Explanation concerning the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform”
According to Xinhua, this is the speech Xi Jinping gave at the 3rd Plenum, providing a background to the Draft Resolution.
With the entrustment of the Politburo, now, I will explain the “CCP Central Committee Resolution Concerning Some Major Issues in Comprehensively Deepening Reform” to the Plenum.
I, Concerning the drafting process of the Plenum Resolution
Since reform and opening up, which topics successive 3rd Plenums have researched, which decisions they have made, which measures they have adopted and which signals they have given, have been important bases for our determining the governance policies and focus work points of Central leadership collectives, and have had a major significance for doing work well five years into the future and even ten years into the future.
After the 18th Party Congress, the Centre has set to considering the topics for the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress. The 18th Party Congress has put forward unified objectives on comprehensively building a moderately prosperous society and comprehensively deepening reform and opening up, it has stressed that we must waste no time in deepening reform in important areas with even greater political courage and wisdom, firmly do away with all ideological concepts, structural and mechanistic abuses that hamper scientific development, built institutions and systems that are systematic and complete, scientific and standardized, and effective in operations, to ensure that institutions in all areas become even more mature and finalized. We believe that, in order to complete all strategic objectives and work deployments put forward by the 18th Party Congress, we must firmly grasp moving forward with comprehensive reform.
Since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress made the historical policy decisions to shift the centre of Party and State work to economic construction, and to implement reform and opening up, 35 years have passed. That such profound changes could occur in the appearance of the Chinese people, the appearance of Socialist China and the appearance of the Chinese Communist Party, and that our country could gain a decisive position in international society, has relied on unwaveringly moving reform and opening up forward.
In 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping said in his talks in the South that: “not persisting in socialism, not reforming or opening up, not developing the economy and not improving the people’s livelihoods, can only be a dead-end road.” Looking back, we have an even more profound understanding of these words of Comrade Deng Xiaoping. Therefore, we say that only Socialism can save China, only reform and opening up makes it possible to develop China, develop Socialism and develop Marxism.
Exactly form the heights of historical experience and real needs, since the 18th Party Congress, the Centre has repeatedly stressed that reform and opening up are crucial in deciding the destiny of contemporary China, and are crucial in deciding the “two centuries” struggle objective as well as realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the development of practice is boundless, liberated thoughts are boundless, reform and opening up are boundless as well, there is no way out in pausing and withdrawing, reforming and opening up only has a progressive tense, it does not have a perfect tense. In the face of new circumstances and new tasks, we must, through completely deepening reform, strive to resolve a series of prominent contradictions and problems that our country’s development faces, and incessantly move the self-perfection and development of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics forward.
At present, extremely broad and profound changes are occurring both domestically and abroad, our country’s development faces a series of prominent contradictions and challenges, there are quite a few difficulties and problems on the road ahead. For example, the problems that development is imbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable remains prominent, science and technology innovation capacities are not strong, industrial structuring is not rational, development methods remain extensive, the difference in urban and rural development and the difference between residents’ income allocation remains relatively large, social contradictions are clearly increasing, education, employment, social security, healthcare, housing, ecology and the environment, food and drug safety, production safety, social order, law enforcement and other such problems that relate to the personal interests of the masses are relatively many, a part of the masses lead difficult lives, formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagant work styles remain prominent issues, negative and corrupt phenomena happen easily and often in a number of areas, the anti-corruption struggle situation remains grim, etc. The key in resolving these problems lies in deepening reform.
In April of this year, the Politburo engaged in deep reflection and research, it broadly listened to opinions from all sides within and outside of the Party, and decided that the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress would research the question of comprehensively deepening reform and make decisions.
On 29 April, the Centre issued the “Notice concerning Soliciting Opinions on Comprehensively Deepening Reform to Be Researched at the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress”. All localities and departments unanimously believed that the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress would focus on researching the question of comprehensive deepening reform, would comply with the desires of the broad Party members, cadres and masses, and would grasp the issues that society is most concerned about, and they universally expressed praise.
3rd Plenums since reform and opening up have all researched and discussed questions of deepening reform, they all sent out an important signal, which was that our Party persists unwaveringly in holding high the banner of reform and opening up, and firmly and unwaveringly persisted in the theory, line, principles and policies since the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress. In the final analysis, they had to answer the question of holding high which banner and marching which path under new historical conditions.
The 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress has comprehensively deepening reform as its main theme, which means that our Party persists in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, and the scientific development view as guidance, persists in unwaveringly implementing the Party’s basic line, basic programme, basic experiences and basic requirements under new circumstances, and persists in the important declaration and important reflection of holding high the banner of reform and opening up.
