Explanation concerning the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform”

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According to Xinhua, this is the speech Xi Jinping gave at the 3rd Plenum, providing a background to the Draft Resolution.

Xi Jinping

With the entrustment of the Politburo, now, I will explain the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform” to the Plenum.

I, Concerning the drafting process of the Plenum Resolution

Since reform and opening up, which topics successive 3rd Plenums have researched, which decisions they have made, which measures they have adopted and which signals they have given, have been important bases for our determining the governance policies and focus work points of Central leadership collectives, and have had a major significance for doing work well five years into the future and even ten years into the future.

After the 18th Party Congress, the Centre has set to considering the topics for the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress. The 18th Party Congress has put forward unified objectives on comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society and comprehensively deepening reform and opening up, it has stressed that we must waste no time in deepening reform in important areas with even greater political courage and wisdom, firmly do away with all ideological concepts, structural and mechanistic abuses that hamper scientific development, built institutions and systems that are systematic and complete, scientific and standardized, and effective in operations, to ensure that institutions in all areas become even more mature and finalized. We believe that, in order to complete all strategic objectives and work deployments put forward by the 18th Party Congress, we must firmly grasp moving forward with comprehensive reform.

Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress made the historical policy decisions to shift the centre of Party and State work to economic construction, and to implement reform and opening up, 35 years have passed. That such profound changes could occur in the appearance of the Chinese people, the appearance of Socialist China and the appearance of the Chinese Communist Party, and that our country could gain a decisive position in international society, has relied on unwaveringly moving reform and opening up forward.

In 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping said in his talks in the South that: “not persisting in socialism, not reforming or opening up, not developing the economy and not improving the people’s livelihoods, can only be a dead-end road.” Looking back, we have an even more profound understanding of these words of Comrade Deng Xiaoping. Therefore, we say that only Socialism can save China, only reform and opening up makes it possible to develop China, develop Socialism and develop Marxism.

Exactly form the heights of historical experience and real needs, since the 18th Party Congress, the Centre has repeatedly stressed that reform and opening up are crucial in deciding the destiny of contemporary China, and are crucial in deciding the “two centuries” struggle objective as well as realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the development of practice is boundless, liberated thoughts are boundless, reform and opening up are boundless as well, there is no way out in pausing and withdrawing, reforming and opening up only has a progressive tense, it does not have a perfect tense. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, we must, through completely deepening reform, strive to resolve a series of prominent contradictions and problems that our country’s development faces, and incessantly move the self-perfection and development of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics forward.

At present, extremely broad and profound changes are occurring both domestically and abroad, our country’s development faces a series of prominent contradictions and challenges, there are quite a few difficulties and problems on the road ahead. For example, the problems that development is imbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable remains prominent, science and technology innovation capacities are not strong, industrial structuring is not rational, development methods remain extensive, the difference in urban and rural development and the difference between residents’ income allocation remains relatively large, social contradictions are clearly increasing, education, employment, social security, healthcare, housing, ecology and the environment, food and drug safety, production safety, social order, law enforcement and other such problems that relate to the personal interests of the masses are relatively many, a part of the masses lead difficult lives, formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagant work styles remain prominent issues, negative and corrupt phenomena happen easily and often in a number of areas, the anti-corruption struggle situation remains grim, etc. The key in resolving these problems lies in deepening reform.

In April of this year, the Politburo engaged in deep reflection and research, it broadly listened to opinions from all sides within and outside of the Party, and decided that the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress would research the question of comprehensively deepening reform and make decisions.

On 29 April, the Centre issued the “Notice concerning Soliciting Opinions on Comprehensively Deepening Reform to Be Researched at the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress”. All localities and departments unanimously believed that the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress would focus on researching the question of comprehensive deepening reform, would comply with the desires of the broad Party members, cadres and masses, and would grasp the issues that society is most concerned about, and they universally expressed praise.

3rd Plenums since reform and opening up have all researched and discussed questions of deepening reform, they all sent out an important signal, which was that our Party persists unwaveringly in holding high the banner of reform and opening up, and firmly and unwaveringly persisted in the theory, line, principles and policies since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress. In the final analysis, they had to answer the question of holding high which banner and marching which path under new historical conditions.

The 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress has comprehensively deepening reform as its main theme, which means that our Party persists in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, and the scientific development view as guidance, persists in unwaveringly implementing the Party’s basic line, basic programme, basic experiences and basic requirements under new circumstances, and persists in the important declaration and important reflection of holding high the banner of reform and opening up.

After the topics were decided, the Politburo decided to establish a document drafting group, of which I was the head, and Comrades Liu Yunshan and Zhang Gaoli where the vice-heads, responsible comrades from relevant departments and a number of provincial and municipal leading comrades participated in drafting the draft version of the Plenum Resolution under the leadership of the Politburo Standing Committee.

After the document-drafting group was composed, in nearly seven months of time, it broadly solicited opinion, launched topical argumentation, conducted investigation and research, and repeatedly discussed revisions. In that time, the Politburo Standing Committee met three times and the Politburo met two times to deliberate the Resolution, the Resolution opinion-seeking draft was also sent out in a certain scope within the party in order to solicit opinions, the opinions of intra-Party old comrades were solicited, and the opinions of all democratic parties’ central committees, responsible people from the National Industry and Commerce Association and non-party persons were specially heard as well.

Looking from the feedback situation, all sides unanimously believe that the Plenum Resolution profoundly analysed the major theoretical and practical issues that our country faces in terms of reform, development and stability, it elaborated the major significance and future orientation of comprehensively deepening reform, it put forward guiding ideologies, objectives and tasks, and the major principles of comprehensively deepening reform, it described new blueprints, new prospects and new objectives for comprehensively deepening reform, it concentrate new thoughts, new arguments and new measures concerning comprehensively deepening reform, it reflected the calls of society, the appeals of society and the expectations of society, and concentrated an ideological consensus and the active wisdom  of the entire Party and the entire society concerning comprehensively deepening reform.

All sides unanimously believed that the Plenum Resolution rationally deployed the strategic focus points, order of priority, direction of the main attack, work mechanism, means of moving forward, schedules and routes for the comprehensive deepening of reformed, that it shaped a series of major new breakthroughs in reform theory and policy, that it is another general deployment and general mobilization for the comprehensive deepening of reform, and that it inevitably will engender a major and profound influence on promoting the development of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

In the process of soliciting opinions, all sides jointly put forward many good opinions and suggestions. The Centre has tasked the document-drafting group with earnestly arranging and researching these opinions and suggestions, and the document-drafting group has made major revisions to the Plenum Resolution.

II, Concerning the general framework and focus issues of the Plenum Resolution

The Politburo believes that in the face of new circumstances, new tasks and new demands, the crux of comprehensively deepening reform is that we must further shape a development environment with fair competition, further strengthen the development vitality of the economy and the society, further raise government effectiveness and efficiency, further realize social fairness and justice, further stimulate social harmony and stability, and further raise the Party’s leadership levels and governance capacity.

Revolving around these major topics, we stress that we must have a strong consciousness about problems, take major issues as guidance, grasp key issues in further research and consideration, strive to promote the resolution of a series of prominent contradictions and problems that our country’s development faces. Us Chinese Communist Party members doing the revolution, doing construction and grasping reform always has been for the sake of resolving China’s real problems. It may be said that reform has been engendered by reversing problems, and it is deepened by incessantly resolving problems.

Over 35 years, we have used the methods of reform to resolve a series of problems in the development of the undertaking of the Party and State. At the same time, in the process of understanding the world and transforming the world, old problems have been resolved, but new problems could emerge, the system is always in need of incessant perfection, and therefore, reform cannot succeed at the first try, and things cannot be done once and for all.

