State Council Report concerning the Cultural Industry Development Work Situation

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28 April 2010, 14th Meeting of the 11th National People’s Congress Standing Committee

Minister of Culture: Cai Wu

Committee head, all vice-Committee heads, secretary-general, all Committee members

I received the entrustment of the State Council, to report the cultural industry development work situation to the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, please deliberate it.

I, Work related to stimulating cultural industry development.

At present, a uniform opinion concerning the definition of cultural industries or sector definition as well as category standards have not yet formed internationally. The European Union and Japan name them “content industries”, the United Kingdom, Singapore and other countries call them “creative industries”, the United States call them “entertainment industries” or “copyright industries”, and Korea calls them “cultural industries”. Our country defines cultural industries as commercial industries engaging in the production of cultural products and the provision of cultural services. The “Outline of the National “11th Five Year Plan” Period Cultural Development Plan” lists 9 focus development cultural industry categories: the film production sector, the publishing sector, the distribution sector, the printing and reproduction sector, the advertising sector, the performing arts sector, the entertainment sector, the cultural exhibition sector, the digital content sector and the cartoon sector.

In recent years, the State Council and its subordinate organs have, at the same time as focusing on the development of public interest-type cultural undertakings, adopted many kinds of methods to promote the acceleration of our country’s cultural industry development. Mainly, the following work has been done:

(1) Promoting cultural construction theory innovation, establishing the cultural industries at an important position in cultural construction and economic and social development.

Since the 16th Party congress, the Party Centre and State Council have put forward a series of concrete guiding, focused and practical judgments and discussions in the area of cultural construction, have shaped new concepts concerning the orientation, objectives, lines of thinking, strategies and other aspects of cultural developments, and have raised the function and position of cultural construction as well as the cultural industries. The 16th Party Centre put forward: “In the present world, culture is blended into economics and politics, and its position and function in comprehensive national strength is becoming ever more prominent. The force of culture is deeply cast into the vitality, creativity and cohesion of the nation”, and that it as necessary to “vigorously develop cultural undertakings and cultural industries”. At the same time, it pointed out that: “cultural industries are an important channel for letting Socialist culture flourish and satisfy the popular masses’ spiritual culture needs under the circumstances of the market economy”, “developing all kinds of cultural undertakings and cultural industries must implement the requirements of developing advanced culture, and completely put social interests first. The 17th Party Congress stood on a new historical starting point, and determined the general distribution of the Socialist cause with Chinese characteristics with “an organic whole of four sides”: economic construction, political construction, cultural construction and social construction, produced the strategic deployment for completely constructing a relatively well-off society, issued an appeal to “promote the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture” and “arouse a new high tide of Socialist culture construction”, clearly putting forward the necessity to vigorously develop public interest-type cultural undertakings, forcefully develop cultural industries, and let “the proportion that cultural industries occupy in the national economy clearly rise, international competitiveness clearly strengthen, cultural products adapted to the people’s needs become more rich and varied” be brought into the struggle objectives of completely constructing a relatively well-off society. In February of this year, General Secretary Hu Jintao gave an important speech at the provincial and ministerial-level main leading cadre discussion class on the topic of implementing the scientific development view and accelerating the transformation of economic development method in a class form, and make accelerating the development of the cultural industries into one of the eight focus work of accelerating economic development methods, requiring that accelerating the cultural industries, at the same time as focusing on developing public-interest cultural undertakings, persists in uniting economic interest with social interest, deepening cultural structural reform, accelerating public cultural service system construction, accelerating the development of commercial cultural industries, and accelerating the expansion of cultural markets. In March of this year, premier Wen Jiabao pit forward in the government work report of the 3rd Plenum of the 11th National People’s Congress that: “National development, the vitalization of the nation, not only requires strong economic strength, it also requires strong cultural strength. Culture is a nation’s spirit and soul, it is the decisive factor in a nation’s becoming truly powerful, and may deeply influence the development process of a country, and change a nation’s destiny. Without the development of advanced culture, there will be no rise of the cultural quality of the entire nation, and it will be impossible to truly realize modernization.”

(2) Deepening cultural structural reform, fostering cultural market subjects.

Cultural structural reform is the driver of cultural industry development. In June 2003, the Party Centre organized the cultural structural reform trial work conference. In December 2005, the Party Centre and the State Council made deployments, requiring, on the basis of the trials, a complete deepening of cultural structural, moving cultural undertaking work unit reform forward, deepening cultural industry reform, fostering modern cultural market systems as well as completing macro-level management structures, etc.

At present, the entire country in total has 123 State-owned culture and art theatres and groups in the culture system that transformed into enterprises, among which 69 transformed into enterprises in 2009, exceeding the total of the previous 6 years. In 2009, the China Eastern Song and Dance Troupe, the Ministry of Culture Cultural Market Development Centre and four other Ministry of Culture-subordinate undertaking work units transformed into enterprises, leading to a demonstration function, and promoting the broad and deep moving forward of reform into enterprises in the cultural system, and to expand to to a general level. The pace of film production, distribution and screening work units transforming into enterprises has accelerated, of the 24 film production studios that needed to transform, 22 have completed this, of the 29 provincial-level film companies that needed to transform, 26 have completed this. The China Television Drama Production Centre and 45 other television drama production work units have completed transformation into enterprises. In the entire country, 180.000 printing work units and 30 provincial-level Xinhua bookstore systems have completely transformed into enterprises, 580 book publishers, apart from the minority publishers that preserve the undertaking system, will completely transform into enterprises before the end of this year, and 1069 non-current affairs-type newspapers and periodical work units have transformed into or registered as enterprise legal persons.

At the same time, the State Council issued the “Some Decisions Concerning Non-Publicly Owned Capital Entering the Cultural Industries”, which created a good policy environment and fair competition opportunities for non-publicly owned cultural enterprises to develop. In 2005, the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Finance, the previous Ministry of Personnel and the General Administration of Taxation jointly printed the “Opinions concerning Encouraging the Development of Private Culture and Art Performance Troupes”. In 2009, the Ministry of Culture issued the “Some Opinions Concerning Stimulating Private Culture and Art Performance Troupe Development”, further encouraging social capital to initiate private culture and art performance troupes. At present, it has been realized that areas such as performance, entertainment, artworks, network culture, cartoons and games, publications distribution, printing and reproduction, etc., are comprehensively opened up to domestic non-publicly owned capital along the entire process.

(3) Implementing the “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan” promoting cultural industries to become a strategic industry of the country.

During the global financial crisis, our country’s cultural industries have moved in the opposite direction and risen, which has been followed with high interest by the Party, the government as well as all walks of society. The Party Centre and the State Council leading comrades put forward, that we must make cultural industries into a new growth point to counteract the financial crisis, and we must let Chinese culture march towards the world, and display the outstanding culture of China to the world. Against this background, the State Council passed the “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan” in July of last year, symbolizing that the cultural industries have become a national strategic industry.

The “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan” requires to “at the same time as giving high regard to developing public interest culture undertakings, accelerating the vitalization of the cultural industries, fully giving rein to the important function of the cultural industries in adjusting structures, expanding international demand, increasing employment and promoting development. According to the spirit of the Centre to “maintain growth, expand internal demand, adjust structures, stimulate reform and benefit the people”, the “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan” clarified the guiding ideology, basic principles and objectives of cultural industry development, clarified eight important focus works: developing focus cultural industries, implementing major programme driving strategies, fostering backbone culture enterprises, accelerating the construction of cultural industry parks and bases, expanding cultural consumption, constructing modern culture market systems, developing burgeoning cultural business models and expanding foreign trade, put forward a series of policy measures and guarantee conditions of reducing entry barriers, expanding government input, implementing preferential tax policies, expanding financial support, strengthening organizational guidance, deepening cultural structural reform, fostering cultural industry talent and strengthening legislative work. The issuance and implementation of the “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan” has greatly inspired the cultural industry world with the confidence and determination to react to the financial crisis and realize smooth development, and has brought about opportunities for cultural industries to move in the opposite direction and rise during the financial crisis, become strong and become large.

(4) Expanding policy support strength, striving to create a good development environment.

In 2006, the CCP Central Committee Secretariat and the State Council Secretariat issued the “Outline of the National “11th Five Year Plan” Period Cultural Development Plan”, this was the first national cultural development plan that was issued and implemented since the foundation of the new China. In 2008, the State Council Secretariat issued documents relating to commercial cultural undertaking enterprises transforming into enterprises and supporting cultural enterprises development, related policies involve State-owned cultural asset management, asset and land disposition, income distribution, social security, personnel dismissal arrangements, finance and taxation, legal person registration, industry and commerce management and other aspects. Relevant State Council-subordinate departments have also independently or jointly rolled out a series of policy documents supporting cultural industry development.

In the aspect of financial support, the central financial administration established a “Special Fund to Support Cultural Industry Development”. Nationwide, there are 26 provinces (regions, municipalities) that have established special cultural industry development funds, provincial-level financial input is about 2.5 billion Yuan. Jiangsu, Shanghai, Tianjin, Shaanxi and 10 other provinces and cities have or are in the process of grasping the establishment of cultural industry investment funds or investment companies. At present, relevant departments are currently vigorously and comprehensively planning the establishment of a China cultural industry investment fund.

