Notice concerning Requirements for Realistically Strengthening and Improving Radio and Television Public Opinion Supervision Work

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SARFT Issue of the Notice concerning Requirements for Realistically Strengthening and Improving Radio and Television Public Opinion Supervision Work

10 May 2005

In order to implement the CCP Central Committee Secretariat “Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Public Opinion Supervision” and the Central Propaganda Department “Implementation Rules to Strengthen and Improve Public Opinion Supervision Work”, the SARFT Party Group has researched and formulated the “Requirements Concerning Realistically Strengthening and Improving Radio and Television Public Opinion Supervision Work”. These are hereby issued to you, please implement them.

Requirements Concerning  Realistically Strengthening and Improving Radio and Television Public Opinion Supervision Work

The CCP Central Committee Secretariat “Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Public Opinion Supervision” (hereafter simply named “Opinions” and the Central Propaganda Department “Implementation Rules to Strengthen and Improve Public Opinion Supervision Work” (hereafter simply named “Implementation Rules” are an important step in further strengthening and improving public opinion supervision work in a new period and a new phase, they have a strong leading nature, focus, normative and operative nature. Earnestly implementing the CCS “Opinions” and the CPD “Implementation Rules” has an extremely important meaning for guaranteeing that the radio and television public opinion supervision programmes’ orientation is correct, completely raising radio and television news editing team quality and strengthening the credibility and influence of radio and television. Hereby, the following requirements to implement the CCS “Opinions” and the CPD “Implementation Rules” are put forward:

I, We must earnestly study documents and raise ideological understanding.

All levels’ radio, film and television management departments and broadcast organs must, from the height of implementing the important “Three Represents” thought and the spirit of the 16th Party Congress, and from the height of persisting in the scientific development view, building  a Socialist harmonious society, developing Socialist democracy, completing the Socialist legal system and closely linking the Party and the government with the popular masses, and safeguarding the good image of the Party and the government, fully understand and strengthen the sense of importance of radio and television public opinion supervision work under new circumstances. We must organize studying of documents, deeply understand their  spirit, strictly abide by regulations, and integrate implementing the CCS “Opinions” and the CPD “Implementation rules” with implementing the “Newsgathering Personnel Employment Management Regulations (Trial)”, the “Radio, Film and Television Newsgathering Personnel Employment Management Implementation Plans (Trial)”, as well as with the “Radio and Television Professional Editorial and Journalistic Ethics Standards” and the “Radio and Television Professional Broadcaster and Presenter Ethics Standards, integrate them with the present education campaign to preserve the advanced nature of Communist Party members launched in the entire party and deepening the “Three Study and Learning” activities, to even better implement the important duties and missions of radio and television newsgathering personnel.

II, We must grasp important principles and strive to improve work

All levels’ radio and television organs must correctly launch public opinion supervision work, dare to supervise, be good in supervision, strengthen supervision and improve supervision. Public opinion supervision work must persist in the principle of the Party spirit, persist in seeking truth from facts, persist in serving the people, serving socialism and serving the larger picture of Party and State work, closely grasp the correct public opinion orientation. We must serve the larger picture, persist in combining being responsible towards the Party and being responsible towards the people, fix eyes upon improving work, grasping problems that the masses care for, the government give high regard and that have a widespread meaning, stimulate reform and development, safeguard the basic interest of the popular masses. We must have correct facts, investigate and research deeply, listen to opinions from all sides, prevent inaccurate reporting, and taking parts for the whole. We must be objective and fair, persist in persuading the people with reason, fully consider the complexity of real situations, be good at listening to different opinions, preventing subjective assumptions and giving way to emotions. We must stress social effect, fix eyes upon solving real problems, track the effects of dealing with reports, guide towards the positive side, not play up malice, and not report problems for which there are no conditions to resolve in the current stage. We must abide by news discipline, scrupulously abide by news professional ethics, must ask for instructions when we are unsure about problems, manuscripts involving important or sensitive problems must be submitted, problems that should not be openly reported may be reflected through internal reference. In order to do radio and television public opinion supervision well, at present, we must improve work in the following three aspects:

