Notice concerning Punishing Criminal Activities Infringing Citizens’ Personal Data

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GTZ No. [2013]12

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Courts, People’s Procuratorate, public security offices and bureaus, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Higher People’s Court Production-Construction Corps Branch Court, the Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps People’s Procuratorate and Public Security Bureau:

In recent years, following the rapid development of our country’s economy and the broad spread of information networks, unlawful and criminal infringement of citizens’ personal data has become more prominent every day, there is a flood of illegal trading of citizens’ personal data on the Internet, and as a result, the spread of telecommunications swindles, network swindles, extortion and blackmail, kidnapping and illegal loan repayment demands and other such crimes had become ceaseless despite repeated attacks, social harm is great, and the masses react strongly. In order to effectively restrain and punish criminal infringement of citizens’ personal data, realistically guarantee the security of the broad popular masses’ personal data and their lawful rights and interests, stimulate coordinated social development, and safeguard social harmony and stability, the relevant matters are hereby notified as follows:

I, Realistically raise understanding, firmly attack criminal activities infringing citizens’ personal data. At present, a number of criminals use the Internet to scalp citizens’ personal data on a large scale, in pursuit of unlawful gain, this has gradually shaped a huge “underground industry” and black profit chains. Traded personal data includes household registry, bank information, telecommunications account data, etc., and involves every aspect of citizens’ individual lives. Some work personnel in a number of State organs and financial, telecommunications, traffic, education, healthcare and maintenance companies, housing intermediaries, insurance, courier and other such enterprise and undertaking work units have sold or illegally provided citizens’ personal data that they have obtained in the process of carrying out their duties or providing services. Intermediary agents of obtained information have established data platforms on the Internet, and sell information on a large scale, seeking quick and huge profits. Illegal survey companies engage in illegal loan repayment demands, swindles, extortion, blackmail and other such unlawful and criminal activities on the basis of these data. This sort of crime not only gravely harms citizens’ information security, it also extremely easily triggers many kinds of crimes, it has become the source of telecommunications swindles, network swindles as well as harassing “soft violence”, and other new forms of crime, it is even linked to criminal activities such as kidnapping, extortion, blackmail, violent pressing for payment, etc., it influences the popular masses’ sense of security and threatens social harmony and stability. All levels’ public security organs, People’s Procuratorate and People’s Courts must soberly understand the grave harm of this sort of crime, and unify thoughts, raise understandings, organize matters meticulously and deploy matters carefully with a spirit of high responsibility towards the Party and the people, and punish criminal activities infringing citizens’ personal data according to the law.

II, Correctly use laws, realize the organic unity of legal effects and social effects. Criminal infringement of citizens’ personal data is a new type of crime, all levels’ public security organs, People’s Procuratorate and People’s Courts must , from the height of realistically protecting citizens’ personal data security and safeguarding social harmony and stability, learn from past successful precedent, comprehensively consider the frequency at which personal data was traded, illegally provided or illegally obtained, their quantities and methods, as well as profit values, the damaging consequences created and other such factors, expand attacking strength according to the law, and guarantee that fine legal effects and social effects are obtained. The criminal subjects selling or illegally providing citizens’ personal information, apart from world personnel in State organs or financial, telecommunications, traffic, education and healthcare work units, also include work personnel of other enterprise and undertaking work units in commercial, housing industry and other service sectors, who have obtained citizens’ personal data in the process of implementing their duties or providing services. Citizens’ personal data includes citizens’ names, ages, valid identity document numbers, marital situations, work units, study history, professional history, household addresses, telephone numbers, and other such information and data materials with which citizens’ identities can be distinguished or that involve citizens’ personal privacy. Where citizens’ personal data that is obtained in the process of carrying out duties or providing services is sold or illegally transferred to other persons, and used by other persons to commit crimes, which result in personal injury or death to the victim, or that cause major economic damage, or nasty social influences, or where the quantity of illegally provided citizens’ personal data is relatively large, or the amount of unlawful income is relatively high, criminal liability shall be prosecuted for the crime of trading or illegally providing citizens’ personal data, according to the law. Where the quantity of citizens’ personal data that is illegally obtained through theft, purchasing or other such methods is relatively large, or the amount of unlawful income is relatively high, or other grave consequences result, criminal liability shall be investigated for the crime of illegally obtaining citizens’ personal data, according to the law. Where illegally obtained personal data is used to commit other criminal activities, where these constitute a crime, combined punishment shall be imposed according to the law. Where work units carry out criminal infringement of personal data, the criminal liability of the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible personnel shall be investigated. The application strength of financial punishments must be expanded according to the law, to deprive criminals of their illegal gains and the capital to commit crimes again.

