Opinions Concerning Stimulating Radio and Television Industry Development

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In order to deeply implement the spirit of the 16th Party Congress, accelerate reform and development of the radio, film and television industry, according to the general requirements of the Centre concerning deepening culture structural reform, integrating the reality of radio, film and television work, the following opinions are hereby raised to stimulate radio, film and television industry development.

 

I, The present circumstances faced by radio, film and television industry development

In the 50 years since the founding of the New China, and especially since reform and opening up, our country’s radio, film and television have followed the rise of the national economic development, scientific progress and people’s living standards, have obtained remarkable achievements, have gained considerable development, and an industrial development base with corresponding scope and full of desirability has been shaped. At present, our country has more than 1900 radio and television stations, running in total more than 1800 radio programmes and more than 2200 television programmes; has close to 70 film production work units, producing more than 100 feature films per year; has close to 900 radio, film and television programme production operation organs, more than 300 television drama production organs, producing more than 10000 episodes of more than 1000 television dramas per year. A nationwide radio an television network with many technologies such as cable, wireless and satellite, many levels and composite coverage has been basically constructed, radio and television population comprehensive covering levels already respectively reach 93,34% and 94,61%, of which cable television networks already reach close to 4.000.000 kilometres, cable television users exceed 100.000.000; nationwide, there are more than 6000 cinemas, and 35 film screening chains within and across regions have been set up. From the point of view of radio, film and television programme production amounts, overall technology level and scope as well as the actually covered population, our country has already become a large radio, film and television country. At the same time, radio, film and television undertakings have accompanied development, vigorous exploration has also been conducted in radio, film and television industrial operations, achieving remarkable achievements. In 1982, the total nationwide radio, film and television system income was 983.000.000 Yuan, basically resorting under financial allocation, by 2002, the total nationwide radio, film and television system income reached 51.400.000.000 Yuan, of which advertising income exceeded 28.000.000.000 Yuan, and financial allocation 7.584.000.000, financial allocation only comprising 14,75% of the total. Radio and television has transformed from mainly relying on financial allocation into having operational income as the core and financial allocations as income, radio, film and television industry functions and desirable exploitation prospects are increasingly revealed.

 

It must be noted, that at present, although our countries radio, film and television industry development has desirable bases and conditions, prominent difficulties and problems still exist. These mainly manifest in: first, looking from the totality, our country’s radio, film and television industry still only is at the preliminary stage of starting and exploration, industrial development is quite incomplete, economic amount scales are relatively small, strength compared with developed countries is weak, competition is not strong, radio, film and television product imports largely exceed exports. Second, since a long time, our countries radio, film and television implemented a planned undertaking type as main structure, not differentiating between commercial industries and public interest-type undertakings, radio, film and television were set up according to administrative areas, with grave separation of departments and regions, which is quite unsuited to the development requirements of reform and opening up and the socialist market economy, does not conform with the characteristics and rules of the radio, film and television industry itself, gravely influences and restricts radio, film and television industry development. The problem of radio, film and television structures and mechanisms has become a main obstacle for radio, film and television industry development. Third, radio, film and television industry development is not balanced. Differences between the Eastern region, Central Region and Western Region, developed areas and undeveloped areas, cities and the countryside are very big. Eastern developed regions and urban industry development is relatively good, results are also relatively clear, Western undeveloped areas and the countryside are relatively lacking. Radio, film and television industry internal television and radio and film development are not balanced, radio, film and television and network development is also not balanced. Television is relatively strong, growth relatively quick, and it has become the beginning and pillar of the overall radio, film and television industry, radio and film are correspondingly weak, and not a few difficulties exist; network construction is relatively quick, but professional exploitation is insufficient, and new economic growth points for the overall economy have not been shaped, not a few network companies still face losses. Fourth, radio, film and television industrial policies, laws and regulations are not yet perfect. The presently existing policies, laws and regulations are only adapted to the requirements of a planned economic system, considering more how to handle undertakings, and considering industrial development relatively little, especially the question of industrial development under conditions of a socialist market economy.

 

At present, our country has entered in the new stage of completely constructing a relatively well-off society, accelerating reform and opening up, and socialist modernization construction. The new circumstances of this new phase have put forward new requirements for radio, film and television industry development. The radio, film and television industry is an important component part of the cultural industries. The 16th Party Congress clearly put forward the necessity to vigorously develop the cultural industries, and that strengthening development of the cultural industry is an important path for making socialist culture flourish under market economic conditions and satisfying the popular masses’ spiritual culture needs. The development of the socialist market economy and the deepening of economic structural reform, the adjustment of national economic systems, urgently require reform of the cultural industries, including the radio, film and television industry to adapt to them, developing the cultural industries has already become a major strategic task for national economic restructuring. The daily increasing spiritual culture needs of the popular masses in a relatively well-off society have also put forward even higher requirements of radio, film and television industry development. At the global level, the swift and violent development of high technology requires acceleration the pace of radio, film and television digitalization and networking, and speedy realization of a new round of industry optimization and upgrading. Especially given accession to the World Trade Organization and expansion of opening up to the outside, our country will participate in economic globalization, and participate in international competition in an even larger scope and to an even deeper level, at present, film and audiovisuals have opened up to the outside partly and in a limited way, large-scale foreign media groups already can enter in some of our areas under conditions. Foreign cultural products, cultural capital and cultural value systems gushing in, has brought severe challenges for our country’s radio, film and television industry development. We must deeply analyze and correctly grasp the new circumstances facing radio, film and television industry development, fully recognize the extreme importance, necessity and urgency of the developing the radio, film and television industry under new circumstances, liberate thoughts, reform and innovate, boldly forge ahead, closely grasp opportunities, vigorously meet the challenges, endeavour to dissolve unfavourable factors, realistically resolving all sorts of contradictions and problems, forcefully move even quicker and even better radio, film and television industry development forward, strive to strengthen and expand our country’s radio, film and television industry in a relatively short time.