First, we must persist in constructive supervision. Exposing problems must be rich in constructiveness, and must stand on the position of the Party and the people, start from improving work, resolving problems, fighting for justice against evil, eliminating the bad and extolling the good, safeguarding stability and serving the larger picture, closely coordinating with Party and government central work, guiding towards the positive aspect, and striving for good results. We must realistically raise the focus and effectiveness of radio and television public opinion supervision work, and pay attention to radio and television public opinion supervision work’s political effect and social effect. We must correctly deal with the relationship between positive propaganda and reporting with public opinion supervision, and cannot separate the two, or oppose them against each other. We must completely persist in unity. stability and encouragement, the principle of mainly propagating the positive side, and guaranteeing the correct orientation of public opinion supervision. We may not one-sidedly pursue sensational effects, may not purely stress listening rates or viewing rates, and may not coerce the counterparts of supervision, we cannot seek novelties, play matters up or exaggerate matters. Reports concerning major and sensitive problems must especially be paid attention to, and must be handled strictly according to etiquette.

Second, we must persist in scientific supervision. Public opinion supervision work must persist in a scientific attitude, stress scientific methods, reflect scientific spirits and abide by scientific rules. We must correctly deal with the relationship between micro-level truths and macro-level truths, correctly handle the relationship between the exceptional and the common, the concrete and the abstract, the special and the general, the appearance and the essence, the part and the overall situation. We must strengthen a consciousness of the larger picture, and according to the real needs of developing the larger picture, conduct timely and appropriate adjustment of radio and television pcs actions, proportions, content and quantities, prevent and overcome negative effects and bad influences that may be engendered in public opinion supervision. Overall, radio and television public opinion supervision Third, we must persist in supervision according to the law. Radio and television public opinion supervision work must be conducted within the scope of the State Constitution and laws, may not vilify the Socialist system, may not go against the Party line, principles and policies, may not endanger national security, and may not involve Party and State secrets. We must persist in judging by facts, taking law as criterion, realistically safeguarding the dignity of State laws. We must consider the social effect, settle social contradictions and safeguard social stability in relation to judicial reporting. We may not interfere with the regular work of judicial organs, procuratorate organs, public security organs and other judiciary organs, may not intervene in the independent case handling of judicial organs according to the law, may not intervene in the mediation of civil disputes and economic disputes, may not infringe the lawful rights and interests of the State, collectives and individuals, and before investigation of cases is complete, not conduct open reporting of the case trial situation. We must strictly according to the Centre’s uniform deployment and relevant requirements conduct propaganda and reporting work concerning trial work of a number of cases that have strong social repercussions or major cases receiving close attention, in case of uncertainty, we must timely report this and ask for instructions. Public supervision work involving the Army, the Armed Police, ethnicities, religion, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, foreign governments and organizations and other sensitive spheres, major or prominent cases as well as radio and television public opinion supervision programmes that might easily induce mass incidents must be submitted to relevant departments for authorization. Radio and television public opinion supervision work must happen through lawful channels and with news material obtained through proper channels, and may not adopt illegal or immoral methods to conduct newsgathering and reporting. No undercover filming or recording is permitted.

III, We must grasp the focus of work, and raise work levels

We must strengthen supervision of acts violating laws and regulations, strengthen supervision of Party and government principle and policy implementation situations, strengthen supervision of Party discipline and government discipline implementation situations, strengthen supervision over acts harming the interest of the masses, and strengthen supervision over repulsive social phenomena, immoral acts and bad practices. In order to raise radio and television public opinion supervision work levels, we must grasp the following important aspects:

First, we must grasp the complete picture and select topics. To launch public opinion supervision, we must determine themes on the basis of the central Party and government work for a period and the real requirements of social life. Topics must have a general nature, representative nature, focused nature and feasible nature, and we must select important questions and model cases that the Party and government holds in high regard, the popular masses are closely concerned with, that we hope to resolve and are able to resolve. We must differentiate the mainstream problems and tributary problems in social life, and grasp the important problems and secondary problems in real work.

Second, we must  investigate and research, and get the facts right. We must guarantee that information sources, report content and concrete circumstances are correct and precise, we cannot listen to gossip, take the part for the whole, or fabricate facts. We must send journalists from a work unit to gather news and verify before we can report on clues provided by the masses. It is prohibited to directly edit and release information from the Internet, and prohibited to carry social contributions that have not been verified.

Third, we must be objective and complete, and persuade people with reason. Public opinion supervision must speak true facts, must fully consider the complexity of real situations, listen to different opinions, and achieve that facts are correct, viewpoints are correct, fair and reasonable.