After the topics were decided, the Politburo decided to establish a document drafting group, of which I was the head, and Comrades Liu Yunshan and Zhang Gaoli where the vice-heads, responsible comrades from relevant departments and a number of provincial and municipal leading comrades participated in drafting the draft version of the Plenum Resolution under the leadership of the Politburo Standing Committee.
After the document-drafting group was composed, in nearly seven months of time, it broadly solicited opinion, launched topical argumentation, conducted investigation and research, and repeatedly discussed revisions. In that time, the Politburo Standing Committee met three times and the Politburo met two times to deliberate the Resolution, the Resolution opinion-seeking draft was also sent out in a certain scope within the party in order to solicit opinions, the opinions of intra-Party old comrades were solicited, and the opinions of all democratic parties’ central committees, responsible people from the National Industry and Commerce Association and non-party persons were specially heard as well.
Looking from the feedback situation, all sides unanimously believe that the Plenum Resolution profoundly analysed the major theoretical and practical issues that our country faces in terms of reform, development and stability, it elaborated the major significance and future orientation of comprehensively deepening reform, it put forward guiding ideologies, objectives and tasks, and the major principles of comprehensively deepening reform, it described new blueprints, new prospects and new objectives for comprehensively deepening reform, it concentrate new thoughts, new arguments and new measures concerning comprehensively deepening reform, it reflected the calls of society, the appeals of society and the expectations of society, and concentrated an ideological consensus and the active wisdom of the entire Party and the entire society concerning comprehensively deepening reform.
All sides unanimously believed that the Plenum Resolution rationally deployed the strategic focus points, order of priority, direction of the main attack, work mechanism, means of moving forward, schedules and routes for the comprehensive deepening of reformed, that it shaped a series of major new breakthroughs in reform theory and policy, that it is another general deployment and general mobilization for the comprehensive deepening of reform, and that it inevitably will engender a major and profound influence on promoting the development of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.
In the process of soliciting opinions, all sides jointly put forward many good opinions and suggestions. The Centre has tasked the document-drafting group with earnestly arranging and researching these opinions and suggestions, and the document-drafting group has made major revisions to the Plenum Resolution.
II, Concerning the general framework and focus issues of the Plenum Resolution
The Politburo believes that in the face of new circumstances, new tasks and new demands, the crux of comprehensively deepening reform is that we must further shape a development environment with fair competition, further strengthen the development vitality of the economy and the society, further raise government effectiveness and efficiency, further realize social fairness and justice, further stimulate social harmony and stability, and further raise the Party’s leadership levels and governance capacity.
Revolving around these major topics, we stress that we must have a strong consciousness about problems, take major issues as guidance, grasp key issues in further research and consideration, strive to promote the resolution of a series of prominent contradictions and problems that our country’s development faces. Us Chinese Communist Party members doing the revolution, doing construction and grasping reform always has been for the sake of resolving China’s real problems. It may be said that reform has been engendered by reversing problems, and it is deepened by incessantly resolving problems.
Over 35 years, we have used the methods of reform to resolve a series of problems in the development of the undertaking of the Party and State. At the same time, in the process of understanding the world and transforming the world, old problems have been resolved, but new problems could emerge, the system is always in need of incessant perfection, and therefore, reform cannot succeed at the first try, and things cannot be done once and for all.
The Plenum Resolution Draft gives prominence to considerations in five areas. The first is adapting to the new development needs of the undertaking of the Party and the country, and implementing the strategic task of comprehensively deepening reform put forward by the 18th Party Congress. The second is making reform into the main line, giving prominence to new measures to comprehensively deepen reform, it does not talk about general measures, it does not talk about repetitive measures, and it does not talk about purely developmental measures. The third is grasping focus points, revolving around resolving issues that the masses react strongly against, respond to the calls and expectations of the popular masses, give prominence to important areas and key segments, give prominence to a pulling function in economic structural reform. The fourth is persisting in vigorousness and reliability, reform measure design must be bold, and the pace must be steady. The fifth is time planning for the year 2020, according to the reform tasks put forward for this time period, decisive results are to be obtained in the reform of important areas and crucial segments by the year 2020.
