The Historical Experience of the Chinese Communist Party’s 90 Years of Moving Ideological Work Forward

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Source: Qiushi, 2011

In the process of revolution, construction and reform of the Chinese Communist Party over 90 years, ideological work has had high attention from beginning to end. Even though the historical backgrounds of the times, development stages and main tasks were different, it has closely grasped the leading power in ideological construction work, has incessantly raised control capacity in the ideological sphere, and has accumulated rich historical experience in moving ideological construction forward.

I, Closely grasping leadership power – a prominent strategic position, grasping the power of initiative in ideological work from beginning to end.

Ideological work has always been an extremely important work of our Party. Doing economic work badly generates great problems, doing ideological work badly also generated great problems, at the same time as concentrating forces to conduct economic construction, we cannot even for a while slacken in ideological work. Historical experience has already proven that strengthening the leadership of the Party is an important guarantee for incessant victory in our country’s revolution, construction and reform undertakings, and is the core for moving our country’s mainstream ideology construction forward. Strengthening the Party’s monist leadership over ideological work, closely grasping the initiative in ideological work, strengthening initiative ad foresight, are important talismans for our incessant march towards victory.

1. Establishing Central standing organs, strengthening Party control over ideology. During the period of the New Democratic Revolution, although our Party did not control the ideological tools of the State, it vigorously proposed new political and cultural thoughts, incessantly strengthened the propaganda and guidance of Marxism, and promoted the historical process of the Chinese revolution with this. As early as the foundation of the Party in 1921, our Party established propaganda organs, to be responsible for propaganda and agitation work, and developing propaganda and agitation for the revolutionary undertaking. After the 6th Party Congress, the Central Propaganda Department became a permanent organ, and assumed duties and functions as the highest guiding organ for propaganda and education work nationwide and of ideological and political education for cadres and masses. In July 1942, Comrade Mao Zedong emphatically pointed out that “grasping ideological leadership is the first step in grasping overall leadership” [1]. During the War of Resistance of Japan and the War of Liberation, our Party put ideological work in an even more prominent position, and more consciously paid attention to grasping the initiative in the realms of thought, culture and ideology, establishing a firm basis for the victory of the New Democratic Revolution. After the establishment of the New China, our Party put propaganda, ideology and public opinion guidance work in a prominent position, firmly grasped the ideological initiative from beginning to end, the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological sphere was incessantly consolidated, just as Mao Zedong stressed, “The core force guiding our undertaking is the Chinese Communist Party, the theoretical basis guiding our thought is Marxism-Leninism” [2].

2. Strengthening organizational construction, consolidating the leadership power of the Party over ideology. Our Party attached extreme importance to and strengthened monist leadership in the ideological area, and this was mainly realized through the Party’s political leadership, ideological leadership and organizational leadership. The Party’s political leadership in the ideological area is to guide the development orientation of Socialist ideology with the scientific theory of Marxism and the Party’s line, principles and policies; the Party’s ideological leadership in the ideological area is forcefully propagating Socialist ideology, resisting and criticising all mistaken ideologies, and ensure that Socialist thought progressively occupied the entire ideological sphere; the Party’s organizational leadership in the ideological area is establishing Party organizations inside all ideological departments, to be responsible for the implementation of the Party line, principles and policies, and thereby powerfully strengthening the Party’s ideological leadership and organizational leadership in the ideological area, effectively avoiding mistaken tendencies in the ideological sphere and strengthening the initiative in ideological work.

3. Adapting to an open environment, giving prominence to the strategic position of ideology. Since reform and opening up, in order to strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership and raise governing power, our Party has scientifically understood the strategic position of ideology, and has closely grasped the initiative in ideological work from beginning to end. Deng Xiaoping stressed that “the most important matter in improving the leadership of the Party is strengthening ideological and political work” [3]. “The entire Party must research how to adapt to new conditions, strengthen the Party’s ideological work, and prevent against tendencies of immersing themselves in ideological work and overlooking ideological work. All levels’ Party Committees, and first and foremost the main responsible comrades in the Party Committees, must closely pay attention to and deeply research trends and issues on the ideological front, and adopt powerful and effective methods to improve work on this front” [4]. Jiang Zemin pointed out that “To grasp Party building, we must first and foremost grasp the Party’s ideological and political building, because resolving ideological and political issues is the precondition and basis to do all other work well. This fine tradition and important experience of the Party may not be lost at any time” [5]. Under the new circumstances of reform, opening up and economic globalization, our Party persisted in the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological sphere, closely grasping the progressive orientation of advanced Socialist culture. The report of the 17th Party Congress stressed that the Party must stand at the forefront of the times to lead the people in incessantly pioneering new dimensions of undertaking and development, must strengthen self-building with a spirit of reform and innovation, and become the strong leading core of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics from beginning to end. Building the Party’s governing ability relates to the entire picture of Party building and the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and raising leadership levels and governing ability must be made into the core content that must be grasped in all levels’ leadership rank construction. This deeply clarifies the extreme importance of doing ideological work well for the Chinese Communist Party. The facts of the changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 20 years ago tell us that if a governing party abandons the initiative in ideological work, or even loses the ability of recognition of and resistance against harmful ideology, the consequences will be extremely grave. Because of this, in the process of reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction, we must pay high regard to issues in the ideological area, and must forcefully strengthen propaganda and ideological work.

“Ideological and theoretical construction are the basic construction of the Party, the Party’s theoretical innovations lead innovation in all areas” [6]. In the historical process of accelerating the drive towards Socialist modernization, our country’s development faces a complex environment, and faces strenuous tasks, it faces unprecedented opportunities, and faces unprecedented challenges. Because of the extreme importance of ideological issues, we must make raising the Party’s capacity to lead ideological work into the soul of strengthening the Party’s governing ability construction, and closely grasp the leadership and initiative in ideological work, this is where the root of establishing an eternal and unassailable position of the Party and the Socialist undertaking lies.

II, Incessantly raising leadership strength – responding to ideological challenges, scientifically grasping the correct orientation ideological development and construction

Both during the democratic revolution period of striving for national independence and the people’s liberation, and in the Socialist construction, reform and opening up period of peaceful development, thought, culture and the ideological area have always been an important battlefield for hostile forces to conduct acute strife with us. How to timely launch challenges and struggle with domestic and foreign mistaken ideologies and thinking trends in the ideological area, and incessantly raise the leading position of Marxist and Socialist mainstream ideology has been a pressing task put in front of our Party from beginning to end.