 

II, Guiding ideology and basic thinking for developing the radio, film and television industry

A new century and a new phase, the general guiding ideology for radio, film and television industry development is: raising high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, deeply implementing the important “Three Represents” thought and the spirit of the 16th Party Congress, according to the requirements of socialist spiritual culture construction and socialist market economy development, according to the characteristics and rules of the radio, film and television industry, taking development as the core, taking structural reform as driver, taking restructuring as main line, taking scientific and economic innovation as support, taking management according to the law as guarantee, taking strengthening vitality, expanding strength and raising competition, making advanced socialist culture flourish and develop, satisfying the popular masses’ daily increasing spiritual cultural life needs as goals, comprehensively planning and coordinating the Centre and the localities, the Eastern region and the Western region, cities and the countryside, domestic and foreign, radio, film, television and the network, completely moving radio, film and television industry development forward, progressively shaping an industrial setup with corresponding complete structures, increasingly reasonable structural distribution, advanced comprehensive technological level, clear market leading functions, with State-owned at the core, jointly developing with many kinds of economic sectors, striving to realize complete radio, film and television industry coordination, and continuous healthy development, making the radio, film and television industry into an economic growth point for the national economy under new circumstances, and into an important production base for our country’s spiritual culture products.

 

Basic principles of radio, film and television industry development:

First, it is necessary to persist in the correct orientation. Radio, film and television products have ideological properties, and most completely persist in the orientation of serving the people and serving socialism, persist in the policy of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend, carrying forward the main melody, advocating diversification, energetically developing advanced culture, supporting healthy and beneficial culture, striving to transform backward culture, persisting in resisting degenerate culture. Regardless of whether it concerns radio, film and television product production enterprises or service enterprises, they must all persist in placing social interest first, and strive to realize the unification of social interest and economic interest.

 

Second, it is necessary to persist in facing the market. Facing the market means that it is necessary to, simultaneously with strengthening macroeconomic management, fully give rein to the basic function of market mechanisms in industrial resource allocation, through market means optimizing resource allocation, adjusting structural deployment, regulating profit distribution, stimulating the development of virtuous cycles in the industry. Facing the market is facing the popular masses, and everything must take being accepted or not accepted by, and satisfying or not accepting the popular masses, namely the consumers, completely make the requirement of satisfying consumers, providing high quality products and services to consumers into starting points and stopover points.

 

Third, it is necessary to persist in reform and innovation. The radio, film and television industry must accelerate development, must liberate thoughts, renew ideas, further deepen structural and mechanism reform and innovation. It is necessary to persist in determinedly breaking all thoughts and ideas obstructing development, persisting in transforming all methods and regulations fettering development, persisting in abolishing all systems and malpractices influencing development. It is necessary to persist in making reform and innovation into the basic driver and only channel for industry development, reforming and innovating on the basis of development, and seeking development with reform and innovation.

 

Fourth, it is necessary to persist in State ownership at the core, developing jointly with many kinds of economic sectors. Persisting in State ownership at the core, fully giving reign to the beginning, demonstration and leading functions of the State-owned economy in the market, benefiting persisting in and consolidating the Party’s leading position in the ideological sphere, guaranteeing that the radio, film and television industry completely persists in the progressing direction of advanced socialist culture, spurring and stimulating the complete radio, film and television industry’s healthy development. Persisting in developing jointly with many kinds of economic sectors, benefiting fully attracting and utilizing social resources to develop the radio, film and television industry, shaping a market environment with many subjects and healthy competition that is open and orderly, promoting market flourishing and industrial expansion. It is necessary to vigorously move the radio, film and television industry-area public ownership system’s many kinds of effective realizations and forms forward, forcefully develop and vigorously guide radio, film and television industry-area non-public ownership system economy, all laws and regulations must allow non-public capital to enter or participate in areas not prohibited by laws and regulations.

 

Basic thinking and focal points for radio, film and television industry development

 

First, it is necessary to strengthen and optimize the industry. Radio, film and television are comprehensive industries mainly providing content products and services. Television is its beginning and mainstay. At present, the superiority and potential of television has not been given full rein by far, it must be further strengthened. Firstly, it is necessary to continuously maintain the present continuous growth of television industry operations, especially the advertising sector. Secondly, it is necessary to as soon as possible realize the transformation of television industry operations, change the past business model of and profit method of purely relying on advertising, vigorously developing paid television, making it become another important income source for television industry operation. Thirdly, it is necessary to vigorously expand television programme operations and resource development. It is necessary to face the masses, face the market, face foreign expansion of television drama and television programme sales, expand programme sales income. It is necessary to adapt to the tendency of comprehensive multimedia development, aim at the characteristics of radio, film and television, conduct multiple developments and multiple utilizations of many kinds of media such as television, radio, film, audiovisuals, newspapers, periodicals, publications, etc. with television as the beginning of operational resources.

