Minister of Culture outlines main directions for further cultural policy reform

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Published in Qiushi, on 16 August 2013.

Unwaveringly Deepen Cultural Structural Reform

The recently convened Work Conference on Cultural Structural Reform stressed that it is necessary to establish new ideas, determine new objectives and adopt new measures, and with even more daring and wisdom, push cultural reform and development forward. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, we must unwaveringly deepen cultural structural reform.

I, The basic circumstances for cultural structural reform at present.

Since the 16th Party Congress, cultural structural reform has progressed through exploration and developed through innovation, historical achievements have been made, a new picture has been established for cultural construction, and a development path of Socialist culture with Chinese characteristics has been marched. With the 18th Party Congress as a symbol, cultural reform and development has entered a new phase.

Clear achievements have been made in cultural reform and development, and deepening cultural structural reform stands on a new starting point. Since the 16th Party Congress, under the firm leadership of the Party Centre and the State Council, cultural structural reform has been expanded at many levels and moved forcefully forward, structural and mechanistic obstacles have been eliminated, difficulties in cultural development have been overcome and historical achievements have been made. The phase-type reform objectives determined by the Centre have been realized on schedule, publishing, distribution, film, television drama, radio and television transmission work units, common State-owned literature and art troupes, non-news newspaper and periodical publishing work units, and other such State-owned commercial cultural work units have basically completed a transition into enterprises; comprehensive cultural market law enforcement reform is basically complete. The problems of overlapping functions and multi-headed law enforcement in cultural market management have been effectively resolved; the intra-provincial integration of radio and television transmission networks and publications distribution networks has been basically completed; undertaking personnel allocation nationwide has been reduced by 300.000, nearly 7000 undertaking legal person work units were cancelled, and a batch of backbone cultural enterprises with a sales volume exceeding billions has emerged. The beginnings of modern public culture service structures and frameworks have been established, in 2012, the comprehensive population coverage of nationwide radio and television programmes was 97.5% and 98.2% respectively, it has been basically realized that every town and community has a comprehensive culture station, every rural village has a peasant book room, it is guaranteed that one film is screened free of charge every month in every village, it has been realized that public museums, cultural halls, libraries, memorial halls and fine art galleries are open free of charge. Cultural industries’ contribution to GDP is incessantly rising, since 2004, the cultural industries have grown by 23% on average annually, according to preliminary calculations, industrial growth numbers for 2012 promise to exceed 1.8 trillion Yuan, a proportion of 3% of GDP. In general terms, a new series of major changes has been realized in the cultural area, matters have generally taken on an entirely new look, powerful energy has been collected and a firm basis established to further deepen reform.

The overall picture of the development of the Party and State undertaking has put forward new and even higher requirements of cultural structural reform. The 18th Party Congress revolved around persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and put forward the “Two Centuries” struggle objective of comprehensively constructing a moderately prosperous society, constructing a wealthy, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious Socialist modern country, and established the general composition of the “Five Integrations” of economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction and ecological civilization construction. Cultural flourishing and development are not only important aspects and important objectives of the overall picture of Socialist modernization construction, they are also extremely important supports. Realizing the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, requires persisting in the Chinese path, carrying forward the Chinese spirit and concentrating Chinese forces, fully giving rein to the functions of culture in guiding fashions, educating the people, serving society and promoting development, further deepening cultural structural reform and promoting cultural flourishing and development. Through more than thirty years of reform and opening up, the lives of our country’s people have generally become moderately prosperous, their hope of pursuing beautiful lives has become even more strong, spiritual and cultural needs have become even more exuberant. At present, the comprehensive level of our country’s cultural development is still not high, and there still is a relatively large difference with the popular masses’ daily increasing spiritual and cultural needs. Satisfying cultural needs, improving the people’s cultural livelihoods and raising the people’s happiness indicators have become important areas to adapt to the popular masses’ new expectations of beautiful lives, this is also a new and even higher demand put in to deepening cultural structural reform.

