State Council Opinions concerning Strengthening Rule of Law Government Construction

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(GF No. (2010)33)

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate organs;

In March 2003, the State Council issued the “Implementation Outline to Comprehensively Move Forward Administration According to the Law” (hereafter simply named “Outline”), which clearly put forward the struggle objective of constructing a rule of law government. In order to deeply implement the basic strategy of governing the country according to the law under new circumstances, completely move administration according to the law forward, and further strengthen rule of law government construction, hereby, the following opinions are put forward.

I, The importance, urgency and general requirements of strengthening rule of law government construction

1. The importance and urgency of strengthening rule of law government construction. Implementing the fundamental policy of governing the country according to the law, moving administration according to the law forward, and constructing rule of law government, are revolutionary changes from conception to method in our Party’s governing the country and running the administration, and have an epochal important significance. Since the “Outline” was implemented six years ago, all levels’ People’s Government have given high regard to administration according to the law work, strengthened leadership and relentlessly grasped implementation, rule of law government construction has gained important advances. At present, our country’s economic and social development has entered a new phase, the domestic and international environment has grown even more complex, and challenges have increased. The tasks of transforming economic development methods and adjusting economic structuring have become even more pressing and huge, the development imbalance between town and country, and between regions, the expansion and unfairness of the difference in income distribution, the profound adjustments in social structuring and interest structuring, the increase of social contradictions in a number of regions and some areas, the repeated occurrence of mass incidents, the fact that the phenomenon of corruption still easily and repeatedly occurs in a number of areas, the unfairness of law enforcement, the lack of or chaos in administrative activity and other problems are relatively prominent. Resolving these prominent problems requires further deepening of reform, strengthening of system construction, strengthening of supervision and restraint over administrative powers and functions, moving administration according to the law forward, and constructing rule of law government. All levels’ administrative organs and their leading cadres absolutely must correctly consider the new changes in our country’s economic and social environment, correctly grasp the new trends in reform, development and stability, timely respond to the new expectations of the popular masses, and realistically strengthen a sense of mission, a sense of urgency and a sense of responsibility towards the construction of rule of law government.

2. The general requirements for strengthening rule of law government construction. During the present and future periods, we must deeply implement the scientific development view, earnestly implement the basic strategy of governing the country according to the law, further expand the implementation strength of the “Outline”, make constructing rule of law government into a struggle objective, make structure and mechanism innovation concerning the whole picture of administration according to the law into breakthrough points, make strengthening the consciousness and capacity of leading cadres to administer according to the law, raising structural construction quality, standardizing administrative powers and functions, and guaranteeing the strict implementation of laws and regulations into a focus point, completely move administration according to the law forward, incessantly raise government credibility and enforcement strength, give rein to an even greater function in guaranteeing that the economy develops both well and rapidly, and societal harmony and stability.

II, Raising the consciousness and capacity for administration according to the law of administrative organs’ work personnel and especially leading cadres.

3. Give high regard to fostering the consciousness and capacity for administration according to the law of administrative organs’ work personnel. Administrative organs’ work personnel and especially leading cadres must take the lead in studying law, respecting law, abiding by the law and using the law, firmly establish a Socialist rule of law concept with governing the country according to the law, enforcing the law for the people, justice and fairness, serving the larger picture, and the leadership of the Party as basic content, conscientiously cultivate habits of handling matters according to the law, realistically raise the thinking of using the law and the capacity of legal methods to resolve prominent contradictions and issues in economic and social development. We must give high regard to promoting and employing excellent cadres with a strong sense of administration according to the law, who are good in using legal means to resolve problems, and promote development.

4. Promoting a system to inspect the situation of administration according to the law and survey legal knowledge. Cadres that are planned to take up leading duties in local People’s Governments and their departments must, before appointment, inspect their grasp of knowledge related to law and the situation of administration according to the law. Public servant recruitment examinations must stress surveying legal knowledge, legal knowledge examinations must also be organised for personnel that is planned to engage in administrative law enforcement, government legal system and other work.

5. Establish long-lasting legal knowledge study and training mechanisms. Perfect law study systems for leading cadres at all levels’ administrative organs. We must, through studying law before government business meetings, legal lectures and other means, organize study of the Constitution, common legal knowledge and specialist legal knowledge related to the implementation of duties. All county-level or higher People’s Governments must organize at least two specialist discussion classes on administration according to the law for leading cadres every year. All levels’ administrative academies and public servant training organs must, when organizing training classes for civil servants in administrative organs, bring knowledge on administration according to the law into the education content. Regularly organize administrative law enforcement personnel’s participation in training on common legal knowledge, rotational training on specialized legal knowledge and special training on new laws and regulations, and make the training situation and study achievements into an assessment content and one of the bases for position promotion.

III, Strengthening and improving system construction

6. Giving prominence to governmental legislation focus points. We must, according to the requirements of benefiting the mustering of the popular masses’ vigour and creativity, arousing social vitality and competitiveness, liberating and developing productive forces, safeguarding justice and fairness, standardizing powers and functions, strengthening and improving government legislation and system construction. Focus on strengthening legislation concerning perfection of economic structures, improving the people’s livelihood and developing social undertakings, as well as in the area of government construction itself. Concerning legislative programmes that attract great attention from society, that are urgently needed in practice and for which conditions are correspondingly mature, we must make them into central focus points, concentrate forces to storm the fortifications, and roll them out as soon as possible.