III, Strengthen coordination and cooperation, guarantee that law enforcement and the judiciary work in a timely and high-efficiency manner. The criminal infringement of citizens’ personal information is large in terms of network coverage, and complex and intricate in terms of relations. The location of the criminal act, the location where the result of the crime occurs and the locality of the criminal are often not the same place. At the same time, because criminal activities rely on the Internet and mobile electronic equipment for the most part, and are implemented through real-time communications tools, e-mail and many other such methods, the difficulty of investigation and gathering evidence is great. All levels’ public security organs, People’s Procuratorate and People’s Courts must, on the basis of implementing their work responsibilities and carrying out their duties according to the law and in a high-efficiency manner, further strengthen communication and coordination, concert efforts, work together and cooperate closely, to guarantee that case filing, investigation, authorization of arrests, examination and charging, judgments and all other segments go smoothly. With regard to criminal cases infringing citizens’ personal data that are tracked down, public security organs must, according to the principle of localized jurisdiction, timely file and investigate cases, and timely submit them for examination and charging. In cases where several public security organs all have jurisdictional powers, the public security organ that accepts it first has jurisdiction. When necessary, it is permitted that the public security organ of the main criminal location has jurisdiction. In criminal cases where jurisdiction is unclear or disputed, it is permitted that relevant public security organs consult with each other. Where consultation is unsuccessful, jurisdiction is appointed by their joint higher-level public security organ. In cases where jurisdiction is appointed, and it is necessary to arrest criminal suspects, the public security organ that has been appointed as having jurisdiction submits a request to the same level’s People’s Procuratorate for examination and approval; where it is necessary to bring charges, the public security organ in question submits matters to the same level’s People’s Procuratorate for examination and decision; where the People’s Procuratorate believes that in a case that is being examined for bringing charges, according to the jurisdictional provisions of criminal procedure law, a higher-level People’s Procuratorate of another People’s Procuratorate at the same level should bring charges, it shall transfer the case to the People’s Procuratorate with jurisdictional powers; where the People’s Procuratorate believes that it is necessary to appoint trial jurisdiction according to the provisions of criminal procedure law, it shall consult with the same level’s People’s Court to handle matters related to the appointment of jurisdiction. In the process of handling criminal cases infringing citizens’ personal data, where cases are difficult or complex, People’s Procuratorate may, at all times, send personnel to conduct research, communication and coordination with public security organs concerning evidence collection and other such aspects. Where the People’s Procuratorate must as soon as possible permit the arrest and bringing of charges in cases where public security organs have requested the approval of arrests, and transmitted the case for examination and charges, where the cases conform to conditions for arrests and bringing charges; where it is truly necessary to conduct supplementary investigations, concrete and detailed outlines for supplementary investigations must be formulated. People’s Courts must strengthen judgment strength, correctly determine matters, rapidly bring cases to trial and rapidly resolve them, according to the law.

