Outline of the National Intellectual Property Strategy – Government Translation

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(Issued by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China on June 5, 2008)

This Outline is formulated for the purpose of improving China’s capacity to create, utilize, protect and administer intellectual property, making China an innovative country and attaining the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

I. Preface

(1) Since the reform and opening up policy was introduced, China has maintained a sustainable and rapid economic and social development, and has made advances in science and technology and cultural creations, while the capacity for innovation has been constantly improved, and knowledge is playing an increasingly prominent role in China’s economic and social development. China is now experiencing a new historical beginning, and it is of great strategic importance for the country to develop and utilize knowledge-based resources in order to transform the pattern of economic development, ease the constraints posed by demand for resources and environmental concerns, improve the nation’s core competitiveness and meet the increasing material and cultural demands of the people.

(2) Intellectual property system is a basic system for developing and utilizing knowledge-based resources. By reasonably determining people’s rights to certain knowledge and other information, the intellectual property system adjusts the interests among different groups of persons in the process of creating and utilizing knowledge and information, encourages innovation and promotes economic and social progress. In the world today, with the development of the knowledge-based economy and economic globalization, intellectual property is becoming increasingly a strategic resource in national development and a core element in international competitiveness, an important supporting force in building an innovative country and the key to hold the initiative in development. The international community attaches greater importance to intellectual property as well as innovation. Developed countries take innovation as the main impetus driving economic development, and make full use of the intellectual property system to maintain their competitive advantages. Developing countries actively adopt intellectual property policies and measures suitable for their respective national conditions to promote development.

(3) With years of development, China has been gradually improving its system of laws and regulations on intellectual property and constantly strengthening the enforcement level. Meanwhile, the intellectual property quantity has increased rapidly and their performance has constantly improved. Market entities have also made steady progress in improvement of their capacity to utilize intellectual property. China has expanded international exchanges in the field of intellectual property and increased its influence in international intellectual property affairs. The establishment and implementation of the intellectual property system have helped standardize China’s market order, stimulated inventions and cultural creations, promoted China’s opening up and importation of knowledge resources, and played an important role in China’s economic and social development. However, China’s intellectual property regime still needs improvement. The quality and quantity of the self-relied intellectual property still cannot meet the demands of economic and social development; the public awareness of the importance of intellectual property is comparatively weak; the capacity of market entities to utilize intellectual property is not very strong; infringement of intellectual property is still a relatively serious problem; there are still some cases of abuse of intellectual property; the intellectual property service and support system and training for all types of intellectual property personnel lag behind its development; and the role of intellectual property in promoting economic and social development needs to be strengthened.

(4) Implementing the national intellectual property strategy to greatly promote China’s capacity in creation, utilization, protection and administration of intellectual property will help improve China’s capacity for independent innovation and aid in efforts to make China an innovative country. It will also be conducive to improving China’s socialist market economy, standardizing market order and encourage the society to be more creditworthy. It will also increase the market competitiveness of Chinese enterprises and strengthen the core competitiveness of the country. Finally, it will facilitate China’s opening up further to the outside world, thereby leading to a win-win situation between China and the rest of the world. We must implement this intellectual property strategy an important national strategy and we must step up efforts in the area of intellectual property.

II. Guiding Principles and Strategic Goals

1. Guiding Principles

(5) In implementing the national intellectual property strategy, we need to follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of “Three Represents”, comprehensively apply the Scientific Outlook on Development and abide by the policy of encouraging creation, effective application, legal protection and scientific administration. We must concentrate our efforts to improve the intellectual property system, actively work to create a favorable legal environment, market environment and cultural environment for the development of intellectual property in order to greatly improve China’s capacity to create, utilize, protect and administer intellectual property. This will provide strong support for the effort to make China an innovative country and develop a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

2. Strategic Goals

(6) By 2020, China will become a country with a comparatively high level in terms of the creation, utilization, protection and administration of IPRs. The legal environment for IPRs is much better, market entities are much better at the creation, utilization, protection and administration of IPRs, the public awareness of intellectual property is increased greatly, the quality and quantity of the self-relied intellectual property are able to effectively support the effort to make China an innovative country, the role of the intellectual property system in promoting economic development, the culture prosperity and social progress in China become very apparent.

(7) Goals for the next five years:

– The level of the self-relied intellectual property will be higher by a large margin and the quantity of intellectual property will be greater. China will rank among the advanced countries of the world in terms of the annual number of patents for inventions granted to the domestic applicants, while the number of overseas patent applications filed by Chinese applicants should greatly increase. A number of world-famous brands will emerge. The proportion of the GDP accounted for by the value of core copyright industries will greatly increase. China should own the rights to a number of high-quality new varieties of plants and high-level layout-designs of integrated circuits. Trade secrets, geographical indications, genetic resources, traditional knowledge as well as folklores will be effectively protected and reasonably utilized.

– The benefits of utilizing intellectual property rights (IPRs) will be increased significantly and the proportion of products rich in IPRs should grow significantly. Enterprises should make progress in improving their system for managing intellectual property, invest more in the area of intellectual property and significantly improve their capacity to utilize intellectual property in market competition. A number of preponderant enterprises with famous brands, core intellectual property and rich experience in utilizing the intellectual property system will emerge.

– The protection of IPRs will be significantly improved. Infringement of IPRs, such as piracy and counterfeiting, should be significantly reduced, the expense of protecting intellectual property right willdecrease a great deal and abuse of intellectual property should be effectively curbed.

– The awareness of the IPRs in society, especially among market entities, will be greatly enhanced and a favorable intellectual property culture should be basically formed.

