State Council General Office Some Opinions concerning the Construction of a Social Credit System

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GBF No. (2007)17

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

In order to accelerate the construction of our country’s social credit system, further perfect the Socialist market economy system, and build a Socialist harmonious society with the agreement of the State Council, the following Opinions are hereby put forward:

I, The importance and urgency of accelerating the construction of the social credit system

The market economy is a credit economy. The social credit system is an important structural arrangement in the market economic system. The Party Centre and the State Council give high regard to social credit system construction work. The 16th Party Congress and the 3rd Plenum of the 16th Party Congress have clarified the orientation and objectives for the construction of the social credit system. Our country’s “11th Five-Year Plan” put forward to accelerate the construction of the social credit system with a focus on perfecting credit records concerning credit, tax payments, honouring of contracts and product quality. The national financial work conference convened in 2007 further put forward to comprehensively move forward the construction of the social credit system with a focus on the construction of a credit information system, and to accelerate the establishment of a basic framework and operational mechanisms for an social credit system that is suited to our country’s economic and social development level.

Constructing the social credit system is an objective requirement to perfect our country’s socialist market economy system, and is a fundamental policy in rectifying and standardizing the market economy order. At present, malicious arrears and fleeing bank debts, swindling and evading taxes, commercial fraud, production and sale of counterfeit goods, illegal fundraising and other such phenomena cannot be stopped despite repeated bans, the acceleration of the construction of the social credit system will be of great real importance in attacking acts of promise-breaking, preventing and dissolving financial risks, stimulating financial stability and development, safeguarding the regular social and economic order, protecting the masses’ rights and interests, ensuring that government can ever better exercise its role in economic adjustment, market supervision, social management and public service.

In the past few years, a number of departments and regions have successively launched many kinds of trials for the construction of a social credit system. Generally, our country’s social credit system construction has seen certain progress, but many problems that need to be urgently resolved, remain. In the face of new trends, the tasks in constructing the social credit system are arduous and time is pressing, we must further unify thoughts, clarify tasks, strengthen coordination, and ensure that the construction of the social credit system can be implemented smoothly.

II, Guiding ideology, objectives and principles in constructing the social credit system

In constructing the social credit system, we must take Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thoughts guidance, firmly establish and comprehensively implement the scientific development view, take the legal system as a basis, the credit structure as core, and focus on completing credit records concerning borrowing, tax payments, contract implementation and product quality, persist in the principles of “comprehensive planning, categorized guidance, government promotion, fostering markets, perfecting regulations, supervising strictly, opening up in an orderly manner, and safeguarding security, establish a system of credit information bodies in which credit information bodies with a nationwide scope and social credit information bodies coexist, and all have their own service characteristics, and finally create a basic social credit system framework and operational mechanisms with integrated systems, a clear division of work, efficient operations and powerful supervision.

Integrate our country’s reality, clarify long-term objectives, stage-type objectives and work focus points, differentiate different circumstances, adopt different policies, move forward social credit system construction work in a planned and gradual manner. We must strengthen organizational coordination, move forward credit information sharing, integrate credit service resources, and accelerate the construction of enterprise and individual credit service systems. We must start form market needs, vigorously foster and develop credit service markets, improve the external environment, and stimulate competition and innovation. We must firmly grasp the completion of laws and regulations, rationalize supervision and management systems, clarify supervision and management duties, standardize credit service acts and market order according to the law, and protect the lawful rights and interests of parties. We must, according to the principle of gradual progress, expand opening up to the outside world, vigorously bring in advanced management experiences and technologies, stimulate the development of the credit service sector, satisfy market demand and safeguard the security of State information.

III, Perfecting sectoral credit records, moving forward the construction of sectoral credit

The construction of the social credit system involves all areas of economic and social life. The production, exchange, allocation and consumption of merchandise is the basis for the development of social credit relations, the development of the social credit system must be suited to the development level of productive forces and the degree of marketization. On the basis of our country’s national circumstances and the social development needs in the current stage, aim at prominent contradictions and problems in our country’s market economy order, learn from international experiences, further perfect credit records concerning borrowing, tax payments, contract implementation and product quality, and move forward the construction of sectoral credit.