7. Raise system construction quality. Government legislation must conform to economic and social development rules, fully reflect the desires of the people, strive to resolve widespread problems and profound contradictions in economic and social development, realistically strengthen the scientific nature and operability of the legal system. Strictly abide by statutory powers and procedures, perfect structures and mechanisms for the masses to participate in government legislation, guarantee that the opinions of the popular masses are fully expressed, and that reasonable appeals and lawful rights and interests are fully reflected. Apart from where secrets must be protected according to the law, opinions must be openly solicited from society concerning administration according to the law and regulation drafting, and the situation of opinion adoption should be fed back in a suitable manner. Establish and perfect expert consulting and argumentation systems, fully give rein to the function of experts and scholars in government legislation. Where legal, regulatory or rule drafts involve the functions of other departments, the opinion of corresponding departments must be fully heard; corresponding departments must earnestly research and according to requirement timely report opinions. Strengthen the guiding and coordinating function of government departments in government legislation, where a major clash of opinions is involved, and a consensus opinion cannot be reached, this must be timely reported to the same level’s People’s Government for resolution. Determinedly overcome departmental interest and local protection tendencies in the process of government legislation. Vigorously explore and launch government legislation cost effectiveness analyses, social risk appraisal and appraisal work of the post-implementation situation. Strengthen administrative regulation and rule interpretation work.

8. Strengthen arrangement of administrative regulations, rules and normative documents. Persist in merging the legislation of “new laws” and the revision of “old laws”. Administrative regulations, rules and normative documents that do not conform to economic or social development requirements, that are in conflict or inconsistent with higher-level laws, or that are mutually uncoordinated, must be timely revised or abolished. Establish regular arrangement systems for rules and normative documents, generally, regulations are to be re-arranged once every five years, normative documents are generally rearranged once every two years, the arrangement results must be published to society.

9. Complete normative document formulation procedures. All local levels’ administrative organs and all State Council departments must formulate normative documents strictly according to the law. All sorts of normative documents may not set up administrative permit, administrative punishment, administrative coercion and other measures, they may not unlawfully increase the duties of citizens, legal persons and other organizations. When formulating normative documents that engender a direct influence on the rights and obligations of citizens, legal persons or other organizations, opinions must be openly solicited, the legal system organ is to conduct an inspection of legality, and the government standing meeting or the departmental leading cadre meeting is to collectively discuss the decision; where opinions have not been openly solicited, no legality inspection has taken place, and it has not been collectively discussed, they may not be promulgated and implemented. County-level or higher local People’s Governments must progressively implement uniform registration, uniform numbering and uniform promulgation for normative documents of the same level’s government and their departments. Explore the establishment of effective time period systems for normative documents.

10. Strengthen filing and inspection of rules and normative documents. Strictly implement regulation and rule filing regulations and filing provisions concerning normative documents, strengthen filing inspection work, ensure that where there are rules, they must be filed, where there are mistakes, they must be corrected, realistically safeguard the uniformity of the legal system and the unblocked implementation of government decrees. We must focus on strengthening filing and inspection work of rules and normative documents with content that may unlawfully increase the obligations of citizens, legal persons or other organizations, or influence their lawful rights and interests, creates local or departmental protection, etc. establish filing, registration, promulgation, situation reporting, supervision and inspection system for normative documents, strengthen the informatization construction of filing work. We must earnestly and according to relevant regulations research and deal with, examination and suggestion put forward by citizens, legal persons and other organizations. We must timely report to the organ in charge to revoke unlawful rules and normative documents and report this to society. Filing supervisions organs must regularly publish catalogues of rules and normative documents that have been inspected and filed to society.

IV, Persist in scientific and democratic policymaking according to the law.

11. Standardize administrative policymaking procedures. Strengthen administrative policymaking procedure construction, complete major policymaking regulations, move forward the scientization, democratization and rule of law level of administrative policymaking. We must persist in starting from reality in everything, systematically and comprehensively grasp the real situation, deeply analyse the influence of policymaking on all areas, earnestly weigh pros, cons, merits and faults. We must make public participation, expert argumentation, risk appraisal, legality inspection and collective discussion and decisions into necessary procedures in major policymaking. Before making major policy decisions, we must broadly listen to and fully absorb opinions from all sides, the situation of adopting opinions and their reasons must be fed back in a suitable manner or published. Perfect major policymaking hearing systems, expand hearing scopes, standardize hearing procedures, persons participating in hearings must be broadly representative, hearing opinions must be major references in policymaking. Major policy decisions must be decided through collective discussion by government standing meetings or departmental leading cadre meetings. Major policy decision matters shall be submitted to legal system organs for a legality inspection before being discussed in meetings, without legality inspection or where inspection finds they do not conform to the law, they cannot be submitted for discussion or policy decisions at meetings.

12. Perfect administrative policymaking risk appraisal mechanisms. All major policy decisions, major programmes and other policymaking matters that relate to economic or social development and the direct interests of the popular masses, must be appraised for legality, reasonability, feasibility and controllability, the focus is to conduct a appraisal concerning social stability, environmental, economic and other risks. Establish and perfect risk appraisal work mechanisms integrating departmental argumentation, expert consulting, mass participation, and survey by special organs, conduct scientific surveys and comprehensive discussion of all sorts of risks that may be triggered by policymaking through public sentiment tracking, sampling, focus interviews, consultation meetings and other methods, determine risk levels and formulate corresponding reconciliation and management plans. We must make risk appraisal results into a major basis for policymaking, where no risk appraisal has been conducted, a policy decision may without exception not be made.

13. Strengthen follow-up, feedback and responsibility investigation for major policymaking. In the process of major policy decision execution, the policymaking organ must follow up the implementation situation, understand opinions and suggestions of the related interested parties and the social public concerning policy implementation through many channels, completely appraise policy implementation results, and decide whether or not to adjust or cease policy implementation on the basis of appraisal results Those violating policy provisions, where major policy  mistakes occur, or where major damage is created, responsibility must be investigated strictly according to the principle of who makes policy is responsible.