The Plenum Resolution Draft gives prominence to considerations in five areas. The first is adapting to the new development needs of the undertaking of the Party and the country, and implementing the strategic task of comprehensively deepening reform put forward by the 18th Party Congress. The second is making reform into the main line, giving prominence to new measures to comprehensively deepen reform, it does not talk about general measures, it does not talk about repetitive measures, and it does not talk about purely developmental measures. The third is grasping focus points, revolving around resolving issues that the masses react strongly against, respond to the calls and expectations of the popular masses, give prominence to important areas and key segments, give prominence to a pulling function in economic structural reform. The fourth is persisting in vigorousness and reliability, reform measure design must be bold, and the pace must be steady. The fifth is time planning for the year 2020, according to the reform tasks put forward for this time period, decisive results are to be obtained in the reform of important areas and crucial segments by the year 2020.

In terms of frameworks and structures, the Plenum Resolution has urgently resolving current major problems as priority, and plants structures article by article. Apart from the introduction of the conclusion, it contains 16 parts in total, divided in three large sections. The first part composes the first section, and is a general introduction, which mainly elaborates on the important significance, guiding ideology and general thinking of comprehensively deepening reform. The second until the fifteenth parts compose the second section, which are separate arguments, that mainly provide concrete deployments for the main tasks and important measures in comprehensively deepening reform in the six areas of the economy, politics, culture, society, the ecological civilization, national defence and the military. Among these, the economic aspect contains six parts (the second until the seventh), the political part contains three parts (the eighth until the tenth), the cultural aspect contains one part (the eleventh), the social aspect contains two parts (the twelfth and thirteenth), the ecological aspect contains one part (the fourteenth), and national defence and the military aspect contains one part (the fifteenth part). The sixteenth part constitutes the third section, which stresses organizational leadership and mainly elaborates on strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership over the comprehensive deepening of reform.

Here, I’d like to present the Centre’s considerations concerning some major issues and important measures touched upon in the Plenum Resolution.

First, concerning ensuring that the market has a decisive function in resource allocation and giving better rein to the functions of government. This is a major theoretical viewpoint in this Plenum Resolution. This is because economic structural reform still is the focus point of comprehensively deepening reform, and the core issue of economic structural reform still lies in handling the relationship between the government and the market well.

In 1992, the 14th Party Congress put forward that the objective of our country’s economic structural reform was establishing the Socialist market economy system, and put forward that we must ensure that the market has a fundamental function in resource allocation under the macro-level control of the State. This major theoretical breakthrough has had an extremely important effect on our reform, opening up, economic and social development. This also illustrates the major guiding role of theoretical innovation on practical innovation, to comprehensively deepen reform, theoretical innovation must be the guide.

With over twenty years of practice, the beginnings of our country’s Socialist market economy system have been established, but quite a few problems remain, these mainly are the fact that market order is not standardized, and that the phenomenon of seeking economic gain through improper means exists broadly; development of the production factor market is lagging behind, production factor idleness coexists with large-quantity effective demand that cannot be satisfied; market regulations are not uniform, departmental protectionism and local protectionism exist in large quantities; market competition is not full, survival of the fittest and restructuring are impeded, etc. If these problems are not resolved well, it will be difficult to shape a perfect Socialist market economy system.

In the two decades since the 14th Party Congress, we have consistently sought new scientific positions concerning the relationship between government and market, on the basis of exploration in practice and deepening understanding. The 15th Party Congress put forward to “use the fundamental position of the market in resource allocation under State macro-level control”, the 16th Party Congress put forward “giving rein to the fundamental function of the market in allocating resources to an even greater extent”, the 17th Party Congress put forward “giving better institutional rein to the fundamental function of the market in allocating resources”, the 18th Party Congress put forward “give rein to the fundamental function of the market in resource allocation to an even greater extent and on an even broader scale”. It can be seen that our understanding of the relationship between government and market is incessantly deepening as well.

In this process of discussion and soliciting opinions, it has been pointed out by many sides that we should further orient the relationship between government and market in theoretical terms, and that this has an extremely important effect on comprehensively deepening reform. Considering the opinions from all sides and the real development needs, and after repeated discussion and research, the Centre believes that the theoretical conditions for creating a new expression concerning this issue have become mature, and the “fundamental function” of the market in resource allocation has been changed into “decisive function”.

Now, our country’s Socialist market economic system has basically been established, and the extent of marketization has risen substantially, our understanding of market laws and our ability to control them is incessantly rising, macro-level control systems have become more complete, objective conditions are ready and we should strive forward at a new pace in completing the Socialist market economy system.

To further deal with the relationship between government and market well, we must, in fact, deal well with this question of whether the market has the decisive function in resource allocation or whether the government has this decisive function. Economic development must increase the allocation efficiency of resources and especially scarce resources, in order to produce as many products with as few resources as possible, and gain the highest possible efficiency. Theory and practice have bother demonstrated that market allocation of resources is the most efficient form. The market deciding on resource allocation is a common rule of market economies, and the market economy essentially is an economy in which the market decides on resource allocation. To complete the Socialist market economy system, we must respect this law, and strive to resolve the problem that market systems are imperfect, government intervention is excessive and supervision and management are unsatisfactory. Bringing the orientation towards “ensuring that the market has the decisive function in resource allocation” benefits the establishment of correct concepts concerning government-market relations in the entire Party and the entire society, it benefits the transformation of economic development methods, benefits the transformation of government functions and benefits the restraint of negative and corrupt phenomena.

Naturally, what our country implements is the Socialist market economy system, we still must persist in giving rein to the superiorities of our country’s Socialist system, and give rein to the positive role of the Party and the government. The market has a decisive function in resource allocation, but it does not have the total function.

To develop the Socialist market economy, we must give rein to both the functions of the market and the government, but the roles of the functions of market and government are different. The Plenum Resolution has put forward clear requirements concerning giving better rein to the function of government, it stresses that scientific macro-level regulation and effective governmental governance are the inherent requirements for giving rein to the superiorities of the Socialist market economy system. The Plenum Resolution has provided deployments concerning completing macro-level regulation systems, comprehensively and correctly implementing the functions of government and optimizing government’s organizational structures, it stresses that the functions and the role of government must be to maintain macro-level economic stability, strengthening and optimizing public services, guaranteeing fair competition, strengthening market supervision and management, safeguarding market procedures, promoting sustainable development, stimulating common prosperity and remedying market failures .

Second, concerning persisting in and perfecting basic economic structures. Persisting in and perfecting the basic economic system with public ownership and the core, jointly developing with many ownership systems, relates to an important pillar for the consolidation and development of the Socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

Since reform and opening up, our country’s ownership structures have been progressively adjusted, the proportion of the public economy and the non-public economy in economic development, stimulating employment and other such areas have incessantly changed, which strengthened the vitality of economic and social development. Under these circumstances, how to reflect and persist in the central position of public ownership even better, and further explore effective real forms for the basic economic system, is a major topic in front of us.

The Plenum Resolution stresses that we must unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public economy, persist in the central function of the public economy, give rein to the guiding role of the State-owned economy, incessantly strengthen tie vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy.

The Plenum Resolution persists in and develops the relevant elaborations from since the 15th Party Congress, it puts forward that we must vigorously develop a mixed ownership economy, it stresses that a mixed ownership economy with cross-shareholding and mutual blending between State-owned capital, collective capital and non-public capital is an important real form for the basic economic system, which benefits the amplification of the role of State-owned capital, maintaining and increasing its value and raising competitiveness. This is an effective channel and necessary choice to persist in the core function of public capital under new circumstances, and to strengthen the vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward [that we must] perfect state-owned asset management systems, strengthen State-owned asset supervision and management mainly through capital management, and reform State-owned capital authorization and operation structures; State-owned capital investment operations must serve the strategic objectives of the State, and invest more in important sectors and key areas relating to national security and the lifelines of the national economy, it must focus on providing public services, developing important forward looking and strategic industries, protecting the ecology and the environment, supporting scientific and technological progress and guaranteeing national security; it must plan to transfer a portion of State-owned capital to replenish social security funds; raise the proportion of State-owned capital income that is turned over to public finance, to be used more for social security and improving peoples’ livelihoods.

