Correctly Deal With Both Historical Periods Before and After Reform and Opening Up

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This article was originally published by People’s Daily on 8 November 2013.

Study General Secretary Xi Jinping’s Important Elaboration concerning the “Two Cannot Denies”

CCP Central Committee Party History Research Department

General Secretary Xi Jinping profoundly pointed out that there are two historical periods in our Party leading the people in conducting Socialist construction, before the Revolution and after the Revolution, these are two periods that are mutually connected and have major differences, but essentially they are both the exploration in practice of the Party leading the people in conducting Socialist construction. He stressed that the historical period before reform and opening up must be correctly evaluated, the historical period after reform and opening up cannot be used to deny the historical period before reform and opening up, neither can the period before reform and opening up be used to deny the historical period after reform and opening up (hereafter, this sis simply called the “Two cannot denies”. This major elaboration by General Secretary Xi Jinping has profoundly reflected the fundamental position and clear attitude of our Party concerning these major questions. Studying General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important elaboration, has an important guiding significance in correctly understanding and grasping both historical periods before and after reform and opening up, and even the entire history of the Party, in further strengthening self-confidence about the path, self-confidence about the theory and self-confidence about the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics through strengthening self-confidence about the Party’s history, and in resolutely continuing to push forward with the magnificent undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

I, The history since the foundation of the New China includes two historical periods, before and after reform and opening up, none of these two periods can be denied.

The path has come step by step, only when a first step is taken, can there be a second step. Our Party’s leading the Revolution, construction and reform is also a magnificent undertaking that originates in a single stream, through which a torch is passed down, and that is replicated endlessly. All successes that have been obtained in the new China are the results of continued struggle and successive exploration on the basis of the victory in the New Democratic Revolution. With the 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Congress as symbol, the history of New China is divided into two periods, before and after reform and opening up. Innumerable facts indicate that none of these two historical periods can be denied.

(1) The history before reform and opening up is a history in which the Party led the people of all ethnicities in the entire country in conducting Socialist revolution and construction, and great achievements were made.

From the day on which our Party came into being, it has made realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation into its own task, and has shouldered the two historical tasks of striving for the independence of the nation and the liberation of the country, and of realizing a strong and powerful country, and a prosperous people. The Party has led the people in completing the New Democratic Revolution, which realized the Chinese people’s long-cherished dream of national independence and liberation of the people. This cleared away obstacles for the establishment of a Socialist system in China and the implementation of Socialist construction, and provided fundamental political preconditions to realize a strong and wealthy country and prosperity of the people, and thereby realizing the magnificent rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

The struggles and explorations of before reform and opening up are a new magnificent historical march that began as a fruit of victory in the New Democratic Revolution.  After the New China was established, the first generation collective Party leadership with Comrade Mao Zedong at the core led the people to build and consolidate the national regime of the people’s democratic dictatorship, creatively realized the transformation from New Democracy to Socialism, comprehensively established the basic Socialist system, and successfully realized the most profound and magnificent social transformation in Chinese history. The Party did not lose any time or opportunity in putting forward general economic guidelines for the period of transition, and through Socialist transformation, it established the basic Socialist economic system. The Party also led the people in establishing the People’s Congress system, the multi-Party cooperation and consultative conference system under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, and established the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area. The establishment of the Socialist system conformed to China’s national conditions and the basic interest of the people, and created a fundamental institutional basis for all China’s developments.

After the basic Socialist system was established, how to construct Socialism in China was a completely new question that the Party faced. The Party had called to study Soviet experiences, but rapidly became aware of the limitations of the Soviet model. Comrade Mao Zedong put forward the task of conducting a “second integration” of Marxism-Leninism with China’s reality, which meant taking the experiences and lessons of the Soviet Union as a warning, and independently exploring a path for Socialist construction that conformed to China’s national characteristics. Through practical exploration, the Party accumulated important experiences in leading Socialist construction. The Party united and led the strength of the entire people to push Socialist construction forward, and obtained huge achievements. The fruits of exploration and huge achievements obtained in the historical period before reform and opening up must be fully affirmed.