1. Conducting the diametrically opposed struggle with all sorts of reactionary thoughts and ideologies, striving for public opinion power for the people’s revolution to march towards victory. During the democratic revolutionary period, although our Party did not grasp the ideology and propaganda tools of the State, it vigorously propagated Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, propagated the Party’s revolutionary line and policies, forcefully moved the Sinification and massification of Marxism forward, and thereby powerfully raised the level of identification of the broad cadres and popular masses with Marxism-Leninism and Communist ideals, furthermore, it vigorously threw itself into fervent revolutionary struggle in order to incessantly push the New Democratic Revolution towards victory on the one hand. On the other hand, through all sorts of channels and methods, it deeply criticized imperialism and all sorts of reactionary thoughts and ideologies of the Guomindang, it criticized mistaken thinking trends of all shades and descriptions, and thereby provided powerful ideological weapons to wrest victory in the democratic revolution.

2. Timely and effectively opposing Western “peaceful evolution” strategy attempts, incessantly consolidating the security of the Socialist system. During the initial stage of Socialist transformation and especially Socialist construction, although Marxism and Mao Zedong Thought were established at the guiding position of Socialist ideology, and the large-scale violent storm of mass class struggle of the revolutionary period was basically concluded, as the domestic and international situation was complex, Mao Zedong stressed that the class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie in the ideological area was long-term, tortuous and sometimes even very fierce. It should be understood that “Marxism must be in struggle for it to develop, this was not only so in the past, it is also so now, and will inevitably remain so in the future. Correct things have always developed in the process of struggling with mistaken things” [7]. Under this ideological guidance, we have conducted a necessary struggle with those non-Marxist and anti-Marxist mistaken ideologies domestically. At the same time, Western imperialist countries internationally have also adjusted their strategy, and began to conduct infiltration of and attack against our country with capitalist ideological concepts and degenerate culture, to counter the peaceful evolution schemes of imperialist countries to overturn the Socialist system, our Party has timely launched anti-peaceful development struggles, strengthened the Party’s ideological construction, vigorously fostered and created successors for the undertaking of the proletarian revolution, to this end, Mao Zedong put forward five conditions for fostering successors of the proletarian revolution; first, they must understand Marxism, second, they must pursue the interest of the absolute majority of the people, third, they are to unite the broad cadres and masses, fourth, they must emphasize democracy and must not be a house where what someone says, goes, fifth, where they make mistakes, they must make self-criticism [8]. Because we closely grasp the ideological initiative, we thereby ensure that the Chinese Socialist system will be incessantly consolidated and developed.

3. Launching ideological battles on two fronts with clear banners flying, powerfully guaranteeing the correct orientation of reform and opening up. Since reform and opening up, our Party has paid high attention to battles and struggles in the ideological area, vigorously responded to domestic and international challenges, and scientifically guided ideological construction. In the early period of reform and opening up, our Party launched the struggles to oppose the “Two Whatevers”, oppose spiritual pollution and oppose bourgeois liberalization, in order to bring order out of chaos. Deng Xiaoping stressed that “liberalization itself is bourgeois, it there is no proletarian or Socialist liberalization in any way… Doing liberalization means guiding us towards the capitalist track” [9]. This indicates that opposing bourgeois liberalization is a long-term task. Following the deepening of Socialist market economy structure reforms and the acceleration of participation on the process of globalization, struggles to oppose Mammonism, hedonism, extreme individualism and other degenerate ideologies, as well as against “Falun Gong” have been launched as well. Since the beginning of the 21st Century, to counter some noises and murmurs that challenged the present reform, challenged the basic Party line, denied reform and distorted opening up to the outside world, as well as some mistaken discourses and thinking trends of social-democracy, etc., which emerged in the area, the Central Propaganda Department and other departments organized the compilation of “Six ‘Whys’ – Answers to Some Major Questions”, “Seven ‘How to Sees'” and “Textbook to Clearly Distinguish ‘Four Major Boundaries'”, to help the cadres and masses to clear up their understanding of some major issues, consciously resist the corrosion of mistaken ideologies, and even better unify thoughts and concentrate forces, thereby powerfully removing noises and murmurs interfering with and influencing reform, opening up and the construction of a Socialist harmonious society.

III, Vigorously strengthening attractiveness – stressing innovation in methods, utilizing many kinds of methods and means to vigorously conduct ideological construction

In the process of democratic reform, our Party has forcefully strengthened propaganda and education of Marxism-Leninism, and powerfully promoted the process of the democratic revolution. More than 60 years after grasping political power, our Party vigorously explores new methods and means for ideological construction, and moves our country’s ideological construction forward through conduction Socialist spiritual civilization construction, incessantly strengthening and improving ideological and political work, developing advanced Socialist culture, as well as constructing the Socialist core value system and many other methods.

1. Making education, propaganda and scientific teaching into an important method to raise the attractiveness and fighting force of Marxism-Leninism. In the period of the New Democratic Revolution, our Party utilized many channels and methods to propagate the scientific nature and truthfulness of Marxism-Leninism. Lenin pointed out that in the process of the proletarian revolutionary struggle, “Socialist understanding is a sort of thing that goes into the centre of the proletarian class struggle through teaching from outside, and is not a sort of thing that spontaneously emerges from this struggle” [10]. With Lenin’s “View on Teaching” as guidance, our Party vigorously launched positive education, forcefully propagated Marxist and New Democratic Revolutionary theory, forcefully promoting the progress in the democratic revolutionary victory. During the War of Resistance against Japan and the Yan’an Rectification periods, our Party paid attention to making the grasping of ideology and education into the first matter to grasp, it moved forward ideological work by strengthening ideological construction, and especially strengthened Marxist theory study and ideological work style construction through vigorously launching self-criticism education, establishing a firm basis to liberate the whole of China and welcoming the thorough victory in the New Democratic Revolution. Entering the period of Socialist revolution and transformation, our Party continued to strengthen education and propaganda work of Marxist mainstream ideology, just as Mao Zedong stressed: “The entire Party must pay attention to ideological and theoretical work, establish Marxist theory teams, and strengthen research and propaganda of Marxist theory” [11], thereby incessantly raising the attractiveness of Marxism-Leninism.

2. Make strengthening Socialist spiritual civilization construction into an important form of strengthening the attractiveness of Socialist ideology. The thoughts concerning correctly dealing with intellectuals, as well as fostering and creating successors for the Socialist undertaking, which Mao Zedong put forward during the period of Socialist construction, should fall under the category of spiritual civilization construction, and are still important at present. After reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping clearly put forward strategic thought on strengthening spiritual civilization construction, because “without strengthening the construction of a spiritual civilization, the construction of a material civilization will be wrecked, and the road will be circuitous” [12]. Because of this, in 1986 and 1996, the Party Centre Plenum specially researched and formulated the “Resolution concerning Guiding Policies for the Construction of a Socialist Spiritual Civilization” and the “Decision concerning Strengthening the Construction of a Socialist Spiritual Civilization”, which ensured correct lines and policies for spiritual civilization work, and thereby gave even more prominence to the requirement of “giving importance to spiritual civilization construction” in practice, explored not a few new forms for spiritual civilization construction, and further secured the basis for Socialist ideology construction.