V, Strictly standardize fair and civilized law enforcement

14. Strictly implement duties according to the law. All levels’ administrative organs must consciously act within the scope of the Constitution and laws, and exercise their powers and implement their duties strictly according to statutory powers and procedures. They must comprehensively implement government functions, give even higher regard to social management and public service, and strive to guarantee and improve people’s livelihoods, realistically resolve employment, education, medicine, social security, security-type housing and other problems in areas that the popular masses are most concerned about. Expand administrative law enforcement strength, strictly investigate and prosecute unlawful cases in areas such as danger to safe production, food and drug security, natural resources, environmental protection, social order, etc., safeguard the public interest and economic and social procedure. Earnestly implement administrative licensing law, deepen administrative examination and approval system reform, further standardize and reduce administrative examination and approval, promote the transformation of government functions and innovation of management methods. Strive to raise government credibility, without a basis in law, regulations or rules, administrative organs may not make decisions influencing the rights and interests of citizens, legal persons or other organizations, or increase their obligations; administrative organs that participate in civil activities must exercise their powers according to the law, implement their duties, and bear their responsibility.

15. Perfect administrative law enforcement systems and mechanisms. Continue to move forward administrative law enforcement mechanism reform, rationally determine law enforcement powers, clarify law enforcement responsibilities, move comprehensive law enforcement forward, reduce law enforcement hierarchy, raise the capacity of grass-roots law enforcement, realistically resolve the problems of many-headed law enforcement, multi-level law enforcement, law non-enforcement and chaotic law enforcement. Improve and innovate law enforcement methods, persist in merging management and service, integrating punishment and enlightenment, realize the unification of legal effect and social effect. Strengthen administrative law enforcement informatization construction, move forward online management of law enforcement processes, rise law enforcement efficiency and standardization levels. County-level or higher People’s Governments must establish corresponding mechanisms, stimulate administrative law enforcement departments to exchange information and share resources. Perfect mechanisms to have the financial administration guarantee law enforcement expenses, realistically resolve the problem of law enforcement expenses being linked to income from fines and confiscations.

16. Standardize administrative law enforcement actions. All levels’ administrative organs must strengthen a sense of procedure, and must strictly enforce the law according to procedure. Strengthen procedure system construction, make law enforcement processes more meticulous, clarify law enforcement segments and steps, guarantee procedural fairness. We must equally deal with relevant persons in administration, and treat similar situations equally. Administrative law enforcement organs’ methods and measures in dealing with unlawful activities must be suitable and appropriate, harm to the parties’ rights and interests must be avoided or reduced as much as possible. Establish criterion for administrative discretion powers, scientifically and reasonably make administrative discretion more detailed and quantities, perfect application rules, strictly standardize the exercise of discretion, avoid wilfulness in law enforcement. Complete administrative law enforcement adjustment rules, standardize evidence collection activities. Persist in civilized law enforcement, it is not permitted to treat parties roughly, it is not permitted to harm the human dignity and respect of the targets of law enforcement. Strengthen administrative law enforcement team construction, straiten administrative law enforcement personnel certification posting and qualification management system, ruthlessly grasp law enforcement discipline and professional morals education, completely raise law enforcement personnel quality. On the basis of the situation of law, regulation and rule legislation, revision and abolition, timely adjust and comb out administrative law enforcement bases, clarify law enforcement powers, organs, positions, personnel and responsibilities, and publish them to society. Fully utilize informatized means to launch law enforcement record review and inspection, quality assessment, satisfaction surveys and other work, strengthen law enforcement appraisal and assessment, appraisal and assessment results must be important bases to reward or punish law enforcement personnel, or promote them in position or rank. Strictly implement administrative law enforcement responsibility systems.

VI, Comprehensively move government affairs openness forward

17. Expand government information openness strength. Earnestly implement government information openness regulations, persist in making openness into a principle and non-openness into the exception, all government information not involving State secrets, commercial secrets or individual privacy must be opened up to society. Expand active openness strength, focus on moving forward government information openness in finance and budgeting, public resource allocation, major construction project approval and implementation, social and public undertaking construction and other areas. Governments’ complete income and expense accounts must be brought into budget management, all budgeting and implementation situations of public expenses, basic construction expenses, administrative expenses as well as governmental funding revenue and expenditure budgeting, as well as Central State-owned asset management budgeting, etc., must be open and transparent. Government information openness must be timely, correct and concrete. Where the popular masses apply to open up government information, a response must be granted according to the law within the provided timeframe, and the relevant service work must be done well. Establish and complete government information openness supervision and guarantee mechanisms, regularly conduct appraisal and assessment of government information openness work. Appropriately deal with the relationship between doing information openness well and preserving secrets according to the law, where secrets should be preserved according to the law, secret preservation work must be realistically done well.

18. Move open handling of affairs forward. We must make openness and transparency into basic systems for government work, and broaden the domain of open handling of affairs. All government departments that serve society must completely move forward systems for open handling of affairs, open up the basis, conditions, requirements, processes and results of handling affairs according to the law, and fully notify the relevant information concerning handling of affairs. We must standardize and supervise the open handling of affairs work of hospitals, schools, public transport, utilities and other public enterprise and undertaking work unit, focus on opening up positional duties, service commitments, expenditure programmes, work standards, discipline in handling affairs, supervision channels and other content, provide high-quality, high-efficiency and convenient service to the popular masses’ production and life.

19. Innovate government affairs openness methods. Further strengthen electronic government affairs functioning, fully utilize modern information technology, construct good Internet information service platforms and service network platforms that are convenient for the people, in order to convenience the masses in handling affairs through the Internet. We must integrate government affairs openness with reform of administrative examination and approval systems, move forward online electronic examination and approval, “one external window” and “one-stop shop” service. Standardize and develop all levels and all kinds of administrative service centres, we must as much as possible bring administrative management matters closely concerning enterprises and the popular masses into administrative service centres for handling, improve service quality, raise service efficiency, and reduce administrative costs.

