Notice concerning Punishing Criminal Activities of Infringement of Citizens’ Personal Information According to the Law.

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GTZ No. [2013]12

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal higher people’s courts and people’s procuratorates, public security offices and bureaus, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Higher People’s Court Production-Construction Corps Branch Court, the Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps people’s procuratorate, public security bureau:

In recent years, following the rapid development of our country’s economy and the broad popularization of information networks, unlawful and criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information has become more prominent every day, there is a flood of illegal sales of citizens’ personal information on the Internet, and the telecommunications fraud, online fraud, extortion and blackmail, kidnapping, illegal demand of loan repayment and other such crimes resulting from this cannot be stopped despite repeated attacks, the social harm is grave, and the masses react strongly against this. In order to effectively curb and punish criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information, realistically guarantee the security of the broad popular masses’ personal information and their lawful rights and interests, stimulate coordinated social development, and safeguard social harmony and stability, hereby, the relevant matters are notified as follows:

I, Realistically raising understanding, persisting in attacking criminal activities of citizens’ personal information infringement. At present, a number of criminals pursue unlawful gain, and use the Internet to tout citizens’ personal information on a large scale, this has gradually become a huge “underground industry” and a black profit chain. The traded citizens’ personal information includes household registration, banking and telecommunications accounts information, etc., and involves all aspects of citizens’ personal lives. Some personnel in a number of state bodies and financial, telecommunications, transportation, education, medical and maintenance companies, housing intermediaries, insurance, express delivery and other such enterprise and undertaking work units sell or illegally provide to others citizens’ personal information that they have obtained in the process of carrying out their duties or providing services. Brokers for the obtained information have set up data platforms on the Internet, and sell information for the pursuit of quick and large profits on a huge scale. Illegal investigation companies have engaged in illegal loan repayment demands, fraud, blackmail and extortion and other such unlawful and criminal activities on the basis of this information. This sort of crime not only gravely harms citizens’ information security, but it also extremely incites many kinds of crimes, it has become the source of telecommunications fraud, online fraud as well as harassment, “soft violence” and other such new forms of crime, it is even linked with kidnapping, extortion and blackmail, violent pressing for payment and other such criminal activities, influencing the popular masses’ sense of security, and threatening social harmony and stability. All levels’ public security organs, people’s procuratorates and people’s courts must soberly understand the grave harm of this sort of crime, and with a spirit of high responsibility towards the Party and the people, unite their thoughts, raise their understanding, organize matters meticulously, deploy matters carefully, and punish criminal acts of citizens’ personal information infringement according to the law.

II, Applying the law correctly, realizing the organic integration of legal effect and social effect. Criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information is a new form of crime, all levels’ public security organs, people’s procuratorates and people’s courts must realistically protect citizens’ personal information security and safeguard the heights of social harmony and stability, learn from the successful. precedents of the past, comprehensively consider the frequency, quantity, means and amount of profit of selling, illegally providing or illegally obtaining personal information, the harmful consequences that is caused and other such consequences, expand attack strength according to the law, and guarantee that good legal effects and social effects are obtained. Criminal subjects selling and illegally providing citizens’ personal information, except for personnel in State organs, financial, telecommunications, transportation, education or medical work units, also include work personnel of enterprise and undertaking work units in commerce, real estate and other such service sectors who obtain citizens’ personal information in the process of carrying out their duties or providing services. Citizens’ personal information includes citizens’ names, ages, valid identity card number, marital status, work unit, schooling record, curriculum vitae, household address, telephone number and other such information making it possible to distinguish the citizen’s personal identity or information and date that relates to citizen’s personal privacy. Where citizens’ personal information obtained through carrying out duties or in the process of providing services is sold or illegally provided to other persons, and is used by other persons to carry out crimes, resulting in personal injury or death of the victim, or in major economic harm or deleterious social influence, or where the quantity of citizens’ personal information that is sold or illegally provided is relatively large, or the unlawful income is relatively large, criminal liability for selling or illegally providing citizens’ personal information shall be prosecuted according to the law in all cases. Where the quantity of citizens’ personal information that is illegally obtained through theft, purchase or other means is relatively large, or the unlawful income is relatively large, or other grave consequences result, criminal liability for illegally obtaining citizens’ personal information shall be prosecuted according to the law. Where illegally obtained personal information is used to carry out other criminal activities, constituting multiple crimes, they shall be punished in combination according to the law. Where work units carry out crimes infringing citizens’ personal information, the criminal liability of the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible personnel shall be prosecuted. It is necessary to expand the application strength of financial penalties, to expropriate the illegally obtained or repeat crime-related capital of criminals.