IV, Move comprehensive governance forward. Establish long-term prevention and attack work mechanisms. Preventing and attacking criminal infringement of citizens’ personal data is an arduous task, and both root causes and symptoms must be treated, long-term work mechanisms for prevention and attack must be vigorously explored and built up. All localities’ public security organs, People’s Procuratorate and People’s Courts must, at the same time as punishing this sort of crime according to the law, vigorously participate in comprehensive governance, pay attention to discovering loopholes and hidden dangers in protection work of citizens’ personal data, timely notify corresponding departments, warn and supervise relevant departments and work units’ strengthening their management and perfecting structures. Newspapers, radio, television, network and other such media platforms must be fully used to forcefully propagate the determination and strength of the Party and country to attack this sort of crime, propagate corresponding policies, laws and regulations, remind and educate the broad masses to use the law to guarantee and safeguard their own lawful rights and interests, and raise their consciousness about and ability for self-protection.

After all localities receive this Notice, please rapidly transmit them to all levels’ People’s Courts, People’s Procuratorate and public security organs. Please timely report problems occurring in implementation to the Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate and Ministry of Public Security.

Supreme People’s Court

Supreme People’s Procuratorate

Ministry of Public Security

23 April 2013

最高人民法院 最高人民检察院 公安部关于依法惩处侵害公民个人信息犯罪活动的通知

公通字[2013]12号

各省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院,人民检察院,公安厅、局,新疆维吾尔自治区高级人民法院生产建设兵团分院,新疆生产建设兵团人民检察院、公安局:
近年来,随着我围经济快速发展和信息网络的广泛普及,侵害公民个人信息的违法犯罪日益突出,互联网上非法买卖公民个人信息泛滥,由此滋生的电信诈骗、网络诈骗、敲诈勒索、绑架和非法讨债等犯罪屡打不绝,社会危害严重,群众反响强烈。为有效遏制、惩治侵害公民个人信息犯罪,切实保障广大人民群众的个人信息安全和合法权益,促进社会协调发展,维护社会和谐稳定,现就有关事项通知如下:
一、切实提高认识,坚决打击侵害公民个人信息犯罪活动。当前,一些犯罪分子为追逐不法利益,利用互联网大肆倒卖公民个人信息,已逐渐形成庞大“地下产业”和黑色利益链。买卖的公民个人信息包括户籍、银行、电信开户资料等,涉及公民个人生活的方方面面。部分国家机关和金融、电信、交通、教育、医疗以及物业公司、房产中介、保险、快递等企事业单位的一些工作人员,将在履行职责或者提供服务过程中获取的公民个人信息出售、非法提供给他人。获取信息的中间商存互联网上建立数据平台,大肆出售信息牟取暴利。非法调查公司根据这些信息从事非法讨债、诈骗和敲诈勒索等违法犯罪活动。此类犯罪不仅严重危害公民的信息安全,而且极易引发多种犯罪,成为电信诈骗、网络诈骗以及滋扰型“软暴力”等新型犯罪的根源,甚至与绑架、敲诈勒索、暴力追债等犯罪活动相结合,影响人民群众的安全感,威胁社会和谐稳定。各级公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院务必清醒认识此类犯罪的严重危害,以对党和人民高度负责的精神,统一思想,提高认识,精心组织,周密部署,依法惩处侵害公民个人信息犯罪活动。