VII, Strengthening administrative supervision and accountability

20. Consciously accept supervision. All levels’ People’s Governments and government departments must consciously accept supervision from People’s Congresses and their Standing Committees, the democratic supervision of Consultative Committees and the supervision that People’s Courts implement according to the law. Concerning hot issues that relate the larger picture for reform, development and stability, the popular masses’ own interests and widespread social concerns, county-level and higher People’s Governments must actively make special subject reports for the same level’s People’s Congress Standing Committee. Broaden mass supervision channels, guarantee the right of the popular masses to supervise government according to the law. Perfect mass report and complaint systems. Give high regard to public opinion supervision, support news media in conducting exposure of unlawful or improper administrative acts. Relevant administrative organs must earnestly investigate and verify complaints reported by the masses and problems reflected by news media, timely handle matters according to the law, and publish the handling results to society.

21. Strengthen intra-government hierarchical supervision and specialized supervision. Higher-level administrative organs must realistically strengthen supervision over lower-level administrative organs, and timely correct unlawful or improper administrative acts. Guarantee and support auditing, supervision and other departments in exercising independent supervision powers according to the law. Audit departments must strive to strengthen financial administration, special funding and budget implementation auditing, major investment programme auditing, financial auditing, economic responsibility auditing of leaders in State-owned enterprises and other work, and strengthen specialized auditing of social security funds, housing accumulation funds, poverty alleviation and disaster relief funds and other public funds. Supervision departments must completely carry out statutory duties, vigorously move forward administrative accountability and government result management supervision, strictly investigate the responsibility of personnel breaking the law or discipline, and supervise administrative organs’ clean government and honest government construction.

22. Straiten administrative accountability. Strictly implement the Administrative Supervision Law, the Civil Servant Law, the Administrative Organ Civil Servant Punishment Regulations and the Provisional Regulations concerning Implementing Party and Government Leading Cadre Accountability, persist in correcting mistakes whenever they occur, and pursuing accountability wherever necessary. Where major accidents due to negligence, incidents or grave unlawful administrative cases occur due to not implementing decrees, not implementing prohibitions, administration lacking in accomplishment, dereliction of duty or malpractice, unlawful acts, etc., the responsibility of the corresponding leaders up to the administrative chief must be strictly investigated according to the law and discipline, supervise and control administrative organs and their work personnel in implementing their powers and obligations strictly according to the law.

VIII, Reconciling social contradictions and disputes according to the law

23. Complete social contradiction and dispute mediation mechanisms. We must make administrative mediation into an important duty for all local levels’ People’s Government and relevant departments, establish administrative mediation work mechanisms where all local levels’ People’s Governments have general responsibility, government legal system organs take the lead, and all functional departments are subjects, and fully give rein to the function of administrative organs in reconciling administrative disputes and civil disputes. Perfect administrative mediation systems, scientifically define the scope for mediation, and standardize mediation procedures. Mediation must actively be conducted of civil disputes in areas such as resource exploitation, environmental pollution, public safety accidents and other areas, as well as disputes involving relatively many people, with a relatively large influence, that may influence social stability. Earnestly implement the People’s Mediation Law, vigorously guide, support and guarantee residents’ committees,  rural committees and other grass-roots organizations in launching people’s mediation work, Promote the establishment of united large mediation activities that link up administrative mediation with people’s mediation and judicial mediation, realize effective integration between all sorts of mediation subjects, shape mediation work force pools.

24. Strengthen administrative redress work. Fully give rein to the function of administrative redress in resolving contradictions and disputes, strive to dissolve administrative redress into preliminary stages and administrative procedures. Unblock redress application channels, simplify application methods, convenience the parties in putting forward applications. We must earnestly do interpretation and notification work well of matters that do not fall into the scope of redress according to the law. Strengthen supervision over redress acceptance activities, persist in correcting acts of not accepting redress applications for no proper reason. In handling redress cases, there must be deep investigation, the opinions of all sides must be fully heard, facts must be ascertained and right and wrong clearly distinguished. Stress utilizing mediation and reconciliation methods to resolve disputes, where mediation or reconciliation cannot bring agreement, a fair redress decision must be made timely according to the law, concerning unlawful or improper administrative acts, cancel those that should be cancelled, modify those that should be modified, confirm as unlawful those that should be confirmed as unlawful.. Administrative organs must strictly carry out administrative redress decisions, where there is refusal to implement redress decisions or implementation is delayed with no proper reason, the responsibility of the relevant personnel must be strictly investigated according to the law. Explore the development of corresponding concentrated administrative redress trial work, conduct administrative redress committee trials. Complete administrative redress organs, guarantee that redress cases are handled by 2 or more redress personnel according to the law. Establish and complete incentive mechanisms, funding and equipment guarantee mechanisms suited to the characteristics of redress work. Perfect link-up mechanisms for administrative redress with letters and petitions.

25. Do administrative lawsuit response work well. Perfect administrative lawsuit response systems, vigorously coordinate with the administrative trial activities of the People’s Courts, support the People’s Courts in independently exercising judgment powers according to the law. Administrative organs must vigorously respond to lawsuits according to the law in relation to administrative cases accepted by People’s Courts, and submit evidence, proof and other related materials of concrete administrative acts to People’s’ Courts according to regulations. Administrative organs’ responsible persons must actively appear in court to respond to lawsuits in major administrative litigation cases. Respect and consciously implement effective judgments and decisions of People’s Courts, treat the judicial suggestion of People’s Courts earnestly.