 

Second, it is necessary to promote weak industries. This mainly refers to radio, film, cartoons, etc., they once obtained brilliant achievements, now they are overall in a correspondingly weak position, and must be forcefully promoted. Radio must according to its own characteristics and development tendency, according to industry rules, realistically expand industrial operation and especially advertising operation strength, vigorously develop the radio-related product market, further strengthen industry vitality, expand, industry operation income, as soon as possible raise the overall industrial model and effectiveness. Film must accelerate industrialization and transformation steps, taking strengthening film creation as basis and core, develop film products through many channels, many levels and many varieties, completely enliven the market, shape comprehensive effectiveness, change the past ling-time situation of purely relying on cinema box office income, genuinely establish relatively complete industry chains conform to the present film industry development rules. It is necessary to utilize capital operation rules to attract capital from all aspects to establish film companies with share-holding systems and film companies going on the market, producing “Grand Domestic Films”, and with this spurring and stimulating domestic film flourishing. It is necessary to maintain and develop domestic films’ guiding position in the domestic film consumption market and at the same time vigorously expand international markets, incessantly expand the portion of the international market, strive to obtain desirable economic benefits. It is necessary to accelerate moving forward of domestic cartoon sector promotion, renew creation concepts, fully draw in market mechanisms, strengthen market operation, establish perfect industry structures and setups, expand cartoon production scale, shape industry brands, progressively change the “Foreign Strong, We Weak” situation of the domestic cartoon market, and at the same time as capturing the domestic market, vigorously infiltrate international markets and participate in international competition.

 

Third, it is necessary to develop burgeoning industries. The rapid development of digital technology and network technology has made radio, film and television networks become an extremely important burgeoning industry providing content services. Radio, film and television networks must, under the presupposition of guaranteeing transmission of basic radio, film and television public programmes, forcefully develop new network operations and markets, and provide new services. It is necessary to forcefully develop digital television, popularize digital set-top boxes, vigorously provide paid television, on-demand channels, data broadcast, Internet access, network gaming, electronic government affairs, electronic commerce, distance medicine, distance learning as well as other network services on-line, promote the rapid expansion and extension of the network industry, making the network industry develop as soon as possible and become a new economic growth point for radio, film and television.

 

Fourth, it is necessary to transform traditional industries. Following technological progress and market changes, a number of past radio, film and television operations and industries are no longer adapted to development, and adjustment and transformation must be conducted. The present market demand for news-recording film production is largely less than before, and needs to be transformed and changed, at the same time as maintaining a number of necessary services, production and operation of relevant film and television programmes may be developed, and especially forceful development of television documentaries is permitted. With film production technology development and especially the arrival digital film, film tape demand becomes less and less, and may even withdraw for the market, the film printing sector faces the task of transformation, and must vigorously prepare. Radio, film and television-type periodicals and books have since a long time been established as undertakings, particularly stressing their propaganda function, which is no longer adapted to industrialization and development. It is necessary to transform systems, face the masses and face the market, vigorously develop industrial functioning, shaping new publishing industries.

 

Fifth, it is necessary to pay high attention to high and new industries. It is necessary to vigorously follow the most recent development tendencies of radio, film and television science and technologies, and markets, forcefully develop high and new technologies having importance in future radio, film and television industry development. Radio, film and television direct satellite broadcast is the development tendency of satellite radio, film and television, and has already seen widespread application abroad, our country has also already conducted successful experiments, and it is another service industry having desirable development prospects after cable television networks. Apart from this, there are also mobile telephone radio, mobile telephone television, HD television, etc. These new media, new industries and new operations, although perhaps not having clear economic benefits in the short term, must certainly be given high regard, grasping the initiative, racing to control the decisive occasion, as early as possible foster, explore and occupy the market.

 

III, Corresponding steps for developing the radio, film and television industry

1, Deepening structural and mechanism reform, fostering and developing market subjects

First, differentiating public service radio, film and television undertakings and commercial industries, facing the market, according to the requirements of the modern property rights system and modern enterprise system, deepening commercial industrial structural and mechanism reform. Radio and television must separate permitted commercial assets, resources and operations from the present undertaking system, facing the market in conducting enterprise transformation and grouping, to be managed and operated separately from the undertaking parts. Concretely, it is permitted to progressively separate radio stations, television stations, radio and television groups (comprehensive stations) social service and mass entertainment programmes with the exception of news and propaganda, and especially the production and operation of television dramas, according to the direction of industrial development and the requirements of the modern property rights system and modern enterprise system, grouping companies, implementing the separation of property rights and operating rights, operating by oneself, assuming sole responsibility for profits and losses, paying taxed according to the law. Channels and frequencies with relatively good industrial operation prospects and having conditions for commercialized operation such as sports, traffic, film and television, comprehensive arts, music, life, finance and economics, educations, etc., under the presupposition of ensuring that channels and frequencies are exclusive State assets that may not be sold, guaranteeing the final examination rights of programmes and firmly grasping broadcasting rights in the hands of radio stations and television stations, it is permitted to group companies with approval, explore conducting commercialized operation of channels and frequencies. In film, it is necessary to accelerate the realization of the overall transformation from a planned undertaking model to an industrial commercialized model, strictly according to the requirements of the modern enterprise system, establish and perfect company legal person governance structures, remoulding market subjects, accelerating the pace of facing the market, further enliven operations.

 

Second, fully utilizing market mechanisms, optimizing resource allocation, adjusting structural distribution, raising industry concentration, moving forward industry intensification and upscaling development. It is necessary to put forth effort to forge a batch of large-scale radio, film and television industry group companies having solid strength, outstanding work and strong core competitiveness through resource integration and structural adjustment, to act as industrial backbone drivers for the overall radio, film and television industry advance and development. It is necessary to take assets and work as links, integrate commercial radio and television resources, move forward radio and television commercial assets’ regional integration and interregional operation, foster and develop radio and television industry group companies. Radio and Television group companies are the operational entities for radio and television groups (general stations) or radio and television stations, and mainly engage in specialization, upscaling, and intensification production and operation of radio and television programmes and television dramas. It is necessary to further move forward film group development, encourage film groups to further expand scale and strengthen power through merging, uniting, reorganizing and integrating film enterprises, and at the same time expand and move forward construction interregional-scale cinema chains (screening groups). It is necessary to accelerate the integration of radio and television transmission networks, establish nationwide and provincial (regional, municipal) radio and television transmission network companies, shaping a new radio and television network development setup with shared resources, shared benefits, linking up high and low, uniformly operated.

