Establish and Complete a Modern Cultural Market System

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This article by Jiang Jianguo, the Party Secretary of the State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television was first published in Seeking Truth on 16 December 2013.

The “CCP Central Committee Decision concerning Some Major Issues in the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform” (hereafter simply named “Decision”) has made the establishment of a modern cultural market system into an important task that closely revolves around the building of the Socialist core value system and a strong Socialist culture country, and deepening cultural structural reform, it has also made major deployments.

Following the incessant perfection of the Socialist market economy, cultural resource allocation as well as the production, distribution and consumption of cultural products are increasingly inseparable from the market. Building a unified, open, competitive and orderly modern cultural market system has become an important content and decisive factor of cultural reform and development under the conditions of the Socialist market economy. Since the 16th Party Congress, the Centre has given high regard to the establishment of a modern cultural market system, and forcefully moved the linkage of cultural resources and the market forward, pluralized investment structures for the cultural industry began to be formed, the organization of modern logistics for cultural products began to take shape, markets for capital, property rights, copyright, talent, technology, information and other such cultural production factors have rapidly developed, a beginning has been made with breaking through the barriers of horizontal and vertical fragmentation, regional barriers, and the urban-rural divide in the traditional cultural market structure, and the positive role of the market in cultural resource allocation has begun to take prominence. However, in comparison with the demands of the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture, the comprehensive levels of modern cultural market system construction are not yet high, the development of cultural product and factor markets is not yet perfect, cultural product logistics and service channels are not yet smooth, cultural consumption potential has not yet been fully aroused. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that: “Reform and opening up are boundless, there is only a progressive tense, no perfect tense”, “In responding to the series of contradictions and challenges that our country’s development faces at present, the crux lies in comprehensively deepening reform.” According to the 18th Party congress’ deployment that firmly move the construction of a strong Socialist culture country forward, the crux lies in comprehensively deepening cultural structural reform, breaking through the traditional system in which cultural resources are allocated along departments, administrative regional and administrative hierarchical lines, and building and strengthening a uniform, open, competitive and orderly modern cultural market system.

The “Decision” correctly grasped the new demands of a new period of and new circumstances for cultural reform, it correctly grasped the inherent laws and objective reality of cultural market system construction, it focused on establishing and completing market access and withdrawal mechanisms for cultural capital, cultural enterprises and cultural products, it encouraged market subjects of all kinds to compete fairly, letting the fittest survive, it stimulated the rational circulation of cultural resources on a nationwide scale, and it stressed the establishment and completion of a modern cultural market system through aspects such as strengthening cultural market subjects’ competitiveness, encouraging the development of non-publicly owned cultural enterprises, establishing multi-level cultural product and factor markets, innovating modern cultural market system policy environments, etc. This fully reflects that our Party stood on a historical starting point of strategic thinking in cultural structural reform and scientific planning, it reflected the inevitable tendencies of our country’s cultural development and the demands of the times. We must, according to the deployment in the “Decision”, with a spirit of overcoming difficulties when they arise and building bridges when we come to rivers, overcome profound systemic and mechanistic obstacles, establish and complete a modern cultural market system, fully give rein to the positive function of the market in the allocation of cultural resources, promote the grand development and grand flourishing of Socialist culture by arousing the cultural creative vitality of the entire nation, and provide strong cultural forces to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

I, Strengthening the competitiveness of cultural market subjects

Cultural enterprises are the core of the cultural market. Promoting the transformation of State-owned commercial culture work units into enterprises, and maintaining and giving rein to the dominant position and guiding role of State-owned enterprises in the market are central in building and completing a modern cultural market system. Since the 16th Party Congress, according to the Centre’s deployment to move cultural structural reform forward, we have basically completed the transformation of State-owned commercial culture work units into enterprises in publishing, film and television production, distribution, radio and television transmission and normal State-owned literature and art troupes, a first batch of non-current affairs-type newspaper and periodical publishing work units, etc., we have remoulded a batch of new-type market subjects, and notably strengthened the vitality, power and competitiveness of State-owned cultural enterprises. According to the deployments in the “Decision” concerning deepening cultural structural reform, we must continue to move the transformation of State-owned commercial cultural work units into enterprises forward, accelerate the transformation of corporate structures and shareholding structures, promote mergers and acquisitions of enterprises across regions, across sectors and across ownership systems, and raise levels of scale, intensification and specialization in the cultural industries.

