A Brief Explanation concerning the Revision and Perfection of the “Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China” (Second Revision Draft)

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(National Copyright Administration, July 2012)

I, The basic situation of the Opinion-seeking Draft

On 31 March 2012, the National Copyright Administration published the “Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China” (Revision Draft) through the official websites of the National Copyright Administration and the General Administration of Press and Publications, and openly solicited the opinions and suggestions from all walks of society. In early April, the National Copyright Administration legislative work leading small group chair, General Administration of Press and Publications Director and National Copyright Administration Director Liu Binje and legislative work leading small group vice-chair, GAPP vice-director and NCA vice-director Comrade Yan Xiaohong respectively sent letters to the responsible comrades of 35 relevant departments to solicit opinions in their personal name; the National Copyright Administration Secretariat sent letters to 40 relevant State Council ministries and commissions to solicit opinions.

The Draft attracted broad attention and heated discussion from all walks of society, relevant departments of Chinese and foreign governments, rights holders’ associations, the industrial world as well as education and scientific organs, etc., expressed their attention to the legislative revision work through all sorts of channels and means. After the opinion-seeking period ended (30 April 2012), the National Copyright Administration still incessantly received opinions and suggestions concerning legislative revisions from all sides. According to statistics, by 31 May 2012, the National Copyright Administration had received more than 1600 opinions and suggestions from all walks of society.

On 11 May 2012, the National Copyright Association convened the legislative revision work expert committee members and corresponding legislative and judicial departments, and organized the third expert committee meeting, reported the basic situation of the draft opinion-seeking, and heard the concrete opinions from the experts on articles in the draft and especially the controversial articles.

The National Copyright Administration, after completely and earnestly combing through the opinions and suggestions from all walks of society, classifying them and meticulously analysing their reasonability and repeatedly expounding their feasibility, and integrating the concrete opinions of the expert committee members, have further revised and perfected the draft, forming the present version.

II, The main content of this revision and perfection

This revision deletes three articles from the original draft (Article 39, Article 47 and Article 47), adds three articles (Article 20, Article 35 and Article 62), and modifies 48 articles, among these, 27 articles have undergone content modification, 21 articles have undergone language modification. In order to convenience all walks of society to understand the corresponding adjustments, hereby, the main content of this revision and perfection is briefly explained as follows:

(1) Concerning copyright content

This revision starts from the angle of further simplifying the content of rights, cleaning up the definition of rights as well as reducing the overlap and intersection of rights, and the following adjustments have been made to the content of copyright: (1) with reference to the legislative practice of many countries and regions worldwide, the right of screening is cancelled, and it is merged into the right of performance; (2) considering that the original draft’s constructions concerning broadcasting rights and information network dissemination rights have broadcast mediums and non-broadcast methods as basis, and cannot completely cover the present conditions and trends of technological development and especially “three network integration”, the right to broadcast will be applicable to non-interactive dissemination, information network dissemination rights are applicable to interactive dissemination, in order to resolve problems in practice of fixed-time broadcast, online streaming as well as relay, etc.; (3) considering that after the draft merges the right of revision into the right to preserve the integrity of the work, the right to revision of computer programmes has been added in the part on property rights, the right of revision of computer programmes is merged into the right to adapt, in order to avoid causing confusion and misunderstanding; (4) considering that the right of pursuit essentially falls under the right to receive remuneration, the right of pursuit is listed separately in one article (Article 12), and at the same time, with reference to legislation in other countries and regions worldwide, and to increase feasibility, the scope of the right to pursuit is limited to sales through auction or sub-selling activities.

(2) Concerning audiovisual works

Audiovisual works are collectively created works, their copyright protection mainly includes clarifying the two aspects of rights ownership over the audiovisual work itself and protecting all sorts of authors participating in the creation. Our country’s existing law does not provide for “secondary rights to obtain remuneration” of all sorts of creative authors of audiovisual works – meaning the right of all creative authors to obtain remuneration from subsequent use. This revision makes adjustments in the following three aspects: (1) based on the real situation in the industry, and with reference to legislation and practice in main countries and regions worldwide, ownership of the overall copyright over the audiovisual work is changed back from the provision permitting contractual agreement in the original draft into the provision in the existing law of directly endowing the producer; (2) it is clearly provided that the original authors the right to sign a name concerning audiovisual works; (3) it clearly provides that the five categories of original authors, screenwriters, directors as well as lyric and music writers enjoy the “secondary right to obtain remuneration” concerning subsequent use of the audiovisual work.