III. Strategic Focuses

1. Improving the Intellectual Property Regime

(8) Laws and regulations concerning IPRs need to be improved. Special intellectual property laws, such as the Patent Law, Trademark Law and Copyright Law, and related regulations need to be promptly revised. Legislation concerning genetic resources, traditional knowledge, folklores and geographical indications should be formulated as needed. The uniformity and coordination of intellectual property legislation need to be strengthened to improve the practicability of laws and regulations. Intellectual property-related provisions contained in laws and regulations concerning unfair competition, foreign trade, science and technology and national defense need to be improved.

(9) The intellectual property law enforcement and administration systems need to be strengthened. The judicial protection and administrative law-enforcement systems need to be strengthened, while judicial protection of IPRs should play its leading role. The efficiency and level of law-enforcement need to be improved and public services need to be strengthened. The reform of the intellectual property administration system needs to be continued to establish a system that matches powers with responsibilities, divides work in a rational way, fosters scientific decision-making and ensures smooth enforcement and effective supervision.

(10) The guiding role of intellectual property in economic, cultural and public policies needs to be strengthened. More efforts need to be adopted to improve coordination between intellectual property policy and the policies of industry, region, science and technology and trade. Intellectual property policy suitable for the development of relevant industries needs to be formulated to promote adjustment and optimization of industrial structures. Measures need to be taken in line with the different features of regional development to improve intellectual property support policy and foster economies suitable to the region and thus promote balanced regional economic development. Establish intellectual property working mechanism for important scientific and technological projects to provide comprehensive services throughout the process with the focus on the acquisition and protection of intellectual property. Intellectual property policy related to foreign trade needs to be improved. The mechanisms for administering intellectual property, early warning and emergency response, overseas IPRs protection and dispute settlement need to be established and strengthened in foreign trade sector. Coordination and uniformity between intellectual property policy and policies of culture, education, science and health need to be strengthened to safeguard the right of the public to legally and rationally utilize innovation findings and information in their cultural, educational, scientific and public health activities, promote the fair sharing of innovation and information, and ensure that the government is able to deal with public crises.

2. Promoting the Creation and Utilization of Intellectual Property

(11) We need to guide and support market entities to create and utilize intellectual property through the use of policies related to finance, investment, government procurement, industrial development, energy and environmental protection. The guiding role of intellectual property policies in scientific innovation activities needs to be strengthened. Technological innovation will take legal industrialization as the basic precondition, and make the acquisition of IPRs as its goal, with being accepted by the technical standards as its endeavor direction. The right ownership and benefit sharing mechanisms for scientific and technological inventions made as part of state-supported projects need to be improved. Indicators of IPRs need to be included into the systems for assessing the implementation of scientific and technological plans and the performance of state-owned enterprises. Raise the proportion of exportation of the goods rich in intellectual property step by step. Promote fundamental changes in the trade growth pattern and optimize trade structure.

(12) We need to encourage enterprises to be the principal entity in the creation and utilization of intellectual property. Independent innovation is encouraged to acquire IPRs and be commercialized and industrialized, and enterprises are guided to realize the market value of their IPRs through rights transferring, licensing, pledging or other means. Higher education institutions and scientific research institutes need to be encouraged to play important roles in the creation of intellectual property. Choose some important technological areas to create a number of core self-relied intellectual properties and technical standards. Encourage the public to take part in in innovations and cultural creations. Promote the creation of excellent cultural products.

3. Strengthening the Protection of IPRs

(13) Revise laws and regulations to punish infringements on IPRs and strengthen judicial punishment. Help right holders to improve consciousness and capacity to protect their own interests. Lower the cost of right enforcement. Increase the cost of infringements. Curb infringements effectively.

4. Preventing Abuses of IPRs

(14) Formulate relevant laws and regulations d to reasonably define the scope of intellectual property. Prevent abuses of intellectual property. Maintain fair market competition. Safeguard the public lawful rights and interests.

5. Fostering a Culture of IPRs

(15) Strengthen the knowledge propagation on intellectual property right and increase the awareness of intellectual property right in the whole society. Carry out the ordinary intellectual property right education extensively. Increase the intellectual property right content in the national promotion of the public moral culture and the national ordinary education in law. By advocating the moral concepts of being proud of innovation and honesty and ashamed of plagiarism and counterfeiting or cheating, the intellectual property right culture could be established throughout China, characterized by respect for knowledge, enthusiasm for innovation and creation, being honest and obeying law.

IV. Specific Tasks

1. Patent

(16) Make advanced development plans according to the nation’s strategic needs in some sectors such as biology, medicine, information, new materials, advanced manufacturing, new energy, oceanography, resources, environmental protection, modern agriculture, modern transportation, aeronautics and astronautics, and to obtain a group of patents in these core areas of technology to support the development of China’s new and high technology industries.

(17) Formulate and improve policies related to standards and to regulate the process of turning a patent into a standard. Enterprises and industry organizations should be supported in actively participating in the formulation of international standards.

(18) Refine the system of service inventions and establish an interest distribution system that can both help stimulate service inventions and speed up exploitation of patented technologies.

(19) Improve the patent examination procedure and the quality of examination according to the requirements for granting patents. Irregular patent applications need to be prevented.

(20) Balance the need for patent protection and the need to protect public interest properly. While strengthening patent right protection in accordance with law, we need to improve the compulsory licensing system and make good use of exception provisions. We need to work out relevant policies that are rational to ensure that the public is able to obtain necessary products and services in a timely and sufficient manner whenever a public crisis happens.

2. Trademark

(21) Protect the lawful rights and interests of trademark holders and consumers effectively. Strengthen our capacity to enforce the law and take strict measures for curbing counterfeiting and other infringements to maintain fair competition and good order in the market.