Continue to move the transformation of State-owned commercial cultural work units into enterprises forward. Deepening the transformation into enterprises of State-owned commercial cultural work units is crucial in fostering cultural market subjects. We must, with accelerating the establishment of modern enterprise systems with clear property rights, clear rights and obligations, separation of government and enterprises, and scientific management as focus point, according to the demands of innovating systems, transforming mechanisms, facing the market and expanding power, expand the reform achievements of publishing, distribution, film, television and common State-owned literature and art troupes, promote that cultural enterprises who have already transformed perfect their legal person governance structures, form asset organization methods and business management methods that conform to the demands of modern enterprise systems and reflect the characteristics of cultural enterprises, incessantly raise the levels of indigenous operations and self-innovation in  State-owned cultural enterprises, and strengthen market orientation, participation and competitive ability. Combine enterprise transformation into the promotion of newspaper and periodical resource integration, newspaper and periodical structure adjustment, and dealing with fragmentation and excess, establish and complete press and publications access and withdrawal mechanisms, continue to steadily move the reform of non-news type newspaper and periodical publishing work units forward. Vigorously move the transformation into enterprises of focus news websites forward, learn from the business methods of commercial websites, incessantly raise competitiveness, and strengthen influence.

Accelerate the shareholding system reform of State-owned cultural enterprises. The shareholding system is the direction and a necessary path for the reform of State-owned cultural enterprises. We must persist in putting shareholding system reform central, and accelerate moving forward with reform of property right structures for State-owned cultural enterprises. Innovate investment systems, support State-owned enterprises that meet conditions to go onto financial markets, attract social capital to participate in shareholding system reform. Encourage State-owned cultural enterprises to conduct shareholding rights innovation, move forward with the optimization of shareholding rights structures on publicly-traded State-owned cultural enterprises, explore the implementation of special management share systems for important State-owned media enterprises that have transformed their structures according to regulations, in order to attract even more strategic investors for the cultural area. Formulate corresponding regulations on the basis of the Constitution and relevant laws, clarify and implement the scope of application, exercising subjects and supplementary mechanisms of special management share systems, in order to guarantee national cultural security and the public interest.

Promote mergers and acquisitions of cultural enterprises across regions, across sectors and across ownership systems. With State-owned backbone cultural enterprises at the core, guiding and leading cultural markets are fundamental requirements for the development of advanced Socialist culture. We must integrate State-owned commercial culture work units’ transformation into enterprises with resource integration and structural adjustment, break through regional confines and sectoral barriers, encourage powerful State-owned backbone cultural enterprises to, with capital as the link, conduct mergers and acquisitions across regions, across sectors and across ownership systems, and promote the concentration of cultural resources and factors in excellent cultural enterprises and superior cultural industries. Select a large batch of comprehensive cultural enterprises groups that have a prominent core business, have indigenous intellectual property rights, cultural innovation capacities, core competitive strength and good maturity, expand support strength in policy, resources, programmes, funding and other such areas, make them larger, better and stronger as quickly as possible, strengthen control strength and influence, ensure that it becomes a dominant force for the cultural markets.

II, Encourage the development of non-publicly owned cultural enterprises.

The non-publicly owned economy is an important component part of our country’s Socialist market economy, like the publicly-owned economy, it is an important basis for our country’s economic and social development, and it plays an important role in cultural construction. Since the 16th Party Congress, we have encouraged and guided social capital to enter the cultural industries, and created the beginnings of a cultural industrial structure with public ownership at the core, jointly developing with many kinds of ownership systems. However, non-publicly owned cultural enterprises still face many unreasonable constraints in investment, and it is difficult for them to use production factors in a manner equal to State-owned enterprises. According to the deployment in the “Decision” concerning deepening cultural structural reform, we must, at the same time as fully giving rein to the dominant role of State-owned cultural enterprises, encourage the development of non-publicly owned cultural enterprises, support the development of all sorts of small and micro cultural enterprises, build an open and pluralized cultural market development structure.