In the aspect of taxation, in order to stimulate cultural industry development, the State has granted a lower value-added tax rate to the publishing industry, after-payment tax rebate of publications’ value added tax, county-level or lower Xinhua bookstores are exempt from value added tax and other preferential tax policies. Cartoon and film enterprises also enjoy a State mitigation of value-added tax, business tax and other preferential policies.

In the aspect of financial support, propaganda, finance, the People’s Banks, culture, radio and television, press and publications and other departments have jointly formulated the “Guiding Opinions Concerning Financial Support for Cultural Industry Vitalization, Development and Flourishing”. The Ministry of Culture, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, the General Administration of Press and Publications and other departments  have respectively concluded cooperation agreements with the Bank of China, the China Industrial and Commercial Bank, the China Agricultural Bank and the China Exim Bank and other financial institutions, creating convenient conditions for enterprises to borrow money from banks. The banking sector has incessantly rolled out financial innovations aimed at the cultural industries, banks have been attracted to issue a programme loan of 50 million Yuan to the film “Assembly” with the box office income as pledge; the China Construction Bank Shenzhen Branch has resolved the problem that the credit pledges of cultural enterprises in the Shenzhen Dafen Oil Painting village were insufficient through “mutual lending guarantees”, the Beijing Bank and Communications Bank Beijing Branch have opened green lending channels for cultural industries, and rolled out intangible asset pledge trials. The Securities and Exchange Commission and other financial supervision and management organs encourage and support to fully utilize many kinds of funding channels such as going on the market for funds, distributing enterprises bonds, attracting strategic foreign investors, etc,. under the condition that it is permitted by State policies. At present, there are 18 cultural enterprises listed on the A-share list, the start-up list and the H-share market list.

II, The basic situation of cultural industry development.

Following the incessant deepening of cultural structural reform and the incessant strengthening of the popular masses’ spiritual culture needs, our country’s cultural industry has already entered a new phase of rapid development from a preliminary phase of exploration, start-up and fostering, and a new picture full of vigour and vitality has emerged.

(1) Rapid cultural industry development, swift development of burgeoning business models.

According to statistics, since the year 2004, our country’s cultural industry’s annual growth rate is higher than 15%, which is six percentage points higher that the growth rate of the national economy during the same period, and an outlook of high-speed growth has been maintained. During 2008 and 2009, when facing the attack by the financial crisis, cultural industries have risen contrary to trends, its consumption was lowered, its pollution was lowered, added value gained a further prominent and high-level superiority, creating a warm current in the hard economic winter. In 2008, nationwide cultural departments’ art performance troupe income was 8.03 billion Yuan, 16% higher than in 2007. The nationwide radio, film and television income was 135.06 billion Yuan, 18% higher than in 2007. In the first half of 2009, our country’s cultural industries grew by 17%, greatly exceeding the growth rate of domestic production values and tertiary industries. In 2009, 456 feature films were produced domestically, urban cinema ticket income was 6.2 billion Yuan, a comparative growth of 40%. The total output value of the press and publications sector broke through 1 trillion Yuan, a comparative growth of 20%. Among those, the total print quantity of daily newspapers was 44 billion, the scale of publishing has had the first position worldwide for nine years running; annual book publishing was 275700 titles, total sales value 145.6 billion Yuan, the publication variety and sales value is second in the world; the total output value of printed products is 574.6 billion Yuan. Generally speaking, the cultural industries’ growth momentum is strong, its rate of contribution to the national economy incessantly rises, and its stimulating function becomes more prominent every day.

Following the development of network, digital and information technology, cartoon gaming, digital music, digital film, network audiovisuals, mobile multimedia radio and television, public audiovisual carriers, digital publishing, network publishing, mobile telephone publishing and other burgeoning cultural industries have abruptly risen swiftly, and have broadened the territory of the cultural industries. In 2009, the nationwide cartoon creation and production quantity was 322 films and 170.000 minutes, an increase of 31% over 2008, the originally created cartoon “little sheep and the grey wolf” had a box office income of 100 million Yuan, and has broken the box office record for domestically-produced cartoon films; the scale of the network gaming market is 25.8 billion Yuan, an increase of 39,5% over 2008; the total output value of digital publishing was 75 billion Yuan, an annual increase of more than 50%; the sales amount of domestically-produced electronic books and electronic readers was 716.000, carrying more than 30 million volumes, the total sales value exceeded 2.5 billion; the network audiovisual market scale was 583 million Yuan, there were 240 million audiovisual network users; our country’s indigenously innovated mobile multimedia radio and television obtained breakthrough progress, there are 2000 urban mainstream commercial digital film screens, rural digitized film screening has been completely spread out.

(2) Cultural industries have become a new shining point for local economic development, and their function in accelerating the transformation of economic development methods becomes more prominent day by day.

At present, not a few local cultural industries have a growth speed that is higher than the overall growth speed of the national economy, and have become important sectors in providing employment opportunities, rising sun sectors in industrial structure optimization and pillar industries for economic growth, and have made vigorous contributions to stimulating local economic growth and accelerating the transformation of economic development methods. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Hunan, Yunnan and other provinces and cities’ cultural industries’ added value occupies a proportion in excess of 5% of GDP. The proportion of the cultural industries’ added value of Hunan province in GDP has grown from 1,4% in 1990 to 5,1% in 2008, cultural industries contributions to economic growth have risen from 2,3% in 2003 to 6,5% in 2007. In Yunnan province, the added value of cultural industries in 2008 was 30 billion Yuan, a proportion of 5.8% of GDP. In the recent five years, the added value of the cultural industries in Shenzhen grew by a speed of about 20% per year, occupying a proportion of 7% of GDP.

(3) Cultural products and services have become richer every day, cultural industries have become an important channel in satisfying the popular masses’ spiritual culture needs.

The rapid development of the cultural industries has mustered the vigour of the entire society in participating in cultural construction, has smashed the singular picture of State-organized culture during the planned economy system, and has shaped a multi-level and diversified cultural production and services structure. By 2008, there were nearly 10.000 culture and art performance troupes nationwide in total, 1305 performance management organs, 84356 cultural entertainment venues, 1969 county-level radio and television stations, 257 district-level and higher radio stations and 277 television stations, 2436 public broadcast programmes, 3199 public television programmes, 3343 of all sorts of radio and television programme production business organs, 34 mainstream cinema chains, 1545 intra-chain cinemas, 4097 screens, 1943 newspapers, 9821 periodicals, 580 book publishers, 378 audiovisual publishers, 240 electronic publishers, 120.000 publications distribution work units, and 180.000 printing work units. Following the daily increase of cultural market subjects, the quantity of cultural products and services has become richer, quality has been incessantly raised, the poplar masses’ diversified and multi-level culture needs have been further satisfied.

(4) The pace of cultural products and services’ “marching out” has incessantly accelerated, the influence of Chinese culture internationally rises day by day..

In 2009, our country’s foreign commercial performance troupes were about 426 in number, performing 16373 times, realizing a performance income of 76,85 million Yuan. The overseas income of domestically-produced films was about 400 million US Dollars, the export of all sorts of television programmes exceeded 10.000 hours, with a foreign sales value of about 58.98 million US Dollars. Between January and November 2009, our country’s core cultural product export was 9.4 billion IS Dollars, book copyright export proportions dropped down from 9:1 in 2003 to 3.4:1 in 2009. The China as guest of honour activities at the Frankfurt International Book Fair were successfully organized, realizing a copyright export of 2417 titles.  Cultural enterprises with Tianchuang International Performing Arts Production And Exchange Co. Ltd., China International Television Company, Anhui Publishing Group Co. Ltd etc., as representative have accelerated the pace of “marching out”, and strengthened international influence.

(5) Cultural industry investment and cultural resource exploitation has continuously warmed up, cultural industry groups are incessantly formed.

Our country is an ancient civilization country having a history of 5000 years long, the historical cultural resources for developing the cultural industries are extremely rich, the potential to transform this resource superiority into industrial superiority is huge. The characteristic of high added values of the cultural industries has attracted the eyes of investors, large amounts of capital and human resources have poured into the cultural sphere, cultural industries have become a new hot point for the pursuit of social capital. For example, the Shenzhen Strong China Group with electronic production and electronic markets as guidance, has invested in the cultural industries in great scale, becoming a new talent in our domestic cultural theme parks. The chemical enterprise Guangxi Vinylon Group Co. Ltd., has already become one of the four large pillars for the cultural industry, and the cinema chain companies under their flag have 400 cinema screens, and their cinema chains’ box office income was first nationwide in 2009.