 

2, Expanding financial input channels, broadening market access

Progressively expanding radio, film and television market development strength, progressively broadening market access, attracting and encouraging all sorts of domestic and foreign capital to broadly participate in radio, film and television industry development, incessantly raise the socialization degree of the radio, film and television industry. Permitting all sorts or ownership system organs acting as operational subjects to enter the radio and television programme production sector apart from news and propaganda, permitting foreign strong and influential film and television production organs, and domestic State-owned television programme production work units to pool capital and set up a programme production company controlled by the Chinese side. Radio and television stations, and radio and television groups (general stations) conducting internal reorganization  or transferring into enterprises, under the presupposition of guaranteeing share control, may attract domestic social capital and explore conducting shareholding system reform, radio and television programme (including television drama) production and operational enterprises with mature conditions may with approval go on the financial markets. Paid television development shall have central, provincial, provincial capital and plan-listed market radio, film and television broadcast organ at the core, radio, film and television organs conforming to conditions, State-owned organs having programme content resources monopolies and superiority and other organs conforming to conditions are permitted to participate in and establish companies, and conduct marketized operations. Encouraging domestic social capital to invest in shooting films, distributing and selling domestic films, go into cinema chains or by themselves establishing cinema chains and rebuilding cinemas. Foreign production organs are permitted to establish film production companies with domestic State-owned film production work units controlled by the Chinese side. Foreign companies are permitted to establish cinema chain companies or transform companies in the joint venture method, where the foreign participation may reach 75%. Radio and television transmission network companies, under the presupposition of the radio, film and television system having priority investment rights, and guaranteeing share control and possessing real control rights over commercial management, may attract domestic social capital.

 

3, Relying on high and new technology, stimulating industrial upgrading

Radio, film and television industry development must closely depend on scientific and technological progress, vigorously utilize high and new technologies, liberate and develop productivity, expand industrial development space and service areas, raise industrial competition. It is necessary to take digitalization and networking as focal points, completely move forward the upgrading and updating of the radio, film and television industry from analogue to digital. Firstly, it is necessary to completely implement radio and television programme production digitalization; secondly, it is necessary to accelerate cable television network digitalization progress, striving to achieve that in the Eastern developed region and the Central region, local and city-level or higher cities as well as provincial capital cities and localities and cities meeting conditions in the Western region realize comprehensive transformation into digital television by the end of 2005, and that the digital cable television user number reaches 30.000.000 households; thirdly it is necessary to forcefully move forward digital film production and digital cinema construction, expand digital film production industrialization demonstration project and programme achievements, establish digital film production bases and digital film screening cinemas with a certain scale and having advanced world levels, vigorously move forward rural, town and community digitalized  film screening; fourthly, it is necessary to vigorously promote the development and application of direct radio and television satellite and terrestrial digital television, striving to begin providing direct satellite services in 2005, and taking the 2008 Beijing Olympics as turning juncture, forcefully extend mobile digital television services and high-definition television services.

 

4, Vigorously implement the “Marching Out” projects, seeing internationalized development

It is necessary to adapt to the tendency of expanding opening up to the outside and internationalized development, vigorously march out to participate in international competition. For the radio, film and television industry to march out, it is necessary to strengthen market operation, forcefully develop sales organs and networks abroad, strive to push radio, film and television products where we have competitive strengths on to international markets, strive to expand our radio, film and television products’ share on the international market, expand and strengthen a batch of foreign industry brands having influence and strength. It is necessary to strengthen research into international markets, divide regions and divide programmes, implement “Marching Out” project in a focused and purposeful manner. Radio and television must further expand landing coverage and programme sales abroad, and at the same time vigorously encourage central, provincial focus city radio and television organs meeting conditions to set up radio and television stations abroad by themselves or in cooperation. Film must further expand Sino-foreign cooperation in film shooting inside our borders, and must at the same time march out and choose a number of well-known foreign film organs with standardized management, advanced technology and friendly to us to conduct cooperation, making our country’s films enter into international markets even more.

 

5, Establishing and perfecting laws and regulations, strengthening government supervision.

Accelerating legal system construction, as soon as possible establishing and completing radio, film and television industry laws, regulations and policy systems, safeguarding market order, guaranteeing the radio, film and television industry’s healthy development. It is necessary to grasp revision and supplementing of present administrative radio, film and television regulations not suited to industrial development on the bases of the new circumstances and new problems faced by our country’s radio, film and television industry, grasp appearance of a number of policy opinions and steps stimulating radio, film and television industry development, and timely make relevant policy steps into laws and regulations through legal procedures. It is necessary to promote drafting, promulgation and implementation of important laws such as the “Radio, Film and Television Transmission Guarantee Law”, “Radio and Television Law” and the “Film Law”, etc.