The Centre has put forward a series of new ideas and new judgments concerning deepening reform, and has pointed out the direction for advance in deepening cultural structural reform. After the 18th Party Congress, in the face of new circumstances and new tasks for reform and opening up, the Centre has put forward a series of new ideas and new judgments, that have a profound guiding significance for the greater picture of comprehensively deepening reform, and has also pointed out the direction for advance for further liberating thoughts and transforming ideas in the cultural area, and promoting and deepening cultural structural reform. We understand that the development of practice is boundless, and reform only has a progressive tense, not a perfect tense, the phase-type objectives for cultural structural reform have already been achieved, but the task of deepening reform is still extremely arduous, reform still is a strong driver promoting cultural flourishing and development, and we must unwaveringly move cultural structural reform forward. We comprehend that promoting cultural structural reform must mean that culture jumps out from culture, that it is both necessary to stress its own particularities, and pay attention to its linkage with reform in the economy, politics, society, ecological civilization construction and other areas, realizing mutual stimulation and coordinated development in all areas of reform. We comprehend that the process of reform is a process of incessantly resolving problems, and that it is necessary to continue to analyse and explain a series of difficulties restraining cultural development through deepening reform. We have learnt that at present, cultural structural reform and comprehensive deepening reform are similar, having entered the deep end and the period to storm fortifications, what needs to be overcome are profound structural and mechanistic obstacles, we must have the confidence and bravery to firmly storm fortifications and overcome difficulties, dare to gnaw at tough bones, dare to charge toward difficult passes, and promote the incessant realization of new progress in cultural structural reform.

In terms of the practice of cultural structural reform, cultural structural reform faces many new problems. Through a long period of development and especially the deep promotion of cultural structural reform in recent years, our the overall scale and overall strength of our country’s culture has clearly increased. At present, our country’s cultural development has already entered a period to storm fortifications, and a crucial stage, apart from old problems that we need to resolve, there are also profound new problems that emerge incessantly, the difficulty of reform is even greater and tasks are even heavier. How to transform from quantitative expansion to qualitative improvement, resolve resource integration, structure optimization, technological content and other such problems restraining cultural development, have become major topics in changing cultural development methods; after the transformation of commercial cultural work units, how to truly establish modern enterprise systems, how to establish and complete suitable macro-level management structures and management structures for State-owned assets in cultural enterprises, urgently require our resolving them; after categorizing cultural undertaking work units, how to reform them, how to raise service effects, still await further exploration; cultural industry trends are good, but we still face the major tasks of increasing quality and effect, strengthening comprehensive scale and strength; there are still many situations in which the functions and boundaries of government, market and society in the cultural area are indistinct, the phenomenon that in some areas, government manages too much, but management is lacking in some other areas, still exists, etc. In order to resolve these problems well, we must further liberate and develop cultural productive forces through continuing to deepen cultural structural reform, breach structural and mechanistic obstacles restraining cultural scientific development, raise the comprehensive levels of cultural development and realize the sustainable development of culture.

II, Main tasks in deepening cultural structural reform

According to the requirements of “expanding strength, consolidate and improve, deepen and expand, storm fortifications and overcome difficulties, scientific development”, in the present and future phase, the main tasks contain the following aspects.

Accelerating the transformation of administrative cultural management departments’ functions, raising macro-level cultural management capacity. The 2nd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress stressed that we must make even greater decisions and promote the transformation of government functions with even larger strength. We must deepen cultural management structure reform, complete comprehensive cultural market law enforcement organs, perfect comprehensive cultural administration responsibility structures, promote that government functions are even better transformed into government regulation, market supervision, social management and public service, promote that government realizes scientific management, management according to the law and comprehensive management. We must explore and complete State-owned cultural asset management systems, establish and complete management structures integrating personnel management, object management, asset management and guidance, and guarantee the value of State-owned cultural assets is maintained and increased.