3. Making strengthening and improving ideological and political work into an important method and carrier to move ideological construction forward. In the first period after the establishment of New China, the Party Centre and Comrade Mao Zedong gave high regard to ideological and political work, afterwards, they also required higher-level Party cadres to” on the basis of raising Marxism-Leninism levels, ensure that they become experts proficient in political work and economic work” [13], and thereby powerfully stimulated ideological construction work. During the period of reform and opening up, our Party further understood that the ideals and beliefs of the masses, their spiritual outlook and will, in the end, were decided by the rise, fall, success or failure of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, “the more the economy develops, the more we reform and open up, the more we must strengthen ideological and political work” [14]. General Secretary Hu Jintao emphatically pointed out that “in the magnificent process of completely constructing a moderately prosperous society, propaganda and ideological work are very weighty. We must use the requirements of the times to examine propaganda and ideology work, and must use the insights of development to research propaganda and ideology work, promote propaganda and ideology work with a spirit of reform, and strive to ensure that propaganda and ideology work even better reflects the nature of the time, grasps regularities and is rich in creativity” [15]. Under the guidance of this thought, ideological and political work in all areas and on all fronts has obtained clear achievements, laying a firm basis for strengthening the attractiveness of mainstream ideology.

4. Making the strengthening of advanced culture and the construction of the Socialist core value system into a new act and a new platform to move ideological construction forward. Mao Zedong  stressed during the period of Socialist construction that culture must “serve the people and serve Socialist countries”, and clearly moved forward the basic policy of “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend” to let culture flourish, as well as a series of other thoughts concerning the development of Socialist culture, which powerfully promoted our country’s ideological construction. Since reform and opening up, we have powerfully developed cultural sectors and cultural undertakings, and incessantly used the Internet and other new methods to disseminate advanced culture. Since Jiang Zemin put forward the concept of “Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics” for the first time in 1991, to the systematic elaboration of the 15th Party Congress of the issue of constructing Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics in 1997; from the 16th Party Congress clearly putting forward to closely grasp the progressive orientation of advanced culture and forcefully developing Socialist culture, to the 4th Plenum of the 16th Party Congress in 2004 putting forward that our Party must incessantly “raise the capacity to construct advanced Socialist culture”, etc., these strategic deployments not only forcefully promoted the progress with great strides of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, but also opened up a space and a platform for the broadening of our country’s Socialist ideology construction. In 2006, the 6th Plenum of the 16th Party Congress again further clarified the necessity to move Socialist harmonious cultural construction forward, and new forms such as leading our country’s ideological construction with the Socialist core value system, etc. In October 2007, the convention of the 17th Party Congress clearly put forward that we must promote the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture, incessantly raise the country’s cultural soft power, and stressed that the Socialist core value system is the essential reflection of Socialist ideology, and we must construct the Socialist core value system. The implementation of these strategic countermeasures forcefully strengthened the attractiveness and cohesion of Socialist ideology.

IV, Maintaining creative ability from beginning to end – scientifically examining the times and national circumstances, promoting the Sinification, updating and massification of Marxism with an innovative spirit

Practice proves that Marxist theory can only become a strong material force if it is truly understood, grasped and scientifically utilized by the broad popular masses, and thus give rein to its deserved function and effect in promoting social progress. In the 90 years since the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party, the successive Central leading collectives, represented by Comrades Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, persisted in liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts and progressing with the times throughout, closely integrated Marxist theoretical tenets with the practice of Chinese Socialism, and gave special high regard to and vigorously promoted the massification of modern Chinese Marxist theory, ensuring that incessant new advances were made in the work of arming Marxist theory, our country’s Socialist mainstream ideology gained more broad identification and support from the cadres and the masses every day, and the Socialist path with Chinese characteristics is becoming ever broader as we march it.

1. Scientifically grasping the characteristics and construction reality of the Chinese revolution, opening up the process of the Sinification and massification of Marxism with innovative spirits. During the period of the democratic revolution, our Party strived to integrate Marxism-Leninism with the practice of the Chinese revolution, opened up the path of the democratic revolution with Chinese characteristics, and vigorously moved the Sinification and massification of Marxism forward, manifesting the independent creativity of the Party. In view of the fact that our Party’s theoretical preparation for the revolution was insufficient, dogmatism existed and other problems, Comrade Mao Zedong gave extremely high regard to the Sinification and massification of Marxism-Leninism. In 1938, Mao Zedong put this assignment of “the Sinification of Marxism” forward for the first time in his political reform “On the New Phase” at the 6th Plenum of the 6th Party Congress. Mao Zedong also believed that, to promote the Chinese revolution, the first necessary political work was to vigorously promote the propaganda and popularization of Marxism-Leninism in China. He also went to factories and villages himself, and incessantly explained the revolutionary principles of Marxism-Leninism to workers and peasants. These greatly accelerated the historical process of Marxism-Leninism being grasped by the people, and thereby also greatly stimulated the enthusiasm and vigour of the popular masses to participate in revolutionary struggle, and victory was quickly obtained in the Chinese revolution. After the victory in the Chinese Revolution, Aisiqi’s “Mass Philosophy” was greatly welcomed by the broad cadres and masses, and greatly promoted the process of popularization of Marxist philosophy in the new China. Mao Zedong also put forward the requirement of strengthening theoretical study to cadres at all levels and repeatedly stressed that “in order to do our work well, all levels’ Party Committees shall greatly advocate the study of  Marxist epistemology, ensure its massification, make the broad cadres and popular masses grasp it, let philosophy be liberated from the classrooms and books of philosophers, and become a sharp weapon in the hands of the masses” [16].