The construction of sectoral credit systems is an important component part of the construction of the social credit system, and plays an important role in stimulating self-discipline by enterprises and individuals, creating effective market restraints. We must rely on management systems such as “Golden Taxation”, “Golden Customs”, etc., perfect taxpayer credit databases, establish and complete enterprise and individual tax evasion records. We must implement contract implementation filing and major contract authentication structures, explore the establishment of contract implementation credit records, and attack contract swindling according to the law. We must rely on the “Golden Quality” management system to promote the electronization of enterprise product quality records, regularly publish product quality information, and accelerate categorized management of product quality credit. We must continue to move forward with the construction of small and mid-size enterprise credit structures and price credit. We must give rein to the role of chambers of commerce and [sectoral] associations, simulate the construction of sectoral credit and sectoral promise-keeping and self-discipline. Relevant State Council departments must, on the basis of the division of work and responsibilities and real work needs, grasp the research and establishment of market subject credit records, implement internal categorized credit management, complete negative information disclosure structures and promise-keeping incentive structures, raise public service and market supervision levels. All departments must cooperate vigorously, timely communicate circumstances, establish credit information sharing structures, progressively construct and perfect real-name information sharing platforms and systems based on organizational body codes and personal identification codes, create joint punishment mechanisms for promise-breaking, and truly ensure that promise-breakers “are unable to do anything once a promise is broken.”

IV, Accelerating the construction of credit information systems, establishing uniform credit information platforms in the financial sector

Finance is the core of the modern economy. The financial sector and especially the banking sector is the main provider and user of social credit information. We must take credit information system construction as an entry point, further complete credit management systems for the negotiable security sector, the insurance sector and foreign exchange management, strengthen coordination and cooperation between financial departments, progressively establish unified credit information platforms for the financial sector, stimulate credit information integration and sharing in the financial sector, and steadily move forward the construction of a credit system for our country’s financial industry. All localities and all departments must vigorously support the construction and development of credit information systems, fully use their credit information resources and strengthen credit construction and management. Credit information bodies must, according to the law, collect enterprise and individual information, and provide convenient, rapid and efficient credit information services to government departments, financial supervision and management bodies, financial bodies, enterprises and individuals.

V, Fostering credit service markets, safely and orderly opening up to the outside world

We must strengthen propaganda and education about sincerity and promise-keeping, foster credit consciousness in the entire society, and establish good social credit trends. We must encourage the expansion of the usage scope of credit products, foster credit service market needs, and support the development of credit service markets. We must firmly take the market as guidance, foster and develop credit service bodies with complete categories, mutually supporting functioning, lawful functioning and market credibility, collect, integrate, process and provide credit information indigenously and according to the law, encourage the opening up and innovation of credit products, and stimulate the multi-level, diversified and specialized credit service needs of all of society.

Government information openness is the basis of the development of credit service markets. All departments and all localities must, under the precondition of protecting State secrets, commercial secrets and personal privacy, open up the credit information they obtain during administrative management according to the law. Local People’s Governments must further move forward the construction of social credit systems in their own areas, fully use credit records concerning borrowing, tax payments, contract implementation and product quality, improve the local credit environment, and reduce duplicate construction and resource wastage. Localities meeting conditions may, in line with the principles of economy and efficiency, and acting according to capability, vigorously explore effective methods and channels for the construction of a social credit system.

Under the precondition of strict supervision, perfecting systems and ensuring information security, gradually, steadily and appropriately open up the credit service markets, and bring in foreign advanced management experiences and technologies. On the basis of WTO principles concerning general exceptions and security exceptions, the construction of fundamental credit information databases, and areas with high information protection requirements in credit services are not to be opened up.

VI, Perfecting laws and regulations, strengthening organizational guidance

Finishing laws, regulations and State standard systems is a guarantee for the healthy development of the credit industry. We must formulate relevant laws and regulations according to the need for information sharing, fair competition, benefit to public services and supervision, and safeguarding national information security. We must persist in the principle of equally stressing standards and development, and stimulate the healthy development of the credit service sector. We must strictly differentiate public information and enterprise or individual credit information, appropriately deal with the relationship between information openness and the lawful protection of individual privacy, commercial secrets and State information security, and realistically protect the lawful rights and interests of parties. We must accelerate the construction of State standardization for the credit service sector, and create integrated and scientific credit standard systems.