Deepening reform of State-owned commercial cultural work units, fostering and expanding cultural market subjects. Commercial cultural work units’ completion of transformation into enterprises is only the first step in reform. We must accelerate the establishment of modern enterprise systems with clear property rights, explicit powers and responsibilities, with separation of government and enterprise and scientific management, give prominence to the characteristics of cultural enterprises, promote that cultural enterprises who have transformed their structure accelerate reform of their corporate systems and shareholding systems, promote that cultural enterprises marge and acquire across regions, across sectors and across ownership systems, promote the concentration of cultural resources and factors towards top-grade enterprises and superior industrial categories, shape a batch of backbone cultural enterprises with strong core competitiveness. We must choose a batch of large-scale State-owned cultural enterprises that have reformed satisfactorily and are mature, for focus fostering, expand support strength in finance, projects, resources and other such areas, and make them larger, better and stronger as quickly as possible.

Establishing and completing modern cultural market structures, creating a good market environment. To develop cultural industries under Socialist market economy conditions, the market is a crucial factor. We must vigorously develop cultural product markets, forcefully foster markets for technology, information, talent and other such markets, smash market fragmentations, complete networks and circulation, stimulate the reasonable flow of cultural products and production factors on a nationwide level. We must accelerate the fostering of capital markets, stimulate the linkage of cultural resources and financial assets, and fully use multi-level capital market to resolve the problem that it is difficult for cultural enterprises to find capital. We must accelerate the fostering of property rights markets, strengthen management of cultural property rights exchange, complete intangible asset appraisal mechanisms, encourage and guide cultural enterprises to conduct exchange in shareholding, copyright, trademarks, brands and other areas according to the law.

Promote cultural undertaking work reform in a categorized manner, upgrade service capacity and levels. We must, according to the requirements of the centre, give prominence to the characteristics of the cultural sector, link up cultural structural reform, government organ reform and functional transformation, and on the basis of scientific categorization, rationalize the relationship between government and undertaking work units, vigorously explore effective forms of separation of government and business, and separation of management and running business. We must deeply stimulate the internal mechanism reform of cultural undertaking work units, adopt advanced trial methods, promote that cultural halls, museums and libraries establish legal person governance structures, perfect policymaking and supervision mechanisms, raise service levels, and increase usage effects. We must promote the further perfection of management and operation mechanisms in Party newspapers, Party periodicals, radio and television stations, and promote that common current affairs newspaper and periodical publishers, public interest-type publishers, literature and art troupes representing the characteristics of the nation and national levels and other such work units implement enterprise-type management.

Perfecting public cultural service structure construction, ensuring that the people’s basic cultural rights and interests are guaranteed even better. Public cultural services are the main channel to guarantee the people’s basic cultural rights and interests. We must, according to the requirements of complete coverage, guaranteeing the basis, stimulating perfection and sustainability, deeply implement focus culture projects that benefit the people, promote that cultural resources are tilting towards the grass roots, the countryside and poor regions, accelerate the formation of an integrated cultural development structures whereby cultural services are equally enjoyed, and cultural development is pushed towards town and country in even measure. We must forcefully increase the usability and convenience of public cultural services, perfect facilities, enrich content, improve methods, promote the effective linkage of public cultural services and the demands of the masses, and guarantee that public cultural service structures are both “complete” and “used well. We must strengthen work effect evaluations and perfect appraisal indicator systems, in order to pursue even greater work effects on the basis of scientific evaluation.