State-owned enterprises are an important force in moving national modernization forward and guaranteeing the common interest of the people. Through many years of reform, State-owned enterprises generally have assimilated to the market economy. At the same time, State-owned enterprises have also accumulated a number of problems, some malpractices exist, which require further reform. The Plenum Resolution puts forward a series of focused reform measures, including expansion of State-owned capital investment in public interest enterprises; State-owned capital is to continue to control the operations of natural monopoly sectors, reforms with government-enterprise separation, government-capital separation, special permission for operations, and government supervision and management as main content are to be implemented, network and operations separation and free competition in operations are to be implemented on the basis of the characteristics of different sectors; a corporate legal person governance structure  with coordinated operations and effective checks and balances is to be completed; professional manager systems are to be established, to give better rein to the function of entrepreneurs; long-term incentive and restraint mechanisms are to be established, to strengthen responsibility investigation in State-owned enterprise operations and investment; major information openness matters concerning State-owned enterprises’ finances and budgets are to be explored and moved forward; State-owned enterprises must rationally increase the proportion of marketized selection and appointment, rationally determine and strictly standardize State owned enterprise management personnel remuneration levels, professional treatment, professional expenses and business expenses. These measures will promote the perfection of modern enterprise systems in State-owned enterprises, raise operational efficiency, [so that they] reasonably bear social responsibility and give rein to their functions better.

To persist in and perfect basic economic systems, we must persist in the “two unwaverings”. The Plenum Resolution puts forward reform measures at many levels to encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public economy, and arouse the vitality and creativity of the non-public economy. In terms of functions and positions, it clarifies that the public economy and the non-public economy are both important component parts of the Socialist market economy, and are both important bases of our country’s economic and social development; in terms of property protection, they clearly put forward that property rights in the public economy may not be violated, and property rights in the non-public economy may equally not be violated; in terms of policy treatment, it stresses persisting in rights equality, equality of opportunity and equality of rules, and implements uniform market access systems; it encourages non-publicly owned enterprises to participate in the reform of State-owned enterprises, it encourages the development of mixed ownership enterprises in which non-public capital controls shares, and encourages privately-run enterprises meeting conditions to establish modern enterprise systems. This will promote the healthy development of the non-public economy.

Third, concerning deepening reform of financial and fiscal structures. The financial administration is the basis and an important pillar for national governance, scientific financial and fiscal systems are institutional guarantees for the optimization of resource allocation, safeguarding market unity, stimulating social fairness and realizing a long period of peace and order for the country. Current financial and fiscal structures have been perfected and formed progressively on the basis of the fiscal reforms of 1994, and has had an important effect on realizing the win-win objective of strengthening the government’s financial strength and rapid economic development.

Following the changes in trends and developments, the current financial and fiscal structures are not completely suited to the objective requirements of rationally dividing central and local duties and responsibilities, and perfecting State governance, they are not completely suited to the real demands of transforming economic development methods and stimulating sustained and healthy economic and social development, there are also some prominent contradictions and problems in our country’s economic and social development that are related to the fact that our financial and fiscal structures are incomplete.

In this comprehensive deepening of reform, financial and fiscal structural reform is one of the focus points. It mainly involves improving budget management systems, perfecting fiscal revenue systems, establishing systems in which duties, powers and payment responsibilities are mutually corresponding, etc.

This Plenum Resolution puts forward that we must implement completely standardized budgeting systems that are open and transparent, appropriately strengthen the Centre’s duties, tasks and payment responsibilities, national defence, foreign relations, national security, rules and management relating to national unified markets, etc. are to be Central duties; a part of social security, cross-regional and major programme construction and maintenance, etc., are to be joint responsibilities of the centre and the localities, and relationships of duties and responsibilities are to be progressively rationalized; the Centre may arrange transfer payments, to entrust the localities with duties, powers and payment responsibilities; with regard to cross-regional public services and those public services that have a relatively large influence on other regions, the Centre is to bear a portion of local duties, powers and payment responsibilities through transfer payments.

The main objective of these reform measures is clarifying duties and powers, reforming the fiscal system, stabilizing tax burdens, making budgeting transparent and raising efficiency, accelerating the formation of modern financial institutions that are beneficial for the transformation of economic development methods, that benefit the establishment of a fair an unified market, and that benefit moving forward with the equalization of basic public services, shaping a financial and fiscal system in which the financial resources of the Centre and the localities are matched to their duties and powers, to give better rein to the vigour of both the Centre and the localities.

Financial and fiscal structural reform requires a process and gradual completion. The Centre has already clarified that it is necessary to maintain the current stability of the general situation of Central and local financial resources, and further rationalize the income division between the Centre and the localities.

Fourth, concerning completing integrated systems and mechanisms for urban and rural development. The lack of balance and coordination between urban and rural development are a prominent contradiction existing in our country’s economic and social development, and it is a major problem that must be resolved in order to comprehensively construct a moderately prosperous society and accelerate moving forward with Socialist modernization. Since reform and opening up, earth-shattering changes have occurred in the appearance of our country’s countryside. But the binary structure of town and country has not fundamentally changed, and the trend of an incessantly expanding difference between urban and rural development has not been fundamentally reversed. In order to fundamentally resolve these problems, we must move the integration of urban and rural development forward.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward that we must complete structures and mechanisms, and shape new types of relationships between industry, agriculture, town and country in which industry stimulates agriculture, cities drive the countryside, agriculture and industry are mutually beneficial, and town and country are integrated, in order to let the broad peasants equally participate in the process of modernization and jointly share the fruits of modernization.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward reform measures for the completion of integrated structures and mechanisms for urban and rural development. The first is accelerating the construction of new agricultural business systems. This mainly means persisting in the basic position of household operations in agriculture, encouraging the transfer land contracting and operation rights on the open market to specialized large households, household farms, peasant cooperatives and agricultural enterprises, encouraging villages to develop the cooperative economy, encouraging and guiding industrials and commercial capital to go to the countryside and develop a modern plantation industry that conforms to enterprise-type operations, it is permitted that peasants become shareholders with their land contracting and operation rights to develop industrialized agricultural operations, etc. The second is endowing the peasants with more property rights. This means safeguarding peasants’ land contracting and operation rights according to the law, guaranteeing the rights of members of peasants’ collective economic organizations, guaranteeing usufruct rights of peasant households over their homesteads, cautiously and reliably moving forward with trials for peasant housing property right mortgaging, guaranteeing and transfer. The third is moving forward with equal production factor exchange between town and country, and equal allocation of public resources. This mainly means guaranteeing equal pay for equal work for agricultural workers, and guaranteeing that peasants fairly share in the income from the increase in the value of land; perfecting agricultural insurance systems; encouraging social capital to invest in village construction, it is permitted for enterprises and social organizations to set up all sorts of undertakings in the countryside; comprehensively planning the equal allocation of urban and rural compulsory education resources, integrating basic systems for old-age insurance and basic healthcare insurance in town and country, moving forward with the comprehensive development of minimum living standard guarantees in town and country, steadily moving the overall coverage of basic social services for permanent urban residents forward, and completely bringing peasants who moved into cities into urban housing and social security systems.

Fifth, concerning moving forward with consultative democracy and the broad, multi-level development of institutionalization. Consultative democracy is a particular form and unique advantage of our country’s Socialist democratic politics, and is an important reflecting of the Party’s mass line in the political area. Moving consultative democracy forward benefits the perfection of the people’s orderly participation ion politics, tightening the flesh-and-blood relationship of the Party and the popular masses, and stimulating the scientization and democratization of policy.