Reduce barriers to entry for social capital. Letting the cultural market flourish and develop is inseparable from pluralized investment subjects. Only by guiding even more social capital to enter the cultural area is it possible to liberate the energy of the cultural market better. We must, on the basis of broadening access for social capital, further reduce barriers, reduce unreasonable access limitations, and within the scope permitted by the State, guide social capital to enter into the cultural industries in many forms within the and participate in the transformation into enterprises of State-owned commercial cultural work units within the scope permitted by the State, make technology, brands, intellectual property rights and other production factors into equity for share participation, or adopt many kinds of forms, such as investment, share control, acquisition, merging, contracting, renting, agency, etc., to participate in the reorganization of State-owned cultural enterprises, participate in the implementation of major cultural industry programmes and the construction of cultural industry parks, and provide support equal to that for State-owned capital investment in investment approval, credit and lending, land use, tax benefits, capitalization on financial markets, bond issuance, foreign trade and the application for special funds, and strive to build a pluralized investment structure under government guidance.

Broaden access for non-public cultural enterprises to the field. Non-public cultural enterprises’ special advantages in capital operation, technological applications, production management, market selling and other such areas may bring fresh blood into the cultural market. We must permit non-public cultural enterprises to participate in foreign-oriented publishing and online publishing, permit them to participate in the reform and operation of State-owned film and television production organs and literature and art troupes by way of share controlling, to enter into areas such as literature and art performance troupes, performance venues, museums, exhibition halls, cultural and artistic intermediaries, tourism and cultural services, artwork trading, Internet surfing service business venues, cartoons and online games, cinemas, cinema chains and publications retail, etc., and enjoy equal treatment to State-owned cultural enterprises, to realistically give rein to, guide and protect the vigour of non-public cultural enterprises. Strengthen and improve service to and management of non-public cultural enterprises, guide the orientation of investment, restrain disorderly competition, stimulate them to consciously implement social responsibilities.

Support the development of all sorts of small and micro cultural enterprises. The forceful development of small and micro culture enterprises benefits further liberating and developing cultural productive forces, arousing the entrepreneurial enthusiasm and cultural creative vitality of the entire people, and enlivening the cultural market. We must adopt effective measures to support small and micro cultural enterprises to fully play a positive role in adjusting industrial structures broadening internal demand, increasing employment and other such areas, and to provide rich and varied cultural products and services to the broad masses in a pluralized and multi-channel manner. Encourage small and micro cultural enterprises to march a path of “specialization, excellence, characteristics and innovation”, focus on supporting small and micro cultural enterprises with core competitiveness and development potential to go to capital markets on the start-up board, and to become progressively larger and stronger.

III, Establishing multi-level cultural product and factor markets

The contradiction between cultural product and service supply and demand remains prominent and multiple levels, cultural factor circulation remains obstructed, cultural product and factor market establishment requires further strengthening. According to the deployments in the “Decision” concerning deepening cultural structural reform, we must establish a multi-level cultural product and factor market, and forcefully promote the integration of financial capital, social capital and cultural resources.

Strengthen cultural product market construction. Incessantly enriching cultural product markets is a focus point to establish and complete modern cultural market systems. We must, under the preconditions of maintaining licencing for publishing powers and broadcasting powers, permit separation of production and publication, or production and broadcasting, and encourage cultural enterprises to incessantly enrich and innovate cultural products and services. Develop markets for books, newspapers and periodicals, electronic audiovisual products, performing entertainment, films and television dramas, cartoons, games and other such traditional media products, establish new cultural product markets with the network as carrier, foster mass cultural consumption markets, expand rural cultural markets. Continue to forge comprehensive, specialized and regional cultural product and service exchange platforms, expand the consumption sphere for cultural products and services. Develop chain operation, logistics and delivery, e-commerce and other such modern logistical organizations and circulation forms, accelerate the construction of a batch of large-scale modern cultural circulation enterprises and some national-level cultural product logistics bases, encourage cultural enterprises to use e-commerce and other such advanced logistical technologies to develop third-party logistics services, build a cultural product circulation network with large cities at the centre, supplemented by small and mid-size cities, that penetrates town and country, strive to realize high-efficiency circulation and delivery of cultural products at low cost.