There is no need for reticence, because the Party has little experience in leading the Socialist undertaking, and the Party leadership’s analysis of circumstances and their understanding of national conditions suffered from subjectivist deviations, and it made the mistakes of broadening class struggle, and hurriedly seeking for purity in the issue of ownership systems as well as hurriedly seeking for results in economic construction. In subsequent practice, because of the development of “leftist” mistaken tendencies in the ideology of the Party leadership, grave comprehensive and long-term mistakes such as the “Cultural Revolution” occurred, which brought grave setbacks to the process of Party exploration, and brought grave disaster to the Party, the country and the people of all ethnicities. We can never forget the hard-learned lessons from this. That is to say, that we cannot deny the historical period before reform and opening up, is meant in general terms, it does not mean that we must overlook or even conceal the mistakes before the “Cultural Revolution” and of the “Cultural Revolution”. Concerning the mistakes before the “Cultural Revolution”, the 6th Plenum of the 11th Party Congress passed the “Resolution concerning Some Historical Questions of our Party after Founding the Nation” (Hereafter simply named the “Historical Resolution”), which made a scientific analysis and an objective appraisal; concerning the “Cultural Revolution”, the “Historical Resolution” made an even more fundamental and clear conclusion of thorough denial, and pointed out that the “‘ Cultural Revolution’ was not and could not in any sense a revolution or social progress”. In these matters, we must continue to persist.

The historical period before reform and opening up is closely connected to Comrade Mao Zedong. That we cannot deny the historical period before reform and opening up does not mean that we must overlook or even conceal the mistakes of Comrade Mao Zedong in his later years. At the same time, we can also not artificially exaggerate the mistakes of Comrade Mao Zedong in his later years, and can certainly not completely deny Comrade Mao Zedong and Mao Zedong Thought, if we do this, we will both violate historical fact and the will of the people, and this will certainly create extremely grave political consequences. Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out that: “The evaluation of Comrade Mao Zedong, and the elaboration of Mao Zedong Thought, is not just a question that involves Comrade Mao Zedong individually, it is also inseparable from the overall history of our Party and our country. We must see this larger picture”. Comrade Deng Xiaoping earnestly put forward this major problem, and its basic spirit was completely consistent with the “Historical Resolution”. The “Historical Resolution” points out that: “Comrade Mao Zedong was a great Marxist, and was a great proletarian revolutionary, warrior and theorist. Although he made grave mistakes during the ‘Cultural Revolution’, when looking at his entire life, his contributions to the Chinese revolution are fare greater than his faults. His merits are primary, his mistakes are secondary.” We must profoundly comprehend the spiritual essence of this judgment, affirm the historical position of Comrade Mao Zedong and Mao Zedong Thought with the assumption that justice is on our side, and evaluate the historical period before reform and opening up by seeking truth from faces.

(2) The history after reform and opening up is the history of the Party leading the people of all ethnicities in the entire country in successfully creating and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics

The 3rd Plenum of the 11th Party Committee in 1978 re-established the ideological line of liberating thoughts and seeking truth from facts, it made the historical policy decision to transfer the centre of Party and State work to economic construction and to implement reform and opening up, and it realized a magnificent transformation that had a profound significance for the Party’s history after the foundation of the new China. The second generation Central leading collective with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at the core conformed to the demands of the times and the aspirations of the people, conducted reform and opening up with huge political courage and theoretical courage, ad clearly put forward that we must make clear these major theoretical and practical questions of what is Socialism and how to construct Socialism. Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out that: “There are many strands in our experiences and lessons, the most important strand is that we must make these questions clear”. Exactly because of the fact that these questions were put forward so acutely, did Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s profound exploration of and creative scientific response to these major questions come into being. In 1981, the 6th Plenum of the 11th Party Congress put forward the “Historical Resolution”, which symbolised the Party’s victorious completion of bringing order out of chaos in terms of guiding ideology. In 1982, Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forward the resounding call to “march our own path and build Socialism with Chinese characteristics” at the 12th Party Congress. Through practice and exploration, the Party has further put forward the theory of the primary stage of Socialism, established the basic path of the Party in the primary stage of Socialism, and profoundly revealed the essence of Socialism. Comrade Deng Xiaoping profoundly summarized historical experiences and new experiences, and for the first time, brought a relatively systematic preliminary answer to the series of fundamental questions about how to build Socialism, how to consolidate and develop Socialism in a country that is relatively backward in economic and cultural terms as China, he used new ideological viewpoints to inherit and develop Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, opened up a new frontier for Marxism, raised our understanding of Socialism to new scientific levels, and successfully created Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics incessantly develops and progresses with the times. After the 4th Plenum of the 13tdh Party Congress, the third generation Central leadership collective with Comrade Jiang Zemin at the core successfully pushed Socialism with Chinese characteristics towards the 21st Century. In a new historical period, the Party Centre with Comrade Hu Jintao as General Secretary successfully persisted in and developed Socialism with Chinese characteristics from a new historical starting point. Since the 18th Party Congress, the Party Centre with Xi Jinping as General Secretary united and led the people of all ethnicities in the entire country, and realized a good beginning to seize new victories for Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Over more than thirty years, the Party has led the people in persisting in and expanding the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persisting in and enriching the theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics that includes Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view, persisting in and perfecting the institutions of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, ensuring that Socialism with Chinese characteristics shines with thriving vitality and exuberant vigour.

As soon as Socialism with Chinese characteristics took root in Chinese soil, it has revealed a strong life force and power to inspire, and has become the glorious banner to lead the development and progress of contemporary China. In over thirty years, the Party has led the people in writing a new and majestic chapter of reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction. Huge achievements that have attracted worldwide attention have been obtained in economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction and ecological civilization construction, and the Party’s self-construction is greatly strengthening. Our country’s social productive strength and comprehensive national strength have markedly increased; scientific and technologic strength and national defence strength have clearly risen. From 1978 to 2012, GDP grew from 364.5 billion Yuan to 51.93 trillion Yuan, and it became the second largest economy in the world. A historical leap was realized in the people’s lives, from insufficient food and dress to comprehensive moderate prosperity. In today’s China, the people are high-spirited and vigorous, development brings something new every day, society’s vitality bursts forth, and our international position has clearly risen. In a large eastern country with a large population and extremely backward economy and culture such as China, bringing such great change in such a small period of time and at such a high speed, truly is and extraordinary achievement. It is normal and not strange that a few problems have arisen in this process, about which people are broadly concerned and that need to be promptly resolved, and we can absolutely not deny the historical period after reform and opening up because of this. As early as 1981, the “Historical Resolution” put forward that: “Since the 3rd Plenum our Party has progressively established a correct path for Socialist modernization construction that conforms to our national circumstances. This path will be incessantly strengthened and developed in practice, but its main points may already be summarized by the positive and negative experiences after founding the nation, and especially the lessons learnt from the “Cultural Revolution.” Afterwards, the Party and the country have marched through another 32 years, Since over 30 years, the Party has consistently soberly recognized and scientifically responded to the problems on the path ahead, persisted in using development thought to resolve the difficulties encountered in development, used the methods of reform to resolve problems emerging from reform, relied on the people in storming fortifications and overcoming difficulties, continued to advance, and ensured that the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics became ever broader. Practice convincingly proves that Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the basic orientation and the only correct path for the development and progress of contemporary China, only Socialism with Chinese characteristics can develop China. The correct orientation and huge achievements in the historical period after reform and opening must be fully affirmed.

II, Both historical periods before and after reform and opening up are essentially the Party leading the people in conducting practical exploration of Socialist construction, and cannot mutually deny each other

When looking from the overall picture of the development of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, both historical periods before and after reform and opening up have both major differences, and fundamental links. We must persist in the basic viewpoints of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, and on the basis of fully affirming all historical contributions and fully paying attention to specific historical characteristics, closely grasp the dialectical unity of both historical periods, which can absolutely not deny each other.