二、正确适用法律,实现法律效果与社会效果的有机统一。侵害公民个人信息犯罪是新型犯罪,各级公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院要从切实保护公民个人信息安全和维护社会和谐稳定的高度,借鉴以往的成功判例,综合考虑出售、非法提供或非法获取个人信息的次数、数量、手段和牟利数额、造成的损害后果等因素,依法加大打击力度,确保取得良好的法律效果和社会效果。出售、非法提供公民个人信息罪的犯罪主体,除国家机关或金融、电信、交通、教育、医疗单位的工作人员之外,还包括在履行职责或者提供服务过程中获得公民个人信息的商业、房地产业等服务业中其他企事业单位的工作人员。公民个人信息包括公民的姓名、年龄、有效证件号码、婚姻状况、工作单位、学历、履历、家庭住址、电话号码等能够识别公民个人身份或者涉及公民个人隐私的信息、数据资料。对于在履行职责或者提供服务过程中,将获得的公民个人信息出售或者非法提供给他人,被他人用以实施犯罪,造成受害人人身伤害或者死亡,或者造成重大经济损失、恶劣社会影响的,或者出售、非法提供公民个人信息数量较大,或者违法所得数额较大的,均应当依法以出售、非法提供公民个人信息罪追究刑事责任。对于窃取或者以购买等方法非法获取公民个人信息数量较大,或者违法所得数额较大,或者造成其他严重后果的,应当依法以非法获取公民个人信息罪追究刑事责任。对使用非法获取的个人信息,实施其他犯罪行为,构成数罪的,应当依法予以并罚。单位实施侵害公民个人信息犯罪的,应当追究直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员的刑事责任。要依法加大对财产刑的适用力度,剥夺犯罪分子非法获利和再次犯罪的资本。
三、加强协作配合,确保执法司法及时高效。侵害公民个人信息犯罪网络覆盖面大,关系错综复杂。犯罪行为发生地、犯罪结果发生地、犯罪分子所在地等往往不在一地。同时,由于犯罪行为大多依托互联网、移动电子设备,通过即时通讯工具、电子邮件等多种方式实施,调查取证难度很大。各级公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院要在分工负责、依法高效履行职责的基础上,进一步加强沟通协调,通力配合,密切协作,保证立案、侦查、批捕、审查起诉、审判等各个环节顺利进行。对查获的侵害公民个人信息犯罪案件,公安机关要按照属地管辖原则,及时立案侦查,及时移送审查起诉。对于几个公安机关都有权管辖的案件,由最初受理的公安机关管辖。必要时,可以由主要犯罪地的公安机关管辖。对管辖不明确或者有争议的刑事案件,可以由有关公安机关协商。协商不成的,由共同的上级公安机关指定管辖。对于指定管辖的案件,需要逮捕犯罪嫌疑人的,由被指定管辖的公安机关提请同级人民检察院审查批准;需要提起公诉的,由该公安机关移送同级人民检察院审查决定;人民检察院对于审查起诉的案件,按照刑事诉讼法的管辖规定,认为应当由上级人民检察院或者同级其他人民检察院起诉的,应当将案件移交有管辖权的人民检察院;人民检察院认为需要依照刑事诉讼法的规定指定审判管辖的,应当协商同级人民法院办理指定管辖有关事宜。在办理侵害民个人信息犯罪案件的过程中,对于疑难、复杂案件,人民检察院可以适时派员会同公安机关共同就证据收集等方面进行研究和沟通协调。人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕、移送审查起诉的相关案件,符合批捕、起诉条件的,要依法尽快予以批捕、起诉;对于确需补充侦查的,要制作具体、详细的补充侦查提纲。人民法院要加强审判力量,准确定性,依法快审快结。
四、推进综合治理。建立防范、打击长效工作机制。预防和打击侵害公民个人信息犯罪是一项艰巨任务,必须标本兼治,积极探索和构建防范、打击的长效工作机制。各地公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院在依法惩处此类犯罪的同时,要积极参与综合治理,注意发现保护公民个人信息工作中的漏洞和隐患,及时通报相关部门,提醒和督促有关部门和单位加强监管、完善制度。要充分利用报纸、广播、电视、网络等多种媒体平台,大力宣传党和国家打击此类犯罪的决心和力度,宣传相关的政策和法律法规,提醒和教育广大群众运用法律保障和维护自身合法权益,提高自我防范的意识和能力。
各地接此通知后,请迅速传达至各级人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关。执行中遇到的问题,请及时报最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部。

最高人民法院
最高人民检察院
公安部
2013年4月23日

One thought on “Notice concerning Punishing Criminal Activities Infringing Citizens’ Personal Data

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    January 4, 2014 at 10:02 am

    […] Notice concerning Punishing Criminal Activities Infringing Citizens’ Personal Data (Supreme People’s Court et al., 2013) […]

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