Interpretation concerning Some Questions of Applicable Law When Handling Uses of Information Networks to Commit Defamation and Other Such Criminal Cases

Posted on Updated on

The “Interpretation concerning Some Questions of Applicable Law When Handling Uses of Information Networks to Commit Defamation and Other Such Criminal Cases” was passed at the 1589th Supreme People’s Court Adjudication Committee meeting on 5 September, and was passed at the 9th meeting of the 12th Procuratorial Committee of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on 2 September, it is hereby promulgated, and takes effect on 10 September 2013.

Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate

6 September 2013

In order to protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and safeguard social order, on the basis of the “Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China” and the “NPC Standing Committee Decision concerning Safeguarding Internet Security”, some questions of applicable law when dealing the use of information networks to commit defamation, provocation, extortion, blackmail, illegal business or other criminal cases, are interpreted as follows:

Article 1: Where one of the following circumstances is present, it shall be established as “concocting facts to defame others” as provided in Article 246 Paragraph I of the Criminal Law:

(1) where facts harming another person’s reputation are concocted, disseminated on information networks, or where persons are organized or incited to disseminate them on information networks;

(2) where original information content on information networks involving another person is distorted into facts harming another person’s reputation, disseminated on information networks, or where persons are organized or incited to disseminate them on information networks;

(3) where, in the clear knowledge that facts harming another person’s reputation are concocted, they are disseminated on information networks and the circumstances are vile, it shall be determined as “concocting facts to defame others”.

Article 2: Where information networks are used to defame others, and one of the following circumstances is present, it shall be established as “grave circumstances” as provided in Article 246 Paragraph I of the Criminal Law:

(1) where the real hit or browsing number of the same defaming information is 5000 times or more, or it is reposted 500 times or more;

(2) where it results in the consequences that the injured party or their relatives suffer mental disorder, commit self-harm or suicide, or other such grave consequences;

(3) where someone defames others within two years after receiving administrative punishment because of defamation;

(4) other grave circumstances.

Article 3: Where information networks are used to defame others, and one of the following circumstances is present, it shall be established as “gravely endangering social order and national interests” as provided in Article 246 Paragraph II of the Criminal Law:

(1) where it triggers mass incidents;

(2) where it triggers an upset of social order;

(3) where it triggers ethnic or religious clashes;

(4) where defaming others creates vile social influences;

(5) where it harms the national image or gravely endangers the national interests;

(6) where it creates vile international influence;

(7) other circumstances gravely endangering social order and national interests.

Article 4: Where repeated acts of using information networks to defame others within one year have not been dealt with, and the real hit, browsing and reposting numbers accumulatively constitute a crime, convictions shall be made and punishment imposed according to the law.

Article 5: Where information networks are used to insult or intimidate others, with vile circumstances and destroying social order, according to the provisions of Article 293 Paragraph I Clause (2) of the Criminal Law, this shall be convicted and punished as the crime of provocation.

Where false information is fabricated or where information is clearly known to be fabricated and false, and it is disseminated on information networks, or persons are organized and incited to disseminate it on the internet, to stir up trouble and cause grave chaos of social order, according to the provisions of Article 293 Paragraph I Clause (4) of the Criminal Law, this shall be convicted and punished as the crime of provocation.

Article 6: Where, because of the dissemination, deletion or other such processing of online information on information networks, others are threatened or coerced, and public or private assets are exacted with a relatively large value, or the abovementioned acts are committed repeatedly, this is convicted and punished as the crime of extortion and blackmail according to Article 274 of the Criminal Law.

Article 7: Where, in violation of State provisions, and with the objective of profit, paid-for information deletion services are provided through information networks, or where paid-for information dissemination and other such services are provided through information networks in the clear knowledge that the information is false, bringing chaos to market order, and one of the following circumstances is present, it falls under illegal business activities with “grave circumstances”, and, according to the provisions of Article 225 Clause (4) of the Criminal Law, is convicted and punished as illegal business:

(1) where, for an individual, the illegal business value is 50.000 Yuan or higher, or the unlawful income is 20.000 Yuan or higher;

(2) where, for a work unit, the illegal business value is 150.000 Yuan or higher, or the unlawful income is 50.000 Yuan or higher.

Where the acts stipulated in the previous Paragraph are implemented and the values are five times or more those stipulated in the previous Paragraph, it shall be established as “especially grave circumstances” as provided in Article 225 of the Criminal Law.

Article 9: Where, clearly knowing that other persons use information networks to commit defamation, provocation, extortion, blackmail, illegal business and other such crimes, someone provides finances, premises, technological support or other such assistance, they shall be punished as an accomplice to crime.

Article 9: Where information networks are used to commit defamation, provocation, extortion, blackmail or illegal business, and at the same time, this constitutes the crime of harming commercial reputations or the reputation of merchandise as provided in Article 221 of the Criminal Law, the crime of inciting violence to resist the implementation of the law as provided in Article 278 of the Criminal Law, and the crime of fabricating and wilfully disseminating false and terror information as provided in Article 291 Paragraph I of the Criminal Law, the conviction and punishment shall be made according to the provision entailing the heavier punishment.