IX, Strengthen organizational leadership and supervise inspection

26. Complete and move forward leadership structures and mechanisms for administration according to the law. All local levels’ People’s Government and government departments must establish administration according to the law leading coordination mechanisms with main responsible persons in the lead, to uniformly lead the moving forward of administration according to the law work in those regions and departments. County-level and higher local People’s Government standing meetings must hear work reports on administration according to the law at least twice a year, timely resolve prominent issues existing in administration according to the law in their localities, research and deploy concrete tasks and measures to comprehensively move administration according to the law forward, and strengthen rule of law government construction. Strengthen supervision and guidance over moving forward administration according to the law work, supervise inspection and popular opinion propaganda, grant awards and commendations to work units and individuals with prominent achievements according to relevant State regulations, report those who are weak in their work for criticism. Strengthen work assessment on administration according to the law, scientifically define assessment standards and bring them into all local levels’ People’s Government objective assessment and achievement assessment appraisal structures, and make assessment results into an important content for comprehensively assessing and appraising government leading ranks and leading cadres.

27. Strengthen administrative chiefs’ responsibility in being the first responsible person for moving administration according to the law forward. All levels’ People’s Governments and their departments must put completely moving forward administration according to the law and strengthening rule of law government construction in a more prominent position. Administrative chiefs must bear general responsibility for administration according to the law work in their region or department, realistically bear leading responsibility, deploy administration according to the law tasks together with reform, development and stability tasks, implement them together and assess them together. County-level and higher local People’s Government must annually report the situation of moving forward administration according to the law according to the law to the same level’s Party Committee, People’s Congress Standing Committee and the People’s Government of one level higher, government departments must annually report the situation of moving administration according to the law forward to their level’s People’s Government and the People’s Government relevant department of one level higher.

28. Strengthen legal system organ and team construction. County-level and higher People’s Governments and their departments must fully give rein to the organizational coordination, supervision and guidance functions of legal system organs in moving forward administration according to the law and constructing rule of law government. Further strengthen legal system organ construction, ensure that legal system organ specifications, personnel allotment and the duties and responsibilities they undertake are mutually adapted. We must expand fostering, employment and exchange strength of legal cadres, give high regard to promoting legal system cadres with high political qualities, good legal accomplishment and strong work capacity. Government legal system organs and their work personnel must strive to raise their ability and level to do government legal system work well under new circumstances, and strive to be good givers of advice, assistants and consultants for government or department leaders in the area of administration according to the law.

29. Construct a desirable social atmosphere for studying law, respecting law and abiding by the law in society. All levels’ People’s Governments and their departments must adopt all sorts of  effective means to launch rule of law propaganda and education, meticulously organize and implement legal dissemination activities, and must especially strengthen propaganda about laws and regulations that closely relate to the popular masses’ production and lives, forcefully carry forward the spirit of Socialist rule of law, realistically strengthen citizens’ consciousness of safeguarding rights according to the law and consciously carrying out their duties, and strive to move rule of law society construction forward.

All regions and all departments must closely integrate the implementation of these Opinions with deeply implementing the “Outline” and the “State Council Decision concerning Strengthening City and Country Government Administration According to the Law” (GF No. (2008)17), formulate work plans for strengthening rule of law government construction in the coming period on the basis of the real situation, clarify work tasks, concrete measures, time limits for completion and responsibility subjects, determine annual work focus points, firmly move administration according to the law work forward, strive for incessant new achievements in rule of law government construction work,  and realize new breakthroughs.

State Council

10 October 2010

国务院关于加强法治政府建设的意见
(国发〔2010〕33号)
各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
2004年3月,国务院发布《全面推进依法行政实施纲要》(以下简称《纲要》),明确提出建设法治政府的奋斗目标。为在新形势下深入贯彻落实依法治国基本方略,全面推进依法行政,进一步加强法治政府建设,现提出以下意见。
一、加强法治政府建设的重要性紧迫性和总体要求
1.加强法治政府建设的重要性紧迫性。贯彻依法治国基本方略,推进依法行政,建设法治政府,是我们党治国理政从理念到方式的革命性变化,具有划时代的重要意义。《纲要》实施6年来,各级人民政府对依法行政工作高度重视,加强领导、狠抓落实,法治政府建设取得了重要进展。当前,我国经济社会发展进入新阶段,国内外环境更为复杂,挑战增多。转变经济发展方式和调整经济结构的任务更加紧迫和艰巨,城乡之间、地区之间发展不平衡,收入分配不公平和差距扩大,社会结构和利益格局深刻调整,部分地区和一些领域社会矛盾有所增加,群体性事件时有发生,一些领域腐败现象仍然易发多发,执法不公、行政不作为乱作为等问题比较突出。解决这些突出问题,要求进一步深化改革,加强制度建设,强化对行政权力运行的监督和制约,推进依法行政,建设法治政府。各级行政机关及其领导干部一定要正确看待我国经济社会环境的新变化,准确把握改革发展稳定的新形势,及时回应人民群众的新期待,切实增强建设法治政府的使命感、紧迫感和责任感。
2.加强法治政府建设的总体要求。当前和今后一个时期,要深入贯彻科学发展观,认真落实依法治国基本方略,进一步加大《纲要》实施力度,以建设法治政府为奋斗目标,以事关依法行政全局的体制机制创新为突破口,以增强领导干部依法行政的意识和能力、提高制度建设质量、规范行政权力运行、保证法律法规严格执行为着力点,全面推进依法行政,不断提高政府公信力和执行力,为保障经济又好又快发展和社会和谐稳定发挥更大的作用。