(1) The practice and exploration of Socialism before reform and opening up has provided important conditions for the practice and exploration of Socialism after reform and opening up.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics has been created in a new historical period of reform and opening up, but it has also been created on the foundation of the basic Socialist system established in the New China, which underwent more than 20 years of construction. The 18th Party Congress highly evaluated the important contributions of the first generation Central leadership collective with Comrade Mao Zedong at the core in exploring a Socialist construction path that conformed to China’s national circumstances, stressed the unique creative theoretical results and huge achievements that the Party obtained in Socialist construction, which provided precious experiences, theoretical preparations and a material basis for creating Socialism with Chinese characteristics in a new historical period. This is a correct judgment that completely conforms to historical fact.

Before and after the 8th Party Congress of 1956, with “On the Ten Great Relationships”, “Concerning Correctly Handling the Question of Contradictions Among the People” published by Mao Zedong as the main symbol, the Party’s exploration of a Socialist construction path conforming to China’s national circumstances had a good beginning. Through practice and exploration, and especially the summarizing of experiences and lessons, the Party progressively shaped a series of extremely important ideological viewpoints that had a long-term guiding significance concerning this path. These mainly were: the contradictions between productive forces and relationships of production, the economic basis and the superstructure are the fundamental contradictions of Socialism, the contradiction between the people’s rapidly developing economic and cultural demands and the fact that the economy and culture cannot yet satisfy the people’s demands is the main contradiction within our country, and developing productive forces is the fundamental task; the necessity to shift the work focus of the Party and the State to scientific and technological revolutions and Socialist construction; the necessity to persist in taking agriculture as the basis and industry as guidance, to arrange the national economy in the order of agriculture, light industry and heavy industry, and to march a Chinese industrialization path; the objective of Socialist development being the construction of a modern industry modern agriculture, modern science and technology, and modern national defence; the fact that Socialism can be divided into two stages, “not developed” and “relatively developed”; the necessity to broaden Socialist democracy, persist in the system of democratic centralism, strengthen the construction of a Socialist legal system, and oppose bureaucratization and privileges among leading organs and leading cadres; the necessity to correctly differentiate and deal with contradictions with the enemy and contradictions among the people, etc. The Party also put forward a series of important guiding principles and policy standpoints such as constructing a Socialist economy, politics and culture, national defence and military construction, foreign relations work, etc. Even though the abovementioned correct ideological viewpoints, principles and policies sometimes were not implemented, and sometimes were not persisted in, the summary of the Party’s experiences during this period, the understandings and results, provided an important source of thought for the creation and development of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. The theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics inherited and developed Mao Zedong Thought, which not only includes the inheritance and developments of the living soul of Mao Zedong Thought, i.e. seeking truth from facts, the mass line, independence and autonomy, but also includes the inheritance and development of the summary of correct experiences from explorations and original theoretical results. It is as Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out: “The important ideological results formed through arduous exploration when Comrade Mao Zedong led our Party are precious riches for our Party, and are an important source of thought for the theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics”.

After the New China was established, the Party led the people in recovering the national economy and launching the construction of the planned economy, it implemented the 1st Five-Year Plan and completed it before schedule. After the establishment of the basic Socialist system, the Party led the people in launching comprehensive Socialist construction, and even though grave setbacks were experienced, huge achievements were obtained in all areas of construction. The most important achievements among these are the establishment of an independent and relatively integrated industrial structure and national economic structure on the basis of “grinding poverty’, which enabled the ancient China to stand rick-firm in the East of the world with a completely new bearing. Even though the speed of economic development had its ups and downs, generally speaking, it was relatively fast. From 1952 to 1978, the total output of agriculture and industry rose 8.2% per annum on average, and the average growth rate of industry was 11.4%. Our country’s economic power, scientific and technological strength and national defence strength clearly strengthened. GDP rose from 67.9 billion Yuan in 1952 to 364.5 billion Yuan in 1978. Even though this number was not very high, the growth from the original baseline was relatively clear. Breakthroughs were obtained on the frontiers of science and technology, represented by the “two bombs and one satellite”. Comrade Deng Xiaoping afterwards evaluated this: “If China would not have had the nuclear bomb and the hydrogen bomb since the Sixties, and would not have launched a satellite, China could not be called an important influential large country, and it would not have the international position is has now. These things reflect the ability of a nation, and are the symbol of the flourishing and growth of a nation and a country”. Following economic development, the people’s lives progressively improved. Generally speaking, the historical period after reform and opening up relied on a material and technological for Socialist modernization construction that was established during this period; the backbone forces for economic and cultural construction and other such areas and their work experiences were also fostered and accumulated during this period. This is the dominant aspect of Party work during this period.