(3) Concerning fine art works with unique carriers

In recent years, after fine artworks exhibited in public venues were destroyed or torn down, it happened occasionally that copyright holders and owners of the original work would file cases in court, the fine art world, the judicial world, etc., also have often called for strengthening and perfecting legislation. Because of this, in order to respond to the calls from society, and resolve real problems, this revision will add a paragraph in Article 20 that on the one hand, limits the factual acts of disposition of the owner of the original work, and on the other hand clearly provides the applicable circumstances – it only applies to fine art works with unique carriers displayed in public venues, furthermore, if the parties have agreed otherwise contractually, this agreement is followed.

(4) Concerning “orphan works”

In order to resolve the difficulties of obtaining authorization for using works in a digital environment, the original draft added an “orphan works” authorization mechanism article. Considering that the provisions related to “orphan works” are legislative innovations, for the sake of caution, this revision has, on the basis of the draft and absorbing the opinions and suggestions from all walks of society, limited the scope of application of “orphan works” clearly to two circumstances: newspaper publishers conducting digitized reproduction of already published works in newspapers and periodicals, as well as other users reproducing works through digitized means or disseminating them to the public through information networks. At the same time, the fee storage organ is changed from the State Council administrative copyright management department into an organ appointed by the State Council administrative copyright management department.

(5) Concerning professional performances

Considering that in practice, there is an urgent need to resolve the question of the relationship between performers and performance work units, this revision, with reference to the provisions on professional works, has added provisions concerning professional performances in Article 35. The ownership of  professional performances rights is to be agreed contractually by the parties, where the parties have no agreement or the agreement is unclear, ownership reverts to the performer. But in case of collective professional performances, such as theatres performing dramas, theatre troupes performing operas or choral works, and other performance activities, the rights revert to the performing work unit. At the same time, in order to guarantee the rights of the performance work unit, this revision also endows the performance work unit with the right to use performances within their professional scope free of charge.

(6) Concerning audiovisual performers’ rights

With reference to the provisions of Article 12 of the “Beijing Convention of Audiovisual Performance” passed on 26 June 2012 by the World Intellectual Property Organization diplomatic convention, and in order to maintain consistency with the abovementioned adjustments to the provisions on audiovisual work copyright, this revision endows the rights of performers in audiovisual works to the producer, and at the same time provides that the main actors enjoy the right to sign a name and the “secondary right to obtain remuneration.”

(7) Concerning the right of performers and audio producers to obtain remuneration for broadcast and performance activities of their audio products.

This revision has further clarified two sorts of circumstances concerning the right to obtain remuneration of performers and audio producers in Article 39: (1) broadcasting acts – using wireless or cable means to openly broadcast audio products or broadcasts disseminating audio works, as well as broadcasting of dissemination of the said audio works to the public through technological equipment; (2) performance acts – dissemination of audio works to the public through technological equipment.

(8) Concerning the rights of radio stations and television stations

This revision starts from the angle of promoting radio and television programme market trading and stimulating the development of our country’s radio stations and television stations, learning from relevant international treaties and the legislation in main countries, the following adjustments are made to the rights of radio stations and television stations: (1) the rights of radio stations and television stations are changed from rights of prohibition to exclusive rights; (2) on the basis of the above-mentioned adjustment of the content of the rights of broadcast and right of dissemination through information networks, and considering that non-interactive dissemination is already brought into the scope of control of the right of broadcast, Item 4 of Paragraph 1 of Article 38 of the original draft is deleted.