The Plenum Resolution makes moving the development of broad, multi-level and institutionalized consultative democracy forward into important content for political structural reform, it stresses that under the leadership of the Party and with major issues of economic and social development and real issues that affect the direct interests of the masses as content, broad consultations are to be launched across all of society, persisting in consultation before policymaking and during the implementation of policy decisions. We must build consultative democratic systems with rational procedures and complete segments, and broaden consultation channels for national organs of State power, Consultative Conference organizations, political party groups, grass roots organizations and social organizations; we must deeply launch legislative consultation, administrative consultation, democratic consultation, participatory consultation and social consultation; we must give rein to the important function of the united front in consultative democracy, give rein to the important channelling function of Consultative Conferences in consultative democracy, perfect Consultative Conference institutions and systems, standardize the content and procedures of consultation, expand the forms of consultative conferences, organize topical consultations, specialized consultations, sectoral consultations and consultations on handling motions in a more dynamic and orderly manner, increase the density of consultation and raise the effect of consultation.

Sixth, concerning judicial structural reform and operational mechanisms. The judicial system is an important component part of the political system. In the past few years, the masses’ opinion that the judiciary is unjust has been concentrating, the fact that judicial credibility is insufficient, is to a large extent related to the fact that hat judicial systems and work mechanisms are not rational.

Judicial reform is one of the focus points of this comprehensive deepening of reform. The Plenum Resolution put forward a series of new, interrelated measures, which include reforming judicial management systems, promoting the united management of assets of local courts and procuratorates at provincial levels and lower, and exploring the establishment of judicial jurisdiction systems that are appropriately separated from administrative divisions; completing operational mechanisms for judicial power, perfecting case handling responsibility systems for presiding judges and collegiate benches, and letting those who hear cases judge, and those who judge, be responsible; strictly standardizing sentence commutation, parole and medical bail procedures; completing mechanisms to prevent and correct misjudged cases, and investigate responsibility, and strictly implementing rules to eliminate illegal evidence; establishing mechanisms to end letters and petitions relating to the law or to lawsuits according to the law; abolishing the re-education through labour system, perfecting punishment and correction laws for unlawful and criminal acts, etc.

These reform measures have an important significance for guaranteeing that judicial organs exercise judgment powers and prosecutorial powers independently and according to the law, completing operational mechanisms for judicial power in which powers and responsibilities are clear, raising the transparency and credibility of the judiciary, and guaranteeing human rights better.

Seventh, concerning completing anti-corruption leadership systems and work mechanisms. The anti-corruption issue has consistently been an issue that was widely discussed inside and outside of the Party. The current problem mainly is that anti-corruption organs’ functions are scattered, their forms are not rational, some cases are difficult to investigate and handle, and while corruption cases happen often, responsibility is insufficiently investigated.

The Plenum Resolution has conducted focus deployments concerning strengthening the innovation of and institutional guarantees for anti-corruption systems and mechanisms. These mainly are strengthening the Party’s unified leadership over the construction of a clean Party work style and anti-corruption work, clarifying the fact that Party Committees bear the main responsibility and Discipline Inspection Committees bear a supervisory responsibility, formulating and implementing realistic and feasible responsibility investigation systems; completing anti-corruption leadership systems and work mechanisms, reforming and perfecting the functions of anti-corruption small coordination groups at all levels, providing that the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee takes the lead in investigating and handling corruption cases; reflecting and strengthening the leadership of higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees over lower-level Discipline Inspection Committees, providing that clue management and case investigation must be reported to the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee at the same time as being reported to the Discipline Inspection Committee of the same level; completely implementing that the Central Discipline Inspection Committee assigns Discipline Inspection Organs in Central first-level Party and State organs, improving Central and provincial, regional and municipal inspection patrol systems, and ensuring complete coverage over localities, departments, enterprise and undertaking work units.

These measures have all been put forward on the basis of summarizing real experiences and attracting opinions from all sides.

Eighth, concerning accelerating the perfection of leadership systems for Internet management. Network and information security involve national security and social stability, and this is a new comprehensive challenge that we face.

From the point of view of practice, and in the face of the flying development of Internet technology and applications, clear malpractices exist in the current management system, which mainly are multi-headed management, overlapping of functions, lack of unity of powers and responsibility and low efficiency. At the same time, following the fact that the media nature of the Internet becomes ever stronger, online media management and sector management can by far not catch up with the developments and changes of the situation Especially in the face  microblogs, WeChat and other such social media that have rapid dissemination, great influence, broad coverage and a strong capacity for social mobilization, as well as the rapid growth of instant telecommunication tool users, how to strengthen the construction of an online legal system and public opinion guidance, and ensuring the online information dissemination order, national security and social stability, have become current prominent issues put in front of us.

The Plenum Resolution puts forward persisting in the principles of positive use, scientific development, management according to the law and guaranteeing security, expanding power to manage the network according to the law and perfecting leadership systems for Internet management. The objective is to integrate the functions of related organs, shape joint forces for Internet management from technology to content, from daily security to attacking crime, and guaranteeing the correct use and security of the network.

Ninth, concerning establishing a National Security Committee. National security and social stability are the preconditions for reform and development. Only if there is national security and social stability can reform and development be pushed forward incessantly. At present, our country faces a double pressure, to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests externally, and maintain political security and social stability domestically, all sorts of risks and factors that are predictable or difficult to predict are clearly increasing. And our security work systems and mechanisms cannot yet adapt to the needs of safeguarding national security, it is necessary to build a strong and powerful platform to comprehensively plan national security work. Establishing a National Security Committee and strengthening concentrated and unified leadership over national security work has become an urgent task.

The National Security Committee’s main task is formulating and implementing national security strategies, moving national security rule of law construction forward, formulating national security work principles and policies, and researching and resolving major issues in national security work.

Tenth, concerning completing national natural resource and asset management systems and perfecting natural resource supervision and management systems. Completing national natural resource and asset management systems are major reforms in order to complete natural resource property right systems, and are immanent requirements of establishing systematic and integrated ecological civilization systems.

Some prominent problems exist in our country’s ecological and environmental protection, to a certain degree, these are related with the fact that structures are not complete, one of the causes is that the property rights of the entire people over natural resource assets is unsatisfactory, and the rights and interests of proprietors are not implemented. Focusing on this issue, the Plenum Resolution puts forward the requirement of completing national natural resource asset management systems. The general line of thinking, according to the principle of separating proprietors from managers and ensuring that the same matters are managed by the same department, implementing the property rights of the entire people over natural resource assets and establishing uniform systems to exercise the entire people’s duties as proprietors of natural resource assets.

The State exercising management over the exercise of the whole people’s property rights over natural resource assets is not the same as the State exercising supervision and management over natural resources on a territorial scope, the former concerns the rights in the sense of ownership, the latter concerns power in the sense of managers. This requires the perfection of natural resource supervision and management systems, the uniform exercise of land use control responsibilities, and ensuring that the proprietors of State-owned natural resource assets and the State natural resource managers are mutually independent, mutually coordinating and mutually supervising.

We must understand that mountains, water, forests, fields and lakes are a living community, the lifeline of people lies in the fields, the lifeline of fields lies in water, the lifeline of water lies in mountains, the lifeline of mountains lies in land, the lifeline of land lies in trees. Use management and ecological restoration must abide by the laws of nature, if only tree-planting is managed in tree- planting, if only water control is managed in water control, if protecting fields is purely protecting fields, it is easy to lose sight of one thing because of attending to something else, which in the end creates systemic ecological destruction. One department is to be responsible for all land use management responsibilities on a territorial scope, this is extremely necessary to implement uniform protection and uniform restoration of mountains, water, trees, fields and lakes.

Eleventh, concerning the Centre establishing a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform. Completely deepening reform is a complex and systematic project, only relying or one or some departments often results in ability not being equal to ambition, this requires the establishment of a higher-level leadership mechanism.

The Plenum Resolution points out that the Centre will establish a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, to be responsible for general reform design, comprehensive coordination, moving matters forward in an integrated manner and supervising implementation. This is for the sake of giving better rein to the leading core function of the Party in assuming responsibility for the entire picture and coordinating all aspects, and to guarantee that reform is smoothly pushed forward, and that all reform tasks are implemented. The main duties of the Leading Small Group are: uniformly deploying major nationwide policies, comprehensively moving reform in all areas forward, coordinating forces on all sides in shaping joint forces to move reform forward, strengthening supervision and examination, and promoting the comprehensive implementation of reform objectives and tasks.