History has already demonstrated that without the establishment of the New China in 1949 and the conduct of Socialist revolution and construction, the accumulation of important ideological, material and institutional condition, and the accumulation of both positive and negative experiences, it would be difficult for reform and opening up to be pushed forward smoothly, and it would be difficult to successfully create Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

(2) Socialist practice and exploration after reform and opening up is the continuation, reform and development of Socialist practice and exploration before reform and opening up.

As early as the initial period of reform and opening up, Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out that: “Now, we will do the things that Comrade Mao Zedong already put forward, but did not do, correct the mistakes that he made, and do the things well that he did not do. In the considerably long time ahead, we will still do this”. It is, in fact, just so, the Party has implemented many correct standpoints that were put forward through Socialist practice and exploration before reform and opening up, after reform and opening up; Socialist practice and exploration after reform and opening up is the continuation, reform and development of Socialist practice and exploration before reform and opening up. History develops and progresses through such contradictory movements.

From the beginning of reform and opening up, the Party stressed the necessity to persist in the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the Socialist system. Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out that: “We implement reform and opening up, this is a question of how to do Socialism. In terms of structures, without this precondition of Socialism, reform and opening up will march towards capitalism.” He stressed that “the dominance of public ownership and common prosperity, are the basic principles of Socialism that we must persist in.” In the face of thinking trends in society where people preached the mechanical copy of the Western model, the Party timely and with clear banners put forward the necessity to persist in the Four Cardinal Principles in ideology and politics, meaning the necessity to persist in the Socialist path, persist in the proletarian dictatorship, i.e., the people’s democratic dictatorship, persist in the leadership of the Communist Party, and persist in Marxism-Leninism and Mao- Zedong Thought, it stressed that this was the foundation to build the country, and thereby guaranteed that reform and opening up would have a persistent and clear Socialist orientation from the start.

The Party stressed that reform and opening up demand conducting a new magnificent revolution under the conditions of new times, and is the self-perfection and development of the Socialist system, Reform and opening up has enabled our country to successfully realize the transformation from a highly concentrated planned economic system to a Socialist market economy system that brims with vitality, and from closedness and half-closedness to complete openness in all directions. Without the Party’s resolute decision to implement reform and opening up in 1978, its unwavering pushing reform and opening up forward, and its unwavering grasp of the correct orientation of reform and opening up, Socialist China could not have engendered the good situation there is today. History proves that reform and opening up is the crucial choice that decided the fate of contemporary China, and is the only way to develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

During the new historical period of reform and opening up, the Party led the people in the successful creation of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, this is the most important and most fundamental achievement obtained on the basis of inheriting and developing the ideological, material and institutional results provided by Socialist practice and exploration before reform and opening up. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has both persisted in the basic principles of scientific Socialism, and based itself on the Chinese characteristics that the conditions of the times have endowed it with, systematically answering these great questions of what kind of Socialism to build and how to build Socialism in a large eastern country such as China, with its large population and low baselines, by integrating theory and practice. The Party stresses that Socialism with Chinese characteristics is Marxist Socialism and not any other ism, regardless of whatever reform or whatever opening up comes, they must always persist in the path, theoretical structure and system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics throughout. More than 30 years of practice prove that Socialism with Chinese characteristics has, on the basis of the huge achievements made after the establishment of the New China, again gained even greater results that attracted worldwide attention. This is a major reason why it can stand up and go far.