Promoting the healthy and rapid development of the cultural industries, raising the quality and effect of development. The 18th Party Congress put forward that the cultural industries are to become a pillar industry of the national economy by 2020. We must put raising quality and effect at the centre, accelerate the transformation of cultural development methods, optimize industrial structures and compositions, forcefully stimulate content innovation, formal innovation and business model innovation, stimulate the integrated development of culture with science, technology, tourism and other related industries, construct modern cultural industry structures, raise the scale levels, intensification and specialization levels of the cultural industries. We must encourage and guide nongovernmental capital to invest in the cultural industries and shape a cultural industry structure with public ownership at the core, jointly developing with many kinds of ownership. We must expand policy, law and regulation guarantee strength, further resolve fiscal, financial, land support and other such issues, and provide powerful support to cultural industry development. We must implement major cultural industry programmes, strengthen the planning and construction of cultural creation and pioneering parks, and strive to raise the scale levels, intensification and specialization levels of the cultural industries.

Raising cultural marching out levels, strengthening national cultural soft power. We must, according to the requirements of government leadership, enterprises as the main part, market operation and social participation, innovate cultural marching out models, vigorously develop many forms of foreign-oriented cultural exchange and foreign cultural trade. We must encourage cultural enterprises to deeply excavate the nation’s cultural resources, exploit cultural products and services that are easy to accept for foreign audiences, strengthen support in dubbing, marketing and other such areas, push out even more excellent national cultural brands having Chinese characteristics, Chinese styles and a Chinese air. Vigorously explore channels and methods for marching out with cultural enterprises at the core, develop and expand a batch of foreign-oriented cultural enterprises, accelerate the formation of new cultural export superiorities, expand cultural product and service export, promote Chinese culture’s march towards the world even better, strengthen national cultural soft power.

(Author: Ministry of Culture Party Group Secretary, Minister)

坚定不移地深化文化体制改革
最近召开的文化体制改革工作座谈会强调,要树立新观念、确立新目标、采取新举措,以更大勇气和智慧把文化改革发展推向前进。面对新形势新任务,我们必须坚定不移地深化文化体制改革。

一、当前文化体制改革的基本形势

党的十六大以来,文化体制改革在探索中前进、在创新中发展,取得历史性成就,文化建设开创了新的局面,走出了一条中国特色社会主义文化发展道路。以党的十八大为标志,文化改革发展进入了一个新阶段。

文化改革发展取得显著成就,深化文化体制改革站在新的起点。党的十六大以来,在党中央、国务院的坚强领导下,文化体制改革深层次拓展、大力度推进,破除体制机制障碍,攻克文化发展难题,取得了历史性成就。中央确定的阶段性改革目标如期实现,出版、发行、电影、电视剧、广电传输和一般国有文艺院团、非时政类报刊出版单位等国有经营性文化单位基本完成转企改制;文化市场综合执法改革基本完成,有效解决了文化市场管理职能交叉、多头执法问题;广电传输网络和出版物发行网络省内整合基本完成;全国共核销事业编制近30万个,注销事业单位法人近7000家,涌现出一批销售额超百亿的骨干文化企业。现代公共文化服务体系框架初步建立,2012年,全国广播、电视节目综合人口覆盖率分别为97.5%、98.2%,基本实现每个乡镇和社区有综合文化站、村村有农家书屋,保证每村每月免费放映一场电影,公共博物馆、文化馆、图书馆、纪念馆、美术馆全部实现免费开放。文化产业对国民经济增长贡献率不断提高,2004年以来文化产业年均增长23%,据初步测算,2012年产业增加值有望突破1.8万亿元,占国内生产总值的比重已超3%。总体来看,文化领域实现了一系列重大转变,整体面貌焕然一新,为进一步深化改革集聚了强劲势能、打下了坚实基础。