III, Concerning some issues that must be given attention in discussions

The task of this Plenum is to discuss the thinking and plans on comprehensively deepening reform put forward in the Plenum Resolution. Here, I’d like to put forward a few demands to everyone.

First, strengthen convictions and courage to move reform forward. Reform and opening up are a new magnificent revolution conducted by our Party leading the people under new historical circumstances, they are the clearest characteristic of contemporary China and the clearest banner of our Party. On what has our Party relied to inspire people’s hearts, unite thoughts and concentrate forces? On what has it relied to arouse the pioneering spirits and creative vitality of the whole body of the people? On what has it relied to realize the rapid development of our country’s economy and society, and to gain comparative advantages in the competition with capitalism? It relied on reform and opening up.

In the face of the future, we must analyse and explain all difficulties faced in development, dissolve risks and challenges coming from all sides, give even better rein to the superiorities of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and promote sustained and healthy economic and social development, and apart from deepening reform, there is no other way.

At present, much attention is paid to the issue of reform and opening up inside and outside of the Party, and inside and outside of the country, up and down the entire Party and in all areas of society, expectations are high. Reform and opening up has reached a new important juncture. We can absolutely not waver in the slightest with regard to reform and opening up, the banner of reform and opening up must continue to be held high, the correct orientation of the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics must be firmly persisted in. The entire Party must firm up their belief in reform, and move reform forward with even greater political courage and wisdom, even more powerful measures and methods.

Second, persist in liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts. Hold high the banner of reform and opening up, it will not do to only have standpoints and attitudes, there must also be real measures. Actions are the most persuasive. The Centre has decided to use this advantageous juncture of the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress to create deployments for the comprehensive deepening of reform, this is a strategic choice. We must grasp this opportunity and strive to achieve new breakthroughs in the comprehensive deepening of reform. We must make new breakthroughs, and so must further liberate thoughts.

To breach ideological and conceptual obstacles and breach the defence lines of vested interests, liberating thoughts is of the highest importance. On the issue of deepening reform, some ideological and conceptual barriers often do not come from outside of the system but come from inside the system. If thoughts are not liberated, it will be difficult for us to get a clear few of where the crux of the problem of vested interests lies, it will be difficult to find the correct direction and focus points for breakthroughs, and it will be difficult to produce creative reform measures. Because of this, we absolutely must have the courage and mind for self-renewal, jump beyond the fetters of red tape, overcome the impediments of departmental interests, and research and put forward reform measures with a vigorous and active spirit.

Naturally, we must be cautious in putting forward reform measures, we must repeatedly research and repeatedly expound them, but we can absolutely not be overcautious or hesitant to move forward, not dare anything or not dare to try anything because of this. In doing reform, it cannot be the case that not a single bit of existing work structures, systems and operation is broken, it cannot be the case that everything is steady and well organized, or that there is not any risk. As long as something has undergone full elucidation and appraisal, as long as something conforms to reality, it must be done, things that should be done must still be done boldly.

Third, persist in starting from the big picture in considering issues. Comprehensively deepening reform relates to the major strategic deployments for the entire picture of the undertaking and development of the Party and the country, it is not an individual reform plan in a certain area or aspect. “If the entirety is not considered, specific areas cannot be considered”. Everyone comes from different departments and work units, and must all look at problems from the entire picture, you must first look at whether or not major reform measures that are put forward conform to the needs of the overall picture, and whether or not they benefit the long-term development of the undertaking of the Party and the state. You must truly look ahead, think ahead, and consider matters in advance. Only in this way can the document formed in the end truly conform to the development needs of the undertaking of the Party and the people.

To comprehensively deepen reform, we must strengthen top-level design and overall planning, and strengthen research on the connectedness, systemicness and feasibility of all matters of reform. When we say we must have great nerve, and stable steps, the stability of steps means that we must comprehensively consider matter, expound them completely, and make scientific policy decisions. reform in all economic, political cultural, social, ecological civilization areas and Party building reform are closely linked and mutually connected, reform in any area may affect other areas, and at the same time, they require close coordination with other areas. If reform in all areas are not supplementary, reform measures in all areas will hinder each other, it will be very difficult to move reform and opening up forward, even if they are forced forward, the outcome will come with significant discounts.