2. Correctly grasping the characteristics of the times and China’s national circumstances, sparing no effort to open up new frontiers for the development of Marxism in the China of the present. In the process of reform and opening up, our Party has maintained exuberant creativity from beginning to end, it has moved forward ideological construction in the process of persisting in, inheriting and developing Marxism, and used a Marxism that progressed with the times to guide ideological construction. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, and the scientific development view, our country’s Socialist ideology construction has steadily moved forward. Under the leadership of the second-generation Central leadership collective with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at the core, Chinese Communist Party members have liberated thoughts, sought truth from facts, and strove to integrate the basic tenets of Marxism with new realities and the characteristics of the times, collected the wisdom of the entire Party and the people in the entire country, inherited and developed Mao Zedong Thought, established Deng Xiaoping Theory, systematically answered a series of basic questions of Chinese Socialist construction, and brought Socialist understandings to new levels. As the chief designer of reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping not only rationally pondered on our country’s mainstream ideology, but also fixed eyes upon incessantly driving it ahead in practice, and thereby realized a new transition in Marxist ideological theory in the China of the present. The Party’s third-generation central leadership collective with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core, on the one hand calmly responded to a series of sudden international incidents that related to our country’s sovereignty and security, eliminated all sorts of interference, and guaranteed that the shop of reform, opening up and modernization construction breasted the waves and progress along the correct course. On the other side, with huge Marxist political bravery and theoretical bravery, it moved theoretical innovation forward, collected the wisdom of the entire Party and the people in the entire country, and used a series of new thoughts, viewpoints and new arguments that were closely connected and interlinked to creatively answer the questions of what kind of Party to build under new historical conditions, and how to build it, founding the important “Three Represents” thought. The important “Three Represents” thought is a new achievement the development of Marxism in China, and is a new development in China’s Socialist ideology. Since the 16th and 17th Party Congresses, the new Central leadership collective with Hu Jintao as General Secretary has liberated thoughts, sought truth from facts, sought truth in pragmatism, continued to integrate the fundamental tenets of Marxism with China’s concrete practice, incessantly opened up new frontiers for the development of Marxist theory and further creatively put forward major strategic thoughts such as the scientific development view, etc. The scientific development view both persisted in the scientific theories in Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thought, and summarized the practical experiences of foreign developments and our country’s reform and opening up, thereby further answering major questions such as which kind of development to realize in the China of the present and how to develop, etc., this is a one-time historical breakthrough of our Party in developing the guiding ideology of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is a new development of Marxist ideology and theory in the China of the present

Marxism “is developing theory, and is not a dogma that must be learned by rote and mechanically repeated” [17]. In 90 years, from Mao Zedong Thought to Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, and to the scientific development view and other major strategic ideologies, exuberant creativity has ensured that Sinified Marxism and our country’s mainstream ideology have incessantly developed and innovated, thereby providing guidance for the correct orientation and continuous theoretical support for the Socialist revolution, construction and reform construction undertakings.

V, Giving high regard to cohesion – Implementing the scientific development view, striving to ram down a social basis for ideological development and construction

During the period of the New Democratic Revolution, our Party also paid attention to progressively closely integrating the use of proletarian revolutionary ideology with establishing a broad revolutionary united front, in the process of paying attention to integrating the universal truth of Marxism and the practice of the New Democratic Revolution, it integrated strengthening education about Communist ideals and convictions with fostering successors for the proletarian revolutionary undertaking, and integrated strengthening the Party’s ideological work with raising the Party’s leadership strength. Because attention has been paid to dealing with relations in all the above areas, the organic unification of the historical process of ideological construction led by the Chinese Communist Party and the growth in strength of the Chinese Communist Party has been realistically achieved, which extremely greatly raised the ideological cohesion of Sinified Marxism.

In the 60 years since the establishment of the New China, because of our Party’s persistence in principles, it grasped and dealt well with the relationship between the monism of mainstream ideology and the diversity in social consciousness, between constructing Socialist ideology and expanding opening up to the outside world, and other important relationships, which forcefully rammed down a social basis for ideological work, strengthened social cohesion, and enabled ideological work to be soundly moved forward.

1. Integrating the monist command of Socialist ideology with diversified development of ideological and cultural concepts. Mao Zedong put forward using the “Two Hundreds” policy to deal with the relationship between cultural development and flourishing, and pointed out that “letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools contend, cannot weaken the leading position of Marxist ideology, conversely, it will strengthen that position” [18]. Since reform and opening up, following the unprecedented dynamism of social though, tendencies of diversity have emerged in social awareness, this requires that we must deal with the relationship between the monist command of Socialist ideology and the diversity of ideological and cultural concepts well. In the present stage, we should organically integrate both, continue to explore the use mechanisms and means for monist guidance ideology to effectively lead and integrate diversified social thinking., to ensure that the entire society commonly devotes itself to the magnificent undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and incessantly develops Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

2. Integrating Socialist ideology construction with broadly opening up to the outside world and developing the Socialist market economy. In 1956, Mao Zedong pointed out that “we must determinedly resist and criticize all corrupt systems and ideological work styles of the foreign bourgeoisie. But, this does not prevent us from learning from advanced science and technology of capitalist countries and aspects in enterprise management methods that conform to science” [19]. This ideology scientifically guided ideological work at that time. Since reform and opening up, we have both persisted in developing Socialist ideology, and have expanded opening up and developed the market economy, in general, we have grasped and dealt with the relationship between ideology construction and broadening opening up and developing the Socialist market economy, these experiences should be continued. In fact, we have prevented doing ideological “centre theory” and “strengthening theory”, and have paid attention and vigilance to ideological “useless theory” and “watering down theory”. At the same time, we have paid attention to dealing with the following relationships in reality well: first, we have dealt well with the relationship between Chinese culture and global culture. Second, we have dealt well with the relationship between advancedness and popularity. Third, we have dealt well with the relationship between carrying forward vigour and keeping forging ahead, and preventing negative and decadent thinking trends. These measures have further strengthened people’s sense of identification with our country’s mainstream ideology.

3. Integrating the development of Socialist ideology with moving the Socialist spiritual civilization forward and building a harmonious society. The essence and development orientation of ideology decides the essence and development path of the political civilization, and the political civilization, in fact, also restricts and determines the essential orientation of the ideology that occupies a leading position in society, at the same time, political civilization construction can also provide systemic support and a guaranteeing platform for ideological work, both are essentially the same thing. “If we observe matters conceptually, then a certain ideological disintegration is sufficient to destroy the complete era” [20]. The changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe demonstrate that change in the essence and orientation of a social and political situation means change in the essence, orientation and development trends of its mainstream ideology. Our country’s political structural reform and political civilization construction rely on the support of Socialist ideology construction to be moved forward, and our country’s ideological construction achievements also rely on a perfected political system before they can be consolidated. In the present stage, we pay attention to propagating the characteristics and superiority of the Socialist political system, correctly leaning from human political civilization, including some beneficial achievements from Western political civilization, but fight back against “wholesale Westernization”. At the same time, we devote ourselves to strengthening the construction of a Socialist harmonious society, pay close attention to issues of people’s interests, strive to resolve and improve the people’s livelihood, effectively dissolve social contradictions, thereby guaranteeing and consolidating the correct political orientation of and social basis for the development of Socialist ideology.