二、提高行政机关工作人员特别是领导干部依法行政的意识和能力
3.高度重视行政机关工作人员依法行政意识与能力的培养。行政机关工作人员特别是领导干部要带头学法、尊法、守法、用法,牢固树立以依法治国、执法为民、公平正义、服务大局、党的领导为基本内容的社会主义法治理念,自觉养成依法办事的习惯,切实提高运用法治思维和法律手段解决经济社会发展中突出矛盾和问题的能力。要重视提拔使用依法行政意识强,善于用法律手段解决问题、推动发展的优秀干部。
4.推行依法行政情况考察和法律知识测试制度。拟任地方人民政府及其部门领导职务的干部,任职前要考察其掌握相关法律知识和依法行政情况。公务员录用考试要注重对法律知识的测试,对拟从事行政执法、政府法制等工作的人员,还要组织专门的法律知识考试。
5.建立法律知识学习培训长效机制。完善各级行政机关领导干部学法制度。要通过政府常务会议会前学法、法制讲座等形式,组织学习宪法、通用法律知识和与履行职责相关的专门法律知识。县级以上地方各级人民政府每年至少要举办2期领导干部依法行政专题研讨班。各级行政学院和公务员培训机构举办的行政机关公务员培训班,要把依法行政知识纳入教学内容。定期组织行政执法人员参加通用法律知识培训、专门法律知识轮训和新法律法规专题培训,并把培训情况、学习成绩作为考核内容和任职晋升的依据之一。

三、加强和改进制度建设
6.突出政府立法重点。要按照有利于调动人民群众积极性和创造性、激发社会活力和竞争力、解放和发展生产力、维护公平正义、规范权力运行的要求,加强和改进政府立法与制度建设。重点加强有关完善经济体制、改善民生和发展社会事业以及政府自身建设方面的立法。对社会高度关注、实践急需、条件相对成熟的立法项目,要作为重中之重,集中力量攻关,尽早出台。
7.提高制度建设质量。政府立法要符合经济社会发展规律,充分反映人民意愿,着力解决经济社会发展中的普遍性问题和深层次矛盾,切实增强法律制度的科学性和可操作性。严格遵守法定权限和程序,完善公众参与政府立法的制度和机制,保证人民群众的意见得到充分表达、合理诉求和合法利益得到充分体现。除依法需要保密的外,行政法规和规章草案要向社会公开征求意见,并以适当方式反馈意见采纳情况。建立健全专家咨询论证制度,充分发挥专家学者在政府立法中的作用。法律法规规章草案涉及其他部门职责的,要充分听取相关部门的意见;相关部门要认真研究,按要求及时回复意见。加强政府法制机构在政府立法中的主导和协调作用,涉及重大意见分歧、达不成一致意见的,要及时报请本级人民政府决定。坚决克服政府立法过程中的部门利益和地方保护倾向。积极探索开展政府立法成本效益分析、社会风险评估、实施情况后评估工作。加强行政法规、规章解释工作。
8.加强对行政法规、规章和规范性文件的清理。坚持立“新法”与改“旧法”并重。对不符合经济社会发展要求,与上位法相抵触、不一致,或者相互之间不协调的行政法规、规章和规范性文件,要及时修改或者废止。建立规章和规范性文件定期清理制度,对规章一般每隔5年、规范性文件一般每隔2年清理一次,清理结果要向社会公布。
9.健全规范性文件制定程序。地方各级行政机关和国务院各部门要严格依法制定规范性文件。各类规范性文件不得设定行政许可、行政处罚、行政强制等事项,不得违法增加公民、法人和其他组织的义务。制定对公民、法人或者其他组织的权利义务产生直接影响的规范性文件,要公开征求意见,由法制机构进行合法性审查,并经政府常务会议或者部门领导班子会议集体讨论决定;未经公开征求意见、合法性审查、集体讨论的,不得发布施行。县级以上地方人民政府对本级政府及其部门的规范性文件,要逐步实行统一登记、统一编号、统一发布。探索建立规范性文件有效期制度。
10.强化规章和规范性文件备案审查。严格执行法规规章备案条例和有关规范性文件备案的规定,加强备案审查工作,做到有件必备、有错必纠,切实维护法制统一和政令畅通。要重点加强对违法增加公民、法人和其他组织义务或者影响其合法权益,搞地方或行业保护等内容的规章和规范性文件的备案审查工作。建立规范性文件备案登记、公布、情况通报和监督检查制度,加强备案工作信息化建设。对公民、法人和其他组织提出的审查建议,要按照有关规定认真研究办理。对违法的规章和规范性文件,要及时报请有权机关依法予以撤销并向社会公布。备案监督机构要定期向社会公布通过备案审查的规章和规范性文件目录。

四、坚持依法科学民主决策
11.规范行政决策程序。加强行政决策程序建设,健全重大行政决策规则,推进行政决策的科学化、民主化、法治化。要坚持一切从实际出发,系统全面地掌握实际情况,深入分析决策对各方面的影响,认真权衡利弊得失。要把公众参与、专家论证、风险评估、合法性审查和集体讨论决定作为重大决策的必经程序。作出重大决策前,要广泛听取、充分吸收各方面意见,意见采纳情况及其理由要以适当形式反馈或者公布。完善重大决策听证制度,扩大听证范围,规范听证程序,听证参加人要有广泛的代表性,听证意见要作为决策的重要参考。重大决策要经政府常务会议或者部门领导班子会议集体讨论决定。重大决策事项应当在会前交由法制机构进行合法性审查,未经合法性审查或者经审查不合法的,不能提交会议讨论、作出决策。
12.完善行政决策风险评估机制。凡是有关经济社会发展和人民群众切身利益的重大政策、重大项目等决策事项,都要进行合法性、合理性、可行性和可控性评估,重点是进行社会稳定、环境、经济等方面的风险评估。建立完善部门论证、专家咨询、公众参与、专业机构测评相结合的风险评估工作机制,通过舆情跟踪、抽样调查、重点走访、会商分析等方式,对决策可能引发的各种风险进行科学预测、综合研判,确定风险等级并制定相应的化解处置预案。要把风险评估结果作为决策的重要依据,未经风险评估的,一律不得作出决策。
13.加强重大决策跟踪反馈和责任追究。在重大决策执行过程中,决策机关要跟踪决策的实施情况,通过多种途径了解利益相关方和社会公众对决策实施的意见和建议,全面评估决策执行效果,并根据评估结果决定是否对决策予以调整或者停止执行。对违反决策规定、出现重大决策失误、造成重大损失的,要按照谁决策、谁负责的原则严格追究责任。