Strengthen cultural production factor market construction. Exchange markets for the factors needed in cultural production are a basic condition for the development of cultural markets. We must develop markets for cultural property rights, copyrights, talent, technology, information and other such factors in an orderly manner, establish and complete cultural resource valuation systems and cultural property right exchange systems, and develop all sorts of cultural capital exchange markets with copyright trading at the core. Move the construction of cultural capital markets forward, stimulate the effective linking of financial capital, social capital and cultural resources, fully use both domestic and foreign capital markets at many levels to resolve the problem that it is difficult for cultural enterprises to raise funds. Move the construction of cultural property right markets forward, accelerate the formulation and perfection of management rules for the valuation, registration, mortgage, investment, trusteeship, liquidation and other such matters of copyrights, enterprise brands and other such intangible assets, encourage and support cultural enterprises to conduct exchanges in shareholding, copyright, trademarks, brands and other such areas.

Accelerate the construction of cultural industry organizations and intermediary organs. Cultural industry organizations and intermediary organs are the main bridge linking the government and the markets, fully giving rein to their role in providing services, reflecting appeals and standardizing actions is an important condition for the establishment and completion of modern cultural market systems. We must persist in equally stressing fostering, development, management and supervision, strengthen the construction of all sorts of cultural sector associations and other sectoral organizations, complete sector standards, perfect sector management, and even better carry out regulation, supervision, service, rights defence and other such roles. Vigorously develop copyright agency, cultural brokerage, valuation and assessment, technology trade, consultancy, investment insurance, guaranteed auctions and various other such intermediary service organs for the cultural market, formulate and perfect management rules for intermediary cultural markets, guide their standardized operations, so that they provide comprehensive services for all sorts of cultural market subjects.

IV, Innovate the policy environment for the construction of modern cultural market systems

Establishing and completing modern cultural market systems is a systemic project, we must persist in government guidance, respect the laws of the market economy and the laws of cultural development, vigorously give rein to the role of policy in macro-level regulation, market supervision, institution-building and other such areas, and provide an external environment of fair competition to all kinds of cultural market subjects. In recent years, we have vigorously moved forward in terms of administrative management departments’ realistically carrying out policy regulation, market supervision, social management, public services and other such tasks, and rolled out a series of policy measures that have provided important guarantees for the development of cultural markets. According to the deployment in the “Decision” concerning deepening cultural structural reform, we must further transform government functions, perfect cultural economic policies, broaden government financial support for culture and government procurement, strengthen copyright protection, strengthen cultural product valuation systems and reform award systems, and push out more excellent cultural products.

Perfect cultural economic policies. The extent of perfection in policies directly affects the strength to move cultural market system construction forward and the real results. The more the construction of modern cultural market systems is deeply moved forward, the more it is necessary to incessantly perfect cultural economic policies and fully give rein to the leverage role of policy. We must expand the policy support strengthen for the cultural industries in areas such as finance, taxation, funding, social guarantees, land use, etc., guarantee input of public finance into cultural construction, and raise the proportion of expenditure on culture in [overall] financial expenditure. Improve methods for government support of cultural industries, expand the scale of relevant cultural funds and special funds, focus on supporting cultural innovation and the production of excellent products, as well as research and development of cultural industry programmes with a demonstration or guiding nature, guide and drive ever more social capital to enter into cultural industry through government finance. Research and improve methods for government procurement of public cultural products and services, progressively establish government procurement structures for public cultural services, implement government procurement for many kinds of cultural products and services. Continue to implement and progressively perfect supplementing policies for cultural structural reform, implement and progressively perfect policies to encourage personnel streaming and arrangements, talent use and training, technological innovation and application and other such areas, forcefully optimize the policy environment to benefit cultural market development.