Transparent and efficient supervision systems are important guarantees for the healthy development of the credit sector. In order to strengthen comprehensive coordination, the State Council General Office will take the lead in establishing a State Council Interministerial Joint Conference for the Construction of the Social Credit System, to guide the implementation of relevant work. According to the principles of unified leadership and comprehensive supervision, and on the basis of concrete tasks and the division of work of all departments, respectively appoint relevant departments to be concretely responsible for daily supervision and management, and implementing supervision responsibilities. Relevant departments must strictly control market access according to the law, supervise and manage credit service bodies, investigate and prosecute acts violating laws and regulations, perfect market withdrawal structures, safeguard the market order, prevent the illegal collection and abuse of credit information, and stimulate the healthy development of the social credit system and the credit services market.

State Council General Office

23 March 2007

国务院办公厅关于社会信用体系
建 设 的 若 干 意 见
国办发〔2007〕17号

各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
为加快推进我国社会信用体系建设,进一步完善社会主义市场经济体制,构建社会主义和谐社会,经国务院同意,现提出如下意见:
一、加快推进社会信用体系建设的重要性和紧迫性
市场经济是信用经济。社会信用体系是市场经济体制中的重要制度安排。党中央、国务院高度重视社会信用体系建设工作。党的十六大、十六届三中全会明确了社会信用体系建设的方向和目标。我国“十一五”规划提出,以完善信贷、纳税、合同履约、产品质量的信用记录为重点,加快建设社会信用体系。2007年召开的全国金融工作会议进一步提出,以信贷征信体系建设为重点,全面推进社会信用体系建设,加快建立与我国经济社会发展水平相适应的社会信用体系基本框架和运行机制。
建设社会信用体系,是完善我国社会主义市场经济体制的客观需要,是整顿和规范市场经济秩序的治本之策。当前,恶意拖欠和逃废银行债务、逃骗偷税、商业欺诈、制假售假、非法集资等现象屡禁不止,加快建设社会信用体系,对于打击失信行为,防范和化解金融风险,促进金融稳定和发展,维护正常的社会经济秩序,保护群众权益,推进政府更好地履行经济调节、市场监管、社会管理和公共服务的职能,具有重要的现实意义。
近几年,一些部门和地区相继开展了多种形式的社会信用体系建设试点工作。总体看,我国社会信用体系建设取得了一定进展,但还存在许多亟待解决的问题。面对新的形势,社会信用体系建设任务艰巨,时间紧迫,必须进一步统一思想,明确任务,加强协调,确保社会信用体系建设顺利进行。
二、社会信用体系建设的指导思想、目标和基本原则
社会信用体系建设要以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,牢固树立和全面落实科学发展观,以法制为基础,信用制度为核心,以健全信贷、纳税、合同履约、产品质量的信用记录为重点,坚持“统筹规划、分类指导,政府推动、培育市场,完善法规、严格监管,有序开放、维护安全”的原则,建立全国范围信贷征信机构与社会征信机构并存、服务各具特色的征信机构体系,最终形成体系完整、分工明确、运行高效、监管有力的社会信用体系基本框架和运行机制。