Fourth, we must grasp good levels and grasp good qualities. We must persist in the method of material dialectics, avoid to only talk about one aspect and overlook other aspects, avoid oversimplification, one-sidedness and absolutism at all costs, and prevent the emergence of negative influences. We cannot simply pursue quantity, and not lay down quota, not determine proportions, not determine tasks and avoid that public opinion supervision reports are overly many in a given period, which engenders a misconception of “problems piling up” among the masses. Public opinion supervision must pay attention to comprehensive planning, avoiding concentration on a given region or a given sector during a time period.

Fifth, we must pay attention to methods, and stress effect. Public opinion supervision must strong in guiding, strong in educating, and prevent negative influences on people brought about by playing up matters when exposing and criticizing bad phenomena; we must be brave in exposing problems for which there are conditions to resole them at the current stage, and at the same time must track measures adopted and effects of dealing with matters of reported departments; when touching upon difficulties and problems in social life, we must guide the masses to establish courage and confidence to overcome difficulties; concerning hot topics, we must be good as clearly explaining facts and causes, disambiguate and explain matters. Public opinion supervision results must condense in people’s heats, enhance unity, inspire spirits, stimulate work, and must give people inspiration, enlightenment and caution.

Sixth, we must help work and settle contradictions. Public opinion supervision must both deeply expose problems, and must correctly guide public opinion, achieving exposure and criticism of a few model examples, and promote the resolution of similar problems. We must settle contradictions and may not intensify contradictions; we must rationalize emotions, and not let emotions run wild; we must lend a hand and not bring trouble, encourage and not lose hear. Problems that cannot be resolved at the present stage, should not be openly criticized or reported; concerning isolated or exceptional cases that localities or organs have already dealt with according to the law, or that have been appropriately resolved, no open criticism or reporting should be conducted again; concerning problems that higher-level leading organs and relevant departments are in the process of resolving, open criticism and reporting must be extremely cautious, so as to avoid that the difficulty of resolving the problems is increased by open criticism and reporting.

Seventh, we must be well-disposed towards people, and be cautious in calling names .Public opinion supervision must be sincere and have good will, and may not be freezing irony and burning satire. Under conditions of not involving unlawful or criminal acts, generally no criticism by name should be made of individual citizens. Criticism by name of leading cadres must be strictly controlled, where criticism by name is truly necessary, the programme must be submitted to the higher-level Party Committee of the criticized leading cadre for examination and approval, and be approved by the radio and television organ’s main responsible comrades. We must safeguard the image and prestige of leading cadres, and may not influence their launching work or social stability.

Eighth, we must grasp the opportunity, and keep inside information from outsiders. Public opinion supervision must pay attention to coordinate with Party and government work, and grasp reporting and broadcast opportunities. We must persist in the principles of keeping inside information from outsiders, and differentiating treatment, concerning important situations, social situation and popular will that should not be openly reported, but that has important reference value, “internal reference” may be adopted to reflect them.

Ninth, we must safeguard the lawful rights and interests of objects of reporting. We must respect citizens’ human dignity, safeguard citizens’ right of name, right of portrait, right of reputation, right of honour and right of privacy. It is prohibited to reveal the privacy of other persons or concoct facts to defame their human dignity, as well as using insulting, slanderous and other methods to damage other persons’ reputation. We must obtain news through lawful and proper methods, respect the statements and proper requirements of interviewees. When gathering news on accidents, the feelings of the victims and their relatives shall be taken into consideration, avoiding harm to their psychology and emotions.

Tenth, we must realistically safeguard the rights and interests of minors. When gathering and editing reports involving the negative side of minors, laws and regulations must be obeyed. Without the agreement of guardians of minors, generally, minors’ names, addresses, portraits and other information and audiovisual material from which it is possible to differentiate and deduce their real identity may not be exposed. When it is truly necessary, it must be dealt with through technology. Minors are not to be aroused to participate in programmes they may harm their character or feelings; there must be guard against the content and broadcast method of reports of matters that may induce minors to imitate them, leading to bad consequences; minors’ criminal cases generally are not to be openly reported. Radio and television cannot reveal minors’ criminal cases under the name of reporting news or propagating the legal system, and cannot openly expose the details of minors’ criminal cases and their method of committing crimes in order to pursue hearing rates or viewing rates.

Eleventh, we must scrupulously abide by professional news ethics. We must be clean and self-disciplined, act without selfish consideration, and may not use the conveniences of the position to seek private gain, we may not accept entertainment offers or presents, may not extort and blackmail people under the name of public opinion supervision, and may not practice favouritism in concealing news facts that should be reported, and firmly prevent paid-for news, paid-for non-news and other activities.