III, Strengthening coordination and cooperation, guaranteeing the timeliness and efficiency of law enforcement and the judiciary. The network coverage of criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information is broad, and the relationships extremely complex. The location where the criminal act occurs, the location of the consequence of the crime, the location of the criminal’s residence, etc., are often not the same. At the same time, because the absolute majority of such criminal activities rely on the Internet and mobile electronic equipment, and are carried out through instant messaging tools, e-mails and many other such means, investigation and evidence gathering is very difficult. All levels’ public security organs, people’s procuratorates and people’s courts must, on the basis of their respective responsibilities and carrying out their duties efficiently and according to the law, further strengthen communication and coordination, act in concert, cooperate closely, and ensure that case-filing, investigation, authorization of arrests, examination of the complaint and trial procedures proceed smoothly. Where cases of criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information are tracked down, public security bodies must, according to the principle of localized management, timely file a case and investigate it, and timely submit it for examination of the complaint. Where a number of public security bodies have jurisdictional power over a case, the public security body that accepted it first has jurisdiction. Where necessary, it is permitted that the public security body of the major crime location has jurisdiction. Where jurisdiction is clear or there are disputed criminal cases, it is permitted that relevant public security bodies consult. Where an agreement is not reached through consultation, the public security body in question transmits the matter to the same level’s people’s procuratorate to examine and decide on the matter; where a people’s procuratorate believes, according to the provisions on jurisdiction in the criminal procedure law, believe that cases of which they are examining the complaint, should be lodged by a higher-level people’s procuratorate or another people’s procuratorate of the same level, they shall transfer the said case to the people’s procuratorate having jurisdiction; where a people’s procuratorate believes that it is necessary to appoint trial jurisdiction according to the provisions in the criminal procedure law, they shall consult with the same level’s people’s court, to handle matters related to the appointment of jurisdiction. In the process of handling cases of criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information, where these are difficult or complex cases, people’s procuratorates may, at a suitable time, send personnel to conduct research, communication and coordination with public security bodies on evidence collection and other such matters. Where public security bodies apply for the approval of an arrest or submit corresponding cases for examination of the complaint, which conform to the conditions for approving arrests and lodging complaints, people’s procuratorates must approve the matter or lodge the complaint as quickly as possible; where supplementary investigation is necessary, a concrete and clear supplementary investigation outline must be formulated. People’s courts must strengthen their trial strength, accurately decide on matters, and try and conclude them rapidly, according to the law.

IV, Moving comprehensive governance forward. Establish long-term work mechanisms for prevention and attack. Preventing and attacking criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information is an arduous task, we must treat both root causes and symptoms, vigorously explore and construct long-term work mechanisms for prevention and attack. All levels’ public security bodies, people’s procuratorates and people’s courts must, at the same time as punishing this sort of crime according to the law, vigorously participate in comprehensive governance, pay attention to discovering leaks and risks in citizens’ personal information protection work, timely report these to corresponding departments, warn and supervise relevant departments and work units concerning strengthening management and perfecting systems. It is necessary to fully use newspapers, radio, television, networks and many other media platforms to forcefully propagate the determination and strength of the Party and the State to attack this sort of crime, propagate corresponding policies, laws and regulations, warn and educate the broad masses about using legal protections and safeguarding their own lawful rights and interests, and raising their consciousness about and ability for self-protection.

All localities are requested, after they receive this notice, to rapidly transmit this to all levels’ people’s courts, people’s procuratorates and public security bodies. Please promptly report problems encountered in implementation to the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and the Ministry of Public Security.