Following the large-scale entry of social capital and the strengthening of government support strength, many cultural industry parks have been continuously constructed and put into use, cultural industry consolidation development tendencies become clearer every day. In Beijing Municipality, there are already 21 cultural industry group areas with more than 8000 cultural enterprises. In Shanghai municipality, there are 75 cultural industry parks, concentrating more than 2500 cultural enterprises and more than 20.000 high-level creative talents. In Jiangsu Province, more than 60 cultural industry parks have been built or are being built. The Ministry of Culture and the Beijing Municipality and Tianjin municipality have respectively jointly sponsored the China Cartoon and Game City and the China Comprehensive Cartoon Industry Demonstration Park, which have officially opened, the China Digital Film Production Base construction programme is being implemented smoothly, the General Administration moved the construction of the Changjiang Digital Publishing Base forward together with Shanghai municipality, and constructed the Northern New Region Digital Publishing Base together with Chongqing municipality, which forcefully promoted the rapid development of our country’s cultural industries.

(6) The pace of social capital entering has accelerated, the diversification of cultural industry investment is beginning to be formed.

Following the incessant deepening of structural cultural reform, State-owned cultural markets have progressively increased, becoming main forces developing the cultural industries. The China Foreign Culture Group Co., the Shanghai Performing Arts (Group) Co. Ltd., the Jiangsu Performing Arts Group Co. Ltd., the China Film Group Co., the China International Television General Company, the China Publishing Group Co., the Jiangsu Phoenix Publishing Media Group Co, the Northern Publishing Media (Group) Co. Ltd and a number of other State-owned or State controlled cultural enterprises’ comprehensive strength has incessantly strengthened.

At present, there are nearly 7000 people-run culture and art performance troupes nationwide, more than 2800 people-run television programme production enterprises, more than 400 people-run film production and distribution companies, 8 people-run publications chain business enterprises with a national scope, 110.000 people-run publications distribution enterprises, more than 40 Sino-foreign joint venture, cooperative or foreign-invested book and periodical distribution enterprises, more than 2500 printing enterprises, more than 50 periodical copyright cooperations and more than 600 Sino-foreign book cooperated books per year. The Shanghai Magnificent Network Development Co. Ltd., the Shenzhen Strong China Cultural Science and Technology Group, the Huayi Brothers Media Company and a batch of other people-run cultural enterprises have become fresh troops for cultural industry development, and a cultural industry structure with public ownership at the core, jointly developing many kinds of ownership is currently being formed.

III, The problems presently existing in cultural industry development

At present, there still are a number of problems and difficulties in cultural industry development These are concretely reflected in:

(1) Cultural industry quantities are still insufficiently large, levels are still insufficiently high.

Following the rapid development of our country’s economy, the spiritual culture needs of the popular masse have presented a rapid growth tendency, especially following the rise of cultural levels and the increase of leisure time, the popular masses’ requirements of cultural products and services have become more diversified. In comparison, the contradictions of imbalanced supply and demand and “structural deficits” in cultural products and services are prominent, “effective provision” is correspondingly insufficient, and there still is a certain difference between the popular masses’ daily increasing spiritual cultural life needs.

Although, in international society, unified cultural industry differentiation standards have not been formed, all countries’ cultural industry statistical standards are inconsistent, but it may still be observed that our country’s cultural industry quantities are insufficiently large, and levels are insufficiently high, the value that the cultural industry occupy in the overall national economy is still relatively small, not enough rein is given to the function of economic structure adjustment, and the contributions to and influence on the national economy are vastly lower than in the United States, Japan and other developed countries. Cultural industries must earnestly become pillar industries for the national economy and forceful steps remain to be taken and moved forward.

(2) Cultural industry concentration levels are not high, backbone enterprises and famous brands are lacking.

Because of a relatively late start and horizontal and vertical fragmentation in the cultural area, market barriers and other factors, our country’s cultural enterprises’ problems of “weakness, smallness, fragmentation and overflow” are relatively prominent, dissemination scales are relatively small, industrial scales and intensification levels are not high, industrial structures are not balanced, large-scale and high-level key enterprises with integrated industrial chains are few, strategic investors and backbone enterprises are lacking the cultural area. The indigenous innovation capacity of cultural enterprises is not high, core competitiveness is insufficient, intellectual property rights’ functions are not given full rein, enterprise creation, research and development and production levels are relatively low, excellent masterpieces with profound content, independent styles, novel forms and advanced technology and famous cultural brand are relatively low, capacity to participate in international competition remains to be raised.

(3) Policy and legal and regulatory systems are not complete, input and talent guarantees are not perfected.

In recent years, the State rolled out a series of policy measures to support and stimulate cultural industry development, but generally speaking, these are still insufficiently perfected. Cultural legislation is relatively weak, cultural industry development lacks strong legal system guarantees, industrial policy must still be further strengthened in focus and feasibility. A series of systemic and policy obstacles still exist in the administrative management of the cultural industries, industrial plans are unclear, industrial management is not standardized, and especially network culture and other burgeoning business models’ management still relies on traditional management experiences and models. The problem of piracy and infringement is still relatively prominent, intellectual property rights protection remains to be strengthened.

Although all levels’ financial input for cultural construction has been incessantly increased, because cultural construction expense base levels were low for a long time, foundations were weak, and basic conditions are bad, there still is a considerable difference between the growth of financial input and the requirements of cultural development, culture input quantities are still insufficiently clear, and basic conditions for cultural industry development are weak.

Creative talents, business management talents, technological exploitation talents, market sales talents and especially comprehensive high-level talents both understanding culture and understanding business are in short supply in the cultural industries, talent fostering and encouragement guarantee mechanisms remain to be strengthened. Cultural industry statistics work has only just begun, statistical standard systems are still being perfected, statistics work has not yet covered al work units engaging in the cultural industries. The blending between modern science and technology, and culture is ever closer, but the dynamism of traditional cultural industries’ using new technology is not strong, and there is insufficient vitality. Cultural industry standardization system construction is relatively backward, and has influenced the rise of industrial development levels and the expansion of scales.

(4) Cultural trade deficits are still relatively high, the pace of cultural industry “marching out” remains to be further accelerated.

In recent years, although our country’s cultural product and service export quantities have somewhat increased, but the phenomenon of cultural trade deficit has not basically changed, cultural product and service export channels are still relatively narrow, export values are fare lower than the import of similar sorts of products, the international competitiveness and dissemination strength of our country’s cultural products remains to be further raised. With performing arts products as an example: the differential between our country’s import and export of performing arts is 10:1 per performance, our country’s complete annual overseas commercial performance income is lower than 100 million US Dollars, which is lower than the overseas performance income of one foreign well-known circus troupe.

(5) The symptoms of blind development still exist to a certain extent, planning, guiding and control remains to be further strengthened.

At present, al localities’ enthusiasm to develop the cultural industries has surged, and they compete to start up large-scale cultural industry programmes, cultural industry parks and bases are spread over all localities, all sorts of capital successively enters the cultural industries. On the one hand, this has reflected the good expectations of all circles concerning cultural industry development, and is also an important precondition for accelerating cultural industry development, they have gained a vigorous promotion function in industrial development, but on the other hand, the problems of blind development, resource waste and homogenized competition has also emerged, and we must give this high regard. For example, there are dozens of cities nationwide that already started or are preparing the construction of large-scale cartoon theme parks or cultural theme parks; not a few scenic areas plan to start large-scale real-life performances; some cultural industry programmes engage in real estate development under the name of culture. if these tendencies are not timely planned, guided and controlled, it is quite possible that they influence the scientific development of the cultural industries.

IV, Accelerating the work planning for cultural industry development

In the present and future periods, the guiding ideology for accelerating cultural industry reform is: completely implementing the spirit of the 17th Party Congress, persisting in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thought as guidance, implementing the scientific development view, consciously merging cultural industry development into the overall picture of transforming economic development methods, implement the “Cultural Promotion Plan”, persist in giving priority to social effect and unifying economic effect with social effect, deepening cultural structural reform, transforming development methods, optimizing industrial structures, fostering market subjects, moving industrial innovation forward, expanding cultural consumption, realizing that the cultural industries develop both rapidly and well.

The main objectives for cultural industry development are: cultural products and services to become richer and more varied, the Socialist core value system to be further carried forward, the spiritual cultural needs of the masses to be further satisfied; the development speed of the cultural industries to be clearly higher than the GDP growth rate, and its proportion in the national economy to progressively rise; cultural market subject vitality to clearly strengthen, cultural innovation capacity to clearly rise, shaping a batch of strong and powerful cultural enterprises and enterprise groups, cultural industry structures to become more optimized and distribution more rationalized; cultural product markets and factor markets to become more completed, cultural market order to become more standardized, cultural industry development guarantee systems to become more perfected; cultural product and service export values to clearly rise, the international influence and competitiveness of Chinese cultural products to clearly strengthen.

(1) Completely implementing the “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan”, researching and formulating cultural industry development plans for the 12th Five-Year Plan period.

Earnestly implementing the “Cultural Industry Promotion Plan“, vigorously moving cultural industry resource integration and structural adjustment forward, consolidating the desirable state of cultural industry growth opposed to other economic trends, achieving good structures, good distribution, good effects and sustainability, incessantly strengthening the cultural industries’ comprehensive strength and international competitiveness. According to the requirements of scientific development, bringing cultural industry development into general plans for economic and social development, establishing corresponding assessment, appraisal and responsibility systems, to become important contents for assessing regional development levels, balanced development qualities and leasing cadre work achievements. Further blending cultural industry development with the complete picture of transforming economic development, stimulating the transformation of economic development methods with cultural industry development.