Twelfth, we must strictly grasp cross-regional public opinion supervision. All localities’ radio stations and television stations may not conduct public opinion supervision newsgathering and reports across regions.

IV, We must establish and complete systems, strengthen supervision and management

All levels’ administrative radio, film and television departments and broadcast organs must strictly according to the CCS “Opinions” and the CPD “Implementation Rules”, further establish and complete all regulatory systems, perfect reporting, examination and approval procedures, and realistically strengthen management over radio and television public opinion supervision.

First, we must straiten employment systems. We must select newsgathering and editing personnel with good political qualities, high political levels, strong professional capacity and a correct work style to participate in public opinion supervision reporting work. Newsgathering and editing personnel with a weak political consciousness, a superficial work style and one-sided ideologies and methods cannot participate in public opinion supervision reporting work.

Second, we must establish avoidance systems. Newsgathering and editing personnel launching public opinion supervision work, shall avoid encountering the following four sorts of circumstances: having a marital relationship, direct blood relative relationship, collateral blood relative relationship within the third degree or will have a marital relationship soon with the object of the report or a person whose interests are concerned; having a relationship of friends, fellow villagers, schoolmates, colleagues, etc., and having regular contact; where concrete economic, reputation and other interest relationship exists; supervising matters involving localities of the person’s birth, or where they worked or lived for a long time. All levels’ radio and television organs must closely integrate work relationships, firmly grasp formulation of and determinedly implement avoidance systems for  newsgathering and editing personnel launching public opinion supervision work.

Third, we must establish programme inspection and signing procedures. All levels’ radio and television organs must realistically strengthen public opinion supervision programmes’ examination, verification and gatekeeping work, must establish corresponding theme selection reporting and approval, newsgathering arrangement and programme inspection and signing work systems. General public opinion supervision theme selection and newsgathering arrangement is to be examined and approved by the department head, programmes are inspected and signed by the department head; for public opinion supervision reports involving major matters and sensitive problems, or in columns and programmes broadcast at important times, theme selection and newsgathering and reporting arrangements are examined and approved by the leader or editorial board, and programmes are examined and signed by the station leader; programmes about which there is uncertainty must be submitted to the relevant department for examination and approval.

Fourth, we must establish and perfect incentive and restraint mechanisms. All levels’ administrative radio, film and television departments and broadcasting organs appraise public opinion supervision work, and must stress real effect, taking whether or not there is assistance in resolving the problems and promoting work as appraisal standards. Newsgathering and editing personnel having prominent contributions in public opinion supervision work must be given rewards; those violating discipline and regulations, creating harmful influences, must be strictly dealt with.

Fifth, we must establish and perfect mechanisms to accept social supervision. All levels’ radio ad television organs must announce supervision and reporting telephones to society, to accept reports concerning newsgathering personnel violating discipline and regulations, are to reply to the reporting person concerning the investigation, verification and handling of reported content, and are to report matters to the controlling department or announce them to society. Where other person’s lawful rights and interests are infringed because of inaccurate or unsuitable reporting, it must be openly rectified, the facts clarified and the harmful influence cancelled.

V, We must strengthen education and training, and do team construction well

All levels’ radio, film and television management departments and broadcast organs must realistically strengthen training and education of newsgathering and editing personnel, formulate education and training plans, clarify education and training content, determine education and training personnel and perform education and training work well.

First, we must firmly establish a firm and correct political orientation. We must earnestly study Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thought, persist in the scientific development view, firmly establish a Marxist view of news, incessantly strengthen political consciousness, a sense of the larger picture, a sense of responsibility and a sense of discipline, raise political acuteness and political differentiation capacity, raise the capacity to correctly analyse, judge and understand complex matters and questions.

Second, we must raise political quality and professional quality. We must earnestly study the Party’s basic theories, basic line, basic programme and basic experience; earnestly study the Party’s policies, laws and regulations and the Party’s discipline; earnestly study the purpose of serving the people with a full heart and a full mind and safeguarding the basic rights and interests of the popular masses; earnestly study knowledge in aspects such as politics, economics, culture, science and technology, foreign relations, military affairs, news, etc. We must carry forward a work style of respecting work and devotion, seeking truth from facts, working diligently in spite of difficulties, being upright, just, clean and honest, being earnest and meticulous, and daring to innovate.