Strengthen copyright protection. The establishment and completion of modern cultural market systems is inseparable from powerful intellectual property rights protection and effective market supervision and management. We must accelerate cultural legislation, strengthen cultural market management according to the law, and comprehensively utilize legal, administrative, economic, scientific, technological and other such means to raise management levels. Expand intellectual property rights protection strength, support patent applications, trademark filings and copyright registrations for cultural products and services, punish piracy, illegal publishing, illegal business and other such acts violating intellectual property rights according to the law, reduce to the broadest extent the amount of inferior cultural products entering the market. Deeply launch “sweeping away pornography and striking illegality”, complete comprehensive cultural market law enforcement organs, rationalize Internet management systems, shape a cultural market order of lawful business, where law-breaking must be dealt with, with fair trading, honesty and sincerity as quickly as possible.

Complete cultural product evaluation systems. The high-quantity emergence of excellent cultural products is a fundamental precondition for letting cultural markets flourish. In recent years, our country’s cultural product creation and production quantities have become incessantly richer and their quality incessantly rises, but there still are not many excellent cultural products. We must accelerate guidance over cultural product creation and production, completely implement the “Two Fors” orientation and the “Two Hundreds” policy, firmly establish a work orientation with the people at the core, and provide even better and even more spiritual nourishment. Complete cultural product evaluation systems, persist in making carrying forward the Socialist core value system, persisting in the progressive orientation of advanced Socialist culture and the satisfaction of the popular masses into the highest standards to evaluate products, unify mass evaluation, expert evaluation and market testing, form scientific evaluation standards, incessantly raise the orientating nature, authority and credibility of cultural product judgements. Reform award systems, reduce award categories, establish open, fair and just award mechanisms, fully give rein to their demonstrative role. Scientifically formulate assessment standards for cultural enterprise and undertaking work units, persist in putting social effect first, comprehensively plan social effect and economic effect, the demands of the orientation and profit quota, promote the establishment of systems and mechanisms that benefit the production of excellent products, talents and effects, strive to realize the maximization of social effect and the optimization of economic effect.

(The author is the Party Secretary and vice-Director of the State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television)