结合我国实际,明确长远目标、阶段性目标和工作重点,区别不同情况,采取不同政策,有计划、分步骤地推进社会信用体系建设工作。要加大组织协调力度,促进信用信息共享,整合信用服务资源,加快建设企业和个人信用服务体系。要坚持从市场需求出发,积极培育和发展信用服务市场,改善外部环境,促进竞争和创新。要抓紧健全法律法规,理顺监管体制,明确监管责任,依法规范信用服务行为和市场秩序,保护当事人的合法权益。要按照循序渐进的原则扩大对外开放,积极引进先进的管理经验和技术,促进信用服务行业发展,满足市场需要,维护国家信息安全。
三、完善行业信用记录,推进行业信用建设
社会信用体系建设涉及经济社会生活的各个方面。商品的生产、交换、分配和消费是社会信用关系发展的基础,社会信用体系的发展要与生产力发展水平和市场化程度相适应。根据我国的国情和现阶段经济社会发展的需要,针对我国市场经济秩序中存在的突出矛盾和问题,借鉴国际经验,进一步完善信贷、纳税、合同履约、产品质量的信用记录,推进行业信用建设。
行业信用建设是社会信用体系建设的重要组成部分,对于促进企业和个人自律,形成有效的市场约束,具有重要作用。要依托“金税”、“金关”等管理系统,完善纳税人信用数据库,建立健全企业、个人偷逃骗税记录。要实行合同履约备案和重大合同鉴证制度,探索建立合同履约信用记录,依法打击合同欺诈行为。要依托“金质”管理系统,推动企业产品质量记录电子化,定期发布产品质量信息,加强产品质量信用分类管理。要继续推进中小企业信用制度建设和价格信用建设。要发挥商会、协会的作用,促进行业信用建设和行业守信自律。国务院有关部门要根据职责分工和实际工作需要,抓紧研究建立市场主体信用记录,实行内部信用分类管理,健全负面信息披露制度和守信激励制度,提高公共服务和市场监管水平。各部门要积极配合,及时沟通情况,建立信用信息共享制度,逐步建设和完善以组织机构代码和身份证号码等为基础的实名制信息共享平台体系,形成失信行为联合惩戒机制,真正使失信者“一处失信,寸步难行”。
四、加快信贷征信体系建设,建立金融业统一征信平台
金融是现代经济的核心。金融业特别是银行业是社会信用信息的主要提供者和使用者。要以信贷征信体系建设为切入点,进一步健全证券业、保险业及外汇管理的信用管理系统,加强金融部门的协调和合作,逐步建立金融业统一征信平台,促进金融业信用信息整合和共享,稳步推进我国金融业信用体系建设。各地区、各部门要积极支持信贷征信体系的建设和发展,充分利用其信用信息资源,加强信用建设和管理。信贷征信机构要依法采集企业和个人信息,依法向政府部门、金融监管机构、金融机构、企业和个人提供方便、快捷、高效的征信服务。
五、培育信用服务市场,稳妥有序对外开放
要加大诚实守信的宣传教育力度,培育全社会的信用意识,树立良好的社会信用风尚。要鼓励扩大信用产品使用范围,培育信用服务市场需求,支持信用服务市场发展。要坚持以市场为导向,培育和发展种类齐全、功能互补、依法经营、有市场公信力的信用服务机构,依法自主收集、整理、加工、提供信用信息,鼓励信用产品的开发和创新,满足全社会多层次、多样化、专业化的信用服务需求。
政府信息公开是信用服务市场发展的基础。各部门、各地区在保护国家机密、商业秘密和个人隐私的前提下,要依法公开在行政管理中掌握的信用信息。地方人民政府要进一步推进本地区社会信用体系建设,充分利用信贷、纳税、合同履约、产品质量的信用记录,改善地方信用环境,减少重复建设和资源浪费。具备条件的地区,可以本着节约高效、量力而行的原则,积极探索社会信用体系建设的有效方式和途径。
在严格监管、完善制度、维护信息安全的前提下,循序渐进、稳步适度地开放信用服务市场,引进国外先进的管理经验和技术。根据世界贸易组织关于一般例外及安全例外的原则,基础信用信息数据库建设、信用服务中涉及信息保护要求高的领域不予开放。
六、完善法律法规,加强组织领导
完备的法律法规和国家标准体系,是信用行业健康发展的保障。要按照信息共享,公平竞争,有利于公共服务和监管,维护国家信息安全的要求,制定有关法律法规。要坚持规范与发展并重的原则,促进信用服务行业健康发展。要严格区分公共信息和企业、个人的信用信息,妥善处理好信息公开与依法保护个人隐私、商业秘密和国家信息安全的关系,切实保护当事人合法权益。要加快信用服务行业国家标准化建设,形成完整、科学的信用标准体系。
透明高效的监管体制是信用行业健康发展的重要保障。为加强统筹协调,由国务院办公厅牵头建立国务院社会信用体系建设部际联席会议制度,指导推进有关工作。按照统一领导、综合监管的原则,根据具体业务范围和各部门的职责分工,分别指定有关部门具体负责日常监管,落实监管责任。有关部门要依法严格市场准入,监督和管理信用服务机构,查处违法违规行为,完善市场退出机制,维护市场秩序,防止非法采集和滥用信用信息,促进社会信用体系和信用服务市场健康发展。
国务院办公厅
二○○七年三月二十三日

 

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