Third, we must strengthen professional training concerning public opinion supervision work. We must persist in a “strict, detailed, deep and true” work style, realistically improve the writing style of public opinion supervision reports. We must strengthen the sense of social responsibility of newsgathering and editing personnel, correctly understand and utilize the authority of public opinion supervision, correctly present the position of newsgathering and editing personnel, rectify the objectives of public opinion supervision and incessantly raise the level of public opinion supervision work.

VI, We must earnestly strengthen leadership and clarify tasks and the division of work.

We must earnestly strengthen leadership over public opinion supervision work, persist in the principle of being responsible to protect one’s own territory, take earnest responsibility, be cautious and careful, and strictly keep the gates. On questions relating to political orientation, or relating to basic principles, we must maintain sobriety and steadfastness. Radio and television public opinion supervision work must persist in high standards, strict requirements, and being good at integrating the Party’s line, principles and policies with the reality of launching radio and television public opinion supervision, integrate the Party’s principles and policies concerning public opinion supervision work with the concrete local circumstances, and creatively launch work.

We must earnestly summarize the experiences of public opinion supervision work, research and formulate concrete rules to strengthen and improve public opinion supervision work, resolve difficulties that radio and television organs encounter during public opinion supervision or problems that exist. We must strengthen the macro-level coordination and classified guidance of radio and television organs’ launching public opinion supervision work, keep the gates well and maintain standards, fully give reign to the dominant function of radio and television organs and especially central and province-level radio stations and television stations. We must support radio and television newsgathering and editing personnel to correctly launch public opinion supervision, and create the necessary conditions for launching public opinion supervision. We must pay attention to protect the lawful rights and interests of radio and television newsgathering and editing personnel, and guarantee that radio and television public opinion supervision is conducted regularly, we must support the newsgathering activities of journalists of radio and television organs and especially central and provincial-level radio and television organs, and provide conveniences for newsgathering and reporting.

The Central People’s Radio Station, the Central Television Station and all nationwide provincial-level radio stations and television stations must, according to the requirements of the CCS “Opinions”, the CPD “Implementation Rules” and SARFT, formulate concrete opinions and plans for strengthening and improving public opinion supervision work in their work units.

广电总局印发关于切实加强和改进广播电视舆论监督工作的要求的通知
为贯彻落实中共中央办公厅《关于进一步加强和改进舆论监督工作的意见》和中宣部《加强和改进舆论监督工作的实施办法》,总局党组研究制定了《关于切实加强和改进广播电视舆论监督工作的要求》。现印发给你们,请遵照执行。