The Report of the 18th Party Congress has systematically summarized the content of the path, theoretical structure and system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and put forward eight basic demands to seize new victories for Socialism with Chinese characteristics, these are all important reflections and real applications of the basic principles of scientific Socialism under new historical conditions. Facts demonstrate irrefutably: just as the huge achievements gained through more than 30 years of reform and opening up do not brook denial, the Socialist essence of our country’s reform and opening up cannot be denied and is impossible to deny.

(3) Persist in using the viewpoint of history, the viewpoint of practice and the viewpoint of dialectics to correctly handle both historical periods before and after reform and opening up

The two historical periods before and after reform and opening up are two periods that are mutually linked but different in important ways. Looking at the mutual links, it can be said that these sort of links are not only links of temporal subsequence and continuation, but they are links based on persisting in the Socialist development orientation, basic systems, basic tasks and struggle objectives, there is absolutely no clear-cut separation between both historical periods, neither are they fundamentally opposed; looking at the important difference, this mainly refers to the great differences in the ideological guidance, principles and policies, and real work in conducting Socialist construction, and also includes the large differences that exist in internal and external conditions to engage in Socialist practice and exploration, the basis for practice and other such areas. Among these, some differences have a transformational sense, for example, from “taking class struggle as the key link” to “putting economic construction central”, from a highly concentrated planned economic system to the Socialist market economy. The links between the former and latter historical periods are essential and intrinsic for the most part, they all are the Party leading the people in conducting Socialist construction. Only by correctly understanding these sorts of linkages and differences will it be possible to see that, regardless of whichever historical period is used to deny the other historical period, they all are a denial of our own historical period, and will it be possible to even more consciously persist in the “two that cannot be denied”.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the dialectical unification of scientific Socialist theoretical logic, and the logic of the development history of China’s society. Stressing that “the two cannot be denied”, means that it is necessary to observe and grasp these two historical periods by placing them in the long river of historical development, and particularly in the more than ninety years of history of the Party, attention must be paid to both analysing what the former historical period provided to the latter, and to analysing how the latter period picked or corrected content from the former, as well as which content it provided or added. Only in this way will it be possible to correctly understand the unique position and role of each historical period in the process of exploring, creating and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, to respect history and not to distort or cut off history, to seek truth from facts and not to raise high or be overly critical of our predecessors, and consciously ensure that the fruits of the victory in the New Democratic Revolution are not lost, that the achievements of Socialist revolution and construction can absolutely not be denied, and that the direction of reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction can absolutely not waver.

III, Persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics on the basis of correctly understanding and grasping both historical periods before and after reform and opening up

General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward that: “In which ism a country implements, the key is that it is necessary to look at whether or not this ism can resolve the historical questions that this country faces”. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has concentrated this most basic dream of the Chinese nation since the advent of modernity, realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and also reflects the beautiful longing for and unwavering exploration of Socialism by the Chinese people since the advent of modernity. Correctly understanding and grasping both historical periods before and after reform and opening up means that it is necessary to unwaveringly persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics under new historical conditions.

(1) Correctly understand and grasp that both historical periods before and after reform and opening up are a treasure of great value for the history of the Party, and benefit strengthening the Party’s self confidence about history

Our Party is a party that has united and led the people of all ethnicities in he entire country to conduct the revolution, construction and reform under  extraordinary and complex circumstances, and has created magnificent miracles, it is a party that has endured victories and setbacks, high tides and low tides, favourable circumstances and adversity. It survived desperate situations at times of calamity, it resolutely rose again after setbacks, it brought order out of chaos after mistakes, it kept fighting in spite of all adversity in the face of tribulations, it has seen both hardships and miracles, it has undergone difficulties and glorious outcomes. The Party’s history of more than 90 years, is a process in which  generations of Communist Party members struggled and explored unswervingly with the same beliefs, under the leadership of the same convictions, and through the drive of the same pursuit. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has been created and developed by the untold hardships of generations of Communist Party members, and against the payment of all sorts of prices. History and practice have repeatedly proven that only Socialism can save China, and only Socialism with Chinese characteristics can develop China. Persisting in the “two that cannot be denied”, does not only mean respecting and cherishing the historical facts of both periods before and after reform and opening up, it also means having the necessary self-confidence about the Party’s overall history of more than 90 years.