(22) Support enterprises in carrying out their trademark strategies and encourage them to utilize their own trademarks in business activities. Enterprises should be encouraged to enrich the meaning of their trademarks, increase the added value and improve the reputation of their trademarks, and establish their well-known trademarks. Enterprises should also be encouraged to register their trademarks overseas, to protect rights and interests in their trademarks, and to participate in international competition.

(23) Make full use of trademarks in the industrialization of agriculture. Market entities need to be helped to register and use their trademarks to improve the quality of their farm products, ensure food safety and raise the added value of their farm products and their competitiveness on the market.

(24) Enhance the administration of trademarks. Efficiency of trademark examination needs to be improved, the time for examination needs to be shortened, and the quality of examination needs to be improved. Market rules need to be respected, and issues related to the determination of well-known trademarks, famous trademarks, well-known commodities, famous-brand products and high quality brands need to be truly solved.

3. Copyright

(25) Assist the development of copyright-related industries such as the press and publication, radio, film, television, literature and the arts, cultural entertainment, advertising design, arts and crafts, computer software and information networks. We need to support the creation of works with clear national features and characteristics of the times. We need to assist in the creation of excellent cultural works that that have difficulties in market competition.

(26) Further improve relevant systems to promote the commercialization of copyrights. Systems for copyright mortagagerecordation of works and transfer contracts need to be further improved to broaden the ways of copyright utilization and reduce the costs and risks involved in copyright transactions. The roles of copyright collective administration organizations, industrial associations, agencies and other intermediary organizations need to be brought into full play in the process of commercializing copyrights.

(27) Deal with piracy according to law. Intensify the punishment against piracy, focusing on curbing the large-scale production, selling and dissemination of pirated products to effectively reduce copyright piracy.

(28) Adopt effective measures to address challenges brought about to copyright protection by the development of the Internet and other new technologies. Properly balance the need for copyright protection and the need for information dissemination. We must protect copyrights in accordance with law while at the same time promoting the dissemination of information.

4. Trade secret

(29) Guide market entities in establishing a trade secret management system in accordance with law. The behavior of stealing trade secret should be severely punished in accordance with law. Properly balance the need for protecting trade secret and the freedom to choose employment and balance non-competition undertaken by insiders and the need for normal personnel flow to safeguard employees’ lawful rights and interests.

5. New Varieties of Plants

(30) Establish an incentive mechanism to support the cultivation of new varieties of plants and to facilitate the transformation of innovation findings in breeding into new plant variety rights. A number of breeding bases holding rights in new varieties of plants need to be established. Technology support systems related to new varieties of plants needs to be set up and improved. The work of formulating the guidelines for the conduct of tests of new varieties of plants needs to be expedited. The examination and testing level needs to be raised.

(31) Make the balance of interests among resource suppliers, breeders, producers and business operators more rational, with the emphasis on the protection of lawful rights and interests of farmers. Strengthen the awareness of the need to protect the new plant variety rights among breeding bases and farmers to ensure that the variety rights owners, producers and sellers of new varieties and farmers are all benefited.

6. Intellectual Property in Specific Areas

(32) Improve the protection system for geographical indications. A system of technical standards, a quality guarantee system and an examination system for geographical indications need to be established and strengthened. Carry out a thorough survey of geographical indication resources and give support to products of geographical indications. Promote the transformation of natural and humanistic advantages with regional characteristics into practical productivity.

(33) Strengthen the protection, development and utilization systems for genetic resources to prevent loss and inappropriate use of them. Balance interests between the need to protect genetic resources and the need to develop and utilize them, and to develop a reasonable mechanism for genetic resource access and benefit sharing . We must guarantee the right of prior-informed consent enjoyed by suppliers of genetic resources.

(34) Establish a sound protection system for traditional knowledge. Support the collation and passing down of traditional knowledge to further its development. A coordination mechanism for administration, protection and utilization of IPRs for traditional medicine needs to be improved and the protection, development and utilization of traditional arts need to be strengthened.

(35) Strengthen the protection of folklores and to promote their development. Extensively gather folklores and set up a benefit sharing mechanism that will assure a reasonable balance between conservators of folklores and those who use those resources to create new works, in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of individuals and communities.

(36) Make the utilization of exclusive rights for layout-designs of integrated circuits more effective and thus promote the development of the integrated circuit industry.

7. IPRs Related to National Defense

(37) Establish a unified coordination and administration mechanism for intellectual property related to national defense, particularly focusing on the resolution of major issues such as ownership and benefit distribution, compensation for use, incentive mechanism and effective exploitation of technologies in emergencies.

(38) Improve the administration of intellectual property related to national defense. The administration of intellectual property needs to cover all links in national defense, including research, production, operation, equipment procurement and guarantee, and project management, and control of major intellectual property related to national defense should be strengthened. A guideline to key technologies needs to be published. Create a number of the self-relied intellectual property in areas such as key technologies for weapons and military equipment and high technologies for both military and civilian purposes. An early warning mechanism for intellectual property related to national defense needs to be established, and special examinations of IPRs related to national defense should be carried out in military technology cooperation and arms trade.

(39) Make more effective use of intellectual property related to national defense. The rules for keeping secrecy and declassification of intellectual property related to national defense need to be further improved. Promote the use of intellectual property related to national defense for civilian purposes with the condition that national security and the interests of national defense are not compromised. Encourage the use of intellectual property for civilian purposes in the area of national defense.

V. Strategic Measures

1. Increasing the Capacity to Create Intellectual Property

(40) Establish a market-oriented system for the creation of self-relied intellectual property with enterprises as the backbone of the system and manufacturers, universities and research institutes as close cooperation partners. Enterprises need to be guided to search intellectual property information before starting their own research and development projects or business operations. Enterprises need also be supported in their efforts to form the self-relied intellectual property and strengthen their capacity to transform innovations into intellectual property through original innovation, joint innovation and secondary innovation based on imported technologies. Enterprises as well as other market entities should also be encouraged to obtain intellectual property overseas. Enterprises need to be guided to change the way they compete , improve technological innovation, raise the quality of their products and services and create their own well-known brands.