关于切实加强和改进广播电视舆论监督工作的要求

中共中央办公厅《关于进一步加强和改进舆论监督工作的意见》(以下简称《意见》)和中宣部《加强和改进舆论监督工作的实施办法》(以下简称《实施办法》)是新时期、新阶段进一步加强和改进舆论监督工作的一项重要举措,具有很强的指导性、针对性、规范性和操作性。认真贯彻落实中办《意见》和中宣部《实施办法》,对于确保广播电视舆论监督节目导向正确,全面提高广播电视新闻采编队伍素质,增强广播电视的公信力和影响力,具有十分重要的意义。现对贯彻落实中办《意见》和中宣部《实施办法》提出以下要求:
一、要认真学习文件,提高思想认识
各级广播影视管理部门和播出机构要从贯彻“三个代表”重要思想和党的十六大精神的高度,从坚持科学发展观、构建社会主义和谐社会、从发展社会主义民主、健全社会主义法制和密切党和政府同人民群众的联系、维护党和政府的良好形象的高度,充分认识加强和改进新形势下广播电视舆论监督工作的重要意义。要组织学习好文件,深刻领会精神,严格遵守规定,把贯彻落实中办《意见》、中宣部《实施办法》与实行《新闻采编人员从业管理规定(试行)》、《广播影视新闻采编人员从业管理的实施方案(试行)》,以及《广播电视编辑记者职业道德准则》和《广播电视播音员主持人职业道德准则》结合起来,与当前全党开展的保持共产党员先进性教育活动和深化“三项学习教育”活动紧密结合起来,更好地履行广播电视新闻采编人员的重要职责和使命。
二、要把握重要原则,着力改进工作
各级广播电视机构要正确开展舆论监督工作,敢于监督,善于监督,加强监督,改进监督。舆论监督工作必须坚持党性原则,坚持实事求是,坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务、为党和国家工作大局服务,牢牢把握正确的舆论导向。要服务大局,坚持对党负责和对人民负责的一致性,着眼于改进工作,抓住群众关注、政府重视、有普遍意义的问题,促进改革发展,维护人民群众的根本利益。要事实准确,深入调查研究,听取各方意见,防止报道失实、以偏概全。要客观公正,坚持以理服人,充分考虑实际情况的复杂性,善于听取不同意见,防止主观臆断、感情用事。要注重社会效果,着眼于解决实际问题,跟踪报道处理结果,向积极的方面引导,不恶意炒作,不报道现阶段没有条件解决的问题。要遵守新闻纪律,恪守新闻职业道德,拿不准的问题要请示,涉及重要、敏感问题的稿件要送审,不宜公开报道的问题可通过内参反映。为了搞好广播电视舆论监督,当前要从以下三个方面改进工作:
一是必须坚持建设性监督。揭露问题要富于建设性,要站在党和人民的立场上,从改进工作、解决问题、扶正祛邪、激浊扬清、维护稳定、服务大局出发,密切配合党和政府的中心工作,向积极的方面引导,力求好的结果。要切实提高广播电视舆论监督工作的针对性和实效性,注意广播电视舆论监督工作的政治效果和社会效果。要正确处理正面宣传报道与舆论监督的关系,不能把两者割裂开来、对立起来。要始终坚持团结稳定鼓劲,正面宣传为主的方针,确保舆论监督导向正确。不得片面追求轰动效应,不得单纯注重收听率、收视率,不得要挟被监督对象,不猎奇、不炒作、不渲染。对重大敏感问题的报道要格外注意,要严格按规矩办事。
二是必须坚持科学监督。舆论监督工作要坚持科学态度,讲究科学方法,体现科学精神,遵循科学规律。要正确处理微观真实与宏观真实的关系,正确处理个别与一般、具体与抽象、特殊与普遍、现象与本质、局部和全局的关系。要增强大局意识,根据大局发展的实际需要,对广播电视舆论监督的口径、分寸、内容、数量进行适时适量的调控,预防和克服舆论监督中可能产生的负面效果和不良影响。整个广播电视舆论监督要以服从大局为出发点,以服务大局为落脚点。
三是必须坚持依法监督。广播电视舆论监督工作要在国家宪法和法律范围内进行,不得诋毁社会主义制度,不得违背党的路线、方针、政策,不得危害国家安全,不得涉及党和国家秘密。要坚持以事实为依据,以法律为准绳,切实维护国家法律的尊严。对司法审判的报道,要考虑社会效果,化解社会矛盾,维护社会稳定。不得干扰审判机关、检察机关和公安机关等司法机关的正常工作;不得干预司法机关依法独立办案,不得干预民事纠纷和经济纠纷的调解,不得侵犯国家、集体和个人的合法权益,在案件审结前,不对案件审理情况进行公开报道。对一些在社会上反响强烈,备受关注的重特大案件的审判工作,要严格按照中央统一部署和有关要求做好宣传报道工作,拿不准的要及时请示报告。涉及军队、武警、民族、宗教、港澳台与外国政府和组织等敏感领域、重大突发事件以及容易引发群体事件的广播电视舆论监督节目,要送有关部门审定。广播电视舆论监督工作必须通过合法途径和正当方式获取新闻素材,不得采取非法和不道德的手段进行采访报道。不搞隐蔽拍摄和录音。