五、严格规范公正文明执法
14.严格依法履行职责。各级行政机关要自觉在宪法和法律范围内活动,严格依照法定权限和程序行使权力、履行职责。要全面履行政府职能,更加重视社会管理和公共服务,着力保障和改善民生,切实解决就业、教育、医疗、社会保障、保障性住房等方面人民群众最关心的问题。加大行政执法力度,严厉查处危害安全生产、食品药品安全、自然资源和环境保护、社会治安等方面的违法案件,维护公共利益和经济社会秩序。认真执行行政许可法,深化行政审批制度改革,进一步规范和减少行政审批,推进政府职能转变和管理方式创新。着力提高政府公信力,没有法律、法规、规章依据,行政机关不得作出影响公民、法人和其他组织权益或者增加其义务的决定;行政机关参与民事活动,要依法行使权利、履行义务、承担责任。
15.完善行政执法体制和机制。继续推进行政执法体制改革,合理界定执法权限,明确执法责任,推进综合执法,减少执法层级,提高基层执法能力,切实解决多头执法、多层执法和不执法、乱执法问题。改进和创新执法方式,坚持管理与服务并重、处置与疏导结合,实现法律效果与社会效果的统一。加强行政执法信息化建设,推行执法流程网上管理,提高执法效率和规范化水平。县级以上人民政府要建立相关机制,促进行政执法部门信息交流和资源共享。完善执法经费由财政保障的机制,切实解决执法经费与罚没收入挂钩问题。
16.规范行政执法行为。各级行政机关都要强化程序意识,严格按程序执法。加强程序制度建设,细化执法流程,明确执法环节和步骤,保障程序公正。要平等对待行政相对人,同样情形同等处理。行政执法机关处理违法行为的手段和措施要适当适度,尽力避免或者减少对当事人权益的损害。建立行政裁量权基准制度,科学合理细化、量化行政裁量权,完善适用规则,严格规范裁量权行使,避免执法的随意性。健全行政执法调查规则,规范取证活动。坚持文明执法,不得粗暴对待当事人,不得侵害执法对象的人格尊严。加强行政执法队伍建设,严格执法人员持证上岗和资格管理制度,狠抓执法纪律和职业道德教育,全面提高执法人员素质。根据法律法规规章立、改、废情况及时调整、梳理行政执法依据,明确执法职权、机构、岗位、人员和责任,并向社会公布。充分利用信息化手段开展执法案卷评查、质量考核、满意度测评等工作,加强执法评议考核,评议考核结果要作为执法人员奖励惩处、晋职晋级的重要依据。严格落实行政执法责任制。

六、全面推进政务公开
17.加大政府信息公开力度。认真贯彻实施政府信息公开条例,坚持以公开为原则、不公开为例外,凡是不涉及国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私的政府信息,都要向社会公开。加大主动公开力度,重点推进财政预算、公共资源配置、重大建设项目批准和实施、社会公益事业建设等领域的政府信息公开。政府全部收支都要纳入预算管理,所有公共支出、基本建设支出、行政经费支出的预算和执行情况,以及政府性基金收支预算和中央国有资本经营预算等情况都要公开透明。政府信息公开要及时、准确、具体。对人民群众申请公开政府信息的,要依法在规定时限内予以答复,并做好相应服务工作。建立健全政府信息公开的监督和保障机制,定期对政府信息公开工作进行评议考核。依法妥善处理好信息公开与保守秘密的关系,对依法应当保密的,要切实做好保密工作。
18.推进办事公开。要把公开透明作为政府工作的基本制度,拓宽办事公开领域。所有面向社会服务的政府部门都要全面推进办事公开制度,依法公开办事依据、条件、要求、过程和结果,充分告知办事项目有关信息。要规范和监督医院、学校、公交、公用等公共企事业单位的办事公开工作,重点公开岗位职责、服务承诺、收费项目、工作规范、办事纪律、监督渠道等内容,为人民群众生产生活提供优质、高效、便利的服务。
19.创新政务公开方式。进一步加强电子政务建设,充分利用现代信息技术,建设好互联网信息服务平台和便民服务网络平台,方便人民群众通过互联网办事。要把政务公开与行政审批制度改革结合起来,推行网上电子审批、“一个窗口对外”和“一站式”服务。规范和发展各级各类行政服务中心,对与企业和人民群众密切相关的行政管理事项,要尽可能纳入行政服务中心办理,改善服务质量,提高服务效率,降低行政成本。

七、强化行政监督和问责
20.自觉接受监督。各级人民政府和政府部门要自觉接受人大及其常委会的监督、政协的民主监督和人民法院依法实施的监督。对事关改革发展稳定大局、人民群众切身利益和社会普遍关心的热点问题,县级以上人民政府要主动向同级人大常委会专题报告。拓宽群众监督渠道,依法保障人民群众监督政府的权利。完善群众举报投诉制度。高度重视舆论监督,支持新闻媒体对违法或者不当的行政行为进行曝光。对群众举报投诉、新闻媒体反映的问题,有关行政机关要认真调查核实,及时依法作出处理,并将处理结果向社会公布。
21.加强政府内部层级监督和专门监督。上级行政机关要切实加强对下级行政机关的监督,及时纠正违法或者不当的行政行为。保障和支持审计、监察等部门依法独立行使监督权。审计部门要着力加强财政专项资金和预算执行审计、重大投资项目审计、金融审计、国有企业领导人员经济责任审计等工作,加强社会保障基金、住房公积金、扶贫救灾资金等公共资金的专项审计。监察部门要全面履行法定职责,积极推进行政问责和政府绩效管理监察,严肃追究违法违纪人员的责任,促进行政机关廉政勤政建设。
22.严格行政问责。严格执行行政监察法、公务员法、行政机关公务员处分条例和关于实行党政领导干部问责的暂行规定,坚持有错必纠、有责必问。对因有令不行、有禁不止、行政不作为、失职渎职、违法行政等行为,导致一个地区、一个部门发生重大责任事故、事件或者严重违法行政案件的,要依法依纪严肃追究有关领导直至行政首长的责任,督促和约束行政机关及其工作人员严格依法行使权力、履行职责。