Conducting supervision and inspection of the implementation situation of the “Outline of the National “11th Five Year Plan” Period Cultural Development Plan“, promoting the completion on time of major plans, focus projects and major programmes. Earnestly summarizing the successful experiences of cultural industry development from recent years, integrating the editing work of the economic and social development plan for the “12th Five-Year Plan” period, and researching the formulation of cultural industry development plans for the “12th Five-Year Plan”, raise the guiding, operative and restraining nature of plans. Guiding and promoting all localities to do research and editing work of cultural development plans in their localities well.

(2) Striving to move cultural structure reform forward, strengthening the micro-level vitality of the cultural industries.

With transforming into enterprises and remoulding market subjects as core segments, accelerating and moving forward the transformation into enterprises, mergers and reorganization of commercial press and publications work unit, accelerating the transformation into enterprises of film production, distribution and screening work units and culture and art theatres and troupes, grasping the separation and reform of radio and television programme broadcast. Through transforming commercial cultural undertaking work units into cultural enterprises, establishing a real micro-level basis for cultural industry development. Striving to foster a batch of backbone cultural enterprises, strengthening the overall strength and international competitiveness of our country’s cultural industries. Persisting in government guidance, market operation, scientific planning and rational distribution, selecting a batch of cultural enterprises or enterprise groups with good long-term perspectives and strong competitiveness from focus cultural industries and expanding policy support strength, fostering a batch of backbone cultural enterprises and strategic investors.  Breaking through sector monopolies and regional barriers, promoting cross-region, cross-sector, cross-media and cross-ownership system alliances, mergers and reorganizations, expanding enterprise scales, raising intensified commerce levels, stimulating the resource integration and restructuring in the cultural sphere. Encouraging the coordinated development of many categories of cultural enterprises in many kinds of ownership systems, implementing State regulations relating to non-public capital and foreign investment attraction into the cultural industries, vigorously attracting social capital to enter into cultural creation, film and television production, performing arts and entertainment, cartoons, printing, publications retail and other areas, progressively realizing a cultural industry structure with shareholding enterprises at the core, State-owned enterprises as backbones, people-run enterprises as backing, which are mutual supporting and supplementing, that is brimming with vitality.

(3) Strengthening cultural industry park and base construction and management, giving rein to the driving function of major programmes.

Strengthening comprehensive planning of cultural industry park and base construction, persisting in standards, making characteristics prominent, raising levels, stimulating rational resource allocation and industrial division of work, preventing overly rushing into action and blind construction. In a selective manner establishing and perfecting some demonstration bases unifying concentration of creation, research and development, industry incubation, product trade and talent training, providing technology, information, trade and exhibition platforms to cultural enterprises, creating conditions and establishing a basis for cultural industry upscaling, intensification and specialized development, , raising industrial concentration levels and innovation capacities. Granting support to parks and bases that conform to planning in aspects such as infrastructure construction, land use, taxation policies, etc. Establishing a batch of cultural demonstration bases for cultural creation, film production, publishing and distribution, printing and reproduction, performance and entertainment, cartoons, etc., supporting and accelerating the development of cultural industry bodies having local or ethnic characteristics, establishing a batch of public service platforms providing services in research, development and design, information and consultancy, production, cooperation and trade, etc.

Developing focus cultural enterprises, implementing major programme driving strategies. With performance and entertainment, film and television production, publishing and distribution, cultural exhibitions, network culture, digital content, cartoons and other industries as focus points, expanding support strength, realizing leapfrogging development. With cultural enterprises as subjects, fully mustering forces from all aspects of society, accelerating, an organizing a batch of major projects and focus programmes with high maturity, good growth prospects, a guiding and demonstration nature and an industry driving function, moving   the Chinese Cartoon and Gaming City, the second phase of the National China Film Digital Production Base construction project, the national “Knowledge Resource Database”  publishing project and other major cultural industry programmes forward.

(4) Expanding government input and financial support, strengthening the aftereffects of industry development.

Central and all local levels’ People’s Governments are to expand input into the cultural industries, and through methods such as lending discounts, programme subsidies and supplementary funding etc., support national-level cultural industry base construction, supporting cultural industry focus programme and cross-regional integration, supporting the shareholding transformation of State-owned and controlled cultural enterprises, supporting cultural industry infrastructure construction, supporting research and development of new products and new technologies. Substantially expanding the scale of the central financial administration’s “special fund supporting cultural industry development”, incessantly expanding support strength. Implementing the “Guiding Opinions Concerning Financial Support for Cultural Industry Vitalization, Development and Flourishing”, launching credit products adapted to the characteristics of the cultural industries, expanding effective credit granting, perfecting credit extension models, rationally determining lending periods and rates, encouraging and guiding cultural enterprises to face capital markets for funding, expanding the direct funding scope of cultural enterprises, stimulating the linking of financial capital, social capital and cultural resources, establishing and perfecting cultural asset appraisal systems, giving rein to the function of cultural asset trading. Establishing a China cultural industry investment fund, to be funded and guided by the central financial administration, attracting State-owned backbone culture enterprises, large-scale State-owned enterprises and financial organs to subscribe, and through methods such as share investment, promote resource reorganization and structural adjustment.

(5) Strengthening all basic works, providing strong support for industrial development.

Accelerating the progress of cultural industry legislation, setting hands to drafting the “Cultural Industry Stimulation Law”, promoting and as quickly as possible rolling out the “Film Industry Stimulation Law”, providing legal system guarantees for cultural industry development. Accelerating and perfecting the formulation of financial, funding, taxation, land and other policy measures to support cultural industry development. Strengthening cultural industry statistics work, formulating industry investment guiding catalogues, strengthening the promotion of cultural industry standardization system construction.

Further transforming government function, establishing macro-level management structures adapted to the requirements of cultural industry development. Further rationalizing management structures for burgeoning cultural business models. Integrating administrative and law enforcement resources, establishing uniform and high-efficiency comprehensive cultural market law enforcement organs, raising management capacity, expanding “sweeping pornography and striking illegality” and copyright law enforcement work strength, according to the law investigating, prosecuting and punishing illegal business activities destroying cultural market order, purifying cultural markets, safeguarding honest, fair, competitive and orderly market orders. Fully giving rein to the function of cultural offices (groups) at embassies and consulates abroad, overseas Chinese cultural centres and other cultural organs abroad, vigorously assisting cultural enterprises to expand into overseas markets, building platforms and channels  leading to international markets.

Fostering cultural industry talents, striving to strengthen the fostering of leading personalities and all sorts of specialized talents. Establishing and completing professional training and continuous education, fostering high-end comprehensive talents who understand culture, are good at creation and can do business, and all sorts of operational, technical and applied talents. Perfecting cultural industry talent job title appraisal systems, perfecting fair competition and allocation incentive mechanisms, encouraging and supporting excellent top-notch talents to come to the fore. Attracting talents from finance, funding, science and technology and other areas to enter into cultural industry areas, paying attention to attracting overseas cultural creation, research, development, management and other high-end talents, providing strong talent guarantees for cultural industry development. Guiding  the function of building nationwide and regional cultural industry sector organizations, giving rein to the function of sector organizations.

(6) Establishing modern cultural market systems, giving rein to the basic function or market mechanisms.

Establishing and completing cultural product markets and cultural factor markets with complete categories, stimulating the rational circulation of cultural products and production factors, fully giving rein to the basic function of markets in the process of resource allocation. Striving to build cultural dissemination systems with fast transmission and broad coverage, in performance, film, television, books and other areas, forcefully developing uniform delivery and chain operation, fostering a batch of nationwide and regional cultural product circulation enterprises with strong radiance, constructing some regional cultural product circulation centres radiation across the entire country, reducing circulation segments, lowering trade costs. Developing culture and art performance venue chains, covering main urban performance venues, supporting national culture ticketing network construction, Moving cable television network integration forward, building national-level cable television network companies. Moving cinema chain cross-regional integration as well as digital cinema construction and transformation forward. Supporting State-owned publishing and distribution enterprises to merge and reorganize across regions, supporting rural publication markets and chain network point construction, establishing press and publication industry circulation networks linking up town and country. Developing cultural intermediary organs.

(7) Expanding cultural consumption, driving internal cultural demand.

Incessantly adapting to the new changes in urban and rural consumption structures and new aesthetic, entertainment and leisure requirements, innovating cultural products and services, fostering new consumption hotspots. Strengthening original creation, forging famous cultural brands having core competitiveness. Striving to lower costs, perfecting circulation networks, expanding dissemination coverage, providing rich and varied cultural products and services at reasonable prices. Supporting constructing and transforming cinema chains, theatres and other cultural consumption infrastructure, creating the necessary material conditions for cultural consumptions. Guiding individualized, trendy and branded consumption, stimulating the cultural consumption during festivals, holidays and exhibitions. Promoting cultural industries to develop together with tourism, upgrading tourism with culture, dissemination culture with tourism. Stimulating the integration of culture with commerce, telecommunications, exhibitions, education and training, fitness, leisure and other sectors, stimulating service-type constructions, driving corresponding industrial development. Forcefully developing two-dimensional design, external design and other artistic creation and design industries, promoting further integration of cultural elements into light industry, textiles and other manufacturing industries, raising the cultural content and aesthetic effect of manufacturing industries, stimulating the production of derived products of cultural creation, expanding and promoting the consumption of furnishings, home electronics, home textiles, home decoration, etc.