2. Encouraging the Commercialization and Utilization of IPRs

(41) Guide more innovative elements towards enterprises, support the commercialization of innovations made by high education institutions and research institutes to enterprises, stimulate the application and industrialization of intellectual property in enterprises, and shorten the time for applying it in industrial production. We need to launch various kinds of pilot or demonstration projects for intellectual property, and to improve the overall capacity to utilize intellectual property and handle competition in intellectual property.

(42) Encourage and support market entities to improve their management systems for technological data and trade secrets, and to establish a value assessment, a statistics and an accounting system for intellectual property. They are also encouraged to work out an information search system for intellectual property and an early-warning system for major events, and improve the system for administration of intellectual property in foreign cooperation.

(43) Encourage market entities to actively respond to intellectual property infringements and lawsuits in accordance with law, and to improve their capacity for handling intellectual property disputes.

3. Expediting the Development of the Legal System for Intellectual Property

(44) Establish a legislation mechanism in line with the characteristics of intellectual property, improve the quality of legislation and speed up the legislation process. Improve foresight studies before intellectual property legislation is formulated and the assessment work after enactment. Legislation needs to be more transparent, and more channels need to be available for enterprises, industrial associations and the public to participate in legislation. Revisions and legislative interpretations of intellectual property laws need to be improved in order to deal with new problems in the intellectual property sector promptly and effectively. Studies on the necessity and feasibility of formulating basic intellectual property laws need to be carried out.

4. Improving Intellectual Property Law Enforcement

(45) Improve the trial system for intellectual property, optimize the allocation of judicial resources and simplify remedy procedures. Studies need to be carried out on establishing special tribunals to handle civil, administrative or criminal cases involving intellectual property. Studies also need to be done to reasonably centralize jurisdiction over cases involving patents or other cases of a highly technical nature. Explore issues on setting up courts of appeal for cases involving intellectual property. Judicial organs for handling cases involving intellectual property need to be further strengthened and well-staffed to improve the handling of cases and enforcement of the law.

(46) Judicial interpretation on intellectual property needs to be improved. Cases involving intellectual property require more professional knowledge, and therefore a sound litigation system needs to be established that includes judicial authentication, expert witnesses and technical investigation, and the system of provisional measures prior to action involving intellectual property needs to be improved. Procedures for determining and granting patent or trademark rights need to be reformed, and studies need to be conducted on transforming bodies that hear patent invalidation and trademark review and adjudication cases to quasi-judicial organs.

(47) Improve the overall competence of intellectual property law-enforcement personnel and reasonably distribute law-enforcement resources to improve the efficiency of law enforcement. Special, well-planned and focused actions for the protection of intellectual property should be launched in cases of repeated intellectual property infringements, organized intellectual property infringements and large-scale counterfeiting and piracies. Administrative law-enforcement departments need to speed up the referral of criminal cases involving intellectual property to judicial organs, and judicial organs should make greater efforts to receive criminal cases involving intellectual property.

(48) Customs law enforcement and border protection of intellectual property need to be strengthened to maintain order in import and export and improve the reputation of China’s export commodities. International cooperation in customs law enforcement needs to be fully utilized in order to effectively crack down on cross-border illegal acts and crimes involving intellectual property. Customs need to have a influence on international intellectual property protection.

5. Strengthening the Administration of Intellectual Property

(49) Formulate and implement regional and industrial strategies on intellectual property. A mechanism for reviewing intellectual property for important economic events needs to be established and strengthened. Projects for creation and industrialization of the self-relied intellectual property need to be supported as they meet the demand of economic and social development.

(50) More human resources are needed to administer intellectual property, professional training needs to be enhanced so as to raise the competence of personnel needs. People’s governments at or above the county level may establish intellectual property administration departments in line with their respective economic and social development.

(51) The systems for examination and registration of intellectual property need to be improved to increase capacity building, optimize procedures, improve efficiency, reduce administrative cost and upgrade the level of public services involving intellectual property.

(52) Develop a national public service platform for basic information on intellectual property. High-quality databases of basic intellectual property information should be developed that include patents, trademarks, copyrights, layout-designs of integrated circuits, new varieties of plants and geographical indications. Accelerate the development of a common search system suitable for Chinese search practices. Agencies to test and preserve new varieties of plants need to be improved. An information platform for intellectual property related to national defense needs to be established. Guide and support the development of intellectual property information databases in various regions and sectors that meet their own needs. Intellectual property system and resource integration and information sharing need to be promoted.

(53) Set up an intellectual property early-warning and emergency-response system. Issue report on intellectual property development trends in important sectors and work out contingency plans for disputes, conflicts or emergency situations on intellectual property that have a wide-ranging and significant impact, so that they can be dealt with in proper way and any potential damage can be controlled or reduced.

6. Developing Intermediary Services for IPRs

(54) Improve the administration of intellectual property intermediary services, make it a self-regulated industry, and establish a system for monitoring such services, including credit information management, reputation assessment and punishment recording. The practice for IPRs appraisal needs to be further regulated to increase its credibility.

(55) Establish a professional training system for intellectual property intermediary services, improve vocational training in intermediary services and standardize the administration of professional qualifications. The scope of services for an intellectual property agent and other employees in intermediary services needs to be clearly defined and studies on general lawyers acting as intellectual property agent need to be conducted. An intermediary service system for intellectual property related to national defense needs to be improved. Great efforts need to be made to improve the capacity of intermediary services to handle international applications for intellectual property, settle disputes and participate in international intellectual property affairs.