In terms of frameworks and structures, the Plenum Resolution has urgently resolving current major problems as priority, and plants structures article by article. Apart from the introduction of the conclusion, it contains 16 parts in total, divided in three large sections. The first part composes the first section, and is a general introduction, which mainly elaborates on the important significance, guiding ideology and general thinking of comprehensively deepening reform. The second until the fifteenth parts compose the second section, which are separate arguments, that mainly provide concrete deployments for the main tasks and important measures in comprehensively deepening reform in the six areas of the economy, politics, culture, society, the ecological civilization, national defence and the military. Among these, the economic aspect contains six parts (the second until the seventh), the political part contains three parts (the eighth until the tenth), the cultural aspect contains one part (the eleventh), the social aspect contains two parts (the twelfth and thirteenth), the ecological aspect contains one part (the fourteenth), and national defence and the military aspect contains one part (the fifteenth part). The sixteenth part constitutes the third section, which stresses organizational leadership and mainly elaborates on strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership over the comprehensive deepening of reform.
Here, I’d like to present the Centre’s considerations concerning some major issues and important measures touched upon in the Plenum Resolution.
First, concerning ensuring that the market has a decisive function in resource allocation and giving better rein to the functions of government. This is a major theoretical viewpoint in this Plenum Resolution. This is because economic structural reform still is the focus point of comprehensively deepening reform, and the core issue of economic structural reform still lies in handling the relationship between the government and the market well.
In 1992, the 14th Party Congress put forward that the objective of our country’s economic structural reform was establishing the Socialist market economy system, and put forward that we must ensure that the market has a fundamental function in resource allocation under the macro-level control of the State. This major theoretical breakthrough has had an extremely important effect on our reform, opening up, economic and social development. This also illustrates the major guiding role of theoretical innovation on practical innovation, to comprehensively deepen reform, theoretical innovation must be the guide.
With over twenty years of practice, the beginnings of our country’s Socialist market economy system have been established, but quite a few problems remain, these mainly are the fact that market order is not standardized, and that the phenomenon of seeking economic gain through improper means exists broadly; development of the production factor market is lagging behind, production factor idleness coexists with large-quantity effective demand that cannot be satisfied; market regulations are not uniform, departmental protectionism and local protectionism exist in large quantities; market competition is not full, survival of the fittest and restructuring are impeded, etc. If these problems are not resolved well, it will be difficult to shape a perfect Socialist market economy system.
In the two decades since the 14th Party Congress, we have consistently sought new scientific positions concerning the relationship between government and market, on the basis of exploration in practice and deepening understanding. The 15th Party Congress put forward to “use the fundamental position of the market in resource allocation under State macro-level control”, the 16th Party Congress put forward “giving rein to the fundamental function of the market in allocating resources to an even greater extent”, the 17th Party Congress put forward “giving better institutional rein to the fundamental function of the market in allocating resources”, the 18th Party Congress put forward “give rein to the fundamental function of the market in resource allocation to an even greater extent and on an even broader scale”. It can be seen that our understanding of the relationship between government and market is incessantly deepening as well.
In this process of discussion and soliciting opinions, it has been pointed out by many sides that we should further orient the relationship between government and market in theoretical terms, and that this has an extremely important effect on comprehensively deepening reform. Considering the opinions from all sides and the real development needs, and after repeated discussion and research, the Centre believes that the theoretical conditions for creating a new expression concerning this issue have become mature, and the “fundamental function” of the market in resource allocation has been changed into “decisive function”.
Now, our country’s Socialist market economic system has basically been established, and the extent of marketization has risen substantially, our understanding of market laws and our ability to control them is incessantly rising, macro-level control systems have become more complete, objective conditions are ready and we should strive forward at a new pace in completing the Socialist market economy system.
To further deal with the relationship between government and market well, we must, in fact, deal well with this question of whether the market has the decisive function in resource allocation or whether the government has this decisive function. Economic development must increase the allocation efficiency of resources and especially scarce resources, in order to produce as many products with as few resources as possible, and gain the highest possible efficiency. Theory and practice have bother demonstrated that market allocation of resources is the most efficient form. The market deciding on resource allocation is a common rule of market economies, and the market economy essentially is an economy in which the market decides on resource allocation. To complete the Socialist market economy system, we must respect this law, and strive to resolve the problem that market systems are imperfect, government intervention is excessive and supervision and management are unsatisfactory. Bringing the orientation towards “ensuring that the market has the decisive function in resource allocation” benefits the establishment of correct concepts concerning government-market relations in the entire Party and the entire society, it benefits the transformation of economic development methods, benefits the transformation of government functions and benefits the restraint of negative and corrupt phenomena.
Naturally, what our country implements is the Socialist market economy system, we still must persist in giving rein to the superiorities of our country’s Socialist system, and give rein to the positive role of the Party and the government. The market has a decisive function in resource allocation, but it does not have the total function.