八、依法化解社会矛盾纠纷
23.健全社会矛盾纠纷调解机制。要把行政调解作为地方各级人民政府和有关部门的重要职责,建立由地方各级人民政府负总责、政府法制机构牵头、各职能部门为主体的行政调解工作体制,充分发挥行政机关在化解行政争议和民事纠纷中的作用。完善行政调解制度,科学界定调解范围,规范调解程序。对资源开发、环境污染、公共安全事故等方面的民事纠纷,以及涉及人数较多、影响较大、可能影响社会稳定的纠纷,要主动进行调解。认真实施人民调解法,积极指导、支持和保障居民委员会、村民委员会等基层组织开展人民调解工作。推动建立行政调解与人民调解、司法调解相衔接的大调解联动机制,实现各类调解主体的有效互动,形成调解工作合力。
24.加强行政复议工作。充分发挥行政复议在解决矛盾纠纷中的作用,努力将行政争议化解在初发阶段和行政程序中。畅通复议申请渠道,简化申请手续,方便当事人提出申请。对依法不属于复议范围的事项,要认真做好解释、告知工作。加强对复议受理活动的监督,坚决纠正无正当理由不受理复议申请的行为。办理复议案件要深入调查,充分听取各方意见,查明事实、分清是非。注重运用调解、和解方式解决纠纷,调解、和解达不成协议的,要及时依法公正作出复议决定,对违法或者不当的行政行为,该撤销的撤销,该变更的变更,该确认违法的确认违法。行政机关要严格履行行政复议决定,对拒不履行或者无正当理由拖延履行复议决定的,要依法严肃追究有关人员的责任。探索开展相对集中行政复议审理工作,进行行政复议委员会试点。健全行政复议机构,确保复议案件依法由2名以上复议人员办理。建立健全适应复议工作特点的激励机制和经费装备保障机制。完善行政复议与信访的衔接机制。
25.做好行政应诉工作。完善行政应诉制度,积极配合人民法院的行政审判活动,支持人民法院依法独立行使审判权。对人民法院受理的行政案件,行政机关要依法积极应诉,按规定向人民法院提交作出具体行政行为的依据、证据和其他相关材料。对重大行政诉讼案件,行政机关负责人要主动出庭应诉。尊重并自觉履行人民法院的生效判决、裁定,认真对待人民法院的司法建议。

九、加强组织领导和督促检查
26.健全推进依法行政的领导体制和机制。地方各级人民政府和政府部门都要建立由主要负责人牵头的依法行政领导协调机制,统一领导本地区、本部门推进依法行政工作。县级以上地方人民政府常务会议每年至少听取2次依法行政工作汇报,及时解决本地区依法行政中存在的突出问题,研究部署全面推进依法行政、加强法治政府建设的具体任务和措施。加强对推进依法行政工作的督促指导、监督检查和舆论宣传,对成绩突出的单位和个人按照国家有关规定给予表彰奖励,对工作不力的予以通报批评。加强依法行政工作考核,科学设定考核指标并纳入地方各级人民政府目标考核、绩效考核评价体系,将考核结果作为对政府领导班子和领导干部综合考核评价的重要内容。
27.强化行政首长作为推进依法行政第一责任人的责任。各级人民政府及其部门要把全面推进依法行政、加强法治政府建设摆在更加突出的位置。行政首长要对本地区、本部门依法行政工作负总责,切实承担起领导责任,将依法行政任务与改革发展稳定任务一起部署、一起落实、一起考核。县级以上地方人民政府每年要向同级党委、人大常委会和上一级人民政府报告推进依法行政情况,政府部门每年要向本级人民政府和上一级人民政府有关部门报告推进依法行政情况。
28.加强法制机构和队伍建设。县级以上各级人民政府及其部门要充分发挥法制机构在推进依法行政、建设法治政府方面的组织协调和督促指导作用。进一步加强法制机构建设,使法制机构的规格、编制与其承担的职责和任务相适应。要加大对法制干部的培养、使用和交流力度,重视提拔政治素质高、法律素养好、工作能力强的法制干部。政府法制机构及其工作人员要努力提高新形势下做好政府法制工作的能力和水平,努力当好政府或者部门领导在依法行政方面的参谋、助手和顾问。
29.营造学法尊法守法的良好社会氛围。各级人民政府及其部门要采取各种有效形式深入开展法治宣传教育,精心组织实施普法活动,特别要加强与人民群众生产生活密切相关的法律法规宣传,大力弘扬社会主义法治精神,切实增强公民依法维护权利、自觉履行义务的意识,努力推进法治社会建设。
各地区、各部门要把贯彻落实本意见与深入贯彻《纲要》和《国务院关于加强市县政府依法行政的决定》(国发〔2008〕17号)紧密结合起来,根据实际情况制定今后一个时期加强法治政府建设的工作规划,明确工作任务、具体措施、完成时限和责任主体,确定年度工作重点,扎扎实实地推进依法行政工作,务求法治政府建设不断取得新成效,实现新突破。

 

 

One thought on “State Council Opinions concerning Strengthening Rule of Law Government Construction

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    May 11, 2013 at 10:59 am

    […] State Council Opinions concerning Strengthening Rule of Law Government Construction (2010) […]

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