(56) Strengthen the role of industrial associations and support their intellectual property work, promote intellectual property information exchange and organize a joint effort to enforce IPRs. The government should strengthen its supervision and guidance in the intellectual property work of industrial associations.

(57) The role of the technology market needs to be strengthened and an intellectual property trading system needs to be established, which provides sufficient information, allows active trading and has an orderly environment. Trading procedures need to be simplified; the cost of trading needs to be reduced and services need to be improved.

(58) Develop commercial intellectual property information services to meet the demands of all relevant parties for intellectual property information. All sectors of society are encouraged to invest in the development of intellectual property information and enterprises are encouraged to participate in the development and utilization of intellectual property information with potential added value.

7. Developing Intellectual Property Human Resources

(59) Establish an interdepartmental coordination mechanism and make overall plans for the development of intellectual property human resources. Establishment of national and provincial intellectual property expert databases and professional information networks needs to be accelerated.

(60) Set up national education bases to train intellectual property professionals. The training of senior intellectual property tutors needs to be accelerated. A sub-discipline program on intellectual property should be set up and the higher education institutions which meet the requirements are supported to establish programs for conferring intellectual property master’s and doctor’s degrees. Large-scale training programs need to be organized to train all types of intellectual property professionals, focusing on training of urgently needed management personnel and personnel to provide intermediary services involving intellectual property.

(61) Work out training plans to provide comprehensive training on intellectual property to Party and government leaders, civil servants, managers of enterprises and institutions, technical and professional staff, writers and artists, and teachers.

(62) Improve relevant systems for attracting, exploiting and managing intellectual property professionals, improve the human resources structure and encourage reasonable mobility of personnel. In view of the implementation of the Civil Servant Law, we need to improve the civil servant administration system in intellectual property administration departments. A professional and technical assessment system for intellectual property professionals needs to be established in accordance with the overall requirements of the reform to the professional titles system of the State.

8. Promoting the Cultivation of an Intellectual Property Culture

(63) Set up a working mechanism for publicizing information about intellectual property that is led by the government and supported by the media, in which the public widely participates. The coordination mechanism needs to be improved and relevant policies and working plans need to be formulated to promote public awareness of intellectual property and the development of an intellectual property culture.

(64) Offer intellectual property courses in higher education institutions and to introduce education on intellectual property into the quality-based education to students of such institutions. A general education plan on intellectual property needs to be formulated and implemented, and intellectual property education needs to be listed into teaching plans in primary and high schools in whole China.

9. Expanding International Exchanges and Cooperation in Intellectual Property

(65) Strengthen international exchanges and cooperation in the field of intellectual property. An international information exchange mechanism for intellectual property needs to be established and strengthened. International and regional cooperation needs to be strengthened in the development and utilization of intellectual property information resources and infrastructure. Encourage international cooperation on training of intellectual property professionals. Students studying overseas under State-financed projects are guided to pursue programs related to intellectual property, whereas those funded otherwise are encouraged to do so. Highly talented intellectual property professionals should be introduced from overseas and employed in China. China needs to actively participate in the development of international intellectual property order and effectively involve itself in undertakings of international organizations.

国家知识产权战略纲要

为提升我国知识产权创造、运用、保护和管理能力,建设创新型国家,实现全面建设小康社会目标,制定本纲要。

一、序言

(1)改革开放以来,我国经济社会持续快速发展,科学技术和文化创作取得长足进步,创新能力不断提升,知识在经济社会发展中的作用越来越突出。我国正站在新的历史起点上,大力开发和利用知识资源,对于转变经济发展方式,缓解资源环境约束,提升国家核心竞争力,满足人民群众日益增长的物质文化生活需要,具有重大战略意义。

(2)知识产权制度是开发和利用知识资源的基本制度。知识产权制度通过合理确定人们对于知识及其他信息的权利,调整人们在创造、运用知识和信息过程中产生的利益关系,激励创新,推动经济发展和社会进步。当今世界,随着知识经济和经济全球化深入发展,知识产权日益成为国家发展的战略性资源和国际竞争力的核心要素,成为建设创新型国家的重要支撑和掌握发展主动权的关键。国际社会更加重视知识产权,更加重视鼓励创新。发达国家以创新为主要动力推动经济发展,充分利用知识产权制度维护其竞争优势;发展中国家积极采取适应国情的知识产权政策措施,促进自身发展。

(3)经过多年发展,我国知识产权法律法规体系逐步健全,执法水平不断提高;知识产权拥有量快速增长,效益日益显现;市场主体运用知识产权能力逐步提高;知识产权领域的国际交往日益增多,国际影响力逐渐增强。知识产权制度的建立和实施,规范了市场秩序,激励了发明创造和文化创作,促进了对外开放和知识资源的引进,对经济社会发展发挥了重要作用。但是,从总体上看,我国知识产权制度仍不完善,自主知识产权水平和拥有量尚不能满足经济社会发展需要,社会公众知识产权意识仍较薄弱,市场主体运用知识产权能力不强,侵犯知识产权现象还比较突出,知识产权滥用行为时有发生,知识产权服务支撑体系和人才队伍建设滞后,知识产权制度对经济社会发展的促进作用尚未得到充分发挥。

(4)实施国家知识产权战略,大力提升知识产权创造、运用、保护和管理能力,有利于增强我国自主创新能力,建设创新型国家;有利于完善社会主义市场经济体制,规范市场秩序和建立诚信社会;有利于增强我国企业市场竞争力和提高国家核心竞争力;有利于扩大对外开放,实现互利共赢。必须把知识产权战略作为国家重要战略,切实加强知识产权工作。