 

Transforming the function of government, realistically strengthening government supervision. Radio, film and television industry development must progressively implement separation of management and work, separation of government and enterprise, separation of government and business, radio, film and television controlling authorities must administer according to the law, genuinely transform the industry’s administrative function into propaganda regulation and control, policy adjustment, market supervision, social management and public services. It is necessary to put forth effort to grasp the following work: firstly, it is necessary to strengthen macroeconomic regulation. It is necessary to further perfect policy and regulatory system for the industry’s macroeconomic regulation, vigorously use many kinds of methods such as economic, legal, administrative, etc., to strengthen macroeconomic regulation. It is necessary to continuously do well film, television drama and cartoon theme planning, earnestly implement import and broadcast management regulations of foreign films, television dramas and cartoons, earnestly develop radio and television broadcast organs, film, television drama and radio, film and television programme production organ annual inspection and examination work. Secondly, it is necessary to strengthen market construction and supervision. Accelerating radio, film and television product market and production factor market construction, developing market intermediary organizations, making product circulation and trade flourish, put forth effort to finish building a nationwide radio, film and television programme trade centre, focusing on organizing the China Radio, Film and Television Fair and corresponding radio, film and television festivals. It is necessary to straiten market access systems, strictly implement film and television drama production, distribution, screening and network company transmission of radio, film and television programmes examination and permit systems, establish major programme production examination systems, implement radio, film and television programme producer, television drama producer work licensing systems. Thirdly, it is necessary to further improve government awards. Government awards must integrate with the market, must benefit promotion of excellent radio, film and television products to enter the market, and occupy the market, benefit guiding the market, promoting market flourishing and industrial development.

 

6, Strengthening industrial support and talent training

Earnestly implementing all present State economic preferential policies supporting radio, film and television industry development, at the same time, vigorously striving for the support of relevant entities, successively rolling out a batch of new economic support policies. It is necessary to guarantee a certain amount of government investment, granting financial subsidies and support in aspects such as credit information, etc. to focus industries and focus programmes relating to radio, film and television industry overall development, having major strategic significance and leading to a key function, including radio, film and television “Marching Out” projects, cable television network digitalization, rural film, scientific education films and film science and technology development, cartoon production base construction, etc. Realistically strengthening industry talent training plans, in a planned and organized way developing talent training work, striving to construct high-level talent teams suited for radio, film and television industry development requirements. It is necessary to focus on strengthening all sorts of talent training required urgently in the radio, film and television industry such as radio, film and television high-level operation management talents and scientific, technological and creative talents, etc., regularly and without schedule organizing radio, film and television enterprise (groups) high-level operation management personnel and expert backbones to conduct all sorts of training and study, creating conditions for training and fostering radio, film and television industry-area excellent entrepreneurs and all levels and all sorts of excellent talents.

 

国家广播电影电视总局关于促进广播影视产业发展的意见
 (2004年2月10日)

国家广电总局近日颁布《关于促进广播影视产业发展的意见》,全文如下: 
  为深入贯彻落实党的十六大精神,加快广播影视业的改革与发展,根据中央关于深化文化体制改革的总体要求,结合广播影视的工作实际,现就促进广播影视产业发展提出以下意见。

一、 当前广播影视产业发展面临的形势

新中国成立50多年来,特别是改革开放以来,我国的广播影视随着国家的经济发展、科技进步和人民生活水平的提高,取得了显著的成绩,得到了长足的发展,形成了相当的规模,具有了良好的产业发展基础。目前,我国有电台、电视台1900多座,共开办广播节目1800多套、电视节目2200多套;有近70家电影制片单位,年生产故事片100余部;有广播影视节目制作经营机构近900家,电视剧制作机构300多家,年生产电视剧1000多部10000多集。基本建成了有线、无线、卫星多技术、多层次混合覆盖的全国广播电视网,广播电视人口综合覆盖率已分别达到93.34%和94.61%,其中有线电视网已近400万公里,有线电视用户超过1亿;全国共有电影院6000多家,已建成区域和跨区域电影放映院线35条。从广播影视节目的生产制作量、整体技术水平和规模以及实际覆盖人口来看,我国已经成为广播影视大国。同时与广播影视事业发展相伴随,广播影视的产业经营也进行了积极的探索,取得显著成效。1982年,全国广电系统总收入9.83亿元,基本属于财政拨款,到了2002年,全国广电系统总收入已达514亿元,其中广告收入超过280亿元,财政拨款75.84亿元,财政拨款仅占总收入的14.75%。广播影视已经从主要依靠财政拨款转为以经营创收为主、财政拨款为辅,广播影视的产业功能和良好的开发前景正日益显露出来。

应该看到,目前我国广播影视产业发展既有着良好的基础和条件,也存在着突出的困难和问题。主要表现在:一是从总体上看,我国广播影视产业还只是处于起步、探索的初级阶段,产业发展很不充分,经济总量规模比较小,与发达国家相比实力还比较弱,竞争力不强,广播影视产品的进口大大超过出口。二是长期以来我国广播影视实行计划事业型为主的体制,不区分经营性产业和公益性事业,广播影视按行政区划设置,条块分割严重,已很不适应改革开放和社会主义市场经济的发展要求,不符合广播影视产业自身的特点和规律,严重影响和制约了广播影视产业发展。广播影视的体制机制问题,已经成为广播影视产业发展的主要障碍。三是广播影视产业发展很不平衡。东部、中部、西部,发达地区与不发达地区,城市与农村,差异很大。东部发达地区和城市产业发展比较好,效益也比较明显,西部不发达地区和农村则比较差。广播影视产业内部电视与广播、电影发展不平衡,广播电影电视与网络的发展也不平衡。电视较强,增长较快,已成为整个广播影视产业的龙头和支柱,广播和电影相对较弱,存在不少困难;网络建设较快,但业务开发不足,未形成整个产业新的经济增长点,不少网络公司还面临亏损。四是广播影视的产业政策和法律法规还不完善。现有的政策和法律法规大多只是适应计划经济体制的要求,更多考虑的是如何办事业,较少考虑产业的发展特别是社会主义市场经济条件下产业的发展问题。