In short, the process and experience of controlling ideological work in the 90 years since the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party tells us that the proper strategic position and function of ideology cannot be overlooked, the Party’s leadership power over ideological work cannot be loosened, the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area must be unwaveringly persisted in, changes in the popular masses’ ideological, moral and value concepts must be scientifically educated and correctly guided, Socialist ideology and the core value system construction are important in innovating the basic path and must be kept in mind. Only in this way can the strategic position of Marxism as the banner guiding our progress be incessantly consolidated, and can new frontiers incessantly be opened up for the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

 

References:

[1]: “Collected Works of Mao Zedong”, Volume 2, People’s Publishing House 1993 edition, p. 435.

[2][13]: “Collected Works of Mao Zedong”, Volume 6, People’s Publishing House 1996 edition, p. 350, p. 396.

[3] “Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping”, Volume 2, p. 365.

[4][9][12] “Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping”, Volume 3, p. 48, p. 182, p. 144.

[5][14] “Selected Works of Jiang Zemin, Volume 3, People’s Publishing House 2006 edition, p. 94, p. 74.

[6], Hu Jintao, “Hold High the Magnificent Banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics to Capture Victory in the Struggle to Completely Construct a Moderately Prosperous Society – Report at the 17th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party”, printed in “People’s Daily” on 25 October 2007.

[7][11][18][19] “Collected Works of Mao Zedong”, Volume 2, People’s Publishing House 1999 edition, p. 230, pp. 200-201, p. 232, p. 43.

[8] “Writings of Mao Zedong after Founding the Nation, Volume 11, Central Documentary Publishing House 1996 edition, pp. 85-87.

[10] “Special Collected Works of Lenin – On a Proletarian Political Party”, People’s Publishing House 2009 edition, p. 85.

[15] Hu Jintao “Speech at the National Propaganda Department Head Meeting, printed in “People’s Daily” on 8 December 2003.

[16] “Collected Works of Mao Zedong”, Volume 8, People’s Publishing House 1999 edition, p. 323.

[17] “Collected Works of Marx and Engels”, Volume 10, People’s Publishing House 2009 edition, p. 539.

[20] “Complete Works of Marx and Engels”, Second Edition, Volume 30, p. 539.

(Author’s Work Unit: Nanjing Normal University Marxism Institute)

中国共产党90年来推进意识形态工作的历史经验
中国共产党在90年来的革命、建设和改革进程中,始终高度重视意识形态工作。尽管经历的时代背景、发展阶段和主要任务不同,但始终牢牢掌握着意识形态建设工作的领导权,在意识形态领域的掌控能力不断提升,在推进意识形态建设中积累了丰富的历史经验。

一、牢牢把握领导力——突出战略地位,始终掌控着意识形态工作的主导权

意识形态工作历来是我们党的一项十分重要的工作。经济工作搞不好要出大问题,意识形态工作搞不好也要出大问题,在集中力量进行经济建设的同时,一刻也不能放松意识形态工作。历史经验已经证明,加强党的领导是我国革命、建设和改革事业不断取得胜利的重要保证,也是推进我国主流意识形态建设的核心。而加强党对意识形态工作的一元化领导,牢牢掌握意识形态工作的主导权,增强主动性和预见性,是我们不断走向胜利的一个重要法宝。

1.成立中央常设机构,加强党对意识形态的掌控。新民主主义革命时期,尽管我们党不掌控国家意识形态机器,但积极倡导新的政治文化思想,不断加强马克思主义的宣传和引导,以此推动中国革命的历史进程。早在1921年党成立之初,我们党就设立宣传机构,负责宣传鼓动工作,为革命事业发展宣传鼓动。党的六大以后,中央宣传部就成为常设机构,承担起全国宣传教育工作的最高指导机关和干部群众思想政治教育的职责和功能。1942年7月,毛泽东同志曾强调指出,“掌握思想领导是掌握一切领导的第一位。”[1]在抗日战争和解放战争中,我们党更加突出了意识形态工作的战略地位,更加自觉地注重对思想文化和意识形态领域主导权的掌控,为新民主主义革命的胜利奠定了坚实基础。新中国成立后,我们党把宣传思想和舆论引导工作放在突出地位,始终牢牢掌握着意识形态的主导权,马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位不断巩固,正如毛泽东所强调的,“领导我们事业的核心力量是中国共产党,指导我们思想的理论基础是马克思列宁主义”[2]。

2.加强组织建设,巩固党对意识形态的领导权。我们党十分重视并加强对意识形态领域的一元化领导,而这主要是通过党的政治领导、思想领导和组织领导来实现的。党对意识形态领域的政治领导就是以马克思主义的科学理论和党的路线、方针、政策指导社会主义意识形态的发展方向;党对意识形态领域的思想领导就是大力宣传社会主义思想,抵制和批判一切错误思想,使社会主义思想逐步占领整个意识形态领域;党对意识形态领域的组织领导就是在各个意识形态部门建立党的组织,以负责党的路线、方针、政策的贯彻执行,特别是从中央到地方逐级建立了党委宣传部,以宣传贯彻党的路线、方针和政策,从而有力地加强了党对意识形态领域的思想领导和组织领导,有效避免了意识形态领域的错误趋向,增强了意识形态工作的主动性。

3.适应开放环境,突出意识形态战略地位。改革开放以来,以加强和改善党的领导,提升执政能力为目标,我们党科学认识意识形态的战略地位,始终牢牢把握着意识形态工作的主动权。邓小平强调,“改善党的领导,其中最主要的,就是加强思想政治工作。”[3]“全党要研究如何适应新的条件,加强党的思想工作,防止埋头经济工作、忽视思想工作的倾向。各级党委,首先是党委的主要负责同志,要密切注视和深入研究思想战线的形势和问题,采取切实有效的办法改进这条战线的工作。”[4]江泽民指出,“抓党的建设,首先是抓好党的思想政治建设,因为解决思想政治问题是做好其他工作的前提和基础。党的这个优良传统和重要经验,任何时候都不能丢。”[5]在改革开放和经济全球化的新形势下,我们党坚持马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位,牢牢把握着社会主义先进文化的前进方向。党的十七大报告强调,党要站在时代前列带领人民不断开创事业发展新局面,必须以改革创新精神加强自身建设,始终成为中国特色社会主义事业的坚强领导核心。党的执政能力建设关系党的建设和中国特色社会主义事业的全局,必须把提高领导水平和执政能力作为各级领导班子建设的核心内容抓紧抓好。这就深刻阐明了中国共产党做好意识形态工作的极端重要性。苏东剧变20年来的事实告诉我们,如果一个执政党放弃了对意识形态工作的主导权,甚至失去了对有害意识形态的识别和抵御能力,那后果将是十分严重的。因此,在改革开放和社会主义现代化建设进程中,必须高度重视意识形态领域的问题,必须大力加强宣传思想工作。