建立健全现代文化市场体系
蒋建国

《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》(以下简称《决定》)把建立健全现代文化市场体系,作为紧紧围绕建设社会主义核心价值体系、社会主义文化强国、深化文化体制改革的一项重要任务,作出了重大部署。
随着社会主义市场经济体制不断完善,无论是文化资源配置,还是文化产品生产、传播和消费,都越来越离不开市场。构建统一开放竞争有序的现代文化市场体系,成为在社会主义市场经济条件下文化改革发展的重要内容和决定性因素。党的十六大以来,中央高度重视现代文化市场体系建设,大力推进文化资源与市场对接,文化产业多元化投资格局开始形成,现代文化产品流通组织形式初具规模,资本、产权、版权、人才、技术、信息等文化生产要素市场加快发展,条块分割、地区封锁、城乡分离的传统文化市场格局初步打破,市场在文化资源配置中的积极作用开始凸显。但是,与社会主义文化大发展大繁荣要求相比,现代文化市场体系建设整体水平还不高,文化产品和要素市场发育还不完善,文化产品流通和服务渠道还不畅通,文化消费潜力还未充分激发出来。习近平总书记指出:“改革开放永无止境,只有进行时没有完成时”,“应对当前我国发展面临的一系列矛盾和挑战,关键在于全面深化改革。”按照党的十八大部署扎实推进社会主义文化强国建设,关键在于全面深化文化体制改革,打破按部门、按行政区划、按行政级次分配文化资源的传统体制,建立健全统一开放竞争有序的现代文化市场体系。
《决定》准确把握文化改革发展新阶段新形势新要求,准确把握文化市场体系建设内在规律和客观实际,着眼于建立健全文化资本、文化企业、文化产品市场准入和退出机制,鼓励各类市场主体公平竞争、优胜劣汰,促进文化资源在全国范围内合理流动,强调从增强文化市场主体竞争力、鼓励非公有制文化企业发展、建立多层次文化产品和要素市场、创新现代文化市场体系政策环境等方面,建立健全现代文化市场体系。这充分体现了我们党站在新的历史起点上对文化体制改革的战略思考和科学谋划,体现了我国文化发展的必然趋势和时代要求。我们要按照《决定》部署,以逢山开路、遇河搭桥的精神,攻克深层次的体制机制障碍,建立健全现代文化市场体系,充分发挥市场在文化资源配置中的积极作用,以激发全民族文化创造活力,推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供强大文化力量。
一、增强文化市场主体竞争力
文化企业是文化市场的主体。推动国有经营性文化单位转企改制,保持和发挥国有文化企业在市场中的主体地位和主导作用,是建立健全现代文化市场体系的核心。党的十六大以来,我们按照中央部署推进文化体制改革,基本完成了出版、影视制作、发行、广电传输和一般国有文艺院团、首批非时政类报刊出版单位等国有经营性文化单位转企改制,重塑了一批新型市场主体,显著增强了国有文化企业的活力、实力和竞争力。按照《决定》关于深化文化体制改革部署,必须继续推进国有经营性文化单位转企改制,加快公司制、股份制改造,推动文化企业跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组,提高文化产业规模化、集约化、专业化水平。
继续推进国有经营性文化单位转企改制。深化国有经营性文化单位转企改制,是培育文化市场主体的关键。要以加快建立产权清晰、权责明确、政企分开、管理科学的现代企业制度为重点,按照创新体制、转换机制、面向市场、壮大实力的要求,拓展出版、发行、影视、一般国有文艺院团改革成果,推动已转制文化企业完善法人治理结构,形成符合现代企业制度要求、体现文化企业特点的资产组织形式和经营管理模式,不断提高国有文化企业自主经营、自我创新水平,增强面向市场、参与竞争能力。把转企改制与推动报刊资源整合、报刊结构调整、治散治滥结合起来,建立健全报刊准入和退出机制,继续稳步推进非时政类报刊出版单位改革。积极推进重点新闻网站转企改制,借鉴商业网站经营方式,不断提高竞争力、增强影响力。
加快国有文化企业股份制改造。股份制是国有文化企业改革的方向和必由之路。要坚持以股份制改造为核心,加快推进国有文化企业产权制度改革。创新投融资体制,支持符合条件的国有文化企业上市融资,吸引社会资本参与股份制改造。鼓励国有文化企业进行股权创新,推进国有上市文化企业优化股权结构,对按规定转制的重要国有传媒企业探索实行特殊管理股制度,以吸引更多文化领域战略投资者。依据宪法和有关法律,制定相关规定,明确实行特殊管理股制度的适用范围、行使主体和配套机制,以确保国家文化安全和公众利益。