党和国家事业发展全局对深化文化体制改革提出了新的更高要求。党的十八大围绕坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,提出了全面建成小康社会、建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家的“两个一百年”奋斗目标,确立了经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设和生态文明建设“五位一体”总布局。文化繁荣发展不仅是社会主义现代化建设全局中的重要方面和重要目标,也是十分重要的支撑。实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,需要坚持中国道路、弘扬中国精神、凝聚中国力量,充分发挥文化引领风尚、教育人民、服务社会、推动发展的作用,进一步深化文化体制改革、推动文化繁荣发展。经过30多年的改革开放,我国人民生活总体实现小康,追求美好生活的愿望更加强烈,精神文化需求更加旺盛。当前我国文化发展的整体水平还不高,与人民群众日益增长的精神文化需求还有较大差距。满足文化需求,改善文化民生,提升人民的幸福指数,已成为适应人民群众对美好生活新期待的重要方面,这也对深化文化体制改革提出了新的更高要求。

中央提出了一系列关于深化改革的新理念新论断,为深化文化体制改革指明了前进方向。党的十八大后,面对改革开放的新形势新任务,中央提出了一系列新理念新论断,对于全面深化改革全局具有深刻的指导意义,也为文化领域进一步解放思想、转变观念,推进和深化文化体制改革指明了前进方向。我们认识到,实践发展永无止境,改革只有进行时、没有完成时,文化体制改革的阶段性目标已经达到,但深化改革的任务依然十分艰巨,改革仍然是推动文化繁荣发展的强劲动力,必须坚定不移把文化体制改革推向前进。我们领会到,推进文化体制改革必须跳出文化看文化,既要注重自身的特殊性,又要注意与经济、政治、社会、生态文明建设等领域的改革相衔接,实现各领域改革相互促进、协调发展。我们理解到,改革的过程就是不断解决问题的过程,要通过深化改革继续破解制约文化发展的一系列难题。我们体会到,当前文化体制改革与全面深化改革一样,进入了深水区和攻坚期,需要攻克的是深层次的体制机制障碍,必须坚定攻坚克难的信心和勇气,敢啃硬骨头、敢于闯难关,推动文化体制改革不断实现新进展。

从文化改革发展实践看,深化文化体制改革面临许多新的问题。经过长期发展特别是近年来文化体制改革的深入推进,我国文化的整体规模、整体实力明显提升。目前,我国文化发展已进入攻坚期、关键期,除了有老问题需要我们解决,更有深层次的新问题不断涌现,改革的难度更大、任务更重。如何从数量扩张向质量提升转变,解决好资源整合、结构优化、科技含量等制约文化发展的问题,已经成为转变文化发展方式的重大课题;经营性文化单位转企后,如何真正建立起现代企业制度,如何建立健全与之相适应的宏观管理体制和文化企业国有资产管理体制,迫切需要我们去解决;文化事业单位分类以后怎么改革、怎么提高服务效能,还有待进一步探索;文化产业发展势头良好,但依然面临提升质量和效益、增强总体规模和实力的重大任务;文化领域中政府与市场、社会的职能和界限不清晰的情况还很多,政府在一些领域管得过多、在一些领域管理缺位的现象依然存在,等等。这些问题要解决好,必须通过继续深化文化体制改革,进一步解放和发展文化生产力,冲破制约文化科学发展的体制机制障碍,提高文化发展的整体水平,实现文化的可持续发展。

二、深化文化体制改革的主要任务

按照“加大力度、巩固提高、深化拓展、攻坚克难、科学发展”的要求,当前和今后一段时期主要任务有以下几个方面。

加快转变文化行政管理部门职能,提高文化宏观管理能力。党的十八届二中全会强调,必须下更大决心、以更大力度推进政府职能转变。要深化文化管理体制改革,健全文化市场综合执法机构,完善综合文化行政责任主体,推动政府职能更好地转到政策调节、市场监管、社会管理、公共服务上来,推动政府实现科学管理、依法管理、综合管理。要探索健全国有文化资产管理体制,建立健全管人管事管资产管导向相结合的管理体制,确保国有文化资产保值增值。