“思想理论建设是党的根本建设,党的理论创新引领各方面创新。”[6]在加快推进社会主义现代化的历史进程中,我国发展既面临着复杂的环境,又面对着繁重的任务,既面临着前所未有的机遇,又面对着前所未有的挑战。由于意识形态问题的极端重要性,必须把提高党领导意识形态工作的能力作为强化党执政能力建设的灵魂,牢牢掌握意识形态工作的领导权和主动权,这是党和社会主义事业永远立于不败之地的根本所在。

二、不断提升引领力——应对思想交锋,科学把握意识形态发展和建设的正确方向

无论是在争取民族独立和人民解放的民主革命时期,还是在和平发展的社会主义建设和改革开放年代,思想文化和意识形态领域历来是敌对势力与我们进行激烈争夺的重要阵地。如何在意识形态领域适时开展与国内外错误思想和思潮的交锋和斗争,不断提升马克思主义和社会主义主流意识形态的引领力始终是摆在我们党面前的迫切任务。

1.同各种反动思想和意识形态进行针锋相对的斗争,为民主革命走向胜利争取舆论力量。在民主革命时期,尽管我们党没有掌握国家意识形态宣传机器,但为推进新民主主义革命不断走向胜利,一方面积极宣传马克思列宁主义和毛泽东思想,宣传党的革命路线和政策,大力推进马克思主义的中国化、大众化,从而有力提升了广大干部和人民群众对马克思列宁主义、共产主义理想的认同度,进而积极投身到火热的革命斗争中。另一方面,通过各种途径和方法,深入批判帝国主义和国民党反动派的各种反动思想和意识形态,批判形形色色的错误思潮,从而为争取民主革命的胜利提供了有力思想武器。

2.及时有效反击西方“和平演变”战略企图,不断巩固社会主义制度安全。在社会主义改造特别是社会主义建设初期,尽管马列主义和毛泽东思想作为社会主义意识形态的主导地位得以确立,革命时期大规模的急风暴雨式的群众阶级斗争已经基本结束,但是根据国内外的复杂形势,毛泽东强调,无产阶级和资产阶级之间在意识形态方面的阶级斗争,还是长时期的、曲折的,有时甚至是很激烈的。应认识到,“马克思主义必须在斗争中才能发展,不但过去是这样,现在是这样,将来也必然还是这样。正确的东西总是在同错误的东西作斗争的过程中发展起来的。”[7]在这一思想指导下,我们在国内对那些非马克思主义和反马克思主义的错误思想进行了必要斗争。同时,国际上西方帝国主义国家也调整战略,开始对我国进行资本主义思想观念和腐朽文化的渗透和攻击,针对帝国主义国家颠覆我国社会主义制度的和平演变企图,我们党适时开展了反和平演变斗争,加强党的思想建设,积极培养和造就无产阶级革命事业接班人,为此毛泽东提出了培养无产阶级革命接班人的五个条件:一是要懂得马列主义,二是要为大多数人民谋利益,三是团结广大干部和群众,四是要讲民主不要一言堂,五是有了错误要做自我批评。[8]由于我们牢牢掌握意识形态的主动权,从而使中国的社会主义制度得以不断巩固和发展。

3.旗帜鲜明地开展两条战线思想交锋,有力保证改革开放的正确方向。改革开放以来,我们党高度重视意识形态领域的交锋和斗争,积极应对国内外挑战并科学引领意识形态建设。在改革开放初期,我们党为拨乱反正开展了反对“两个凡是”、反对精神污染和反对资产阶级自由化的斗争。邓小平强调,“自由化本身就是资产阶级的,没有什么无产阶级的、社会主义的自由化……搞自由化就是要把我们引导到资本主义道路上去”[9],这表明反对资产阶级自由化是一个长期任务。随着社会主义市场经济体制改革的深入和参与全球化进程的加快,又开展了反对拜金主义、享乐主义和极端个人主义等腐朽思想以及与“法轮功”的斗争。21世纪初以来,针对一些领域出现的质疑当前改革、怀疑党的基本路线、否定改革和歪曲对外开放的杂音和噪音以及民主社会主义论等错误言论和思潮,中宣部等部门组织编写《六个“为什么”——对几个重大问题的回答》、《七个“怎么看”》、《划清“四个重大界限”学习读本》,帮助干部群众澄清对一些重大问题的认识,自觉抵制错误思想的侵蚀,更好地统一了思想、凝聚了力量,从而有力地排除了干扰和影响改革开放和社会主义和谐社会建设的杂音和噪音。

三、积极增强吸引力——注重方法创新,运用多种形式和手段积极推进意识形态建设

在民主革命进程中,我们党大力加强马克思列宁主义宣传教育,有力地推动了民主革命的进程。执掌政权60多年来,我们党积极探索意识形态建设新手段和新方法,通过进行社会主义精神文明建设、不断加强改进思想政治工作、发展社会主义先进文化以及建设社会主义核心价值体系等多种方法来推进我国意识形态建设。

1.把教育宣传和科学灌输作为提升马克思列宁主义吸引力和战斗力的重要方法。在新民主主义革命时期,我们党运用多种途径和方式宣传马克思列宁主义的科学性和真理性。列宁曾指出,在无产阶级革命斗争过程中,“社会主义意识是一种从外面灌输到无产阶级的阶级斗争中去的东西,而不是一种从这个斗争中自发地产生出来的东西”[10]。以列宁的“灌输观”为指针,我们党积极开展正面教育,大力传播马克思主义和新民主主义革命理论,有力地推动了民主革命胜利的进程。在抗日战争及延安整风时期,我们党注重把掌握思想教育作为我们的第一等业务来抓,以加强思想建设来推动意识形态工作,特别是通过积极开展自我批评教育,加强马克思主义理论学习和思想作风建设,为解放全中国、迎接新民主主义革命彻底胜利奠定了坚实基础。进入社会主义革命和建设时期,我们党继续加强马克思主义主流意识形态的教育宣传工作,正如毛泽东所强调的,“全党都要注意思想理论工作,建立马克思主义的理论队伍,加强马克思主义理论的研究和宣传”,[11]从而不断提升马克思列宁主义的吸引力。

2.把加强社会主义精神文明建设作为增强社会主义意识形态吸引力的重要形式。毛泽东在社会主义建设时期提出过的关于正确对待知识分子以及培养和造就社会主义事业接班人的思想,应属于精神文明建设的范畴,至今仍有重要意义。改革开放以后,邓小平明确提出了加强精神文明建设的战略思想,因为“不加强精神文明的建设,物质文明的建设也要受到破坏,走弯路”[12]。为此,1986年和1996年党的中央全会专门研究和制定了《关于社会主义精神文明建设指导方针的决议》和《关于加强社会主义精神文明建设的决定》,使精神文明工作有了正确的路线和方针,从而在实践中更加突出了“精神文明重在建设”的要求,探索出了不少精神文明建设的新形式,社会主义意识形态建设的基础更加牢固。