关于《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》的说明
习近平
受中央政治局委托,现在,我就《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》向全会作说明。
一、关于全会决定起草过程
改革开放以来,历届三中全会研究什么议题、作出什么决定、采取什么举措、释放什么信号,是人们判断新一届中央领导集体施政方针和工作重点的重要依据,对做好未来5年乃至10年工作意义重大。
党的十八大之后,中央即着手考虑十八届三中全会的议题。党的十八大统一提出了全面建成小康社会和全面深化改革开放的目标,强调必须以更大的政治勇气和智慧,不失时机深化重要领域改革,坚决破除一切妨碍科学发展的思想观念和体制机制弊端,构建系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的制度体系,使各方面制度更加成熟更加定型。我们认为,要完成党的十八大提出的各项战略目标和工作部署,必须抓紧推进全面改革。
从党的十一届三中全会作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策以来,已经35个年头了。中国人民的面貌、社会主义中国的面貌、中国共产党的面貌能发生如此深刻的变化,我国能在国际社会赢得举足轻重的地位,靠的就是坚持不懈推进改革开放。
1992年,邓小平同志在南方谈话中说:“不坚持社会主义,不改革开放,不发展经济,不改善人民生活,只能是死路一条。”回过头来看,我们对邓小平同志这番话就有更深的理解了。所以,我们讲,只有社会主义才能救中国,只有改革开放才能发展中国、发展社会主义、发展马克思主义。
正是从历史经验和现实需要的高度,党的十八大以来,中央反复强调,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键一招,也是决定实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的关键一招,实践发展永无止境,解放思想永无止境,改革开放也永无止境,停顿和倒退没有出路,改革开放只有进行时、没有完成时。面对新形势新任务,我们必须通过全面深化改革,着力解决我国发展面临的一系列突出矛盾和问题,不断推进中国特色社会主义制度自我完善和发展。
当前,国内外环境都在发生极为广泛而深刻的变化,我国发展面临一系列突出矛盾和挑战,前进道路上还有不少困难和问题。比如:发展中不平衡、不协调、不可持续问题依然突出,科技创新能力不强,产业结构不合理,发展方式依然粗放,城乡区域发展差距和居民收入分配差距依然较大,社会矛盾明显增多,教育、就业、社会保障、医疗、住房、生态环境、食品药品安全、安全生产、社会治安、执法司法等关系群众切身利益的问题较多,部分群众生活困难,形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风问题突出,一些领域消极腐败现象易发多发,反腐败斗争形势依然严峻,等等。解决这些问题,关键在于深化改革。
今年4月,中央政治局经过深入思考和研究、广泛听取党内外各方面意见,决定党的十八届三中全会研究全面深化改革问题并作出决定。
4月20日,中央发出《关于对党的十八届三中全会研究全面深化改革问题征求意见的通知》。各地区各部门一致认为,党的十八届三中全会重点研究全面深化改革问题,顺应了广大党员、干部、群众的愿望,抓住了全社会最关心的问题,普遍表示赞成。
改革开放以来历次三中全会都研究讨论深化改革问题,都是在释放一个重要信号,就是我们党将坚定不移高举改革开放的旗帜,坚定不移坚持党的十一届三中全会以来的理论和路线方针政策。说到底,就是要回答在新的历史条件下举什么旗、走什么路的问题。
党的十八届三中全会以全面深化改革为主要议题,是我们党坚持以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,在新形势下坚定不移贯彻党的基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验、基本要求,坚定不移高举改革开放大旗的重要宣示和重要体现。
议题确定后,中央政治局决定成立文件起草组,由我担任组长,刘云山、张高丽同志为副组长,相关部门负责同志、部分省市领导同志参加,在中央政治局常委会领导下进行全会决定起草工作。
文件起草组成立以来,在将近7个月的时间里,广泛征求意见,开展专题论证,进行调查研究,反复讨论修改。其间,中央政治局常委会会议3次、中央政治局会议2次分别审议决定,决定征求意见稿还下发党内一定范围征求意见,征求党内老同志意见,专门听取各民主党派中央、全国工商联负责人和无党派人士意见。
从反馈情况看,各方面一致认为,全会决定深刻剖析了我国改革发展稳定面临的重大理论和实践问题,阐明了全面深化改革的重大意义和未来走向,提出了全面深化改革的指导思想、目标任务、重大原则,描绘了全面深化改革的新蓝图、新愿景、新目标,汇集了全面深化改革的新思想、新论断、新举措,反映了社会呼声、社会诉求、社会期盼,凝聚了全党全社会关于全面深化改革的思想共识和行动智慧。
各方面一致认为,全会决定合理布局了全面深化改革的战略重点、优先顺序、主攻方向、工作机制、推进方式和时间表、路线图,形成了改革理论和政策的一系列新的重大突破,是全面深化改革的又一次总部署、总动员,必将对推动中国特色社会主义事业发展产生重大而深远的影响。
在征求意见过程中,各方面共提出了许多好的意见和建议。中央责成文件起草组认真整理研究这些意见和建议,文件起草组对全会决定作出重要修改。
二、关于全会决定的总体框架和重点问题
中央政治局认为,面对新形势新任务新要求,全面深化改革,关键是要进一步形成公平竞争的发展环境,进一步增强经济社会发展活力,进一步提高政府效率和效能,进一步实现社会公平正义,进一步促进社会和谐稳定,进一步提高党的领导水平和执政能力。
围绕这些重大课题,我们强调,要有强烈的问题意识,以重大问题为导向,抓住关键问题进一步研究思考,着力推动解决我国发展面临的一系列突出矛盾和问题。我们中国共产党人干革命、搞建设、抓改革,从来都是为了解决中国的现实问题。可以说,改革是由问题倒逼而产生,又在不断解决问题中得以深化。
35年来,我们用改革的办法解决了党和国家事业发展中的一系列问题。同时,在认识世界和改造世界的过程中,旧的问题解决了,新的问题又会产生,制度总是需要不断完善,因而改革既不可能一蹴而就、也不可能一劳永逸。
全会决定起草,突出了5个方面的考虑。一是适应党和国家事业发展新要求,落实党的十八大提出的全面深化改革开放的战略任务。二是以改革为主线,突出全面深化改革新举措,一般性举措不写,重复性举措不写,纯属发展性举措不写。三是抓住重点,围绕解决好人民群众反映强烈的问题,回应人民群众呼声和期待,突出重要领域和关键环节,突出经济体制改革牵引作用。四是坚持积极稳妥,设计改革措施胆子要大、步子要稳。五是时间设计到2020年,按这个时间段提出改革任务,到2020年在重要领域和关键环节改革上取得决定性成果。
在框架结构上,全会决定以当前亟待解决的重大问题为提领,按条条谋篇布局。除引言和结束语外,共16个部分,分三大板块。第一部分构成第一板块,是总论,主要阐述全面深化改革的重大意义、指导思想、总体思路。第二至第十五部分构成第二板块,是分论,主要从经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明、国防和军队6个方面,具体部署全面深化改革的主要任务和重大举措。其中,经济方面开6条(第二至第七部分),政治方面开3条(第八至第十部分),文化方面开1条(第十一部分),社会方面开2条(第十二至第十三部分),生态方面开1条(第十四部分),国防和军队方面开1条(第十五部分)。第十六部分构成第三板块,讲组织领导,主要阐述加强和改善党对全面深化改革的领导。
这里,我想就全会决定涉及的几个重大问题和重大举措介绍一下中央的考虑。
第一,关于使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。这是这次全会决定提出的一个重大理论观点。这是因为,经济体制改革仍然是全面深化改革的重点,经济体制改革的核心问题仍然是处理好政府和市场关系。
1992年,党的十四大提出了我国经济体制改革的目标是建立社会主义市场经济体制,提出要使市场在国家宏观调控下对资源配置起基础性作用。这一重大理论突破,对我国改革开放和经济社会发展发挥了极为重要的作用。这也说明,理论创新对实践创新具有重大先导作用,全面深化改革必须以理论创新为先导。
经过20多年实践,我国社会主义市场经济体制已经初步建立,但仍存在不少问题,主要是市场秩序不规范,以不正当手段谋取经济利益的现象广泛存在;生产要素市场发展滞后,要素闲置和大量有效需求得不到满足并存;市场规则不统一,部门保护主义和地方保护主义大量存在;市场竞争不充分,阻碍优胜劣汰和结构调整,等等。这些问题不解决好,完善的社会主义市场经济体制是难以形成的。
从党的十四大以来的20多年间,对政府和市场关系,我们一直在根据实践拓展和认识深化寻找新的科学定位。党的十五大提出“使市场在国家宏观调控下对资源配置起基础性作用”,党的十六大提出“在更大程度上发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”,党的十七大提出“从制度上更好发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”,党的十八大提出“更大程度更广范围发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用”。可以看出,我们对政府和市场关系的认识也在不断深化。