(8) Strengthening science and technology support, promoting cultural industry upgrading.

Fully giving rein to the support function of science and technology in cultural industry development, utilizing digital, network and other high and new technology to stimulate cultural creation, cartoons, digital and three-dimensional films, digital publications and other burgeoning cultural business model development. Developing network culture, mobile multimedia radio and television, exploiting mobile cultural information services, digital entertainment product and other trades, providing content service to all sorts of handheld display terminals. Accelerating radio and television digitization and film screening digitization progress. Raising informatization levels, formulating and perfecting network standards, promoting information technology innovation and application, stimulating linking, interaction and resource sharing, moving the three-network construction forward of broadband telecommunications networks, digital television networks and next-generation Internet. Developing paper reading materials, electronic books, mobile phone newspapers and network publications and other burgeoning press and publications business models. Developing high and new technology printing. Strengthening core technology research and development, utilizing high and new technology to transform and upgrade traditional performance, entertainment, film and other facilities and technology

(9) Expanding foreign-oriented cultural trade, promoting Chinese culture to march towards the world.

Implementing preferential policies encouraging and supporting cultural product and service export, giving support in market expansion, technology innovation, customs clearance and other aspects. Forcefully supporting music, dance and acrobatics, exhibition, radio, film and television, publications, cartoons, gaming and other product and service export having ethnic characteristics, forging a batch of internationally famous cultural brands. Encouraging cultural enterprises to set up entities and establish branch offices abroad through exclusive investment, joint ventures, share control, share participation and other methods, realizing localized operations of cultural enterprises abroad. Organizing the China (Shenzhen) International Cultural Industry Expo, the China International Radio, Film and Television Expo, the Beijing International Book Expo and other focus cultural exhibitions, supporting cultural enterprises to participate in foreign art festivals, film and television festivals, book exhibitions and other international cultural exhibitions and activities.

Committee head, all vice-Committee heads, secretary-general, all Committee members, under the conditions of the Socialist market economy, cultural construction is both an important component part of the Socialist spiritual civilization construction, and an important component part of economic construction. Because of this, we must abide by the objective rules of cultural development, adapt to the objective requirements of the Socialist market economy, persist in the line of thinking of two-wheeled drive, and flying with both wings of cultural undertakings and cultural industries. Cultural undertaking development must persist in the principle of “government in the lead, public finance as support, public interest cultural undertaking work units as backbones, grass-roots as focus point, encouraging vigorous participation of the entire society, and innovating public cultural service systems”, building public culture service systems covering town and country, realizing the public interest, fairness, basic nature and convenience, satisfying the popular masses’ basic cultural needs by guaranteeing the popular masses’ basic cultural rights and interests. Cultural industry development must therefore persist in giving rein to the basic function of markets in resource allocation, according to the requirements of “innovating systems, transforming mechanisms, facing the market, strengthening vitality”, persisting structural and mechanism reform and innovation, raising the overall strength and international competitiveness of cultural industries, and strive to satisfy the popular masses’ cultural consumption needs that are more diversified, exist at more levels and in more aspects every day. Regardless of whether it concerns cultural undertakings or cultural industries, we must always persist in the orientation of advanced Socialist culture, persisting in giving preference to social effect, and strive to realize the uniting of social effect and economic effect.

The National People’s Congress Standing Committee listened to and debated the report concerning the situation of cultural industry development work, reflected a concern and support for cultural construction and will certainly forcefully move our country’s cultural industry development forward. We will earnestly research and implement the opinions and suggestions of the leading comrades and all committee members of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, incessantly improve work, and strive to promote our country’s cultural industries to develop both well and rapidly.

国务院关于文化产业发展工作情况的报告

2010年4月28日在第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十四次会议上
文化部部长 蔡 武