二、指导思想和战略目标

(一)指导思想。

(5)实施国家知识产权战略,要坚持以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,按照激励创造、有效运用、依法保护、科学管理的方针,着力完善知识产权制度,积极营造良好的知识产权法治环境、市场环境、文化环境,大幅度提升我国知识产权创造、运用、保护和管理能力,为建设创新型国家和全面建设小康社会提供强有力支撑。

(二)战略目标。

(6)到2020年,把我国建设成为知识产权创造、运用、保护和管理水平较高的国家。知识产权法治环境进一步完善,市场主体创造、运用、保护和管理知识产权的能力显著增强,知识产权意识深入人心,自主知识产权的水平和拥有量能够有效支撑创新型国家建设,知识产权制度对经济发展、文化繁荣和社会建设的促进作用充分显现。

(7)近五年的目标是:

——自主知识产权水平大幅度提高,拥有量进一步增加。本国申请人发明专利年度授权量进入世界前列,对外专利申请大幅度增加。培育一批国际知名品牌。核心版权产业产值占国内生产总值的比重明显提高。拥有一批优良植物新品种和高水平集成电路布图设计。商业秘密、地理标志、遗传资源、传统知识和民间文艺等得到有效保护与合理利用。

——运用知识产权的效果明显增强,知识产权密集型商品比重显著提高。企业知识产权管理制度进一步健全,对知识产权领域的投入大幅度增加,运用知识产权参与市场竞争的能力明显提升。形成一批拥有知名品牌和核心知识产权,熟练运用知识产权制度的优势企业。

——知识产权保护状况明显改善。盗版、假冒等侵权行为显著减少,维权成本明显下降,滥用知识产权现象得到有效遏制。

——全社会特别是市场主体的知识产权意识普遍提高,知识产权文化氛围初步形成。

三、战略重点

(一)完善知识产权制度。

(8)进一步完善知识产权法律法规。及时修订专利法、商标法、著作权法等知识产权专门法律及有关法规。适时做好遗传资源、传统知识、民间文艺和地理标志等方面的立法工作。加强知识产权立法的衔接配套,增强法律法规可操作性。完善反不正当竞争、对外贸易、科技、国防等方面法律法规中有关知识产权的规定。

(9)健全知识产权执法和管理体制。加强司法保护体系和行政执法体系建设,发挥司法保护知识产权的主导作用,提高执法效率和水平,强化公共服务。深化知识产权行政管理体制改革,形成权责一致、分工合理、决策科学、执行顺畅、监督有力的知识产权行政管理体制。

(10)强化知识产权在经济、文化和社会政策中的导向作用。加强产业政策、区域政策、科技政策、贸易政策与知识产权政策的衔接。制定适合相关产业发展的知识产权政策,促进产业结构的调整与优化;针对不同地区发展特点,完善知识产权扶持政策,培育地区特色经济,促进区域经济协调发展;建立重大科技项目的知识产权工作机制,以知识产权的获取和保护为重点开展全程跟踪服务;健全与对外贸易有关的知识产权政策,建立和完善对外贸易领域知识产权管理体制、预警应急机制、海外维权机制和争端解决机制。加强文化、教育、科研、卫生等政策与知识产权政策的协调衔接,保障公众在文化、教育、科研、卫生等活动中依法合理使用创新成果和信息的权利,促进创新成果合理分享;保障国家应对公共危机的能力。

(二)促进知识产权创造和运用。

(11)运用财政、金融、投资、政府采购政策和产业、能源、环境保护政策,引导和支持市场主体创造和运用知识产权。强化科技创新活动中的知识产权政策导向作用,坚持技术创新以能够合法产业化为基本前提,以获得知识产权为追求目标,以形成技术标准为努力方向。完善国家资助开发的科研成果权利归属和利益分享机制。将知识产权指标纳入科技计划实施评价体系和国有企业绩效考核体系。逐步提高知识产权密集型商品出口比例,促进贸易增长方式的根本转变和贸易结构的优化升级。

(12)推动企业成为知识产权创造和运用的主体。促进自主创新成果的知识产权化、商品化、产业化,引导企业采取知识产权转让、许可、质押等方式实现知识产权的市场价值。充分发挥高等学校、科研院所在知识产权创造中的重要作用。选择若干重点技术领域,形成一批核心自主知识产权和技术标准。鼓励群众性发明创造和文化创新。促进优秀文化产品的创作。

(三)加强知识产权保护。

(13)修订惩处侵犯知识产权行为的法律法规,加大司法惩处力度。提高权利人自我维权的意识和能力。降低维权成本,提高侵权代价,有效遏制侵权行为。

(四)防止知识产权滥用。

(14)制定相关法律法规,合理界定知识产权的界限,防止知识产权滥用,维护公平竞争的市场秩序和公众合法权益。

(五)培育知识产权文化。

(15)加强知识产权宣传,提高全社会知识产权意识。广泛开展知识产权普及型教育。在精神文明创建活动和国家普法教育中增加有关知识产权的内容。在全社会弘扬以创新为荣、剽窃为耻,以诚实守信为荣、假冒欺骗为耻的道德观念,形成尊重知识、崇尚创新、诚信守法的知识产权文化。

四、专项任务

(一)专利。

(16)以国家战略需求为导向,在生物和医药、信息、新材料、先进制造、先进能源、海洋、资源环境、现代农业、现代交通、航空航天等技术领域超前部署,掌握一批核心技术的专利,支撑我国高技术产业与新兴产业发展。

(17)制定和完善与标准有关的政策,规范将专利纳入标准的行为。支持企业、行业组织积极参与国际标准的制定。

(18)完善职务发明制度,建立既有利于激发职务发明人创新积极性,又有利于促进专利技术实施的利益分配机制。

(19)按照授予专利权的条件,完善专利审查程序,提高审查质量。防止非正常专利申请。

(20)正确处理专利保护和公共利益的关系。在依法保护专利权的同时,完善强制许可制度,发挥例外制度作用,研究制定合理的相关政策,保证在发生公共危机时,公众能够及时、充分获得必需的产品和服务。