To develop the Socialist market economy, we must give rein to both the functions of the market and the government, but the roles of the functions of market and government are different. The Plenum Resolution has put forward clear requirements concerning giving better rein to the function of government, it stresses that scientific macro-level regulation and effective governmental governance are the inherent requirements for giving rein to the superiorities of the Socialist market economy system. The Plenum Resolution has provided deployments concerning completing macro-level regulation systems, comprehensively and correctly implementing the functions of government and optimizing government’s organizational structures, it stresses that the functions and the role of government must be to maintain macro-level economic stability, strengthening and optimizing public services, guaranteeing fair competition, strengthening market supervision and management, safeguarding market procedures, promoting sustainable development, stimulating common prosperity and remedying market failures .
Second, concerning persisting in and perfecting basic economic structures. Persisting in and perfecting the basic economic system with public ownership and the core, jointly developing with many ownership systems, relates to an important pillar for the consolidation and development of the Socialist system with Chinese characteristics.
Since reform and opening up, our country’s ownership structures have been progressively adjusted, the proportion of the public economy and the non-public economy in economic development, stimulating employment and other such areas have incessantly changed, which strengthened the vitality of economic and social development. Under these circumstances, how to reflect and persist in the central position of public ownership even better, and further explore effective real forms for the basic economic system, is a major topic in front of us.
The Plenum Resolution stresses that we must unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public economy, persist in the central function of the public economy, give rein to the guiding role of the State-owned economy, incessantly strengthen tie vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy.
The Plenum Resolution persists in and develops the relevant elaborations from since the 15th Party Congress, it puts forward that we must vigorously develop a mixed ownership economy, it stresses that a mixed ownership economy with cross-shareholding and mutual blending between State-owned capital, collective capital and non-public capital is an important real form for the basic economic system, which benefits the amplification of the role of State-owned capital, maintaining and increasing its value and raising competitiveness. This is an effective channel and necessary choice to persist in the core function of public capital under new circumstances, and to strengthen the vitality, control power and influence of the State-owned economy.
The Plenum Resolution puts forward [that we must] perfect state-owned asset management systems, strengthen State-owned asset supervision and management mainly through capital management, and reform State-owned capital authorization and operation structures; State-owned capital investment operations must serve the strategic objectives of the State, and invest more in important sectors and key areas relating to national security and the lifelines of the national economy, it must focus on providing public services, developing important forward looking and strategic industries, protecting the ecology and the environment, supporting scientific and technological progress and guaranteeing national security; it must plan to transfer a portion of State-owned capital to replenish social security funds; raise the proportion of State-owned capital income that is turned over to public finance, to be used more for social security and improving peoples’ livelihoods.
State-owned enterprises are an important force in moving national modernization forward and guaranteeing the common interest of the people. Through many years of reform, State-owned enterprises generally have assimilated to the market economy. At the same time, State-owned enterprises have also accumulated a number of problems, some malpractices exist, which require further reform. The Plenum Resolution puts forward a series of focused reform measures, including expansion of State-owned capital investment in public interest enterprises; State-owned capital is to continue to control the operations of natural monopoly sectors, reforms with government-enterprise separation, government-capital separation, special permission for operations, and government supervision and management as main content are to be implemented, network and operations separation and free competition in operations are to be implemented on the basis of the characteristics of different sectors; a corporate legal person governance structure with coordinated operations and effective checks and balances is to be completed; professional manager systems are to be established, to give better rein to the function of entrepreneurs; long-term incentive and restraint mechanisms are to be established, to strengthen responsibility investigation in State-owned enterprise operations and investment; major information openness matters concerning State-owned enterprises’ finances and budgets are to be explored and moved forward; State-owned enterprises must rationally increase the proportion of marketized selection and appointment, rationally determine and strictly standardize State owned enterprise management personnel remuneration levels, professional treatment, professional expenses and business expenses. These measures will promote the perfection of modern enterprise systems in State-owned enterprises, raise operational efficiency, [so that they] reasonably bear social responsibility and give rein to their functions better.
To persist in and perfect basic economic systems, we must persist in the “two unwaverings”. The Plenum Resolution puts forward reform measures at many levels to encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public economy, and arouse the vitality and creativity of the non-public economy. In terms of functions and positions, it clarifies that the public economy and the non-public economy are both important component parts of the Socialist market economy, and are both important bases of our country’s economic and social development; in terms of property protection, they clearly put forward that property rights in the public economy may not be violated, and property rights in the non-public economy may equally not be violated; in terms of policy treatment, it stresses persisting in rights equality, equality of opportunity and equality of rules, and implements uniform market access systems; it encourages non-publicly owned enterprises to participate in the reform of State-owned enterprises, it encourages the development of mixed ownership enterprises in which non-public capital controls shares, and encourages privately-run enterprises meeting conditions to establish modern enterprise systems. This will promote the healthy development of the non-public economy.