推动文化企业跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组。以国有骨干文化企业为主体,主导和引领文化市场,是发展社会主义先进文化的根本要求。要把国有经营性文化单位转企改制与资源整合、结构调整结合起来,打破区域限制和行业壁垒,鼓励有实力的国有骨干文化企业以资本为纽带,实行跨地区、跨行业、跨所有制兼并重组,推动文化资源和要素向优质文化企业、优势文化产业集聚。选择大批主业突出、拥有自主知识产权和文化创新能力、核心竞争力强、成长性好的综合性文化企业集团,加大政策、资源、项目、资金等方面扶持力度,尽快做大做优做强,增强控制力和影响力,使之成为文化市场的主导力量。
二、鼓励非公有制文化企业发展
非公有制经济作为我国社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,与公有制经济一样都是我国经济社会发展的重要基础,在文化建设中发挥着重要作用。党的十六大以来,我们鼓励和引导社会资本进入文化产业,初步形成了以公有制为主体、多种所有制共同发展的文化产业格局。但是,非公有制文化企业在投资经营中还受到许多不合理限制,难以与国有文化企业平等使用生产要素。按照《决定》关于深化文化体制改革部署,必须在充分发挥国有文化企业主导作用的同时,鼓励非公有制文化企业发展,支持各种形式小微文化企业发展,构建开放多元化的文化市场发展格局。
降低社会资本进入门槛。繁荣发展文化市场,离不开多元投资主体。吸引更多社会资本进入文化领域,才能更好地释放文化市场能量。要在已放宽社会资本准入的基础上,进一步降低门槛,减少不合理的准入限制,在国家许可范围内,引导社会资本以多种形式投资文化产业,参与国有经营性文化单位转企改制,以技术、品牌、知识产权等生产要素作价参股,或采取投资、控股、收购、兼并、承包、租赁、托管等形式参与国有文化企业重组,参与重大文化产业项目实施和文化产业园区建设,并在投资核准、信用贷款、土地使用、税收优惠、上市融资、发行债券、对外贸易和申请专项资金等方面,给予与国有资本投资同等支持,努力构建政府主导下的多元化投资格局。
扩大非公有制文化企业准入领域。非公有制文化企业在资本运作、技术运用、生产管理、市场营销等方面的独特优势,可以为文化市场注入新鲜血液。要允许非公有制文化企业参与对外出版、网络出版,允许以控股形式参与国有影视制作机构、文艺院团改制经营,进入文艺表演团体、演出场所、博物馆、展览馆、文化艺术中介、旅游文化服务、艺术品经营、互联网上网服务营业场所、动漫和网络游戏、电影院和电影院线及出版物分销等领域,并享受与国有文化企业同等待遇,切实发挥好、引导好、保护好非公有制文化企业积极性。加强和改进对非公有制文化企业服务和管理,引导投资方向,抑制无序竞争,促进其自觉履行社会责任。
支持各种形式小微文化企业发展。大力发展小微文化企业,有利于进一步解放和发展文化生产力,激发全民创业热情和文化创造活力,活跃文化市场。要采取有效措施,扶持小微文化企业充分发挥在调整产业结构、扩大内需、增加就业等方面的积极作用,多元化多渠道为广大群众提供丰富多彩的文化产品和服务。鼓励小微文化企业走“专、精、特、新”路子,重点支持有核心竞争力和发展潜力的小微文化企业进入创业板上市融资,逐步做大做强。
三、建立多层次文化产品和要素市场
多层次文化产品和要素市场,是现代文化市场体系有机组成部分。随着社会主义市场经济深入发展,文化产品和要素市场初步形成,但目前文化产品和服务的供需矛盾仍然突出,文化要素流动仍然不畅,文化产品和要素市场建设仍需进一步加强。按照《决定》关于深化文化体制改革部署,必须建立多层次文化产品和要素市场,大力推动金融资本、社会资本、文化资源相结合。
加强文化产品市场建设。不断丰富文化产品市场,是建立健全现代文化市场体系的重点。要在坚持出版权、播出权特许经营前提下,允许制作和出版、制作和播出分开,鼓励文化企业不断丰富和创新文化产品和服务。发展图书报刊、电子音像制品、演出娱乐、电影电视剧、动漫游戏等传统文化产品市场,建设以网络为载体的新兴文化产品市场,培育大众性文化消费市场,开拓农村文化市场。继续打造综合性、专项性、区域性文化产品和服务交易平台,拓展文化产品和服务消费领域。发展连锁经营、物流配送、电子商务等现代流通组织和流通形式,加快建设一批大型现代文化流通企业和若干国家级文化产品物流基地,鼓励文化企业利用电子商务等先进物流技术开展第三方物流服务,构建以大城市为中心、中小城市相配套、贯通城乡的文化产品流通网络,努力实现文化产品低成本、高效率流通和配送。