(二)商标。

(21)切实保护商标权人和消费者的合法权益。加强执法能力建设,严厉打击假冒等侵权行为,维护公平竞争的市场秩序。

(22)支持企业实施商标战略,在经济活动中使用自主商标。引导企业丰富商标内涵,增加商标附加值,提高商标知名度,形成驰名商标。鼓励企业进行国际商标注册,维护商标权益,参与国际竞争。

(23)充分发挥商标在农业产业化中的作用。积极推动市场主体注册和使用商标,促进农产品质量提高,保证食品安全,提高农产品附加值,增强市场竞争力。

(24)加强商标管理。提高商标审查效率,缩短审查周期,保证审查质量。尊重市场规律,切实解决驰名商标、著名商标、知名商品、名牌产品、优秀品牌的认定等问题。

(三)版权。

(25)扶持新闻出版、广播影视、文学艺术、文化娱乐、广告设计、工艺美术、计算机软件、信息网络等版权相关产业发展,支持具有鲜明民族特色、时代特点作品的创作,扶持难以参与市场竞争的优秀文化作品的创作。

(26)完善制度,促进版权市场化。进一步完善版权质押、作品登记和转让合同备案等制度,拓展版权利用方式,降低版权交易成本和风险。充分发挥版权集体管理组织、行业协会、代理机构等中介组织在版权市场化中的作用。

(27)依法处置盗版行为,加大盗版行为处罚力度。重点打击大规模制售、传播盗版产品的行为,遏制盗版现象。

(28)有效应对互联网等新技术发展对版权保护的挑战。妥善处理保护版权与保障信息传播的关系,既要依法保护版权,又要促进信息传播。

(四)商业秘密。

(29)引导市场主体依法建立商业秘密管理制度。依法打击窃取他人商业秘密的行为。妥善处理保护商业秘密与自由择业、涉密者竞业限制与人才合理流动的关系,维护职工合法权益。

(五)植物新品种。

(30)建立激励机制,扶持新品种培育,推动育种创新成果转化为植物新品种权。支持形成一批拥有植物新品种权的种苗单位。建立健全植物新品种保护的技术支撑体系,加快制订植物新品种测试指南,提高审查测试水平。

(31)合理调节资源提供者、育种者、生产者和经营者之间的利益关系,注重对农民合法权益的保护。提高种苗单位及农民的植物新品种权保护意识,使品种权人、品种生产经销单位和使用新品种的农民共同受益。

(六)特定领域知识产权。

(32)完善地理标志保护制度。建立健全地理标志的技术标准体系、质量保证体系与检测体系。普查地理标志资源,扶持地理标志产品,促进具有地方特色的自然、人文资源优势转化为现实生产力。

(33)完善遗传资源保护、开发和利用制度,防止遗传资源流失和无序利用。协调遗传资源保护、开发和利用的利益关系,构建合理的遗传资源获取与利益分享机制。保障遗传资源提供者知情同意权。

(34)建立健全传统知识保护制度。扶持传统知识的整理和传承,促进传统知识发展。完善传统医药知识产权管理、保护和利用协调机制,加强对传统工艺的保护、开发和利用。

(35)加强民间文艺保护,促进民间文艺发展。深入发掘民间文艺作品,建立民间文艺保存人与后续创作人之间合理分享利益的机制,维护相关个人、群体的合法权益。

(36)加强集成电路布图设计专有权的有效利用,促进集成电路产业发展。

(七)国防知识产权。

(37)建立国防知识产权的统一协调管理机制,着力解决权利归属与利益分配、有偿使用、激励机制以及紧急状态下技术有效实施等重大问题。

(38)加强国防知识产权管理。将知识产权管理纳入国防科研、生产、经营及装备采购、保障和项目管理各环节,增强对重大国防知识产权的掌控能力。发布关键技术指南,在武器装备关键技术和军民结合高新技术领域形成一批自主知识产权。建立国防知识产权安全预警机制,对军事技术合作和军品贸易中的国防知识产权进行特别审查。

(39)促进国防知识产权有效运用。完善国防知识产权保密解密制度,在确保国家安全和国防利益基础上,促进国防知识产权向民用领域转移。鼓励民用领域知识产权在国防领域运用。

五、战略措施

(一)提升知识产权创造能力。

(40)建立以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研相结合的自主知识产权创造体系。引导企业在研究开发立项及开展经营活动前进行知识产权信息检索。支持企业通过原始创新、集成创新和引进消化吸收再创新,形成自主知识产权,提高把创新成果转变为知识产权的能力。支持企业等市场主体在境外取得知识产权。引导企业改进竞争模式,加强技术创新,提高产品质量和服务质量,支持企业打造知名品牌。

(二)鼓励知识产权转化运用。

(41)引导支持创新要素向企业集聚,促进高等学校、科研院所的创新成果向企业转移,推动企业知识产权的应用和产业化,缩短产业化周期。深入开展各类知识产权试点、示范工作,全面提升知识产权运用能力和应对知识产权竞争的能力。

(42)鼓励和支持市场主体健全技术资料与商业秘密管理制度,建立知识产权价值评估、统计和财务核算制度,制订知识产权信息检索和重大事项预警等制度,完善对外合作知识产权管理制度。

(43)鼓励市场主体依法应对涉及知识产权的侵权行为和法律诉讼,提高应对知识产权纠纷的能力。

(三)加快知识产权法制建设。

(44)建立适应知识产权特点的立法机制,提高立法质量,加快立法进程。加强知识产权立法前瞻性研究,做好立法后评估工作。增强立法透明度,拓宽企业、行业协会和社会公众参与立法的渠道。加强知识产权法律修改和立法解释,及时有效回应知识产权新问题。研究制定知识产权基础性法律的必要性和可行性。