(9) Concerning the “fair use” system in copyright

What is called “fair use” refers to the system under which other persons using works that are protected by copyright under special circumstances, are permitted to not obtain permission from the copyright holder, and not pay remuneration to him, but must clearly indicate the origin of the work or the source. The “fair use” system is the basic system in relevant international treaties as well as copyright law in all countries and regions. This revision mainly makes the following adjustments: (1) an open provision on “fair use” is added – other circumstances, and at the same time, Article 39 of the original draft is merged into Article 42 of the new draft, to become Paragraph 2, limiting the circumstances of all 13 kinds of “fair use”; (2) the part on reproducing literary works for circumstances of using other persons’ works for individual study and research is clarified; (3) provisions concerning that using other persons’ works may not constitute using the main or substantive part of other persons’ works are added; (4) provisions on “information network” media are added in corresponding circumstances; (5) provisions concerning subsequent use of the results of modelling, painting, photographing or recording of outdoor artworks are added.

(10) Concerning the “statutory licensing” system in copyright

This revision contains the following adjustments to the “statutory licensing” system in copyright: (1) according to the opinions of rights holders, relevant collective copyright management organizations as well as corresponding organs, the “statutory licensing” system in copyright is further limited to the two circumstances of statutory licensing for educational materials and for reprinting in newspapers and periodicals, the provisions concerning statutory licensing for audio works in Article 46, and for statutory licensing for radio and television stations’ broadcasts in Article 47 of the original draft are deleted, and they are restored as the exclusive rights of the author; (2) concerning statutory licensing for reprinting in newspapers and periodicals, the parties are permitted to contractually agree on exclusive publishing rights, where newspaper and periodical publishers enjoy exclusive printing rights, other newspapers and periodicals may not reprint them, and at the same time, the period of the exclusive publishing right provided in Article 51 for where there is no agreement or the agreement is unclear is determined at one year; (3) it is clarified that users are to conduct a one-time filing before the first use, and the filing organ is adjusted to be the corresponding collective copyright management organization; (4) provisions that users may directly pay remuneration to the rights holders during a statutory period are added.

(11) Concerning the extended collective management by collective copyright management organizations

This revision further limits the scope of ability of collective copyright management organizations’ extended collective management: (1) literary, music, fine art or photographic works already published by radio stations and television stations; (2) music or audiovisual works disseminated to the public by self-service music selection operators through self-service song-selection systems. At the same time, the provision that rights holders may prohibit extended collective management in written form is preserved, and the provision that collective copyright management organizations treat all rights holders equally is added.

(12) Concerning technological protection measures and rights management information.

On the basis of the relevant provisions of the “WIPO Copyright Treaty” and the “WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty”, technological protection measures and rights management information are only applicable to works, performances and audio products. Given that the “WIPO Broadcasting Organization Treaty” has not yet been concluded, technological protection measures and rights management information is not applicable to radio and television programmes at present. But looking from the World Intellectual Property Organization consultations, at present, all member States basically have no disputes about this. Therefore, this revision expands technological protection measures and rights management information in Article 64 to radio and television programmes, and conducts revision over the corresponding articles.

(13) Concerning civil responsibility.

This revision makes the following adjustment to civil responsibility: (1) in Article 69, provisions are added concerning that where network service providers instigate or assist infringement, they bear joint responsibility with the infringer; (2) in Article 70, the civil liability that users shall bear for using works of rights holders who are not members of collective copyright management organizations, under the presupposition that it is hard for the copyright holder to exercise and control his rights and the user is willing to obtain authorization through lawful channels. In the aspect of bearing responsibility for compensation, of users have already concluded contracts with the relevant collective copyright management organization, then damage to the non-member rights holder is to be compensated according to the collective copyright management use fee standards; of no contract has been signed with the collective copyright management organization, then damage to the non-member rights holder is to be compensated according to the general civil infringement damage compensation principles. At the same time, Paragraph 2 of this Article provides that, in three sorts of circumstances where users maliciously use other persons’ works, the collective copyright management use fee standards do not apply for damage compensation, and the general civil infringement damage compensation principles shall apply. (3) In Article 27, the preconditions concerning statutory compensation are cancelled – the provisions on concocting copyright or related rights registration, exclusive license contract or transfer contract registration, at the same time, where there is wilful infringement two times or more, the punitive compensation is adjusted to be two or three times.