加强文化生产要素市场建设。文化生产所必需的要素交易市场,是文化市场发展的基础性条件。要有序发展文化产权、版权、人才、技术、信息等要素市场,建立健全文化资产评估体系和文化产权交易体系,发展以版权交易为核心的各类文化资产交易市场。推进文化资本市场建设,促进金融资本、社会资本与文化资源有效对接,充分利用国内外多层次资本市场解决文化企业融资难问题。推进文化产权市场建设,加快制定完善著作权、企业品牌等无形资产评估、登记、质押、投资、托管、流转、变现等管理办法,鼓励和支持文化企业依法进行股权、版权、商标、品牌等方面的交易。
加强文化行业组织和中介机构建设。文化行业组织和中介机构是政府联系市场主体的桥梁,充分发挥其提供服务、反映诉求、规范行为的作用,是建立健全现代文化市场体系的重要条件。要坚持培育发展和管理监督并重,加强各类文化行业协会等行业组织建设,健全行业规范,完善行业管理,更好地履行协调、监督、服务、维权等职能。积极发展版权代理、文化经纪、评估鉴定、技术交易、推介咨询、投资保险、担保拍卖等各类文化市场中介服务机构,制定和完善文化中介机构管理办法,引导其规范运作,为各类文化市场主体提供全方位服务。
四、创新现代文化市场体系建设的政策环境
建立健全现代文化市场体系是一项系统工程,必须坚持政府主导,尊重市场经济规律和文化发展规律,积极发挥政策在宏观调控、市场监管和制度建设等方面作用,为各类文化市场主体提供公平竞争的外部环境。近年来,我们积极推进文化行政管理部门切实履行政策调节、市场监管、社会管理、公共服务等职能,出台一系列政策措施,为繁荣发展文化市场提供了重要保障。按照《决定》关于深化文化体制改革部署,必须进一步转变政府职能,完善文化经济政策,扩大政府文化资助和文化采购,加强版权保护,健全文化产品评价体系,改革评奖制度,推出更多文化精品。
完善文化经济政策。政策的完善程度,直接关系现代文化市场体系建设的推进力度和实际成效。现代文化市场体系建设越是深入推进,越需要不断完善文化经济政策、充分发挥政策杠杆作用。要加大财政、税收、金融、社会保障、土地使用等方面对文化产业的政策扶持力度,保证公共财政对文化建设的投入,提高文化支出占财政支出比例。改进政府支持文化产业的方式,扩大有关文化基金和专项资金规模,重点扶持文化创新和精品生产、具有示范性和导向性文化产业项目研发,以财政资金引导和带动更多社会资本投入文化产业。研究和改进政府采购公共文化产品和服务办法,逐步建立公共文化服务政府采购制度,实行多种形式文化产品和服务的政府采购。继续执行和逐步完善文化体制改革的配套政策,贯彻落实和逐步完善人员分流安置、人才使用培训、技术创新应用等方面的鼓励政策,大力优化有利于文化市场发展的政策环境。
加强版权保护。建立健全现代文化市场体系,离不开有力的知识产权保护和有效的市场监管。要加快文化立法,依法加强文化市场管理,综合运用法律、行政、经济、科技等手段提高管理水平。加大知识产权保护力度,支持文化产品和服务的专利申请、商标注册、版权登记,依法惩处盗版、非法出版、非法营销等侵犯知识产权的行为,维护著作权人合法权益。严格执行文化市场准入和退出机制,建立健全质量认证体系,完善相关登记备案和年检制度,最大限度地减少不合格文化产品进入市场。深入开展“扫黄打非”,健全文化市场综合执法机构,理顺互联网管理体制,尽快形成依法经营、违法必究、公平交易、诚实守信的文化市场秩序。
健全文化产品评价体系。优秀文化产品的大量涌现,是繁荣文化市场的根本前提。近年来,我国文化产品创作生产数量不断丰富、质量不断提升,但文化精品仍然不多。要加强对文化产品创作生产的引导,全面贯彻“二为”方向和“双百”方针,牢固树立以人民为中心的工作导向,推出更好更多精神食粮。健全文化产品评价体系,坚持把弘扬社会主义核心价值体系、坚持社会主义先进文化前进方向、人民群众满意作为评价作品最高标准,把群众评价、专家评价、市场检验统一起来,形成科学的评价标准,不断提高对文化作品评判的导向性、权威性、公信度。改革评奖制度,精简评奖种类,建立公开、公平、公正的评奖机制,充分发挥引导示范作用。科学制定文化企事业单位的考评标准,坚持把社会效益放在首位,统筹社会效益与经济效益、导向要求与利润指标,推动建立有利于出精品、出人才、出效益的体制机制,努力实现社会效益最大化和经济效益最优化。
(作者:国家新闻出版广电总局党组书记、副局长)

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