深化国有经营性文化单位改革,培育壮大文化市场主体。经营性文化单位完成转企改制只是迈出了改革的第一步。要加快建立产权清晰、权责明确、政企分开、管理科学的现代企业制度,突出文化企业特点,推动已转制的文化企业加快公司制股份制改造,完善法人治理结构,进一步优化企业资产组织形式和经营管理模式,不断提高企业自主经营、自我创新水平。要把转企改制与资源重组结合起来,推动文化企业跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组,推动文化资源、要素向优质企业、优势产业门类集聚,形成一批核心竞争力强的骨干文化企业。要选择一批改革到位、成长性好的大型国有文化企业进行重点培育,加大资金、项目、资源等方面的扶持力度,尽快做大做优做强。

建立健全现代文化市场体系,营造良好的市场环境。在社会主义市场经济条件下发展文化产业,市场是一个关键性因素。要积极发展文化产品市场,大力培育技术、信息、人才等要素市场,打破市场分割,健全网络流通,促进文化产品和生产要素在全国范围内合理流动。加快培育资本市场,促进文化资源与金融资本对接,充分利用多层次资本市场,解决文化企业融资难的问题。加快培育产权市场,加强对文化产权交易的管理,完善无形资产评估机制,鼓励和引导文化企业依法进行股权、版权、商标、品牌等方面的交易。

分类推进文化事业单位改革,提升服务能力和水平。要按照中央要求,突出文化行业特点,与文化体制改革、政府机构改革和职能转变相衔接,在科学分类的基础上,理顺政府与事业单位的关系,积极探索政事分开、管办分离的有效形式。要深入推进文化事业单位内部机制改革,采取先行试点的办法,推动文化馆、博物馆、图书馆建立法人治理结构,完善决策和监督机制,提高服务水平,提升使用效率。推动党报党刊、电台电视台进一步完善管理和运行机制,推动一般时政类报刊社、公益性出版社、代表民族特色和国家水准的文艺院团等单位实行企业化管理。

完善公共文化服务体系建设,让人民基本文化权益得到更好保障。公共文化服务是保障人民基本文化权益的主要途径。要按照全覆盖、保基本、促完善、可持续的要求,深入实施重点文化惠民工程,推动文化资源向基层、农村、贫困地区倾斜,加快形成文化服务均等享受、文化发展同步推进的城乡文化一体化发展格局。大力提升公共文化服务的实用性便利性,完善设施、丰富内容、改进方式,推动公共文化服务与群众需求之间有效对接,确保公共文化服务体系既“建成”,又“用好”。加强工作效果评估,完善评价指标体系,以科学的评估求取更大的工作效果。

推动文化产业健康快速发展,提高发展的质量和效益。党的十八大提出,到2020年文化产业成为国民经济支柱性产业。要以提高质量和效益为中心,加快转变文化发展方式,优化产业结构布局,大力推进内容创新、形式创新、业态创新,促进文化与科技、旅游等相关产业融合发展,构建现代文化产业体系,提高文化产业的规模化、集约化、专业化水平。鼓励和引导民间资本投资文化产业,形成公有制为主体、多种所有制共同发展的文化产业格局。加大政策法规保障力度,进一步解决好财税、金融、土地支持等重要问题,为文化产业发展提供有力支撑。实施重大文化产业项目,加强文化创意创业园区的规划和建设,努力提高文化产业的规模化、集约化、专业化水平。

提高文化走出去水平,增强国家文化软实力。要按照政府主导、企业主体、市场运作、社会参与的要求,创新文化走出去模式,积极发展多种形式的对外文化交流和对外文化贸易。鼓励文化企业深入挖掘民族文化资源,开发国外受众易于接受的文化产品和服务,加强译制、推介等方面扶持,推出更多具有中国特色、中国风格、中国气派的优秀民族文化品牌。积极探索以文化企业为主体走出去的途径办法,发展壮大一批外向型文化企业,加快形成文化出口竞争新优势,扩大文化产品和服务出口,更好地推动中华文化走向世界,增强国家文化软实力。

(作者:文化部党组书记、部长)

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