Third, concerning deepening reform of financial and fiscal structures. The financial administration is the basis and an important pillar for national governance, scientific financial and fiscal systems are institutional guarantees for the optimization of resource allocation, safeguarding market unity, stimulating social fairness and realizing a long period of peace and order for the country. Current financial and fiscal structures have been perfected and formed progressively on the basis of the fiscal reforms of 1994, and has had an important effect on realizing the win-win objective of strengthening the government’s financial strength and rapid economic development.
Following the changes in trends and developments, the current financial and fiscal structures are not completely suited to the objective requirements of rationally dividing central and local duties and responsibilities, and perfecting State governance, they are not completely suited to the real demands of transforming economic development methods and stimulating sustained and healthy economic and social development, there are also some prominent contradictions and problems in our country’s economic and social development that are related to the fact that our financial and fiscal structures are incomplete.
In this comprehensive deepening of reform, financial and fiscal structural reform is one of the focus points. It mainly involves improving budget management systems, perfecting fiscal revenue systems, establishing systems in which duties, powers and payment responsibilities are mutually corresponding, etc.
This Plenum Resolution puts forward that we must implement completely standardized budgeting systems that are open and transparent, appropriately strengthen the Centre’s duties, tasks and payment responsibilities, national defence, foreign relations, national security, rules and management relating to national unified markets, etc. are to be Central duties; a part of social security, cross-regional and major programme construction and maintenance, etc., are to be joint responsibilities of the centre and the localities, and relationships of duties and responsibilities are to be progressively rationalized; the Centre may arrange transfer payments, to entrust the localities with duties, powers and payment responsibilities; with regard to cross-regional public services and those public services that have a relatively large influence on other regions, the Centre is to bear a portion of local duties, powers and payment responsibilities through transfer payments.
The main objective of these reform measures is clarifying duties and powers, reforming the fiscal system, stabilizing tax burdens, making budgeting transparent and raising efficiency, accelerating the formation of modern financial institutions that are beneficial for the transformation of economic development methods, that benefit the establishment of a fair an unified market, and that benefit moving forward with the equalization of basic public services, shaping a financial and fiscal system in which the financial resources of the Centre and the localities are matched to their duties and powers, to give better rein to the vigour of both the Centre and the localities.
Financial and fiscal structural reform requires a process and gradual completion. The Centre has already clarified that it is necessary to maintain the current stability of the general situation of Central and local financial resources, and further rationalize the income division between the Centre and the localities.
Fourth, concerning completing integrated systems and mechanisms for urban and rural development. The lack of balance and coordination between urban and rural development are a prominent contradiction existing in our country’s economic and social development, and it is a major problem that must be resolved in order to comprehensively construct a moderately prosperous society and accelerate moving forward with Socialist modernization. Since reform and opening up, earth-shattering changes have occurred in the appearance of our country’s countryside. But the binary structure of town and country has not fundamentally changed, and the trend of an incessantly expanding difference between urban and rural development has not been fundamentally reversed. In order to fundamentally resolve these problems, we must move the integration of urban and rural development forward.
The Plenum Resolution puts forward that we must complete structures and mechanisms, and shape new types of relationships between industry, agriculture, town and country in which industry stimulates agriculture, cities drive the countryside, agriculture and industry are mutually beneficial, and town and country are integrated, in order to let the broad peasants equally participate in the process of modernization and jointly share the fruits of modernization.
The Plenum Resolution puts forward reform measures for the completion of integrated structures and mechanisms for urban and rural development. The first is accelerating the construction of new agricultural business systems. This mainly means persisting in the basic position of household operations in agriculture, encouraging the transfer land contracting and operation rights on the open market to specialized large households, household farms, peasant cooperatives and agricultural enterprises, encouraging villages to develop the cooperative economy, encouraging and guiding industrials and commercial capital to go to the countryside and develop a modern plantation industry that conforms to enterprise-type operations, it is permitted that peasants become shareholders with their land contracting and operation rights to develop industrialized agricultural operations, etc. The second is endowing the peasants with more property rights. This means safeguarding peasants’ land contracting and operation rights according to the law, guaranteeing the rights of members of peasants’ collective economic organizations, guaranteeing usufruct rights of peasant households over their homesteads, cautiously and reliably moving forward with trials for peasant housing property right mortgaging, guaranteeing and transfer. The third is moving forward with equal production factor exchange between town and country, and equal allocation of public resources. This mainly means guaranteeing equal pay for equal work for agricultural workers, and guaranteeing that peasants fairly share in the income from the increase in the value of land; perfecting agricultural insurance systems; encouraging social capital to invest in village construction, it is permitted for enterprises and social organizations to set up all sorts of undertakings in the countryside; comprehensively planning the equal allocation of urban and rural compulsory education resources, integrating basic systems for old-age insurance and basic healthcare insurance in town and country, moving forward with the comprehensive development of minimum living standard guarantees in town and country, steadily moving the overall coverage of basic social services for permanent urban residents forward, and completely bringing peasants who moved into cities into urban housing and social security systems.
