进行整合,提高集约化经营水平和产业集中度。支持文化企业跨地区、跨行业投资和经营,不断拓宽经营范围,调整经营结构,拓展发展空间。鼓励依托有实力的文化企业,以市场为导向,以资本和业务为纽带,运用联合、重组、兼并、上市等方式,整合优势资源,重点发展一批拥有自主知识产权和文化创新能力、主业突出、核心竞争力强的大型文化产业集团。建立资产经营责任制,具备条件的可实行资产授权经营。扶持打造一批国有文化控股公司和国有资产经营公司。同时鼓励支持中小文化企业的发展,促使其在调整产业结构、扩大内需、增加就业等方面发挥积极作用。
(十三)用高新技术提升文化产业竞争力。推进高新技术成果与文化产业的结合,提高文化产品生产和文化服务手段的科技含量。用高新技术和适用技术改造传统文化产业,培植开发新兴文化产业。大力发展音像业和网络文化业等与高新技术密切结合的新兴文化产业,引导国内软件开发商、网络运营商、内容供应商等各类企业开发具有世界先进技术水平、自主知识产权和民族特色的高科技文化产品,尽快缩小与国外的差距。
(十四)实施“走出去”的发展战略。积极争取有关部门支持,对出口的文化产品和文化服务给予优惠,在金融、保险、外汇、财税、人才、法律、信息服务、出入境管理等方面,为文化企业开拓国际市场,扩大市场份额、提高国际竞争力创造必要条件。采取措施,培养扶持有较强创新能力和竞争实力的大型国有文化企业,做大做强一批对外交流的文化品牌,将我国优秀的艺术院团和有品位的艺术展览,特别是反映当代中国风貌的现代文化产品推介到国际市场。扩大与管理规范、技术先进、对我友好的国外知名文化集团的合作,把我国的文化产品和文化服务尽可能多地打入国际市场。
(十五)扶持发展具有示范性、导向性的重点文化产业项目。争取一定数量的政府投资,作为文化产业引导资金,对重点文化产业项目的开发与运营,特别是内容产业文化产品的生产给予资金补助和信贷贴息等支持。拓宽文化产业融资渠道,形成多渠道投入机制。加强与金融机构的联系与沟通,积极推荐有发展前景、有良好效益的文化产业项目,争取银行给予信贷支持。
(十六)加快社会化的现代流通组织建设。搞好市场基础建设,鼓励流通企业向集团化、系统化、网络化、品牌化方向发展。运用现代市场组织形式和连锁经营、物流配送、电子商务和电影院线等现代营销方式,减少流通环节,拓宽流通渠道、有效整合市场,促进文化产品流通,提高资金使用效益和企业经营质量。
(十七)抓好文化产业人才培养工作。完善人才激励机制,拓宽人才选拔途径,创造优秀人才脱颖而出的环境。大力培养和引进经营管理人才、文化经纪人才和科技创新人才等文化产业急需的各类人才,吸引和聘用海外高级人才,实施引得进、留得住、用得活的人才战略。鼓励支持国家文化产业创新与发展研究基地以及有条件的综合性大学,参与文化产业人才的培养、培训工作,为文化产业可持续发展积蓄人力资本。
(十八)创造良好的文化市场环境。努力建设文化市场,健全文化市场体系。加快文化产品市场和生产要素市场建设,发展市场中介组织。扩大文化内需,引导文化消费,培育文化消费市场,提倡健康文明的文化消费方式。加大文化市场执法力度,完善文化市场管理机制。适应新兴文化产业的发展情况,构建文化市场管理的信息网络体系,采取高科技手段加强市场监管。对依法经营、管理规范的文化企业,给予积极支持并提供良好服务,对扰乱市场秩序的要依法处罚,形成有利于企业公平竞争的市场环境。
(十九)切实加强知识产权保护工作。文化企业要增强知识产权保护意识和法制观念,积极制定参与市场竞争的知识产权战略,实行研究、创作、开发、生产、销售全过程的知识产权保护。所经营的文化产品和文化服务进入市场前,要及时进行专利申请、商标注册、作品和软件登记,以取得法律保护并依法正确使用。大力支持文化创新,鼓励广大文化工作者创造和拥有更多的知识产权。大幅度提高我国自主知识产权的数量和质量,培育和发展国家文化产业核心竞争能力。严厉查处和制裁盗版盗印、非法出版、非法营销等各种侵犯知识产权的行为,保护知识产权权利人的合法利益。
(二十)加强文化产业理论和政策法规研究。重点研究事关文化产业发展的战略性、前瞻性和全局性问题,把握文化产业发展总体趋势,研究制定本地区文化产业发展战略。注意研究我国文化产业与国外文化产业的一般规律和不同特点,研究各个门类的一般规律和不同特点。不断修订和完善原有的文化产业政策,研究制定新的文化产业政策,同时,积极促进文化产业法律法规的研究和制定。

五、加强对文化产业工作的领导

(二十一)解放思想,实事求是,与时俱进,把思想统一到十六大精神上来。自觉把思想认识从不合时宜的观念、做法和体制的束缚中解放出来,树立符合社会主义精神文明建设的特点和规律,适应社会主义市场经济发展要求的新的文化发展观。坚持以发展繁荣为中心,以满足人民精神文化需求为目的,一手抓公益性文化事业、一手抓经营性文化产业。坚持把社会效益放在首位,力争社会效益与经济效益相统一。
(二十二)把文化产业摆在重要的位置,列入文化部门的重要议事日程。坚持两手抓两加强,对文化事业和文化产业的发展统一规划要求,统一部署实施,统一督促检查。注意抓点带面,及时总结发展文化产业的典型经验,培养一批文化产业发展示范基地,以指导面上工作的开展。要积极争取党委和政府的领导及有关部门的支持,把文化产业纳入当地国民经济发展与改革总体规划,确定中长期发展目标,采取切实可行的措施加以落实。
(二十三)进一步转变政府职能,提高宏观调控能力。强化政策调节、市场监管、公共服务和社会管理等行政职能,实现从计划经济管理向市场经济管理、从“办文化”向“管文化”、从管理政府文化单位向管理整个文化行业的转变。按照政企分开原则,理顺与企业的关系,建立符合现代行政制度和现代市场经济要求的新型政企关系。转变工作作风,提高服务水平。完善行政审批制度,压缩行政审批项目。建立科学的文化产业统计指标体系。建立健全文化产业行业协会,加强行业自律。
(二十四)按照党的十六大精神,根据本意见,在当地党委和政府的领导下,各级文化部门要充分考虑地区之间的文化差异和经济不平衡性,从实际出发,因地制宜发展文化产业。在促进经济发达地区文化产业高速增长的同时,积极推动西部地区文化产业发展,支持他们将独特的文化资源优势转化为产业优势。要结合各地“文化大省”“文化强省”“文化城市”等建设,利用当地文化资源,发展优势文化产业和特色文化产业。不搞形式主义,不搞“一刀切”,不提过高的不切合实际的指标要求,把促进文化产业发展的各项具体政策措施认真落到实处。
中华人民共和国文化部
2003年9月4日

 

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