委员长、各位副委员长、秘书长、各位委员:
我受国务院委托,向全国人大常委会报告近年来文化产业发展工作情况,请予审议。
一、促进文化产业发展的有关工作
目前,国际上对文化产业的定义、行业界定以及分类标准还没有形成统一的意见。欧盟、日本称为“内容产业”,英国、新加坡等国称为“创意产业”,美国称为“娱乐业”或“版权产业”,韩国称为“文化产业”。我国将文化产业界定为从事文化产品生产和提供文化服务的经营性行业。《国家“十一五”时期文化发展规划纲要》将影视制作业、出版业、发行业、印刷复制业、广告业、演艺业、娱乐业、文化会展业、数字内容和动漫产业等列为九个重点发展的文化产业门类。
近年来,国务院及其所属部门在重视发展公益性文化事业的同时,采取多种措施,推动我国文化产业加快发展。主要做了以下工作:
(一)推动文化建设理论创新,确立文化产业在文化建设和经济社会发展中的重要地位。
党的十六大以来,党中央、国务院在文化建设方面提出了一系列具有指导性、针对性、实践性的判断和论述,在文化发展方向、目的、思路、战略等方面形成了新的理念,提升了文化建设以及文化产业的作用和地位。党的十六大指出:“当今世界,文化与经济和政治相互交融,在综合国力竞争中的地位和作用越来越突出。文化的力量,深深熔铸在民族的生命力、创造力和凝聚力之中”,要“积极发展文化事业和文化产业”。同时指出:“文化产业是市场经济条件下繁荣社会主义文化、满足人民群众精神文化需求的重要途径”、“发展各类文化事业和文化产业都要贯彻发展先进文化的要求,始终把社会效益放在首位”。党的十七大站在新的历史起点上,确立了经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设“四位一体”的中国特色社会主义事业总体布局,做出了全面建设小康社会的战略部署,发出了“推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣”、“兴起社会主义文化建设新高潮”的号召,明确提出要积极发展公益性文化事业,大力发展文化产业,并将“文化产业占国民经济比重明显提高、国际竞争力显著增强,适应人民需要的文化产品更加丰富”列入全面建设小康社会的奋斗目标。今年2月,胡锦涛总书记在省部级主要领导干部深入贯彻落实科学发展观加快经济发展方式转变专题研讨班开班式上发表重要讲话,把加快发展文化产业作为加快经济发展方式转变的八项重点工作之一,要求加快发展文化产业,在重视发展公益性文化事业的同时,坚持经济效益与社会效益相统一,深化文化体制改革,加快公共文化服务体系建设,加快发展经营性文化产业,加快开拓文化市场。今年3月,温家宝总理在十一届全国人大三次会议上作政府工作报告时深刻指出:“国家发展、民族振兴,不仅需要强大的经济力量,更需要强大的文化力量。文化是一个民族的精神和灵魂,是一个民族真正有力量的决定性因素,可以深刻影响一个国家发展的进程,改变一个民族的命运。没有先进文化的发展,没有全民族文明素质的提高,就不可能真正实现现代化”。
(二)深化文化体制改革,培育文化市场主体。
文化体制改革是文化产业发展的动力。2003年6月,党中央召开了文化体制改革试点工作会议。2005年12月,党中央、国务院做出部署,要求在试点的基础上,全面深化文化体制改革,推进文化事业单位改革、深化文化企业改革、培育现代文化市场体系以及健全宏观管理体制等。
目前,全国共有123家文化系统国有文艺院团完成转企改制,其中2009年转企改制的有69家,超过了过去六年的总和。2009年,中国东方歌舞团、文化部文化市场发展中心等四家文化部直属事业单位转企,起到了示范作用,推动了文化系统体制改革向纵深推进,向面上拓展。电影制片、发行、放映单位转企改制步伐加快,24家需转制的电影制片厂已完成22家,29家需转制的省级电影公司已完成26家。中国电视剧制作中心等45家电视剧制作单位完成转企改制。全国18万家印刷单位和30家省级新华书店系统已全部转制为企业,580家图书出版社除保留事业体制的少数出版社外,其他将于今年年底前全部改制为企业,1069家非时政类报刊出版单位转制或登记为企业法人。
同时,国务院发布了《关于非公有资本进入文化产业的若干决定》,为非公有制文化企业发展创造了良好的政策环境和平等竞争机会。2005年,文化部、财政部、原人事部、税务总局联合印发了《关于鼓励发展民营文艺表演团体的意见》。2009年,文化部发布《关于促进民营文艺表演团体发展的若干意见》,进一步鼓励社会资本投资兴办民营文艺表演团体。目前,在演出、娱乐、艺术品、网络文化、动漫游戏、出版物发行、印刷复制等领域,基本实现了对国内非公有资本全方位、全过程开放。
(三)实施《文化产业振兴规划》,推动文化产业成为国家战略性产业。
在全球性金融危机中,我国文化产业逆势而上,受到了党和政府以及社会各界的高度关注。党中央、国务院领导同志指出,要使文化产业成为应对金融危机的一个新增长点,要让中国的文化走向世界,向世界展示中国的优秀文化。在这样的背景下,国务院于去年7月通过了《文化产业振兴规划》,标志着文化产业上升为国家的战略性产业。
《文化产业振兴规划》要求,“在重视发展公益性文化事业的同时,加快振兴文化产业,充分发挥文化产业在调整结构、扩大内需、增加就业、推动发展中的重要作用”。按照中央“保增长、扩内需、调结构、促改革、惠民生”的精神,《文化产业振兴规划》明确了文化产业发展的指导思想、基本原则和目标,明确了发展重点文化产业、实施重大项目带动战略、培育骨干文化企业、加快文化产业园区和基地建设、扩大文化消费、建设现代文化市场体系、发展新兴文化业态、扩大对外文化贸易等八项重点任务,提出了降低准入门槛、加大政府投入、落实税收政策、加大金融支持、加强组织领导、深化文化体制改革、培养文化产业人才、加强立法工作等一系列政策措施和保障条件。《文化产业振兴规划》的发布实施,极大地提振了文化产业界应对金融危机、实现平稳发展的信心和决心,为文化产业在金融危机中逆势而上、做强做大带来了机遇。
(四)加大政策支持力度,努力营造良好的发展环境。
2006年,中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅印发了《国家“十一五”时期文化发展规划纲要》,这是新中国成立以来发布实施的第一个国家文化发展规划。2008年,国务院办公厅印发了有关经营性文化事业单位转制为企业和支持文化企业发展的文件,有关政策涉及国有文化资产管理、资产和土地处置、收入分配、社会保障、人员分流安置、财政税收、法人登记、工商管理等方面。国务院所属相关部门也单独或联合出台了一系列支持文化产业发展的政策文件。
在财政支持方面,中央财政设立了“扶持文化产业发展专项资金”。全国有26个省(区、市)设立了文化产业发展专项资金,省级财政投入约25亿元。江苏、上海、天津、陕西等10多个省市已经或正在抓紧设立文化产业投资基金或投资公司。目前,有关部门正在积极筹备设立中国文化产业投资基金。
在税收优惠方面,为促进文化产业发展,国家对出版业给予了降低增值税税率、出版物增值税先征后退、县以下新华书店免征增值税等税收优惠政策。动漫、电影企业也享受到了国家减免增值税、营业税等税收优惠政策。
在金融支持方面,宣传、财政、人民银行、文化、广电、新闻出版等部门联合下发了《关于金融支持文化产业振兴和发展繁荣的指导意见》。文化部、广电总局、新闻出版总署等部门分别与中国银行、中国工商银行、中国农业银行、中国进出口银行等金融机构签订了合作协议,为文化企业向银行贷款创造便利条件。银行业针对文化产业的金融创新不断推出,招商银行以票房收益为质押为电影《集结号》发放项目贷款5000万元;中国建设银行深圳分行通过“联贷联保”,解决了深圳大芬油画村内文化企业贷款抵押不足的问题;北京银行、交通银行北京分行对文化企业开辟贷款绿色通道,并推出无形资产质押贷款试点。证监会等金融监管机构鼓励支持文化企业在国家政策允许的条件下,充分利用上市融资、发行企业债券、引进境内外战略投资等多种渠道融资。目前,在A股主板、创业板和H股上市的文化企业有18家。
二、文化产业发展的基本情况
随着文化体制改革的不断深入和人民群众精神文化需求的不断增强,我国文化产业已经从探索、起步、培育的初级阶段,进入快速发展的新时期,呈现出朝气蓬勃的新局面。
(一)文化产业快速增长,新兴业态迅猛发展。
据统计,2004年以来,全国文化产业年均增长速度在15%以上,比同期国内生产总值增速高6个百分点,保持了高速增长的势头。2008年—2009年,面对金融危机的冲击,文化产业逆势上扬,其消耗少、污染低、附加值高等优势进一步凸显,成为经济寒冬中的一股暖流。2008年,全国文化部门艺术表演团体总收入80.3亿元,比2007年增长16%。全国广播影视创收收入1350.6亿元,比2007年增长18%。2009年上半年,我国文化产业增速为17%,大大超过国内生产总值和第三产业的增速。2009年,国产故事片产量456部,城市影院票房收入62亿元,同比增长超过40%。新闻出版业总产值突破1万亿元,同比增长20%。其中,日报年出版总量440亿份,出版规模已连续9年位居世界首位;年出版图书27.57万种,总销售额1456亿元,出版品种与销售总额位居世界第二位;印刷复制业总产值5746亿元,位居世界第三位。总体看来,文化产业增长势头强劲,对国民经济的贡献率不断上升、促进作用日益凸显。
随着网络、数字、信息技术的发展,动漫游戏、数字音乐、数字电影、网络视频、移动多媒体广播电视、公共视听载体、数字出版、网络出版、手机出版等新兴文化产业迅速崛起,拓宽了文化产业的领域。2009年,全国动画片创作生产数量322部17万分钟,比2008年增长31%,原创动画片《喜羊羊与灰太狼》票房过亿元,刷新了国产动画电影票房纪录;网络游戏市场规模258亿元,比2008年增长39.5%;数字出版总产值750亿元,年增长50%以上;国产电纸书、电子阅读器销售量71.6万台,承载图书3000多万册,销售总额超过25亿元;网络视频市场规模5.83亿元,网络视频用户近2.4亿户;我国自主创新的移动多媒体广播电视取得了突破性进展,城市的主流的商业数字电影银幕已达2000块,农村电影数字化放映全面推广。
(二)文化产业成为地方经济发展新亮点,在加快经济发展方式转变中的作用日益突出。