当前,我国已进入全面建设小康社会、加快改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的新阶段。新阶段新形势对广播影视的产业发展提出了新要求。广播影视产业是文化产业的重要组成部分。党的十六大明确提出要积极发展文化产业,强调发展文化产业是市场经济条件下繁荣社会主义文化、满足人民群众精神文化需求的重要途径。社会主义市场经济的发展和经济体制改革的深化、国民经济结构的调整,迫切要求包括广播影视产业在内的文化产业的改革发展与之相适应,发展文化产业已经成为国民经济结构调整的一项重大战略任务。小康社会人民群众日益增长的精神文化需求,对广播影视产业发展也提出了新的更高的要求。世界范围内高科技的迅猛发展,要求广播影视加快数字化、网络化的发展步伐,迅速实现新一轮的产业优化升级。特别是加入世界贸易组织,扩大对外开放,我国将在更大范围和更深程度上参与经济全球化,参与国际竞争,目前,电影和音像已经部分地、有限度地对外开放,国外大型传媒集团已经有条件地进入我局部地区。国外文化产品、文化资本和文化价值观念的涌入,给我国广播影视产业的发展带来了严峻的挑战。我们必须深刻分析、正确把握广播影视产业发展面临的新形势,充分认识新形势下发展广播影视产业的极端重要性、必要性和紧迫性,解放思想,改革创新,大胆开拓,不断进取,紧紧抓住机遇,积极应对挑战,努力化解不利因素,切实解决好各种矛盾和问题,大力推进广播影视产业更快更好地发展,争取在较短的时间内把我国广播影视产业做强做大。

二、发展广播影视产业的指导思想和基本思路

新世纪新阶段,广播影视产业发展总的指导思想是:高举邓小平理论伟大旗帜,深入贯彻”三个代表”重要思想和党的十六大精神,根据社会主义精神文明建设和社会主义市场经济发展的要求,按照广播影视产业的特性和规律,以发展为主题,以体制机制改革为动力,以结构调整为主线,以科技创新为支撑,以依法管理为保障,以增强活力、壮大实力、提高竞争力,繁荣和发展社会主义先进文化,满足人民群众日益增长的精神文化需求为目的,统筹协调中央与地方,东部与西部,城市与农村,国内与国外,广播、电影、电视与网络,全面推进广播影视产业发展,逐步形成产业体系相对完整、结构布局日趋合理,整体技术水平先进、市场主导作用明显,国有为主、多种经济成分共同发展的产业格局,努力实现广播影视产业全面协调、持续健康发展,使广播影视产业成为国民经济的新型产业和新的经济增长点,成为我国精神文化产品的重要生产基地。

广播影视产业发展的基本原则:

一要坚持正确方向。广播影视产品具有意识形态属性,必须始终坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务的方向,坚持百花齐放、百家争鸣的方针,弘扬主旋律,提倡多样化,大力发展先进文化,支持健康有益文化,努力改造落后文化,坚决抵制腐朽文化。不管是广播影视的产品生产企业还是服务企业,都要坚持把社会效益放在首位,努力实现社会效益与经济效益的统一。

二要坚持面向市场。面向市场就是要在强化宏观调控的同时,充分发挥市场机制在产业资源配置上的基础性作用,通过市场手段优化资源配置,调整结构布局,调节利益分配,促进产业良性循环发展。面向市场就是面向人民群众,一切要以人民群众即消费者接受不接受、满意不满意为标准,始终把满足消费者的需求,为消费者提供优质的产品和服务作为产业发展的出发点和落脚点。

三要坚持改革创新。广播影视产业要加快发展,必须解放思想,更新观念,进一步深化体制机制的改革创新。要坚决冲破一切妨碍发展的思想观念,坚决改变一切束缚发展的做法和规定,坚决革除一切影响发展的体制弊端。要坚持把改革创新作为产业发展的根本动力和唯一途径,立足于发展来改革创新,以改革创新求发展。

四要坚持国有为主、多种经济成分共同发展。坚持国有为主,充分发挥国有经济在市场的龙头、示范和主导作用,有利于坚持和巩固党在意识形态领域的领导地位,保证广播影视产业始终坚持社会主义先进文化的前进方向,带动和促进整个广播影视产业健康发展。坚持多种经济成分共同发展,有利于充分吸纳和利用社会资源发展广播影视产业,形成多主体公平竞争、开放有序的市场环境,促进市场繁荣和产业壮大。要积极推行广播影视产业领域公有制经济的多种有效实现形式,大力发展和积极引导广播影视产业领域的非公有制经济,凡是法律法规未禁入的领域都要允许非公有资本进入或参与。

广播影视产业发展的基本思路和重点:

一要强化优势产业。广播影视是以提供内容产品和服务为主的综合性产业,电视是其龙头和支柱。目前电视的优势和潜力还远没有得到最充分的发挥,需要进一步强化。一是要继续保持现有电视产业经营特别是广告经营的持续增长。二是要尽快实现电视产业经营的转型,改变过去单纯依赖广告的经营模式和赢利方式,积极开办付费电视,使之成为电视产业经营的又一个重要收入来源。三是要积极扩大电视节目经营和资源开发。要面向群众、面向市场、面向国外扩大电视剧、电视节目的销售,增加节目销售收入。要适应多媒体综合性发展的趋势,针对广播影视的特点,以电视为龙头对经营性资源进行电视、广播、电影、音像、报刊、出版等多种媒体的多重开发、多重利用。