Supreme People’s Court

Supreme People’s Procuratorate

Ministry of Public Security

23 April 2013.

最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部关于依法惩处侵害公民个人信息犯罪活动的通知

公通字[2013]12号

各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院,人民检察院,公安厅、局,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院,新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院、公安局:
近年来,随着我围经济快速发展和信息网络的广泛普及,侵害公民个人信息的违法犯罪日益突出,互联网上非法买卖公民个人信息泛滥,由此滋生的电信诈骗、网络诈骗、敲诈勒索、绑架和非法讨债等犯罪屡打不绝,社会危害严重,群众反响强烈。为有效遏制、惩治侵害公民个人信息犯罪,切实保障广大人民群众的个人信息安全和合法权益,促进社会协调发展,维护社会和谐稳定,现就有关事项通知如下:
一、切实提高认识,坚决打击侵害公民个人信息犯罪活动。当前,一些犯罪分子为追逐不法利益,利用互联网大肆倒卖公民个人信息,已逐渐形成庞大“地下产业”和黑色利益链。买卖的公民个人信息包括户籍、银行、电信开户资料等,涉及公民个人生活的方方面面。部分国家机关和金融、电信、交通、教育、医疗以及物业公司、房产中介、保险、快递等企事业单位的一些工作人员,将在履行职责或者提供服务过程中获取的公民个人信息出售、非法提供给他人。获取信息的中间商存互联网上建立数据平台,大肆出售信息牟取暴利。非法调查公司根据这些信息从事非法讨债、诈骗和敲诈勒索等违法犯罪活动。此类犯罪不仅严重危害公民的信息安全,而且极易引发多种犯罪,成为电信诈骗、网络诈骗以及滋扰型“软暴力”等新型犯罪的根源,甚至与绑架、敲诈勒索、暴力追债等犯罪活动相结合,影响人民群众的安全感,威胁社会和谐稳定。各级公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院务必清醒认识此类犯罪的严重危害,以对党和人民高度负责的精神,统一思想,提高认识,精心组织,周密部署,依法惩处侵害公民个人信息犯罪活动。
二、正确适用法律,实现法律效果与社会效果的有机统一。侵害公民个人信息犯罪是新型犯罪,各级公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院要从切实保护公民个人信息安全和维护社会和谐稳定的高度,借鉴以往的成功判例,综合考虑出售、非法提供或非法获取个人信息的次数、数量、手段和牟利数额、造成的损害后果等因素,依法加大打击力度,确保取得良好的法律效果和社会效果。出售、非法提供公民个人信息罪的犯罪主体,除国家机关或金融、电信、交通、教育、医疗单位的工作人员之外,还包括在履行职责或者提供服务过程中获得公民个人信息的商业、房地产业等服务业中其他企事业单位的工作人员。公民个人信息包括公民的姓名、年龄、有效证件号码、婚姻状况、工作单位、学历、履历、家庭住址、电话号码等能够识别公民个人身份或者涉及公民个人隐私的信息、数据资料。对于在履行职责或者提供服务过程中,将获得的公民个人信息出售或者非法提供给他人,被他人用以实施犯罪,造成受害人人身伤害或者死亡,或者造成重大经济损失、恶劣社会影响的,或者出售、非法提供公民个人信息数量较大,或者违法所得数额较大的,均应当依法以出售、非法提供公民个人信息罪追究刑事责任。对于窃取或者以购买等方法非法获取公民个人信息数量较大,或者违法所得数额较大,或者造成其他严重后果的,应当依法以非法获取公民个人信息罪追究刑事责任。对使用非法获取的个人信息,实施其他犯罪行为,构成数罪的,应当依法予以并罚。单位实施侵害公民个人信息犯罪的,应当追究直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员的刑事责任。要依法加大对财产刑的适用力度,剥夺犯罪分子非法获利和再次犯罪的资本。
三、加强协作配合,确保执法司法及时高效。侵害公民个人信息犯罪网络覆盖面大,关系错综复杂。犯罪行为发生地、犯罪结果发生地、犯罪分子所在地等往往不在一地。同时,由于犯罪行为大多依托互联网、移动电子设备,通过即时通讯工具、电子邮件等多种方式实施,调查取证难度很大。各级公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院要在分工负责、依法高效履行职责的基础上,进一步加强沟通协调,通力配合,密切协作,保证立案、侦查、批捕、审查起诉、审判等各个环节顺利进行。对查获的侵害公民个人信息犯罪案件,公安机关要按照属地管辖原则,及时立案侦查,及时移送审查起诉。对于几个公安机关都有权管辖的案件,由最初受理的公安机关管辖。必要时,可以由主要犯罪地的公安机关管辖。对管辖不明确或者有争议的刑事案件,可以由有关公安机关协商。协商不成的,由共同的上级公安机关指定管辖。对于指定管辖的案件,需要逮捕犯罪嫌疑人的,由被指定管辖的公安机关提请同级人民检察院审查批准;需要提起公诉的,由该公安机关移送同级人民检察院审查决定;人民检察院对于审查起诉的案件,按照刑事诉讼法的管辖规定,认为应当由上级人民检察院或者同级其他人民检察院起诉的,应当将案件移交有管辖权的人民检察院;人民检察院认为需要依照刑事诉讼法的规定指定审判管辖的,应当协商同级人民法院办理指定管辖有关事宜。在办理侵害民个人信息犯罪案件的过程中,对于疑难、复杂案件,人民检察院可以适时派员会同公安机关共同就证据收集等方面进行研究和沟通协调。人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕、移送审查起诉的相关案件,符合批捕、起诉条件的,要依法尽快予以批捕、起诉;对于确需补充侦查的,要制作具体、详细的补充侦查提纲。人民法院要加强审判力量,准确定性,依法快审快结。
四、推进综合治理。建立防范、打击长效工作机制。预防和打击侵害公民个人信息犯罪是一项艰巨任务,必须标本兼治,积极探索和构建防范、打击的长效工作机制。各地公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院在依法惩处此类犯罪的同时,要积极参与综合治理,注意发现保护公民个人信息工作中的漏洞和隐患,及时通报相关部门,提醒和督促有关部门和单位加强监管、完善制度。要充分利用报纸、广播、电视、网络等多种媒体平台,大力宣传党和国家打击此类犯罪的决心和力度,宣传相关的政策和法律法规,提醒和教育广大群众运用法律保障和维护自身合法权益,提高自我防范的意识和能力。
各地接此通知后,请迅速传达至各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关。执行中遇到的问题,请及时报最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部。
最高人民法院
最高人民检察院
公安部
2013年4月23日

 

One thought on “Notice concerning Punishing Criminal Activities of Infringement of Citizens’ Personal Information According to the Law.

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    August 23, 2014 at 12:01 am

    […] Notice concerning Punishing Criminal Activities of Infringement of Citizens’ Personal Information … (Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, 2013) […]

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