(14) Other content

This revision also further clarifies and perfects a number of provisions on the basis of the opinions and suggestions of all walks of society, such as the fact that mutual foreign-related protection principles are distributed across corresponding articles, that professional works created under employment in newspaper publishers or press agencies are limited to works created by journalists in the completion of their reporting duties, that performers are clarified to be natural persons, that the content of the information network dissemination rights of writers, performers and record producers is expressed uniformly, it is clarified that fee standard formulation organs for copyright registration and other matters are clarified, it is clarified that collective copyright management organizations are non-profit social organizations, and it is clarified that the all relevant State Council departments have supervision and management duties over collective copyright management organizations, etc.

The above explanation is provided for reference.

关于《中华人民共和国著作权法》(修改草案第二稿)修改和完善的简要说明
(国家版权局 2012年7月)

一、征求意见的基本情况
2012年 3月31日,国家版权局通过国家版权局和新闻出版总署官方网站公布《中华人民共和国著作权法》(修改草案),公开征求社会各界意见和建议。4月初,国家版权局修法工作领导小组组长、新闻出版总署署长、国家版权局局长柳斌杰和修法工作领导小组副组长、副署长、副局长阎晓宏同志分别以个人名义致函35位有关部门负责同志征求意见;国家版权局办公厅致函国务院48家相关部委征求意见。
草案引起了社会各界的广泛关注和热烈讨论,中外政府相关部门、权利人组织、产业界以及教学科研机构等通过各种途径和方式表达对修法工作的关注。在征求意见期限届满(2012年4月30日)之后,国家版权局仍不断收到各方面关于修法的意见和建议。据统计,截至2012年5月31日,国家版权局已经收到社会各界的意见和建议1600余份。
2012年5月11日,国家版权局召集修法工作专家委员会成员以及相关立法和司法部门举行专家委员会第三次会议,通报草案征求意见的基本情况,就草案有关条款特别是争议条款听取专家的具体意见。
国家版权局在对社会各界的意见和建议进行全面认真梳理和分类、仔细分析其合理性以及反复论证其可行性后,结合专家委员会成员的具体意见,对草案作了进一步的修改和完善,形成了目前的文本。
二、本次修改和完善的主要内容
本次修改,对原草案删除三条(第三十九条、第四十六条、第四十七条),增加三条(第十二条、第三十五条和第六十二条),对四十八个条文进行了改动,其中对二十七个条文进行了内容改动,对二十一个条文进行了文字改动。为便于社会各界理解相关调整,现将本次修改和完善的主要内容简要说明如下:
(一)关于著作权内容