Article 10: Information networks as referred to in this Interpretation, includes the computer Internet, radio and television networks, fixed telecommunications networks, mobile telecommunications networks and other such communications networks with computers, television sets, fixed telephones, mobile telephones and other such electronic equipment as terminals, as well as local area networks that are open to the public.

最高人民法院 最高人民检察院

关于办理利用信息网络实施诽谤等刑事案件

适用法律若干问题的解释

(2013年9月5日最高人民法院审判委员会

第1589次会议、2013年9月2日最高人民检察院

第十二届检察委员会第9次会议通过)

法释〔2013〕21号

为保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,维护社会秩序,根据《中华人民共和国刑法》《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于维护互联网安全的决定》等规定,对办理利用信息网络实施诽谤、寻衅滋事、敲诈勒索、非法经营等刑事案件适用法律的若干问题解释如下:

第一条 具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为刑法第二百四十六条第一款规定的“捏造事实诽谤他人”:

(一)捏造损害他人名誉的事实,在信息网络上散布,或者组织、指使人员在信息网络上散布的;

(二)将信息网络上涉及他人的原始信息内容篡改为损害他人名誉的事实,在信息网络上散布,或者组织、指使人员在信息网络上散布的;

明知是捏造的损害他人名誉的事实,在信息网络上散布,情节恶劣的,以“捏造事实诽谤他人”论。

第二条 利用信息网络诽谤他人,具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为刑法第二百四十六条第一款规定的“情节严重”:

(一)同一诽谤信息实际被点击、浏览次数达到五千次以上,或者被转发次数达到五百次以上的;

(二)造成被害人或者其近亲属精神失常、自残、自杀等严重后果的;

(三)二年内曾因诽谤受过行政处罚,又诽谤他人的;

(四)其他情节严重的情形。

第三条 利用信息网络诽谤他人,具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为刑法第二百四十六条第二款规定的“严重危害社会秩序和国家利益”:

(一)引发群体性事件的;

(二)引发公共秩序混乱的;

(三)引发民族、宗教冲突的;

(四)诽谤多人,造成恶劣社会影响的;

(五)损害国家形象,严重危害国家利益的;

(六)造成恶劣国际影响的;

(七)其他严重危害社会秩序和国家利益的情形。

第四条 一年内多次实施利用信息网络诽谤他人行为未经处理,诽谤信息实际被点击、浏览、转发次数累计计算构成犯罪的,应当依法定罪处罚。

第五条 利用信息网络辱骂、恐吓他人,情节恶劣,破坏社会秩序的,依照刑法第二百九十三条第一款第(二)项的规定,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。

编造虚假信息,或者明知是编造的虚假信息,在信息网络上散布,或者组织、指使人员在信息网络上散布,起哄闹事,造成公共秩序严重混乱的,依照刑法第二百九十三条第一款第(四)项的规定,以寻衅滋事罪定罪处罚。

第六条 以在信息网络上发布、删除等方式处理网络信息为由,威胁、要挟他人,索取公私财物,数额较大,或者多次实施上述行为的,依照刑法第二百七十四条的规定,以敲诈勒索罪定罪处罚。

第七条 违反国家规定,以营利为目的,通过信息网络有偿提供删除信息服务,或者明知是虚假信息,通过信息网络有偿提供发布信息等服务,扰乱市场秩序,具有下列情形之一的,属于非法经营行为“情节严重”,依照刑法第二百二十五条第(四)项的规定,以非法经营罪定罪处罚:

(一)个人非法经营数额在五万元以上,或者违法所得数额在二万元以上的;

(二)单位非法经营数额在十五万元以上,或者违法所得数额在五万元以上的。

实施前款规定的行为,数额达到前款规定的数额五倍以上的,应当认定为刑法第二百二十五条规定的“情节特别严重”。

第八条 明知他人利用信息网络实施诽谤、寻衅滋事、敲诈勒索、非法经营等犯罪,为其提供资金、场所、技术支持等帮助的,以共同犯罪论处。

第九条 利用信息网络实施诽谤、寻衅滋事、敲诈勒索、非法经营犯罪,同时又构成刑法第二百二十一条规定的损害商业信誉、商品声誉罪,第二百七十八条规定的煽动暴力抗拒法律实施罪,第二百九十一条之一规定的编造、故意传播虚假恐怖信息罪等犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。

第十条 本解释所称信息网络,包括以计算机、电视机、固定电话机、移动电话机等电子设备为终端的计算机互联网、广播电视网、固定通信网、移动通信网等信息网络,以及向公众开放的局域网络。

4 thoughts on “Interpretation concerning Some Questions of Applicable Law When Handling Uses of Information Networks to Commit Defamation and Other Such Criminal Cases

    […] Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate have introduced a judicial interpretation (original/our translation) that expands criminal liability to include a number of online activities. These are the main […]

    […] Court and Supreme People’s Procuratorate have introduced a judicial interpretation (original/our translation) that expands criminal liability to include a number of online […]

    The Latest Internet Crackdown | Digital China said:
    September 15, 2013 at 1:29 pm

    […] Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (in Chinese here and in a rough translation here) expands criminal liability under the Criminal Law to include a number of online activities. […]

    […] groot. De gevolgen kunnen flink zijn: het Chinese Hoogste Volksgerechtshof heeft onlangs regels ingevoerd die het tweeten van feitelijk onjuiste informatie, die de reputatie van de staat schendt, […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s