Fifth, concerning moving forward with consultative democracy and the broad, multi-level development of institutionalization. Consultative democracy is a particular form and unique advantage of our country’s Socialist democratic politics, and is an important reflecting of the Party’s mass line in the political area. Moving consultative democracy forward benefits the perfection of the people’s orderly participation ion politics, tightening the flesh-and-blood relationship of the Party and the popular masses, and stimulating the scientization and democratization of policy.
The Plenum Resolution makes moving the development of broad, multi-level and institutionalized consultative democracy forward into important content for political structural reform, it stresses that under the leadership of the Party and with major issues of economic and social development and real issues that affect the direct interests of the masses as content, broad consultations are to be launched across all of society, persisting in consultation before policymaking and during the implementation of policy decisions. We must build consultative democratic systems with rational procedures and complete segments, and broaden consultation channels for national organs of State power, Consultative Conference organizations, political party groups, grass roots organizations and social organizations; we must deeply launch legislative consultation, administrative consultation, democratic consultation, participatory consultation and social consultation; we must give rein to the important function of the united front in consultative democracy, give rein to the important channelling function of Consultative Conferences in consultative democracy, perfect Consultative Conference institutions and systems, standardize the content and procedures of consultation, expand the forms of consultative conferences, organize topical consultations, specialized consultations, sectoral consultations and consultations on handling motions in a more dynamic and orderly manner, increase the density of consultation and raise the effect of consultation.
Sixth, concerning judicial structural reform and operational mechanisms. The judicial system is an important component part of the political system. In the past few years, the masses’ opinion that the judiciary is unjust has been concentrating, the fact that judicial credibility is insufficient, is to a large extent related to the fact that hat judicial systems and work mechanisms are not rational.
Judicial reform is one of the focus points of this comprehensive deepening of reform. The Plenum Resolution put forward a series of new, interrelated measures, which include reforming judicial management systems, promoting the united management of assets of local courts and procuratorates at provincial levels and lower, and exploring the establishment of judicial jurisdiction systems that are appropriately separated from administrative divisions; completing operational mechanisms for judicial power, perfecting case handling responsibility systems for presiding judges and collegiate benches, and letting those who hear cases judge, and those who judge, be responsible; strictly standardizing sentence commutation, parole and medical bail procedures; completing mechanisms to prevent and correct misjudged cases, and investigate responsibility, and strictly implementing rules to eliminate illegal evidence; establishing mechanisms to end letters and petitions relating to the law or to lawsuits according to the law; abolishing the re-education through labour system, perfecting punishment and correction laws for unlawful and criminal acts, etc.
These reform measures have an important significance for guaranteeing that judicial organs exercise judgment powers and prosecutorial powers independently and according to the law, completing operational mechanisms for judicial power in which powers and responsibilities are clear, raising the transparency and credibility of the judiciary, and guaranteeing human rights better.
Seventh, concerning completing anti-corruption leadership systems and work mechanisms. The anti-corruption issue has consistently been an issue that was widely discussed inside and outside of the Party. The current problem mainly is that anti-corruption organs’ functions are scattered, their forms are not rational, some cases are difficult to investigate and handle, and while corruption cases happen often, responsibility is insufficiently investigated.
The Plenum Resolution has conducted focus deployments concerning strengthening the innovation of and institutional guarantees for anti-corruption systems and mechanisms. These mainly are strengthening the Party’s unified leadership over the construction of a clean Party work style and anti-corruption work, clarifying the fact that Party Committees bear the main responsibility and Discipline Inspection Committees bear a supervisory responsibility, formulating and implementing realistic and feasible responsibility investigation systems; completing anti-corruption leadership systems and work mechanisms, reforming and perfecting the functions of anti-corruption small coordination groups at all levels, providing that the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee takes the lead in investigating and handling corruption cases; reflecting and strengthening the leadership of higher-level Discipline Inspection Committees over lower-level Discipline Inspection Committees, providing that clue management and case investigation must be reported to the higher-level Discipline Inspection Committee at the same time as being reported to the Discipline Inspection Committee of the same level; completely implementing that the Central Discipline Inspection Committee assigns Discipline Inspection Organs in Central first-level Party and State organs, improving Central and provincial, regional and municipal inspection patrol systems, and ensuring complete coverage over localities, departments, enterprise and undertaking work units.