在这次讨论和征求意见过程中,许多方面提出,应该从理论上对政府和市场关系进一步作出定位,这对全面深化改革具有十分重大的作用。考虑各方面意见和现实发展要求,经过反复讨论和研究,中央认为对这个问题从理论上作出新的表述条件已经成熟,应该把市场在资源配置中的“基础性作用”修改为“决定性作用”。
现在,我国社会主义市场经济体制已经初步建立,市场化程度大幅度提高,我们对市场规律的认识和驾驭能力不断提高,宏观调控体系更为健全,主客观条件具备,我们应该在完善社会主义市场经济体制上迈出新的步伐。
进一步处理好政府和市场关系,实际上就是要处理好在资源配置中市场起决定性作用还是政府起决定性作用这个问题。经济发展就是要提高资源尤其是稀缺资源的配置效率,以尽可能少的资源投入生产尽可能多的产品、获得尽可能大的效益。理论和实践都证明,市场配置资源是最有效率的形式。市场决定资源配置是市场经济的一般规律,市场经济本质上就是市场决定资源配置的经济。健全社会主义市场经济体制必须遵循这条规律,着力解决市场体系不完善、政府干预过多和监管不到位问题。作出“使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用”的定位,有利于在全党全社会树立关于政府和市场关系的正确观念,有利于转变经济发展方式,有利于转变政府职能,有利于抑制消极腐败现象。
当然,我国实行的是社会主义市场经济体制,我们仍然要坚持发挥我国社会主义制度的优越性、发挥党和政府的积极作用。市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,并不是起全部作用。
发展社会主义市场经济,既要发挥市场作用,也要发挥政府作用,但市场作用和政府作用的职能是不同的。全会决定对更好发挥政府作用提出了明确要求,强调科学的宏观调控,有效的政府治理,是发挥社会主义市场经济体制优势的内在要求。全会决定对健全宏观调控体系、全面正确履行政府职能、优化政府组织结构进行了部署,强调政府的职责和作用主要是保持宏观经济稳定,加强和优化公共服务,保障公平竞争,加强市场监管,维护市场秩序,推动可持续发展,促进共同富裕,弥补市场失灵。
第二,关于坚持和完善基本经济制度。坚持和完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,关系巩固和发展中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱。
改革开放以来,我国所有制结构逐步调整,公有制经济和非公有制经济在发展经济、促进就业等方面的比重不断变化,增强了经济社会发展活力。在这种情况下,如何更好体现和坚持公有制主体地位,进一步探索基本经济制度有效实现形式,是摆在我们面前的一个重大课题。
全会决定强调必须毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,坚持公有制主体地位,发挥国有经济主导作用,不断增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力。
全会决定坚持和发展党的十五大以来有关论述,提出要积极发展混合所有制经济,强调国有资本、集体资本、非公有资本等交叉持股、相互融合的混合所有制经济,是基本经济制度的重要实现形式,有利于国有资本放大功能、保值增值、提高竞争力。这是新形势下坚持公有制主体地位,增强国有经济活力、控制力、影响力的一个有效途径和必然选择。
全会决定提出,完善国有资产管理体制,以管资本为主加强国有资产监管,改革国有资本授权经营体制;国有资本投资运营要服务于国家战略目标,更多投向关系国家安全、国民经济命脉的重要行业和关键领域,重点提供公共服务、发展重要前瞻性战略性产业、保护生态环境、支持科技进步、保障国家安全;划转部分国有资本充实社会保障基金;提高国有资本收益上缴公共财政比例,更多用于保障和改善民生。
国有企业是推进国家现代化、保障人民共同利益的重要力量。经过多年改革,国有企业总体上已经同市场经济相融合。同时,国有企业也积累了一些问题、存在一些弊端,需要进一步推进改革。全会决定提出一系列有针对性的改革举措,包括国有资本加大对公益性企业的投入;国有资本继续控股经营的自然垄断行业,实行以政企分开、政资分开、特许经营、政府监管为主要内容的改革,根据不同行业特点实行网运分开、放开竞争性业务;健全协调运转、有效制衡的公司法人治理结构;建立职业经理人制度,更好发挥企业家作用;建立长效激励约束机制,强化国有企业经营投资责任追究;探索推进国有企业财务预算等重大信息公开;国有企业要合理增加市场化选聘比例,合理确定并严格规范国有企业管理人员薪酬水平、职务待遇、职务消费、业务消费。这些举措将推动国有企业完善现代企业制度、提高经营效率、合理承担社会责任、更好发挥作用。
坚持和完善基本经济制度必须坚持“两个毫不动摇”。全会决定从多个层面提出鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,激发非公有制经济活力和创造力的改革举措。在功能定位上,明确公有制经济和非公有制经济都是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,都是我国经济社会发展的重要基础;在产权保护上,明确提出公有制经济财产权不可侵犯,非公有制经济财产权同样不可侵犯;在政策待遇上,强调坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,实行统一的市场准入制度;鼓励非公有制企业参与国有企业改革,鼓励发展非公有资本控股的混合所有制企业,鼓励有条件的私营企业建立现代企业制度。这将推动非公有制经济健康发展。
第三,关于深化财税体制改革。财政是国家治理的基础和重要支柱,科学的财税体制是优化资源配置、维护市场统一、促进社会公平、实现国家长治久安的制度保障。现行财税体制是在1994年分税制改革的基础上逐步完善形成的,对实现政府财力增强和经济快速发展的双赢目标发挥了重要作用。
随着形势发展变化,现行财税体制已经不完全适应合理划分中央和地方事权、完善国家治理的客观要求,不完全适应转变经济发展方式、促进经济社会持续健康发展的现实需要,我国经济社会发展中的一些突出矛盾和问题也与财税体制不健全有关。
这次全面深化改革,财税体制改革是重点之一。主要涉及改进预算管理制度,完善税收制度,建立事权和支出责任相适应的制度等。
全会决定提出,要实施全面规范、公开透明的预算制度,适度加强中央事权和支出责任,国防、外交、国家安全、关系全国统一市场规则和管理等作为中央事权;部分社会保障、跨区域重大项目建设维护等作为中央和地方共同事权,逐步理顺事权关系;中央可通过安排转移支付将部分事权支出责任委托地方承担;对于跨区域且对其他地区影响较大的公共服务,中央通过转移支付承担一部分地方事权支出责任。
这些改革举措的主要目的是明确事权、改革税制、稳定税负、透明预算、提高效率,加快形成有利于转变经济发展方式、有利于建立公平统一市场、有利于推进基本公共服务均等化的现代财政制度,形成中央和地方财力与事权相匹配的财税体制,更好发挥中央和地方两个积极性。
财税体制改革需要一个过程,逐步到位。中央已经明确,要保持现有中央和地方财力格局总体稳定,进一步理顺中央和地方收入划分。
第四,关于健全城乡发展一体化体制机制。城乡发展不平衡不协调,是我国经济社会发展存在的突出矛盾,是全面建成小康社会、加快推进社会主义现代化必须解决的重大问题。改革开放以来,我国农村面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化。但是,城乡二元结构没有根本改变,城乡发展差距不断拉大趋势没有根本扭转。根本解决这些问题,必须推进城乡发展一体化。
全会决定提出,必须健全体制机制,形成以工促农、以城带乡、工农互惠、城乡一体的新型工农城乡关系,让广大农民平等参与现代化进程、共同分享现代化成果。
全会决定提出了健全城乡发展一体化体制机制的改革举措。一是加快构建新型农业经营体系。主要是坚持家庭经营在农业中的基础性地位,鼓励土地承包经营权在公开市场上向专业大户、家庭农场、农民合作社、农业企业流转,鼓励农村发展合作经济,鼓励和引导工商资本到农村发展适合企业化经营的现代种养业,允许农民以土地承包经营权入股发展农业产业化经营等。二是赋予农民更多财产权利。主要是依法维护农民土地承包经营权,保障农民集体经济组织成员权利,保障农户宅基地用益物权,慎重稳妥推进农民住房财产权抵押、担保、转让试点。三是推进城乡要素平等交换和公共资源均衡配置。主要是保障农民工同工同酬,保障农民公平分享土地增值收益;完善农业保险制度;鼓励社会资本投向农村建设,允许企业和社会组织在农村兴办各类事业;统筹城乡义务教育资源均衡配置,整合城乡居民基本养老保险制度、基本医疗保险制度,推进城乡最低生活保障制度统筹发展,稳步推进城镇基本公共服务常住人口全覆盖,把进城落户农民完全纳入城镇住房和社会保障体系。
第五,关于推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展。协商民主是我国社会主义民主政治的特有形式和独特优势,是党的群众路线在政治领域的重要体现。推进协商民主,有利于完善人民有序政治参与、密切党同人民群众的血肉联系、促进决策科学化民主化。
全会决定把推进协商民主广泛多层制度化发展作为政治体制改革的重要内容,强调在党的领导下,以经济社会发展重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,在全社会开展广泛协商,坚持协商于决策之前和决策实施之中。要构建程序合理、环节完整的协商民主体系,拓宽国家政权机关、政协组织、党派团体、基层组织、社会组织的协商渠道;深入开展立法协商、行政协商、民主协商、参政协商、社会协商;发挥统一战线在协商民主中的重要作用,发挥人民政协作为协商民主重要渠道作用,完善人民政协制度体系,规范协商内容、协商程序,拓展协商民主形式,更加活跃有序地组织专题协商、对口协商、界别协商、提案办理协商,增加协商密度,提高协商成效。