(2) Correctly understanding and grasping both historical periods before and after reform and opening up is a real demand to respond to challenges in the ideological area, and to promote the development of the undertaking of the Party and the people

Correctly understanding and grasping the relationship of Socialist practice and exploration before and after reform and opening up is not only a historical issue, but more importantly, it is a real political issue. If this important political issue is not handled well, it may engender grave political consequences. If incorrect viewpoints are used to simply deny both these historical periods or any one of them, it will inevitably lead to the denial of the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and of the Socialist system, and it will inevitably lead to the denial of reform, opening up and Socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must absolutely have such political sobriety.

The ancients said: “To annihilate a country of men, its history must be removed first”. Analysing from the side of domestic and foreign hostile forces, they deny of the historical period before reform and opening up, because they want to deny the major historical contributions of our Party, exaggerating the mistakes and setbacks of our Party during practice and exploration, this demonizes the Chinese Communist Party, and thereby fundamentally denies the governing position of the Chinese Communist Party; they deny the historical period after reform and opening up, because they want to deny the Socialist essence of reform and opening up, exaggerating the difficulties, contradictions and problems that emerged during reform and opening up, this demonizes Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and thereby shakes the common ideological basis for the united struggle of the Chinese people. The denial by hostile forces of both periods, fundamentally speaking, is a deviation from historical fact, it aims to confuse people’s minds, and schemes to disintegrate the historical basis and ideological foundation for Chinese Communist Party governance, and thereby destroy the future of Socialist China and the prosperity of the broad Chinese people. “A crash of the vehicle in front is a lesson for the following vehicle”. One important reason for the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the CPSU is  the complete denial of the history of the Soviet Union, and the history of the CPSU, the denial of Lenin and other leading personalities, and historical nihilism confused the people’s thoughts. Because of this, correctly understanding and grasping both historical periods before and after reform and opening up is a major political issue that relates to the fate of the Party, the country and the people. In the face of such great matters of right and wrong, every Communist Party member and especially leading cadres, should firmly defend the Party’s history, earnestly study the Party’s history, and consciously use the Party’s history.

On the question of how to treat both historical periods before and after reform and opening up, there is another sort of situation, which is that some confused understandings exist among the people as well. Although this sort of confused understanding is essentially completely different from the previously mentioned situation, it is also necessary to clear matters up by correct education and guidance. If the main stream and essence of the Party’s historical development cannot be understood or recognized, if the long and winding road that the Party has marched cannot be correctly dealt with, this may shake trust in the Party, shake belief in Socialism with Chinese characteristics, shake faith in realizing the magnificent rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and in the end, what will be damaged is the undertaking of the Party and the people, as well as the basic interests of the broad popular masses that are closely connected to this undertaking. Therefore, we must persist in correctly propagating the Party’s history, educating the broad popular masses to correctly understand and deal with the history of the Party, and further strengthen determination and conviction to march with the Party along the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics.