现在,不少地方文化产业的增长速度高于国民经济的整体增长速度,成为提供就业机会的重要行业、产业结构优化的朝阳行业和经济增长的支柱产业,为促进当地经济增长、加快经济发展方式转变做出了积极贡献。北京、上海、广东、湖南、云南等省市文化产业增加值占国内生产总值的比重超过5%。湖南省文化产业增加值占国内生产总值的比重,由1990年的1.4%上升到2008年的5.1%,文化产业对经济增长的贡献率由2003年的2.3%上升到2007年的6.5%。云南省2008年文化产业增加值300亿元,占国内生产总值比重为5.8%。近五年来,深圳市文化产业增加值以年均约20%的速度增长,占全市国内生产总值比重达7%。
(三)文化产品和服务日益丰富,文化产业成为满足人民群众精神文化需求的重要途径。
文化产业的快速发展,调动了全社会参与文化建设的积极性,打破了计划经济体制下国办文化的单一局面,形成了多门类、多层次、多样化的文化生产和服务体系。截至2008年,全国共有各类文艺表演团体近万家,演出经纪机构1305个,文化娱乐场所84356家,县级广播电视台1969座,地级以上电台257座、电视台277座,公共广播节目2436套,公共电视节目3199套,各类广播电视节目制作经营机构3343家,主流电影院线34条,院线内影院1545家,银幕4097块,报纸1943种,期刊9821种,图书出版社580家,音像出版社378家,电子出版单位240家,出版物发行单位12万家,印刷单位18万家。随着文化市场主体的日益增多,文化产品和服务的数量更加丰富,质量不断提升,人民群众多样化、多层次的文化需求进一步得到满足。
(四)文化产品和服务“走出去”步伐不断加快,中华文化国际影响力日益提升。
2009年,我国境外商业演出团组数约为426个,演出场次16373场,实现演出收益约7685万元。国产影片海外销售收入4亿美元左右,各类电视节目出口超过1万小时,外销金额共约5898万美元。2009年1—11月,我国核心文化产品出口94亿美元,图书版权进出口比例由2003年的9∶1下降为2009年的3.4∶1。成功举办的法兰克福国际书展中国主宾国活动,实现版权输出2417项。以天创国际演艺制作交流有限公司、中国国际电视总公司、安徽出版集团有限责任公司等为代表的文化企业加快“走出去”步伐,增强了国际竞争力。
(五)文化产业投资和文化资源开发持续升温,文化产业集群不断形成。
我国是具有5000年悠久历史的文明古国,发展文化产业的历史文化资源非常丰厚,资源优势转化为产业优势的潜力巨大。文化产业高附加值的特性吸引了投资者的目光,大量资本和人力资源涌进文化领域,文化产业成为社会资本追逐的新热点。如以电子制造业和电子专业市场为主导产业的深圳华强集团,大规模投资文化产业,成为国内文化主题公园的新锐。化工企业广西维尼纶集团有限公司参与投资制作的全球第一部山水实景演出《印象·刘三姐》,成为广西文化旅游的名片。以房地产开发为主导产业的大连万达集团,文化产业已上升为企业的四大支柱产业之一,旗下的电影院线公司拥有400块电影银幕,2009年电影院线票房收入居全国第一。
随着社会资本的大量进入和政府支持力度的加强,许多文化产业园区相继建设和投入使用,文化产业集群化发展趋势日益明显。北京市已有文化产业集聚区21个,文化企业8000多家。上海市有文化产业园区75家,集聚了2500多家文化企业和2万多名高层创意人才。江苏省建成或在建的文化产业园区有60多家。文化部和北京市、天津市分别共建的中国动漫游戏城和国家动漫产业综合示范园正式启动,国家中影数字制作基地建设工程顺利实施,新闻出版总署与上海市共同推进张江数字出版基地建设,与重庆市共同建设北部新区数字出版基地,有力地推动了我国文化产业的快速发展。
(六)社会资本进入步伐加快,文化产业多元化投资格局开始形成。
随着文化体制改革的不断深入,国有文化市场主体逐步壮大,成为发展文化产业的主导力量。中国对外文化集团公司、上海文广演艺(集团)有限公司、江苏演艺集团有限公司、中国电影集团公司、中国国际电视总公司、中国出版集团公司、江苏凤凰出版传媒集团公司、北方出版传媒(集团)股份有限公司等一大批国有或国有控股文化企业的整体实力不断增强。
目前,全国共有民营文艺表演团体近7000家,民营电视节目制作企业2800余家,民营电影制片发行公司近400家,全国性民营出版物连锁经营企业8家,民营出版物发行企业11万个,中外合资、合作或外商投资书报刊发行企业40多家,印刷企业2500多家,期刊版权合作50多家,中外图书合作年均600多种。上海盛大网络发展有限公司、深圳华强文化科技集团、华谊兄弟传媒公司等一批民营文化企业成为发展文化产业的生力军,以公有制为主体、多种所有制共同发展的文化产业格局正在形成。
三、当前文化产业发展中存在的问题
当前文化产业发展中还存在一些问题和困难。具体表现在:
(一)文化产业总量还不够大、水平还不够高。
随着我国经济的快速发展,人民群众精神文化需求呈现快速增长态势,特别是随着文化程度的提高和闲暇时间的增多,人民群众对文化产品和服务的需求更加多样化。相比之下,文化产品和服务的供需矛盾和“结构性短缺”突出,“有效供给”相对不足,与人民群众快速增长的精神文化生活需求还有一定差距。
尽管国际社会尚未形成统一的文化产业划分标准,各国文化产业的统计口径还不一致,但也可以看出,我国文化产业总量还不够大、水平还不够高,文化产业在整个国民经济中所占的份额相对较小,对经济结构的调整作用发挥不够,对国民经济的贡献及影响远远低于美国、日本等发达国家。文化产业要真正成为国民经济的支柱产业,还有待采取有力措施加以推进。
(二)文化产业集中度不高,缺乏骨干企业和知名品牌。
由于起步较晚和文化领域条块分割、市场壁垒等原因,我国的文化企业“软小散滥”问题比较突出,规模普遍偏小,产业规模化和集约化程度不高,产业布局不均衡,大规模、高水平、产业链完整的龙头企业少,缺少文化领域的战略投资者和骨干企业。文化企业的自主创新能力不高、核心竞争力不足,知识产权的作用发挥不充分,企业的创意、研发、制作水平较低,内涵深刻、风格独特、形式新颖、技术先进的精品力作和知名的文化品牌较少,参与国际竞争的能力有待进一步提高。
(三)政策、法规体系不健全,投入、人才保障不完善。
近年来,国家出台了一系列扶持和促进文化产业发展的政策措施,但从总体上看还不够完善。文化立法比较薄弱,文化产业发展缺乏强有力的法制保障,产业政策还需进一步增强针对性和可操作性。对文化产业的行政管理仍然存在一些体制性、政策性障碍,产业规划不明晰,行业管理不规范,特别是对网络文化等新兴业态的管理仍然依赖传统的管理经验和模式。盗版侵权问题仍比较突出,知识产权保护有待加强。
虽然各级财政对文化建设的投入不断增加,但由于长期以来文化建设经费基数低、底子薄、基础条件差,财政投入的增长与文化发展的需求之间仍有不小的差距,对文化投入总量仍显不足,文化产业发展基础条件薄弱。
文化产业的创意人才、经营管理人才、技术开发人才、市场营销人才,尤其是既懂文化又懂经营的复合型高级人才短缺,人才培养和激励保障机制有待加强。文化产业统计工作刚刚起步,统计指标体系还在完善,统计工作尚未全面覆盖从事文化产业的所有单位和个人。现代科技与文化的融合愈加紧密,但传统文化产业利用新技术的动力不强、活力不足。文化产业标准化体系建设比较滞后,影响了产业发展水平提升和规模扩大。
(四)文化贸易逆差仍然较大,文化产业“走出去”步伐有待进一步加快。
近年来,虽然我国文化产品和服务出口数量有所增长,但文化贸易逆差的现象仍未得到根本改变,文化产品和服务出口渠道比较狭窄,出口价格远远低于进口的同类产品,我国文化产品的国际竞争力和传播力还有待于进一步提升。以演艺产品为例,我国引进和派出的文艺演出每场收入比约为10∶1,我国全部海外商业演出的年收入不到1亿美元,不及国外一个著名马戏团一年的海外演出收入。
(五)盲目发展的苗头一定程度存在,规划、引导和调控有待进一步加强。
目前,各地发展文化产业热情高涨,竞相上马大型文化产业项目,文化产业园区基地遍布各地,各种资本也纷纷涌入文化产业。这一方面体现了各界对文化产业发展的良好预期,也是加快文化产业发展的重要前提,对产业发展起到了积极推动作用,但另一方面,盲目发展、资源浪费、同质化竞争的问题已经出现,需要引起重视。如全国有几十个城市已开工或准备建设大型动漫主题公园或文化主题公园;不少风景区都拟上马大型实景演出;有的文化产业项目以文化之名搞房地产开发。这些势头如不及时加以规划、引导和调控,很可能影响到文化产业的科学发展。
四、加快文化产业发展的工作计划
当前和今后一个时期,加快文化产业发展的总的指导思想是:全面贯彻党的十七大精神,坚持以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,自觉将文化产业发展融入转变经济发展方式的全局,贯彻落实《文化产业振兴规划》,坚持社会效益优先、经济效益与社会效益相统一,深化文化体制改革,转变发展方式,优化产业结构,培育市场主体,推进产业创新,扩大文化消费,实现文化产业又好又快发展。
文化产业发展的主要目标是:文化产品和服务更加丰富多彩,社会主义核心价值观得到进一步弘扬,人民群众精神文化需求得到进一步满足;文化产业发展速度明显高于同期国内生产总值增长速度,在国民经济中所占比重逐步提高;文化市场主体活力显著增强,文化创新能力显著提升,形成一批具有较强实力的文化企业和企业集团,文化产业结构更加优化、布局更加合理;文化产品市场和要素市场更加健全,文化市场秩序更加规范,文化产业发展保障体系更加完备;文化产品和服务出口额明显提高,中国文化产品的国际影响力和竞争力明显增强。
(一)全面落实《文化产业振兴规划》,研究制定“十二五”时期文化产业发展规划。
认真落实《文化产业振兴规划》,积极进行文化产业的资源整合和结构调整,巩固文化产业逆势上扬的良好态势,做到结构好、布局好、效益好、可持续,不断增强文化产业的整体实力和国际竞争力。按照科学发展观的要求,将文化产业发展纳入经济社会发展总体规划,建立相关的考核、评价和责任制度,作为评价地区发展水平、衡量发展质量和领导干部工作实绩的重要内容。进一步将文化产业发展融入转变经济发展方式的全局,以文化产业的发展促进经济发展方式转变。
对《国家“十一五”时期文化发展规划纲要》执行情况进行督促检查,推动重大计划、重点工程、重大项目如期完成。认真总结近年来文化产业发展的成功经验,结合国家“十二五”时期经济社会发展规划的编制工作,研究制定“十二五”时期文化产业发展规划,提高规划的指导性、操作性、约束性。指导、推动各地做好本地区文化发展规划的研究编制工作。