三、要把握工作重点,提高工作水平
要加强对违法违规行为的监督,加强对党和政府方针政策落实情况的监督,加强对党纪政纪执行情况的监督,加强对侵害群众利益行为的监督,加强对社会丑恶现象、不道德行为和不良风气的监督。为提高广播电视舆论监督工作水平,必须把握以下重要方面:
一要把握全局、选好题目。开展舆论监督,要根据一个时期党和政府的中心工作和社会生活的实际需要来确定选题。选题要有普遍性、代表性、针对性和可行性,要选择党和政府高度重视、人民群众密切关注、希望解决而又能够解决的重要问题和典型事例。要区分社会生活中的主流问题与支流问题,把握实际工作中的重要问题与次要问题。
二要调查研究、搞准事实。要确保信息来源、报道内容、具体情节准确无误,不能道听途说、以偏概全、虚构事实。对群众提供的线索,要派本单位记者采访核实后才能报道。不得直接编发互联网上的信息,不得刊播未经核实的社会来稿。
三要客观全面,以理服人。舆论监督要以事实说话,要充分考虑实际情况的复杂性,听取不同意见,做到事实准确,观点正确,合情合理。
四要把握好度,把握好量。要坚持唯物辨证法,避免只讲一个方面而忽视另一个方面,切忌简单化、片面化、绝对化,切忌说过头话。舆论监督要适时适度,把握好力度、密度和节奏。重大政治活动期间,以及特殊敏感时期,舆论监督要十分慎重,防止产生负面影响。不能简单追求数量,不下指标,不定比例,不定任务,避免一个时期舆论监督报道过多而让受众产生“问题成堆”的错觉。舆论监督要注意统筹,避免一定时期内集中于一个地区、一个行业。
五要注意方法、注重效果。舆论监督必须重在引导,重在教育,在揭露和批评不良现象时要防止人为炒作带来消极影响;要敢于揭露现阶段有条件解决的问题,同时要跟踪报道有关部门采取的措施和处理结果;在触及社会生活中难点问题时,要引导群众树立克服困难的勇气和信心;对热点问题,要善于讲清事实和原因,解疑释惑。舆论监督的结果,要凝聚人心、增进团结、振奋精神、促进工作,要给人以启迪、教益和警戒。
六要帮助工作、化解矛盾。舆论监督既要深刻揭露问题,也要正确引导舆论,做到揭露和批评个别典型事例,推动解决一批类似问题。要化解矛盾、不要激化矛盾;要理顺情绪、不要搞乱情绪;要帮忙而不添乱,鼓劲而不泄气。对现阶段暂时解决不了的问题,不宜公开批评报道;对地方、部门已经依法处理、妥善解决的孤立事件或个别问题,一般不再进行公开批评报道;对上级领导机关和有关部门正在着手解决的问题,公开批评报道要十分慎重,避免因公开批评报道而增加解决问题的难度。
七要与人为善、慎重点名。舆论监督要真诚善意,不要冷嘲热讽。在不涉及违法犯罪行为的情况下,一般不对公民个人做点名批评。对领导干部点名批评,要从严控制,确需点名批评的,节目要送被批评领导干部上一级党委审定,并经广播电视机构主要负责同志批准。要维护领导干部形象和威望,不要影响工作开展和社会稳定。
八要把握时机、内外有别。舆论监督要注意配合党和政府的工作,把握好报道和播发时机。要坚持内外有别、区别对待的原则,对于不宜公开报道、但具有重要参考价值的重要情况和社情民意等,可以采用“内参”反映。
九要依法维护报道对象的合法权益。要尊重公民的人格尊严,维护公民的姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权和隐私权。不得暴露他人隐私,或者捏造事实丑化人格,以及用侮辱、诽谤等方式损害他人名誉。要通过合法和正当的手段获取新闻,尊重被采访者的声明和正当要求。采访意外事件时,应顾及受害人及亲属的感受,避免对其心理和情感造成伤害。
十要切实维护未成年人的合法权益。采编涉及未成年人的负面报道,要遵守法律规定。未获得未成年人的监护人同意,一般不披露未成年人的姓名、住址、肖像等能够辨别和推断其真实身份的信息和音像资料。确有必要时,必须进行技术处理。不动员未成年人参与可能损害他们性格和感情的节目;对有可能被未成年人模仿而导致不良后果的报道内容和播出形式要加以防范;对未成年人犯罪案件一般不予公开报道。广播电视不能借报道新闻、宣传法制之名展示未成年人犯罪案件,不能为了追求收听率和收视率而公开披露未成年人的犯罪细节、作案方式。
十一要恪守新闻职业道德。要廉洁自律、出以公心,不得利用职务之便牟取私利,不得接受宴请和馈赠,不得以舆论监督为名敲诈勒索,不得徇私隐匿应报道的新闻事实,坚决防止有偿新闻、有偿不闻等行为。