3.把加强和改进思想政治工作作为推进意识形态建设的重要手段和载体。新中国成立之初,党中央和毛泽东同志就高度重视思想政治工作,后来还要求党的高级干部“在提高马克思列宁主义水平的基础上,使自己成为精通政治工作和经济工作的专家”[13],从而有力地促进了意识形态建设工作。在改革开放时期,我们党进一步认识到,人民群众的理想信念、精神状态和人心所向,最终决定着中国特色社会主义事业的兴衰成败,“越是发展经济,越是改革开放,越要加强思想政治工作”[14]。胡锦涛总书记强调指出,“在全面建设小康社会的伟大进程中,宣传思想工作很重。要用时代的要求来审视宣传思想工作,要用发展的眼光来研究宣传思想工作,以改革的精神来推动宣传思想工作,努力使宣传思想工作更好地体现时代性、把握规律性、富于创造性。”[15]在这一思想指导下,各领域和各战线的思想政治工作都取得了明显成效,为增强主流意识形态的吸引力奠定了坚实基础。

4.把加强先进文化和社会主义核心价值体系建设作为推进意识形态建设的新举措和新平台。毛泽东在社会主义建设时期曾强调文化要“为人民服务,为社会主义的国家服务”,明确了推进文化繁荣的“百花齐放,百家争鸣”基本方针等一系列关于发展社会主义文化的思想,有力地推动了我国的意识形态建设。改革开放以来,我们大力发展文化产业和文化事业,不断运用互联网等新手段传播先进文化。从1991年江泽民首次提出“有中国特色社会主义文化”概念,到1997年党的十五大系统阐述有中国特色社会主义文化建设问题;从党的十六大明确提出牢牢把握先进文化的前进方向,大力发展社会主义文化,再到2004年党的十六届四中全会提出了我们党要不断“提高建设社会主义先进文化的能力”等,这些战略部署不仅有力地推动着中国特色社会主义事业的阔步前进,更为我国社会主义意识形态建设开辟了广阔的空间和平台。2006年,党的十六届六中全会又进一步明确了要推进社会主义和谐文化建设,并以社会主义核心价值体系来引领我国的意识形态建设等新形式。2007年10月召开的党的十七大则鲜明地提出要推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣,不断提高国家的文化软实力,强调社会主义核心价值体系是社会主义意识形态的本质体现,要建设社会主义核心价值体系。这些战略对策的实施有力地增强了社会主义意识形态的吸引力和凝聚力。

四、始终保持创造力——科学审视时代和国情,以创新精神推动马克思主义中国化、时代化、大众化

实践证明,马克思主义理论只有真正为广大人民群众所理解、所掌握并科学运用,才能转化为强大的物质力量,从而在实践中发挥其推动社会前进的应有功能和作用。中国共产党成立90年来,以毛泽东、邓小平、江泽民、胡锦涛同志为代表的历届中央领导集体始终坚持解放思想,实事求是,与时俱进,把马克思主义基本原理与中国社会主义实践紧密结合起来,尤其高度重视并积极推进当代中国马克思主义理论的大众化,使马克思主义理论武装工作不断取得新进展,我国社会主义主流意识形态日益得到干部群众的广泛认同和支持,中国特色社会主义道路越走越宽广。

1.科学把握中国革命特点和建设实际,以创新的精神开启马克思主义中国化和大众化进程。在民主革命时期,我们党努力把马克思列宁主义与中国革命实践相结合,开辟了中国特色的民主革命道路,积极推进马克思主义中国化和大众化,彰显出党的独特创新力。鉴于我们党对革命的理论准备不足和存在教条主义等问题,毛泽东同志非常重视马克思列宁主义的中国化和大众化。1938年,毛泽东在党的六届六中全会上通过的《论新阶段》的政治报告中最先提出了“马克思主义中国化”这个命题。毛泽东还认为,推动中国革命首要的政治工作就是积极推动马克思列宁主义在中国的宣传和普及。他还亲自去工厂和农村,不断向广大工人、农民宣传讲解马克思列宁主义和革命道理。这些大大加快了马克思列宁主义掌握人民群众的历史进程,从而也就大大激发了人民群众参加革命斗争的热情和积极性,中国革命很快就取得了胜利。中国革命胜利后,艾思奇的《大众哲学》倍受广大干部群众的欢迎,大大推动了马克思主义哲学在新中国的普及进程。毛泽东还向各级干部提出了加强理论学习的要求并反复强调,“为了做好我们的工作,各级党委应当大大提倡学习马克思主义的认识论,使之群众化,为广大干部和人民群众所掌握,让哲学从哲学家的课堂上和书本里解放出来,变为群众手里的尖锐武器。”[16]

2.准确把握时代特征和中国国情,奋力开拓马克思主义在当代中国发展的新境界。在改革开放进程中,我们党始终保持旺盛的创造力,在坚持、继承和发展马克思主义的过程中推进意识形态建设,用与时俱进的马克思主义引领意识形态建设。正是在邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想和科学发展观的统领下,我国社会主义意识形态建设稳步推进。在以邓小平同志为核心的党的第二代中央领导集体的领导下,中国共产党人解放思想,实事求是,努力把马克思主义基本原理同新的实际和时代特征结合起来,集中全党全国人民的智慧,继承和发展毛泽东思想,创立了邓小平理论,系统回答了中国社会主义建设的一系列基本问题,把对社会主义的认识提高到新的水平。作为改革开放的总设计师,邓小平不仅对我国主流意识形态进行理性思考,更着眼于在实践中不断推进,从而实现了马克思主义意识形态理论在当代中国的新跃迁。以江泽民同志为核心的党的第三代中央领导集体,一方面从容应对一系列关系我国主权和安全的国际突发事件,排除各种干扰,保证了改革开放和现代化建设的航船始终沿着正确的方向破浪前进。另一方面,以马克思主义的巨大政治勇气和理论勇气推进理论创新,集中全党全国人民的智慧,用一系列紧密联系、相互贯通的新思想、新观点和新论断,创造性地回答了在新的历史条件下建设什么样的党、怎样建设党的问题,创立了“三个代表”重要思想。“三个代表”重要思想是马克思主义在中国发展的新成果,是中国社会主义意识形态的新发展。党的十六大、十七大以来,以胡锦涛为总书记的新一届中央领导集体,解放思想,实事求是,求真务实,继续将马克思主义基本原理与中国具体实践相结合,不断开辟着马克思主义理论发展的新境界,进一步创造性地提出了科学发展观等重大战略思想。科学发展观既坚持了马列主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想中关于发展的科学理论,又总结了国外发展和我国改革开放的实践经验,从而进一步回答了当代中国实现什么样的发展和怎样发展等重大实践问题,是我们党在中国特色社会主义发展指导思想上的又一次历史性突破,是马克思主义意识形态理论在当代中国的新发展。