These measures have all been put forward on the basis of summarizing real experiences and attracting opinions from all sides.
Eighth, concerning accelerating the perfection of leadership systems for Internet management. Network and information security involve national security and social stability, and this is a new comprehensive challenge that we face.
From the point of view of practice, and in the face of the flying development of Internet technology and applications, clear malpractices exist in the current management system, which mainly are multi-headed management, overlapping of functions, lack of unity of powers and responsibility and low efficiency. At the same time, following the fact that the media nature of the Internet becomes ever stronger, online media management and sector management can by far not catch up with the developments and changes of the situation Especially in the face microblogs, WeChat and other such social media that have rapid dissemination, great influence, broad coverage and a strong capacity for social mobilization, as well as the rapid growth of instant telecommunication tool users, how to strengthen the construction of an online legal system and public opinion guidance, and ensuring the online information dissemination order, national security and social stability, have become current prominent issues put in front of us.
The Plenum Resolution puts forward persisting in the principles of positive use, scientific development, management according to the law and guaranteeing security, expanding power to manage the network according to the law and perfecting leadership systems for Internet management. The objective is to integrate the functions of related organs, shape joint forces for Internet management from technology to content, from daily security to attacking crime, and guaranteeing the correct use and security of the network.
Ninth, concerning establishing a National Security Committee. National security and social stability are the preconditions for reform and development. Only if there is national security and social stability can reform and development be pushed forward incessantly. At present, our country faces a double pressure, to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests externally, and maintain political security and social stability domestically, all sorts of risks and factors that are predictable or difficult to predict are clearly increasing. And our security work systems and mechanisms cannot yet adapt to the needs of safeguarding national security, it is necessary to build a strong and powerful platform to comprehensively plan national security work. Establishing a National Security Committee and strengthening concentrated and unified leadership over national security work has become an urgent task.
The National Security Committee’s main task is formulating and implementing national security strategies, moving national security rule of law construction forward, formulating national security work principles and policies, and researching and resolving major issues in national security work.
Tenth, concerning completing national natural resource and asset management systems and perfecting natural resource supervision and management systems. Completing national natural resource and asset management systems are major reforms in order to complete natural resource property right systems, and are immanent requirements of establishing systematic and integrated ecological civilization systems.
Some prominent problems exist in our country’s ecological and environmental protection, to a certain degree, these are related with the fact that structures are not complete, one of the causes is that the property rights of the entire people over natural resource assets is unsatisfactory, and the rights and interests of proprietors are not implemented. Focusing on this issue, the Plenum Resolution puts forward the requirement of completing national natural resource asset management systems. The general line of thinking, according to the principle of separating proprietors from managers and ensuring that the same matters are managed by the same department, implementing the property rights of the entire people over natural resource assets and establishing uniform systems to exercise the entire people’s duties as proprietors of natural resource assets.
The State exercising management over the exercise of the whole people’s property rights over natural resource assets is not the same as the State exercising supervision and management over natural resources on a territorial scope, the former concerns the rights in the sense of ownership, the latter concerns power in the sense of managers. This requires the perfection of natural resource supervision and management systems, the uniform exercise of land use control responsibilities, and ensuring that the proprietors of State-owned natural resource assets and the State natural resource managers are mutually independent, mutually coordinating and mutually supervising.
We must understand that mountains, water, forests, fields and lakes are a living community, the lifeline of people lies in the fields, the lifeline of fields lies in water, the lifeline of water lies in mountains, the lifeline of mountains lies in land, the lifeline of land lies in trees. Use management and ecological restoration must abide by the laws of nature, if only tree-planting is managed in tree- planting, if only water control is managed in water control, if protecting fields is purely protecting fields, it is easy to lose sight of one thing because of attending to something else, which in the end creates systemic ecological destruction. One department is to be responsible for all land use management responsibilities on a territorial scope, this is extremely necessary to implement uniform protection and uniform restoration of mountains, water, trees, fields and lakes.
Eleventh, concerning the Centre establishing a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform. Completely deepening reform is a complex and systematic project, only relying or one or some departments often results in ability not being equal to ambition, this requires the establishment of a higher-level leadership mechanism.