十二要严格把握跨地区舆论监督。各地广播电台、电视台不得跨地区进行舆论监督采访报道。
四、要建立健全制度,加强监督管理
各级广播影视管理部门和播出机构要严格按照中办《意见》和中宣部《实施办法》,进一步建立健全各项规章制度,完善报道和审批程序,切实加强对广播电视舆论监督工作的管理。
一要严格用人制度。要挑选政治素质好、政策水平高、业务能力强、工作作风正的新闻采编人员参加舆论监督报道工作。政治意识不强、工作作风飘浮、思想方法片面的新闻采编人员不能参加舆论监督报道工作。
二要建立回避制度。新闻采编人员开展舆论监督工作,遇以下四种情形应当回避:与报道对象或利害关系人是夫妻关系、直系血亲关系、三代以内旁系血亲关系及近姻亲关系;是素有往来的朋友、同乡、同学、同事等关系;存在具体的经济、名誉等利益关系;监督涉及地区系本人出生地、曾长期工作或生活所在地。各级广播电视机构要紧密结合工作实际,抓紧制定并坚决执行新闻采编人员开展舆论监督工作的回避制度。
三要建立节目审签程序。各级广播电视机构要切实加强舆论监督节目的审核把关工作,必须建立相应的选题报批、采访安排和节目审签工作制度。一般性舆论监督的选题及采访安排由部门主任审定,节目由部门主任审签;涉及重大事项和敏感问题,或在重要时段和栏目、节目播出的舆论监督报道,选题及采访报道安排由台领导或编委会审定,节目由台领导审签;拿不准的节目要送有关部门审定。
四要建立和完善激励和约束机制。各级广播影视管理部门和播出机构评价舆论监督工作,要注重实际效果,以是否有助于解决问题、推动工作为评价标准。对在舆论监督工作中有突出贡献的新闻采编人员,要予以奖励;对违纪违规、造成恶劣影响的,要严肃处理。
五要建立和完善接受社会监督的机制。各级广播电视机构要向社会公布监督举报电话,接受对新闻采编人员违纪违规行为的举报,并对举报内容调查、核实、处理,将有关情况向举报人作出答复,向主管部门报告或向社会公布。因报道失实或不当,侵犯他人合法权益的,要公开更正,澄清事实,消除不良影响。
五、要加强教育培训,搞好队伍建设
各级广播影视管理部门和播出机构要切实加强对新闻采编人员的培训和教育,制定教育培训计划,明确教育培训内容,确定教育培训人员,做好教育培训工作。
一要确立坚定正确的政治方向。要认真学习邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想,坚持科学发展观,牢固树立马克思主义新闻观,不断增强政治意识、大局意识、责任意识和纪律意识,提高政治敏锐性和政治鉴别力,提高正确分析、判断、认识复杂事物和问题的能力。
二要提高政治素质和业务素质。要认真学习党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验;认真学习党的政策、法律法规和党的纪律;认真学习全心全意为人民服务的宗旨,维护广大人民群众的根本利益;认真学习政治、经济、文化、科技、外交、军事、新闻等方面知识。要发扬敬业奉献、实事求是、艰苦奋斗、清正廉洁、认真细致、勇于创新的作风。
三要加强舆论监督工作业务培训。要坚持“严、细、深、实”的工作作风,切实改进舆论监督报道文风。要强化新闻采编人员的社会责任感,正确理解和运用舆论监督的权力,摆正新闻采编人员的位置,端正舆论监督的目的,不断提高舆论监督工作的水平。
六、要切实加强领导,明确责任分工
要切实加强对舆论监督工作的领导,坚持守土有责的原则,认真负责,谨慎细致,严格把关。在事关政治方向、事关根本原则的问题上,必须保持清醒和坚定。广播电视舆论监督工作要坚持高标准、严要求,善于把党的路线方针政策同开展广播电视舆论监督的实际结合起来,把党关于舆论监督工作的方针原则同当地具体情况结合起来,创造性地开展工作。
要认真总结舆论监督工作的经验,研究制定加强和改进舆论监督工作的具体办法,解决广播电视机构在舆论监督中遇到的困难和存在的问题。要加强对广播电视机构开展舆论监督的宏观协调和分类指导,把好关、把好度,充分发挥广播电视机构特别是中央和省级广播电台、电视台的主导作用。要支持广播电视新闻采编人员正确开展舆论监督,为开展舆论监督创造必要的条件。要注意保护广播电视新闻采编人员的合法权利,保证广播电视舆论监督正常进行,要支持广播电视机构特别是中央和省级广播电视机构记者的采访活动,为采访报道提供方便。
中央人民广播电台、中央电视台和全国省级电台、电视台,要根据中办《意见》、中宣部《实施办法》和总局要求,制定出本单位加强和改进舆论监督工作的具体意见和方案。

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