二要振兴弱势产业。主要是指广播、电影、动画等,它们曾经取得过辉煌业绩,现在整体相对处于弱势,需要大力振兴。广播要根据自身的特点和发展趋势,按照产业规律切实加大产业经营特别是广告经营的力度,积极开发广播衍生产品市场,进一步增强产业活力,增加产业经营收入,尽快提升产业总体规模和效益。电影要加快产业化转变步伐,以强化电影创作为基础和核心,多渠道、多层次、多品种开发电影产品,全面搞活市场,形成综合效益,改变过去长期单纯依靠影院票房收入的状况,真正建立起符合当代电影产业发展规律的比较完整的产业链。要运用资本运营的办法,吸收各方面资金组建股份制电影公司和电影上市公司,制作”国产大片”,以此带动和促进国产电影的繁荣。要保持和发展国产影片在国内电影消费市场的主导地位,同时积极开拓国际市场,不断扩大在国际市场的份额,努力取得良好的经济效益。要加快推进国产动画产业的振兴,更新创作观念,充分引入市场机制,强化市场运作,建立完善的产业结构体系,扩大动画生产规模,形成产业品牌,逐步改变国内动画市场”外强我弱”的局面,在占领国内市场的同时,积极打入国际市场,参与国际竞争。

三要发展新兴产业。数字技术、网络技术的迅速发展和应用,使广播影视网络成为以提供内容服务为主的非常重要的新兴产业。广播影视网络要在确保传输好广播电视基本公共节目的前提下,大力开发网络新业务新市场,提供新服务。要大力发展数字电视,推广数字机顶盒,在网上积极提供付费电视、视频点播、数据广播、互联网接入、网络游戏、电子政务、电子商务、远程医疗、远程教育以及其他网络服务,促进网络产业迅速膨胀和扩张,使网络产业尽快发展成为广播影视新的经济增长点。

四要改造传统产业。随着技术的进步和市场的变化,广播影视过去的一些业务和产业已不适应发展,要进行调整和改造。新闻纪录电影摄制,现在的市场需求已大不如以往,需要改造转型,在保持一些必要业务的同时,可以开展有关影视节目的制作经营,特别是可以大力发展电视纪录片。电影生产技术的发展特别是数字电影的到来,电影胶片的需求将越来越少,甚至可能很快就会退出市场,电影洗印业面临转型的任务,要积极做好准备。广播影视类的报刊、图书,长期来以事业建制,侧重宣传功能,不适应产业化发展。要转变体制,面向群众、面向市场,积极开发产业功能,形成新的出版产业。

五要重视高新产业。要积极跟踪广播影视科技和市场的最新发展趋势,大力开发对广播影视产业未来发展具有重要意义的高新产业。广播电视卫星直播是卫星广播电视的发展趋势,在国外已经得到普遍应用,我国也已进行了成功的试验,是继有线电视网络之后广播影视业又一个具有良好开发前景的服务产业。此外还有手机广播、手机电视、移动电视、宽频电视等。这些新媒体、新产业、新业务虽然短期内可能不具有明显的经济效益,但一定要高度重视,掌握主动,抢占先机,尽早培育、开拓和占领市场。

三、发展广播影视产业的相关措施

1、深化体制机制改革,培育发展市场主体

一是区别广播影视公益性事业与经营性产业,面向市场,按照现代产权制度、现代企业制度的要求,深化经营性产业体制机制改革。广播电视要把允许经营的资产、资源和业务从目前的事业体制中分离出来,面向市场进行企业转制和重组,与事业部分分别管理、分别运营。具体来说,可以把电台、电视台、广电集团(总台)的除新闻宣传以外的社会服务类、大众娱乐类节目,特别是影视剧的制作经营从现有体制中逐步分离出来,按照产业发展的方向和现代产权制度、现代企业制度的要求组建公司,实行所有权与经营权分离,自主经营、自负盈亏、依法纳税。对于产业经营前景比较好、具备企业化运作条件的如体育、交通、影视、综艺、音乐、生活、财经、科教等频道频率,在确保频道频率作为国家专有资源不得出售,确保节目终审权和播出权牢牢掌握在电台电视台手中的前提下,经批准可以组建公司,探索进行频道频率的企业化经营。电影要加快实现整体从计划事业型向产业经营型的转变,严格按照现代企业制度的要求,建立完善公司法人治理结构,重塑市场主体,加快面向市场的步伐,进一步搞活经营。

二是充分运用市场机制,优化资源配置,调整结构布局,提高产业集中度,推进产业的集约化、规模化发展。要通过资源整合和结构调整,着力打造一批实力雄厚、主业突出、核心竞争力强的大型广播影视产业集团公司,作为产业骨干带动整个广播影视产业向前发展。要以资产和业务为纽带,整合广播和电视经营性资源,推进广播电视经营性资源的区域整合和跨地区经营,培育发展广播电视产业集团公司。广播电视产业集团公司作为广电集团(总台)或电台电视台的经营实体,主要从事广播电视节目和电视剧的专业化、规模化、集约化生产经营。要进一步推进电影集团的发展,鼓励电影集团通过兼并、联合、重组整合电影企业,进一步壮大规模,增强实力,同时加快推进跨区域规模院线(放映集团)的建设。要加快广播电视传输网络的整合,组建全国和省(区、市)广播电视传输网络公司,形成资源共用、利益共享、上下贯通、统一运营的广播电视网络发展新格局。