马克思主义“是发展着的理论,而不是必须背得烂熟并机械地加以重复的教条”。[17]90年来,从毛泽东思想、到邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想,再到科学发展观等重大战略思想,旺盛的创造力使得中国化马克思主义和我国主流意识形态不断发展和创新,从而为社会主义革命、建设和改革建设事业提供了正确的方向引导和持续的理论支撑。

五、高度重视凝聚力——贯穿科学发展,努力夯实意识形态发展和建设的社会基础

在新民主主义革命时期,我们党在注重把马克思主义普遍真理与新民主主义革命实践紧密结合起来的过程中,也逐步把运用无产阶级革命思想与建立广泛革命统一战线紧密结合起来,把加强共产主义理想信念教育与培养无产阶级革命事业接班人结合起来,把加强党的意识形态工作与提升党的领导力结合起来。由于注意处理上述各方面的关系,切实实现了中国共产党领导意识形态建设的历史进程与中国共产党成长壮大的有机统一,极大地提升了中国化马克思主义意识形态的凝聚力。

新中国成立60多年来,由于我们党坚持原则,把握并处理好了主流意识形态一元性与社会意识多样化、建设社会主义意识形态与扩大对外开放等各方面的重要关系,有力地夯实了意识形态工作的社会基础,增强了社会凝聚力,使意识形态建设工作能够扎实推进。

1.把社会主义意识形态一元性统领与思想文化观念多样化发展结合起来。毛泽东曾提出以“双百”方针处理好文化发展与繁荣的关系,并指出“实行百花齐放,百家争鸣的方针,并不会削弱马克思主义在思想界的领导地位,相反地正是加强它的这种地位”。[18]改革开放以来,随着社会思想空前活跃,社会意识出现多样性的态势,这就要求我们在实践中必须处理好社会主义意识形态一元性统领与思想文化观念多样化的关系。现阶段,我们应该把二者有机地统一起来,继续探索用一元化指导思想有效引领和整合多样化社会思想的机制和手段,使全社会共同致力于中国特色社会主义伟大事业,不断发展中国特色社会主义。

2.把社会主义意识形态建设与扩大对外开放、发展社会主义市场经济结合起来。1956年,毛泽东曾指出,“外国资产阶级的一切腐败制度和思想作风,我们要坚决抵制和批判。但是,这并不妨碍我们去学习资本主义国家的先进的科学技术和企业管理方法中合乎科学的方面。”[19]这一思想科学地指导了当时的意识形态工作。改革开放以来,我们既坚持发展社会主义意识形态,又扩大开放和发展市场经济,总体上把握和处理好了意识形态建设与扩大开放和发展社会主义市场经济的关系,这些经验还应该继续坚持。事实上我们既防止了搞意识形态“中心论”、“强化论”,也注意警惕意识形态“无用论”、“淡化论”。同时在实践中也注意处理好以下几个关系:一是处理好中华文化与世界文化的关系。二是处理好先进性与普及性的关系。三是处理好弘扬积极进取意识与遏止消极颓废思潮的关系。这些举措进一步增强了人们对我国主流意识形态的认同感。

3.把发展社会主义意识形态与推进社会主义政治文明和构建和谐社会结合起来。意识形态的性质和发展方向决定着政治文明的性质和发展路径,而政治文明的状况实际上也制约和规定着一个社会占主导地位的意识形态的性质和方向,同时,政治文明建设还能为意识形态工作提供制度支撑和保障平台,二者在本质上是一回事。“如果从观念上来考察,那么一定的意识形式的解体足以使整个时代覆灭。”[20]苏东剧变的情况表明,社会政治制度性质和方向的改变就意味着它的主流意识形态性质、方向及发展趋势的改变。我国政治体制改革和政治文明建设是依靠社会主义意识形态建设来支持推进的,而我国意识形态建设的成果也要依靠完善的政治制度才能巩固。在现阶段,我们注意宣传社会主义政治制度的特点和优势,正确借鉴人类政治文明包括西方政治文明的某些有益成果,回击“全盘西化论”。同时,我们致力于加强社会主义和谐社会建设,高度关注人们的利益问题,着力解决和改善民生,有效化解社会矛盾,从而保证和巩固了社会主义意识形态发展的正确政治方向和社会基础。

总之,中国共产党成立90年来掌控意识形态工作的历程与经验告诉我们,意识形态的应有战略地位和功能不可忽视,党对意识形态工作的领导权不可松懈,意识形态领域马克思主义的指导地位必须毫不动摇地坚持,对人民群众思想道德和价值观念的变化必须予以科学教育和正确引导,社会主义意识形态和核心价值体系建设重在创新的基本思路必须牢记。只有如此,马克思主义作为引领我们前进旗帜的战略地位才能不断巩固,中国特色社会主义道路才能不断开辟新境界。(王永贵)

注释:

[1]《毛泽东文集》第2卷人民出版社1993年版第435页。

[2][13]《毛泽东文集》第6卷人民出版社1996年版第350页,第396页。

[3]《邓小平文选》第2卷第365页。

[4][9][12]《邓小平文选》第3卷第48页,第182页,第144页。

[5][14]《江泽民文选》第3卷人民出版社2006年版第94页,第74页。

[6] 胡锦涛《高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜为夺取全面建设小康社会新胜利而奋斗——在中国共产党第十七次全国代表大会上的报告》,载于2007年10月25日《人民日报》。

[7][11][18][19]《毛泽东文集》第7卷人民出版社1999年版第230页,第200—201页,第232页,第43页。

[8]《建国以来毛泽东文稿》第11卷中央文献出版社1996年版第85—87页。

[10]《列宁专题文集·论无产阶级政党》人民出版社2009年版第85页。

[15] 胡锦涛《在全国宣传部长会议上的讲话》,载于2003年12月8日《人民日报》。

[16]《毛泽东文集》第8卷人民出版社1999年版第323页。

[17]《马克思恩格斯文集》第10卷人民出版社2009年版第562页。

[20]《马克思恩格斯全集》第2版第30卷第539页。

(作者单位:南京师范大学马克思主义学院)

 

 

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    May 18, 2013 at 10:06 am

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