(二)着力推进文化体制改革,增强文化产业微观活力。
以转企改制、重塑市场主体为中心环节,加快推进经营性新闻出版单位转企改制和兼并重组,加快电影制片、发行、放映单位和文艺院团转企改制,抓好广播电视节目制播分离改革。通过把经营性文化事业单位转制为规范的文化企业,为文化产业发展奠定坚实的微观基础。着力培育一批骨干文化企业,增强我国文化产业的整体实力和国际竞争力。坚持政府引导、市场运作,科学规划、合理布局,在重点文化产业中选择一批成长性好、竞争力强的文化企业或企业集团加大政策扶持力度,培育一批骨干文化企业和战略投资者。打破行业垄断和地区封锁,推动跨地区、跨行业、跨媒体、跨所有制联合或兼并重组,壮大企业规模,提高集约化经营水平,促进文化领域资源整合和结构调整。鼓励多种类型、多种所有制文化企业的协调发展,落实国家关于非公有资本、外资进入文化产业的有关规定,积极吸收社会资本进入文化创意、影视制作、演艺娱乐、动漫、印刷、出版物分销等领域,逐步实现以股份制企业为主体、国有企业为骨干、民营企业为依托,互为补充、充满生机的文化产业格局。
(三)加强文化产业园区基地建设与管理,发挥重大项目带动作用。
加强对文化产业园区和基地建设的统筹规划,坚持标准、突出特色、提高水平,促进资源合理配置和产业分工,防止一哄而上、盲目建设。有选择地建立和完善若干个集创意研发、产业孵化、产品交易、人才培训为一体的示范园区,为文化企业提供技术、信息、交易、展示平台,为文化产业规模化、集约化、专业化发展创造条件、奠定基础,提升产业集中度和创新能力。对符合规划的园区和基地,在基础设施建设、土地使用、税收政策等方面给予支持。建设一批文化创意、影视制作、出版发行、印刷复制、演艺娱乐和动漫等产业示范基地,支持和加快发展具有地域和民族特色的文化产业群,建设一批提供研发设计、信息咨询、生产制作、合作交流等服务的公共服务平台。
发展重点文化产业,实施重大项目带动战略。以演艺娱乐、影视制作、出版发行、文化会展、网络文化、数字内容和动漫等产业为重点,加大扶持力度,实现跨越式发展。以文化企业为主体,充分调动社会各方面力量,加快组织实施一批成熟度高、成长性好、具有先导性、示范性和产业拉动作用的重大工程和重点项目,推进中国动漫游戏城、国家中影数字电影制作基地建设工程二期、国家“知识资源数据库”出版工程等重大文化产业项目。
(四)加大政府投入和金融支持,增强产业发展后劲。
中央和地方各级人民政府将加大对文化产业的投入,通过贷款贴息、项目补贴、补充资本金等方式,支持国家级文化产业基地建设,支持文化产业重点项目及跨区域整合,支持国有控股文化企业股份制改造,支持文化产业基础设施建设,支持新产品、新技术研发。大幅增加中央财政“扶持文化产业发展专项资金”规模,不断加大支持力度。落实人民银行等九部门《关于金融支持文化产业振兴和发展繁荣的指导意见》,开发适合文化产业特点的信贷产品,加大有效信贷投放,完善授信模式,合理确定贷款期限和利率,鼓励和引导文化企业面向资本市场融资,扩大文化企业的直接融资规模,促进金融资本、社会资本与文化资源的对接,建立和完善文化资产评估体系,发挥好文化产权交易所作用。设立中国文化产业投资基金,由中央财政注资引导,吸收国有骨干文化企业、大型国有企业和金融机构认购,通过股权投资等方式,推动资源重组和结构调整。
(五)加强各项基础性工作,为产业发展提供强有力支撑。
加快文化产业立法进程,着手起草《文化产业促进法》,推动尽快出台《电影产业促进法》,为文化产业发展提供法制保障。加快完善支持文化产业发展的财政、金融、税收、土地等方面的政策措施。加强文化产业统计工作,制定产业投资指导目录,加快推动文化产业标准化体系建设。
进一步转变政府职能,建立适应文化产业发展要求的宏观管理体制。进一步理顺对新兴文化业态的管理体制。整合行政和执法资源,建立统一高效的文化市场综合执法机构,提高管理能力,加大“扫黄打非”和版权执法工作力度,依法查处和制裁破坏文化市场秩序的非法经营行为,净化文化市场,维护诚信、公平、竞争有序的市场秩序。充分发挥驻外使领馆文化处(组)、海外中国文化中心等驻外文化机构作用,积极协助文化企业开拓海外市场,构建通往国际市场的平台和渠道。
培养文化产业人才,着力加强领军人物和各类专门人才的培养。建立健全业务培训和继续教育,培养懂文化、善创意、会经营的高端复合型人才和各类操作型、技能型、实用型人才。完善文化产业人才职称评定制度,完善公平竞争和分配激励机制,鼓励和支持优秀拔尖人才脱颖而出。吸引财经、金融、科技等领域的优秀人才进入文化产业领域,注重海外文化创意、研发、管理等高端人才的引进,为文化产业发展提供强有力的人才保障。指导组建全国性、区域性文化产业行业组织,发挥好行业组织作用。
(六)建设现代文化市场体系,发挥市场机制的基础性作用。
建立健全门类齐全的文化产品市场和文化要素市场,促进文化产品和生产要素的合理流动,充分发挥市场在资源配置过程中的基础性作用。着力构建传输快捷、覆盖广泛的文化传播体系,在演艺、影视、图书等领域,大力发展统一配送和连锁经营,培育一批辐射力强的全国性和区域性文化产品流通企业,建设若干辐射全国的区域文化产品物流中心,减少流通环节、降低交易成本。发展文艺演出院线,覆盖主要城市演出场所,支持全国文化票务网络建设。推进有线电视网络整合,组建国家级有线电视网络公司。推进电影院线跨地区整合以及数字影院的建设和改造。支持国有出版发行企业跨地区兼并重组,扶持农村出版物市场和连锁网点建设,建立贯通城乡的新闻出版产业流通网络。发展文化中介机构。
(七)扩大文化消费,拉动文化内需。
不断适应城乡居民消费结构的新变化和审美、娱乐、休闲的新需求,创新文化产品和服务,培育新的消费热点。加强原创,打造具有核心竞争力的知名文化品牌。努力降低成本,完善流通网络,扩大传播覆盖,提供价格合理、丰富多彩的文化产品和服务。支持建设和改造电影院、剧院等文化消费的基础设施,为文化消费创造必要的物质条件。引导个性化、时尚化、品牌化消费,促进节假日和会展的文化消费。推动文化产业与旅游融合发展,以文化提升旅游,以旅游传播文化。促进文化与商贸、通信、会展、教育培训、健身、休闲等行业相结合,促进服务性消费,带动相关产业发展。大力发展平面设计、外观设计等艺术创意和设计产业,推动在轻工、纺织等制造业中进一步融入文化元素,提高制造业的文化内涵和审美效果,促进文化创意衍生品生产,扩大和带动家具、家电、家纺、家饰等消费。
(八)加强科技支撑,推动文化产业升级。
充分发挥科技对文化产业发展的支撑作用,运用数字、网络等高新技术促进文化创意、动漫、数字立体电影、数字出版等新兴文化业态发展。发展网络文化、移动多媒体广播电视,开发移动文化信息服务、数字娱乐产品等业务,为各种便携显示终端提供内容服务。加快广播电视数字化和电影放映数字化进程。提高信息化水平,制定和完善网络标准,推动信息技术创新和应用,促进互联互通和资源共享,推进宽带通信网、数字电视网、下一代互联网三网融合。发展纸质有声读物、电子书、手机报和网络出版物等新兴新闻出版业态,发展高新技术印刷。加强核心技术研发,运用高新技术改造提升传统演艺、娱乐、电影等设施和技术。
(九)扩大对外文化贸易,推动中国文化走向世界。
落实鼓励和支持文化产品和服务出口的优惠政策,在市场开拓、技术创新、海关通关等方面给予支持。大力扶持具有民族特色的音乐舞蹈杂技、展览、广播影视、出版物、动漫游戏等产品和服务的出口,打造一批国际知名文化品牌。鼓励文化企业通过独资、合资、控股、参股等多种形式在境外兴办实体、设立分支机构,实现文化企业在境外的落地经营。办好中国(深圳)国际文化产业博览会、中国国际广播影视博览会、北京国际图书博览会等重点文化会展,支持文化企业参加境外艺术节、影视展、图书展等国际文化展会和活动。
委员长、各位副委员长、秘书长、各位委员,在社会主义市场经济体制条件下,文化建设既是社会主义精神文明建设的重要组成部分,也是经济建设的重要组成部分。因此,必须遵循文化发展的客观规律,适应社会主义市场经济的客观要求,坚持文化事业和文化产业双轮驱动、两翼齐飞的思路。文化事业发展必须坚持“以政府为主导,以公共财政为支撑,以公益性文化事业单位为骨干,以基层为重点,鼓励全社会积极参与,创新公共文化服务体系”的方针,构建覆盖城乡的公共文化服务体系,体现公益性、均等性、基本性和便利性,以保障人民群众的基本文化权益,满足人民群众的基本文化需求。文化产业发展则必须坚持发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用,按照“创新体制、转换机制、面向市场、增强活力”的要求,坚持体制机制改革和创新,提高文化产业的整体实力和国际竞争力,努力满足人民群众日益多元化、多层次、多方面的文化消费需求。无论是文化事业还是文化产业,都必须坚持社会主义先进文化的方向,坚持社会效益优先,努力实现社会效益与经济效益相统一。
全国人大常委会听取和审议关于文化产业发展工作情况的报告,体现了对文化建设的关心和支持,必将有力地推进我国文化产业发展。我们将认真研究和落实全国人大常委会领导同志和各位委员的意见和建议,不断改进工作,努力推动我国文化产业又好又快发展。

2 thoughts on “State Council Report concerning the Cultural Industry Development Work Situation

    Updates 11 May | China Copyright and Media said:
    May 11, 2012 at 9:43 am

    […] State Council Report concerning the Cultural Industry Development Work Situation (2010) […]

    […] 426 foreign performing troupes or companies performed 16373 times in China, realizing an income of RMB 76.85 million yuan. However, the differential between the value of China’s import and export of performing arts is […]

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