The Plenum Resolution points out that the Centre will establish a Leading Small Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, to be responsible for general reform design, comprehensive coordination, moving matters forward in an integrated manner and supervising implementation. This is for the sake of giving better rein to the leading core function of the Party in assuming responsibility for the entire picture and coordinating all aspects, and to guarantee that reform is smoothly pushed forward, and that all reform tasks are implemented. The main duties of the Leading Small Group are: uniformly deploying major nationwide policies, comprehensively moving reform in all areas forward, coordinating forces on all sides in shaping joint forces to move reform forward, strengthening supervision and examination, and promoting the comprehensive implementation of reform objectives and tasks.
III, Concerning some issues that must be given attention in discussions
The task of this Plenum is to discuss the thinking and plans on comprehensively deepening reform put forward in the Plenum Resolution. Here, I’d like to put forward a few demands to everyone.
First, strengthen convictions and courage to move reform forward. Reform and opening up are a new magnificent revolution conducted by our Party leading the people under new historical circumstances, they are the clearest characteristic of contemporary China and the clearest banner of our Party. On what has our Party relied to inspire people’s hearts, unite thoughts and concentrate forces? On what has it relied to arouse the pioneering spirits and creative vitality of the whole body of the people? On what has it relied to realize the rapid development of our country’s economy and society, and to gain comparative advantages in the competition with capitalism? It relied on reform and opening up.
In the face of the future, we must analyse and explain all difficulties faced in development, dissolve risks and challenges coming from all sides, give even better rein to the superiorities of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and promote sustained and healthy economic and social development, and apart from deepening reform, there is no other way.
At present, much attention is paid to the issue of reform and opening up inside and outside of the Party, and inside and outside of the country, up and down the entire Party and in all areas of society, expectations are high. Reform and opening up has reached a new important juncture. We can absolutely not waver in the slightest with regard to reform and opening up, the banner of reform and opening up must continue to be held high, the correct orientation of the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics must be firmly persisted in. The entire Party must firm up their belief in reform, and move reform forward with even greater political courage and wisdom, even more powerful measures and methods.
Second, persist in liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts. Hold high the banner of reform and opening up, it will not do to only have standpoints and attitudes, there must also be real measures. Actions are the most persuasive. The Centre has decided to use this advantageous juncture of the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress to create deployments for the comprehensive deepening of reform, this is a strategic choice. We must grasp this opportunity and strive to achieve new breakthroughs in the comprehensive deepening of reform. We must make new breakthroughs, and so must further liberate thoughts.
To breach ideological and conceptual obstacles and breach the defence lines of vested interests, liberating thoughts is of the highest importance. On the issue of deepening reform, some ideological and conceptual barriers often do not come from outside of the system but come from inside the system. If thoughts are not liberated, it will be difficult for us to get a clear few of where the crux of the problem of vested interests lies, it will be difficult to find the correct direction and focus points for breakthroughs, and it will be difficult to produce creative reform measures. Because of this, we absolutely must have the courage and mind for self-renewal, jump beyond the fetters of red tape, overcome the impediments of departmental interests, and research and put forward reform measures with a vigorous and active spirit.
Naturally, we must be cautious in putting forward reform measures, we must repeatedly research and repeatedly expound them, but we can absolutely not be overcautious or hesitant to move forward, not dare anything or not dare to try anything because of this. In doing reform, it cannot be the case that not a single bit of existing work structures, systems and operation is broken, it cannot be the case that everything is steady and well organized, or that there is not any risk. As long as something has undergone full elucidation and appraisal, as long as something conforms to reality, it must be done, things that should be done must still be done boldly.
Third, persist in starting from the big picture in considering issues. Comprehensively deepening reform relates to the major strategic deployments for the entire picture of the undertaking and development of the Party and the country, it is not an individual reform plan in a certain area or aspect. “If the entirety is not considered, specific areas cannot be considered”. Everyone comes from different departments and work units, and must all look at problems from the entire picture, you must first look at whether or not major reform measures that are put forward conform to the needs of the overall picture, and whether or not they benefit the long-term development of the undertaking of the Party and the state. You must truly look ahead, think ahead, and consider matters in advance. Only in this way can the document formed in the end truly conform to the development needs of the undertaking of the Party and the people.
To comprehensively deepen reform, we must strengthen top-level design and overall planning, and strengthen research on the connectedness, systemicness and feasibility of all matters of reform. When we say we must have great nerve, and stable steps, the stability of steps means that we must comprehensively consider matter, expound them completely, and make scientific policy decisions. reform in all economic, political cultural, social, ecological civilization areas and Party building reform are closely linked and mutually connected, reform in any area may affect other areas, and at the same time, they require close coordination with other areas. If reform in all areas are not supplementary, reform measures in all areas will hinder each other, it will be very difficult to move reform and opening up forward, even if they are forced forward, the outcome will come with significant discounts.