本次修改从进一步简化权利内容、廓清权利边界以及减少权利交叉重合的角度出发,对著作权内容进行了下列调整:(1)参考世界多数国家和地区的立法实践,取消放映权,将其并入表演权;(2)考虑到原草案关于广播权和信息网络传播权的设定以传播介质而非传播方式为基础,不能完全符合科技发展特别是“三网融合”的现状和趋势,因此将播放权适用于非交互式传播、信息网络传播权适用于交互式传播,以解决实践中的定时播放、网络直播以及转播等问题;(3)考虑到草案将修改权并入保护作品完整权后又在财产权部分增加了计算机程序的修改权,因此将计算机程序的修改权并入改编权,以免引起混淆和误解;(4)考虑到追续权本质上属于获酬权,因此将追续权单列一条规定(第十二条),同时参考世界其他国家和地区立法,增加可操作性,将追续权的权利范围限定为通过拍卖方式的转售行为。
(二)关于视听作品
视听作品作为集体创作的作品,其著作权保护主要包括明确视听作品本身权利归属和保护参与创作的各类作者两个方面。我国现行法没有规定视听作品各创作作者的“二次获酬权”——即各创作作者从视听作品后续利用中获得报酬的权利。本次修改,从以下三个方面进行了调整:(1)基于产业的实际情况,并参考世界主要国家和地区的立法实践,将视听作品整体著作权归属由原草案中可以约定的规定改回为现行法中直接赋予制片者的规定;(2)明确规定原作作者对视听作品享有署名权;(3)明确规定原作作者、编剧、导演、以及词曲作者等五类作者对视听作品后续利用行为享有“二次获酬权”。
(三)关于载体唯一性的美术作品
近年来,陈列于公共场所的美术作品被损毁、拆除后,著作权人与原件所有人对薄公堂的案件时有发生,美术界、司法界等也多次呼吁加强和完善立法。因此,为回应社会呼声、解决实际问题,本次修改在第二十条增加了一款规定,一方面限制原件所有人的事实处分行为,另一方面明确规定其适用情形——仅适用于陈列于公共场所的载体唯一性的美术作品,此外如果当事人另有约定的则从其约定。
(四)关于“孤儿作品”
为解决数字环境下使用作品获取授权难的困境,原草案增设了“孤儿作品”授权机制条款。考虑到“孤儿作品”相关规定属于立法中的创新,为谨慎起见,本次修改在草案基础上吸取社会各界的意见和建议,将“孤儿作品”的适用范围明确为报刊社对已经出版的报刊中的作品进行数字化形式的复制,以及其他使用者以数字化形式复制或者通过信息网络向公众传播作品两种情形。同时将提存费用的机关由国务院著作权行政管理部门修改为国务院著作权行政管理部门指定的机构。
(五)关于职务表演
考虑到实践中迫切需要解决的表演者与演出单位之间的关系问题,本次修改参照职务作品的规定,在第三十五条新增了关于职务表演的规定。职务表演的权利归属由当事人约定,当事人没有约定或者约定不明的,其权利归属于表演者。但是对于集体性职务表演,如剧院表演话剧、剧团表演歌剧或者合唱等演出行为,其权利归属于演出单位。同时,为确保演出单位的权利,本次修改还赋予演出单位在其业务范围内免费使用表演的权利。
(六)关于视听表演者权利
参考2012年6月26日世界知识产权组织外交会议通过的《视听表演北京条约》第十二条规定,并与前述视听作品著作权规定的调整保持一致,本次修改将视听作品中的表演者的权利赋予制片者,同时规定主要演员享有署名权和“二次获酬权”。
(七)关于表演者和录音制作者就录音制品播放和表演行为的获酬权
本次修改,在第三十九条进一步明确了表演者和录音制作者享有获酬权的两种情形:(1)播放行为——以无线或者有线方式公开播放录音制品或者转播该录音制品的播放,以及通过技术设备向公众传播该录音制品的播放;(2)表演行为——通过技术设备向公众传播录音制品。
(八)关于广播电台、电视台权利
本次修改,从推动广播电视节目市场交易、促进我国广播电台电视台发展的角度出发,借鉴相关国际公约和主要国家的立法,对广播电台、电视台权利进行了下列调整:(1)将广播电台、电视台的权利从禁止权改为专有权;(2)根据前述播放权与信息网络传播权的权利内容的调整,考虑到非交互传播已经纳入播放权的控制范围,因此删去原草案第三十八条第一款第四项。
(九)关于著作权“合理使用”制度
所谓“合理使用”,是指他人在特定情形下使用受著作权法保护的作品,可以不经著作权人许可,并不向其支付报酬,但必须指明作品来源或者出处的制度。“合理使用”制度是相关国际条约以及各国和地区著作权法中的基本制度。本次修改,主要作了以下调整:(1)增加“合理使用”的开放式规定——其他情形,同时将原草案第三十九条并入新草案第四十二条作为第二款限制所有的十三类“合理使用”情形;(2)明确为个人学习、研究使用他人作品的情形为复制文字作品的片段;(3)增加关于引用他人作品不得构成引用人作品的主要或者实质部分的规定;(4)在相关情形中增加“信息网络”媒体的规定;(5)增加关于对室外艺术作品进行临摹、绘画、摄影、录像后形成的成果后续使用的规定。
(十)关于著作权“法定许可”制度