2、扩大投融资渠道,放宽市场准入

逐步加大广播影视市场的开放力度,逐步放宽市场准入,吸引、鼓励国内外各类资本广泛参与广播影视产业发展,不断提高广播影视产业的社会化程度。允许各类所有制机构作为经营主体进入除新闻宣传外的广播电视节目制作业,允许境外有实力有影响的影视制作机构、境内国有电视节目制作单位合资组建由中方控股的节目制作公司。电台、电视台和广电集团(总台)内重组或转制为企业的单位,在确保控股的前提下,可吸收国内社会资本探索进行股份制改造,条件成熟的广播电视节目(包括电视剧)生产营销企业经批准可以上市融资。付费电视的开办以中央、省和省会市、计划单列市广播影视播出机构为主体,允许符合条件的广播影视机构、拥有节目内容资源独占优势的国有机构及其它符合条件的机构参与,组建公司,进行市场化运作。鼓励国内社会资本投资拍摄影片、发行销售国产影片、加入院线或独立组建院线、改建电影院。允许境外制片机构同境内国有电影制片单位合资组建由中方控股的影片制作公司。允许境外公司以合资形式成立影院建设公司或改建电影院,外资比例可达75%。广播电视传输网络公司在广播影视系统拥有优先投资权、保证控股和拥有经营管理的实际控制权的前提下,可吸收国内社会资本。

3、依托高新技术,促进产业升级

广播影视产业的发展必须紧紧依靠科技进步,积极运用高新技术,解放和发展生产力,拓展产业发展空间和服务领域,提升产业竞争力。要以数字化、网络化为重点,全面推进广播影视产业由模拟转到数字的升级换代。一是要全面实现广播电视节目生产制作的数字化;二是要加快有线电视网络的数字化进程,力争在2005年底东部发达地区和中部的地市以上城市以及西部有条件的省会城市、地市实现整体转为数字有线电视的目标,有线数字电视用户数达到3000万户;三是要大力推进数字电影制作和数字影院建设,扩大电影数字制作产业化示范工程项目成果,建立一定规模的具有世界领先水平的数字电影制作基地和数字电影放映院线,积极推进农村和城镇社区的电影数字化放映;四是要积极推动广播电视直播卫星和地面数字电视的开发应用,争取2005年开始提供直播卫星业务,2008年以北京奥运会为契机,大力扩展数字电视移动业务和高清晰度电视业务。

4、积极实施”走出去”工程,谋求国际化发展

要适应扩大对外开放和国际化发展的趋势,积极走出去参与国际竞争。广播影视产业走出去要强化市场运作,大力发展海外营销机构和网络,着力将我具有竞争力的广播影视产品推向国际市场,努力增加我广播影视产品在国际市场上的份额,做大做强一批有影响有实力的对外产业品牌。要加强对国际市场的研究,分地区、分项目,有重点、有针对性地实施”走出去”工程。广播电视要进一步扩大在国外的落地覆盖和节目销售,同时积极鼓励有条件的中央、省及重点城市的广播电视机构在国外独立或合作开办电台电视台。电影要进一步扩大中外合作在我境内拍片,同时要走出去选择一些管理规范、技术先进、对我友好的国外知名电影机构进行合作,使我国电影更多地进入国际市场。

5、建立健全法律法规,强化政府监管

加快法制建设,尽快建立健全广播影视产业的法律法规及政策体系,维护市场秩序,保障广播影视产业健康发展。要根据我国广播影视业面临的新情况新问题,抓紧修改和补充不适应产业发展的广播影视现行政策法规,抓紧出台促进广播影视产业发展的一系列政策意见和措施,并及时将有关政策措施通过法律程序上升为法规规章。要积极推动《广播影视传输保障法》、《广播电视法》和《电影法》等重要法律的起草和颁布实施。

转变政府职能,切实强化政府监管。广播影视产业发展要逐步实行管办分离、政企分开、政事分开,广播影视主管部门要依法行政,真正把对产业的行政职能转到宣传调控、政策调节、市场监管、社会管理和公共服务上来。要着力抓好以下工作:一是要强化宏观调控。要进一步完善产业宏观调控的政策法规体系,积极运用经济、法律、行政等多种手段加强宏观管理。要继续做好电影、电视剧和动画片的题材规划,认真贯彻执行国外电影、电视剧和动画片的进口与播放管理规定,认真开展广播电视播出机构、电影电视剧及广播影视节目制作机构的年检年审工作。二是要加强市场建设和监管。加快广播影视产品市场和生产要素市场建设,发展市场中介组织,繁荣产品流通交易,着力建好全国性的广播影视节目交易中心,重点办好中国广播影视博览会和相关广播影视节展。要严格市场准入制度,严格执行电影电视剧生产、发行、播映和网络公司传输广播影视节目审查许可制度,建立重大节目生产审查制度,实行广播电视节目出品人、电视剧制片人持证上岗制度。三是要进一步改进政府评奖。政府评奖要和市场结合起来,要有利于推动优秀的广播影视产品进入市场、占领市场,有利于引导市场,推动市场繁荣和产业发展。

6、加强产业扶持与人才培训

认真贯彻执行现有的国家扶持广播影视产业发展的各项经济优惠政策,同时,积极争取有关部门的支持,陆续出台一些新的经济扶持政策。要保证一定数量的政府投资,对关系广播影视产业整体发展、具有重大战略意义、起到关键作用的重点产业重点项目,包括广播影视的”走出去”工程,有线电视网络数字化,农村电影、科教电影与电影科技开发,动画片生产基地建设等,给予资金补助和信贷贴息等方面的扶持。切实加强产业人才培养规划,有计划有组织地开展人才培养工作,努力建设适应广播影视产业发展需要的高素质人才队伍。要重点加强广播影视高级经营管理人才和科技创新人才等广播影视产业急需的各类人才的培养,定期和不定期地组织广播影视企业(集团)的高级经营管理人员和专业骨干进行各种培训学习,为培养和造就广播影视产业领域优秀的企业家和各级各类优秀人才创造条件。

 

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