(四)提高知识产权执法水平。

(45)完善知识产权审判体制,优化审判资源配置,简化救济程序。研究设置统一受理知识产权民事、行政和刑事案件的专门知识产权法庭。研究适当集中专利等技术性较强案件的审理管辖权问题,探索建立知识产权上诉法院。进一步健全知识产权审判机构,充实知识产权司法队伍,提高审判和执行能力。

(46)加强知识产权司法解释工作。针对知识产权案件专业性强等特点,建立和完善司法鉴定、专家证人、技术调查等诉讼制度,完善知识产权诉前临时措施制度。改革专利和商标确权、授权程序,研究专利无效审理和商标评审机构向准司法机构转变的问题。

(47)提高知识产权执法队伍素质,合理配置执法资源,提高执法效率。针对反复侵权、群体性侵权以及大规模假冒、盗版等行为,有计划、有重点地开展知识产权保护专项行动。加大行政执法机关向刑事司法机关移送知识产权刑事案件和刑事司法机关受理知识产权刑事案件的力度。

(48)加大海关执法力度,加强知识产权边境保护,维护良好的进出口秩序,提高我国出口商品的声誉。充分利用海关执法国际合作机制,打击跨境知识产权违法犯罪行为,发挥海关在国际知识产权保护事务中的影响力。

(五)加强知识产权行政管理。

(49)制定并实施地区和行业知识产权战略。建立健全重大经济活动知识产权审议制度。扶持符合经济社会发展需要的自主知识产权创造与产业化项目。

(50)充实知识产权管理队伍,加强业务培训,提高人员素质。根据经济社会发展需要,县级以上人民政府可设立相应的知识产权管理机构。

(51)完善知识产权审查及登记制度,加强能力建设,优化程序,提高效率,降低行政成本,提高知识产权公共服务水平。

(52)构建国家基础知识产权信息公共服务平台。建设高质量的专利、商标、版权、集成电路布图设计、植物新品种、地理标志等知识产权基础信息库,加快开发适合我国检索方式与习惯的通用检索系统。健全植物新品种保护测试机构和保藏机构。建立国防知识产权信息平台。指导和鼓励各地区、各有关行业建设符合自身需要的知识产权信息库。促进知识产权系统集成、资源整合和信息共享。

(53)建立知识产权预警应急机制。发布重点领域的知识产权发展态势报告,对可能发生的涉及面广、影响大的知识产权纠纷、争端和突发事件,制订预案,妥善应对,控制和减轻损害。

(六)发展知识产权中介服务。

(54)完善知识产权中介服务管理,加强行业自律,建立诚信信息管理、信用评价和失信惩戒等诚信管理制度。规范知识产权评估工作,提高评估公信度。

(55)建立知识产权中介服务执业培训制度,加强中介服务职业培训,规范执业资质管理。明确知识产权代理人等中介服务人员执业范围,研究建立相关律师代理制度。完善国防知识产权中介服务体系。大力提升中介组织涉外知识产权申请和纠纷处置服务能力及国际知识产权事务参与能力。

(56)充分发挥行业协会的作用,支持行业协会开展知识产权工作,促进知识产权信息交流,组织共同维权。加强政府对行业协会知识产权工作的监督指导。

(57)充分发挥技术市场的作用,构建信息充分、交易活跃、秩序良好的知识产权交易体系。简化交易程序,降低交易成本,提供优质服务。

(58)培育和发展市场化知识产权信息服务,满足不同层次知识产权信息需求。鼓励社会资金投资知识产权信息化建设,鼓励企业参与增值性知识产权信息开发利用。

(七)加强知识产权人才队伍建设。

(59)建立部门协调机制,统筹规划知识产权人才队伍建设。加快建设国家和省级知识产权人才库和专业人才信息网络平台。

(60)建设若干国家知识产权人才培养基地。加快建设高水平的知识产权师资队伍。设立知识产权二级学科,支持有条件的高等学校设立知识产权硕士、博士学位授予点。大规模培养各级各类知识产权专业人才,重点培养企业急需的知识产权管理和中介服务人才。

(61)制定培训规划,广泛开展对党政领导干部、公务员、企事业单位管理人员、专业技术人员、文学艺术创作人员、教师等的知识产权培训。

(62)完善吸引、使用和管理知识产权专业人才相关制度,优化人才结构,促进人才合理流动。结合公务员法的实施,完善知识产权管理部门公务员管理制度。按照国家职称制度改革总体要求,建立和完善知识产权人才的专业技术评价体系。

(八)推进知识产权文化建设。

(63)建立政府主导、新闻媒体支撑、社会公众广泛参与的知识产权宣传工作体系。完善协调机制,制定相关政策和工作计划,推动知识产权的宣传普及和知识产权文化建设。

(64)在高等学校开设知识产权相关课程,将知识产权教育纳入高校学生素质教育体系。制定并实施全国中小学知识产权普及教育计划,将知识产权内容纳入中小学教育课程体系。

(九)扩大知识产权对外交流合作。

(65)加强知识产权领域的对外交流合作。建立和完善知识产权对外信息沟通交流机制。加强国际和区域知识产权信息资源及基础设施建设与利用的交流合作。鼓励开展知识产权人才培养的对外合作。引导公派留学生、鼓励自费留学生选修知识产权专业。支持引进或聘用海外知识产权高层次人才。积极参与国际知识产权秩序的构建,有效参与国际组织有关议程。

Source: http://www.gov.cn/english/2008-06/21/content_1023471.htm

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