本次修改对著作权“法定许可”制度进行了以下调整:(1)根据权利人、相关著作权集体管理组织以及相关机构的意见,将著作权“法定许可”进一步限缩为教材法定许可和报刊转载法定许可两种情形,取消原草案第四十六条关于录音制作法定许可、第四十七条关于广播电台电视台播放法定许可的规定,将其恢复为作者的专有权;(2)对于报刊转载法定许可,允许当事人约定专有出版权,报刊社享有专有出版权的,其他报刊不得转载,同时在第五十一条规定专有出版权期限没有约定或者约定不明的推定为一年;(3)明确使用者在首次使用作品前进行一次性备案,将备案机构调整为相应的著作权集体管理组织;(4)增加使用者在法定期限内可以直接向权利人支付报酬的规定。
(十一)关于著作权集体管理组织延伸性集体管理
本次修订对著作权集体管理组织延伸性集体管理进一步限制其适用范围:(1)广播电台、电视台播放已经发表的文字、音乐、美术或者摄影作品;(2)自助点歌经营者通过自助点歌系统向公众传播已经发表的音乐或者视听作品。同时,保留了权利人书面声明不得延伸性集体管理的规定,增加了著作权集体管理组织平等对待所有权利人的规定。
(十二)关于技术保护措施和权利管理信息
根据《世界知识产权组织版权条约》和《世界知识产权组织表演和录音制品条约》相关规定,技术保护措施和权利管理信息只适用于作品、表演和录音制品。由于《世界知识产权组织广播组织条约》尚未缔结,技术保护措施和权利管理信息目前不适用于广播电视节目。但是从世界知识产权组织的磋商来看,目前各成员国对此基本没有争议。因此,本次修订在第六十四条将技术保护措施和权利管理信息扩大适用于广播电视节目,并对相应条款进行了修改。
(十三)关于民事责任
本次修改,对民事责任作了以下调整:(1)在第六十九条增加关于网络服务提供者教唆或者帮助侵权的,与侵权人承担连带责任的规定;(2)在第七十条进一步明确使用者在使用著作权人难以行使和难以控制的权利并愿意通过合法途径获得授权前提下,使用著作权集体管理组织非会员权利人作品时应当承担的民事责任。在赔偿责任承担方面,如果使用者已经与相应的著作权集体管理组织签订合同,则对非会员权利人按照著作权集体管理使用费标准赔偿损失;如果未与相应的著作权集体管理组织签订合同,则对非会员权利人按照一般民事侵权损害赔偿原则赔偿损失。同时,本条第二款规定,对使用者恶意使用他人作品的三种情形,不适用著作权集体管理使用费标准赔偿损失,而应当适用一般民事侵权损害赔偿原则赔偿损失。(3)在第七十二条取消关于法定赔偿的前置条件——进行著作权或相关权登记、专有许可合同或转让合同登记的规定,同时对于两次以上故意侵权的,将惩罚性赔偿调整为二至三倍。
(十四)其他内容
本次修改还根据社会各界的意见和建议,对一些规定作了进一步明确和完善,如将涉外的互惠保护原则分散规定于相应条款、将职务作品中受聘于报刊社或者通讯社创作的作品限定成记者为完成报道任务创作的作品、将表演者明确为自然人、将作者、表演者和录音制作者的信息网络传播权内容作统一表述、明确著作权登记等事宜的收费标准制定机关、明确著作权集体管理组织为非营利性社会组织、明确国务院各相关部门对著作权集体管理组织的监管职责等。
以上说明,供参考。

2 thoughts on “A Brief Explanation concerning the Revision and Perfection of the “Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China” (Second Revision Draft)

    […] China Copyright and Media blog. Rogier has already written a lengthy post on the second revision: A Brief Explanation concerning the Revision and Perfection of the “Copyright Law of the People’s…. He also has extensive links on the revision process and third party […]

    […] of the Chinese copyright law revisions.  In addition Rogier Creemers at Oxford has translated the explanation on the second draft of the copyright law.  My blog discusses the most recent draft and the prior […]

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