第六,关于改革司法体制和运行机制。司法体制是政治体制的重要组成部分。这些年来,群众对司法不公的意见比较集中,司法公信力不足很大程度上与司法体制和工作机制不合理有关。
司法改革是这次全面深化改革的重点之一。全会决定提出了一系列相互关联的新举措,包括改革司法管理体制,推动省以下地方法院、检察院人财物统一管理,探索建立与行政区划适当分离的司法管辖制度;健全司法权力运行机制,完善主审法官、合议庭办案责任制,让审判者裁判、由裁判者负责;严格规范减刑、假释、保外就医程序;健全错案防止、纠正、责任追究机制,严格实行非法证据排除规则;建立涉法涉诉信访依法终结制度;废止劳动教养制度,完善对违法犯罪行为的惩治和矫正法律,等等。
这些改革举措,对确保司法机关依法独立行使审判权和检察权、健全权责明晰的司法权力运行机制、提高司法透明度和公信力、更好保障人权都具有重要意义。
第七,关于健全反腐败领导体制和工作机制。反腐败问题一直是党内外议论较多的问题。目前的问题主要是,反腐败机构职能分散、形不成合力,有些案件难以坚决查办,腐败案件频发却责任追究不够。
全会决定对加强反腐败体制机制创新和制度保障进行了重点部署。主要是加强党对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作统一领导,明确党委负主体责任、纪委负监督责任,制定实施切实可行的责任追究制度;健全反腐败领导体制和工作机制,改革和完善各级反腐败协调小组职能,规定查办腐败案件以上级纪委领导为主;体现强化上级纪委对下级纪委的领导,规定线索处置和案件查办在向同级党委报告的同时必须向上级纪委报告;全面落实中央纪委向中央一级党和国家机关派驻纪检机构,改进中央和省区市巡视制度,做到对地方、部门、企事业单位全覆盖。
这些措施都是在总结实践经验、吸收各方面意见的基础上提出来的。
第八,关于加快完善互联网管理领导体制。网络和信息安全牵涉到国家安全和社会稳定,是我们面临的新的综合性挑战。
从实践看,面对互联网技术和应用飞速发展,现行管理体制存在明显弊端,主要是多头管理、职能交叉、权责不一、效率不高。同时,随着互联网媒体属性越来越强,网上媒体管理和产业管理远远跟不上形势发展变化。特别是面对传播快、影响大、覆盖广、社会动员能力强的微客、微信等社交网络和即时通信工具用户的快速增长,如何加强网络法制建设和舆论引导,确保网络信息传播秩序和国家安全、社会稳定,已经成为摆在我们面前的现实突出问题。
全会决定提出坚持积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,加大依法管理网络力度,完善互联网管理领导体制。目的是整合相关机构职能,形成从技术到内容、从日常安全到打击犯罪的互联网管理合力,确保网络正确运用和安全。
第九,关于设立国家安全委员会。国家安全和社会稳定是改革发展的前提。只有国家安全和社会稳定,改革发展才能不断推进。当前,我国面临对外维护国家主权、安全、发展利益,对内维护政治安全和社会稳定的双重压力,各种可以预见和难以预见的风险因素明显增多。而我们的安全工作体制机制还不能适应维护国家安全的需要,需要搭建一个强有力的平台统筹国家安全工作。设立国家安全委员会,加强对国家安全工作的集中统一领导,已是当务之急。
国家安全委员会主要职责是制定和实施国家安全战略,推进国家安全法治建设,制定国家安全工作方针政策,研究解决国家安全工作中的重大问题。
第十,关于健全国家自然资源资产管理体制和完善自然资源监管体制。健全国家自然资源资产管理体制是健全自然资源资产产权制度的一项重大改革,也是建立系统完备的生态文明制度体系的内在要求。
我国生态环境保护中存在的一些突出问题,一定程度上与体制不健全有关,原因之一是全民所有自然资源资产的所有权人不到位,所有权人权益不落实。针对这一问题,全会决定提出健全国家自然资源资产管理体制的要求。总的思路是按照所有者和管理者分开和一件事由一个部门管理的原则,落实全民所有自然资源资产所有权,建立统一行使全民所有自然资源资产所有权人职责的体制。
国家对全民所有自然资源资产行使所有权并进行管理和国家对国土范围内自然资源行使监管权是不同的,前者是所有权人意义上的权利,后者是管理者意义上的权力。这就需要完善自然资源监管体制,统一行使所有国土空间用途管制职责,使国有自然资源资产所有权人和国家自然资源管理者相互独立、相互配合、相互监督。
我们要认识到,山水林田湖是一个生命共同体,人的命脉在田,田的命脉在水,水的命脉在山,山的命脉在土,土的命脉在树。用途管制和生态修复必须遵循自然规律,如果种树的只管种树、治水的只管治水、护田的单纯护田,很容易顾此失彼,最终造成生态的系统性破坏。由一个部门负责领土范围内所有国土空间用途管制职责,对山水林田湖进行统一保护、统一修复是十分必要的。
第十一,关于中央成立全面深化改革领导小组。全面深化改革是一个复杂的系统工程,单靠某一个或某几个部门往往力不从心,这就需要建立更高层面的领导机制。
全会决定提出,中央成立全面深化改革领导小组,负责改革总体设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。这是为了更好发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,保证改革顺利推进和各项改革任务落实。领导小组的主要职责是:统一部署全国性重大改革,统筹推进各领域改革,协调各方力量形成推进改革合力,加强督促检查,推动全面落实改革目标任务。
三、关于讨论中要注意的几个问题
这次全会的任务就是讨论全会决定提出的全面深化改革的思路和方案。这里,我给大家提几点要求。
第一,增强推进改革的信心和勇气。改革开放是我们党在新的时代条件下带领人民进行的新的伟大革命,是当代中国最鲜明的特色,也是我们党最鲜明的旗帜。35年来,我们党靠什么来振奋民心、统一思想、凝聚力量?靠什么来激发全体人民的创造精神和创造活力?靠什么来实现我国经济社会快速发展、在与资本主义竞争中赢得比较优势?靠的就是改革开放。
面对未来,要破解发展面临的各种难题,化解来自各方面的风险和挑战,更好发挥中国特色社会主义制度优势,推动经济社会持续健康发展,除了深化改革开放,别无他途。
当前,在改革开放问题上,党内外、国内外都很关注,全党上下和社会各方面期待很高。改革开放到了一个新的重要关头。我们在改革开放上决不能有丝毫动摇,改革开放的旗帜必须继续高高举起,中国特色社会主义道路的正确方向必须牢牢坚持。全党要坚定改革信心,以更大的政治勇气和智慧、更有力的措施和办法推进改革。
第二,坚持解放思想、实事求是。高举改革开放的旗帜,光有立场和态度还不行,必须有实实在在的举措。行动最有说服力。中央决定用党的十八届三中全会这个有利契机就全面深化改革进行部署,是一个战略抉择。我们要抓住这个机遇,努力在全面深化改革上取得新突破。要有新突破,就必须进一步解放思想。
冲破思想观念的障碍、突破利益固化的藩篱,解放思想是首要的。在深化改革问题上,一些思想观念障碍往往不是来自体制外而是来自体制内。思想不解放,我们就很难看清各种利益固化的症结所在,很难找准突破的方向和着力点,很难拿出创造性的改革举措。因此,一定要有自我革新的勇气和胸怀,跳出条条框框限制,克服部门利益掣肘,以积极主动精神研究和提出改革举措。
提出改革举措当然要慎重,要反复研究、反复论证,但也不能因此就谨小慎微、裹足不前,什么也不敢干、不敢试。搞改革,现有的工作格局和体制运行不可能一点都不打破,不可能都是四平八稳、没有任何风险。只要经过了充分论证和评估,只要是符合实际、必须做的,该干的还是要大胆干。
第三,坚持从大局出发考虑问题。全面深化改革是关系党和国家事业发展全局的重大战略部署,不是某个领域某个方面的单项改革。“不谋全局者,不足谋一域。”大家来自不同部门和单位,都要从全局看问题,首先要看提出的重大改革举措是否符合全局需要,是否有利于党和国家事业长远发展。要真正向前展望、超前思维、提前谋局。只有这样,最后形成的文件才能真正符合党和人民事业发展要求。
全面深化改革需要加强顶层设计和整体谋划,加强各项改革的关联性、系统性、可行性研究。我们讲胆子要大、步子要稳,其中步子要稳就是要统筹考虑、全面论证、科学决策。经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明各领域改革和党的建设改革紧密联系、相互交融,任何一个领域的改革都会牵动其他领域,同时也需要其他领域改革密切配合。如果各领域改革不配套,各方面改革措施相互牵扯,全面深化改革就很难推进下去,即使勉强推进,效果也会大打折扣。

One thought on “Explanation concerning the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform”

    […] and the markets, the Central Committee decided to release its program ahead of schedule, with the full text of Xi’s speech to the committee as an additional exposition on the reform measures. […]

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