(3) Correctly understand and correctly grasp both historical periods before and after reform and opening up, spare no effort to realize the Chinese Dream along the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics

At present, the Party and the people are, under the leadership of the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary, imbued with self-confidence about the path, the theory and the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and they struggle and strive to completely construct a moderately prosperous society and to seize new victories for Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Correctly understanding and correctly grasping the Socialist practice and exploration during both historical periods before and after reform and opening up, has an important encouraging and enlightening role in our further strengthening our self-confidence and staunchness in persisting and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and to struggle for the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

The history of Socialist practice and exploration before and after reform and opening up tells us that to realise the Chinese Dream, we must unwaveringly persist in marching a Chinese path. During the historical period of reform and opening up, the Party has made arduous efforts to explore a path of Socialist construction that conforms to China’s national conditions, and formed a series of major understandings and results. Since reform and opening up, the Party has based itself on the basic national conditions of the preliminary stage of Socialism, incessantly deepened its understanding of the laws of Communist Party governance, the laws of Socialist construction, and the laws of human social development, and has successfully created a path for Socialism with Chinese characteristics. On the new journey, we must absolutely persist in integrating Marxism with China’s reality and the characteristics of the times, persist in and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics, we may neither walk the old road of closedness and fossilization, nor walk the evil path of changing banners, but persist in unwaveringly following the Chinese path to forge valiantly ahead.

The history of Socialist practice and exploration before and after reform and opening up tells us that to realize the Chinese Dream, we must forcefully carry forward the Chinese spirit. In the historical period before reform and opening up, the Party persisted in the guiding position of Marxism, and used patriotism, collectivism and Socialism to educate the people, fostered and formed the spirit of Lei Feng, the spirit of the “Iron Man”, the spirit of Jiao Yulu, the spirit of “two bombs and one satellite” and other spirits rich in characteristics of the time. Since reform and opening up, the Party has persisted in using the newest results of the Sinification of Marxism to arm the entire Party and educate the people, and has composed a glorious chapter for the undertaking of reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction with a spirit of forging valiantly ahead and innovative practices that surged like a tidal wave. On the new journey, we must absolutely forcefully carry forward the spirit of the nation with patriotism at the core and the spirit of the time with reform and innovation at the core, incessantly strengthen spiritual bonds that unite all hearts, spiritual drivers of continuous self-renewal, and march towards the future with an eternal spirit of vigour and vitality.

The history of Socialist practice and exploration before and after reform and opening up also tells us that to realise the Chinese Dream, we must broadly concentrate China’s forces. In the historical period before reform and opening up, our country realized a magnificent leap from a few millennia of feudal autocratic politics to people’s democratic politics, and the people have become the masters of the country, society and their own fates. During the years of enthusiast and ardent construction, the Party and the people shared weal and woe, shared joy and sorrow, worked diligently in spite of difficulties, made selfless contributions, and have assembled formidable forces to construct Socialism. Since reform and opening up, the Party has united and coalesced the people of all ethnicities in the entire country under the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and they commonly struggled to realize the magnificent rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. On a new journey, we must absolutely keep our mission firmly in mind, be of one heart and mind, not fear any risk, not be confused because of any disturbance, and use the struggles and wisdom of hundreds of millions of people to assemble undefeatable and overwhelming forces.

Looking back at history, the Party and the people are full of self-confidence; looking into the future, there are splendid prospects for the majestic motherland. Let us closely unite around the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary, spare no efforts to broaden the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and struggle untiringly for the realization of the magnificent Chinese Dream!

正确看待改革开放前后两个历史时期

——学习习近平总书记关于“两个不能否定”的重要论述

中共中央党史研究室

习近平总书记深刻指出,我们党领导人民进行社会主义建设,有改革开放前和改革开放后两个历史时期,这是两个相互联系又有重大区别的时期,但本质上都是我们党领导人民进行社会主义建设的实践探索。他强调,对改革开放前的历史时期要正确评价,不能用改革开放后的历史时期否定改革开放前的历史时期,也不能用改革开放前的历史时期否定改革开放后的历史时期(以下简称“两个不能否定”)。习近平总书记的这一重要论述,集中体现了我们党对于这一重大问题的根本立场和鲜明态度。学习习近平总书记的重要论述,对于我们从宏观上正确认识和把握改革开放前后两个历史时期乃至整个党的历史,进一步在坚定党的历史自信中坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信,坚定不移地把中国特色社会主义伟大事业继续推向前进,具有重要指导意义。

一、新中国成立以来的历史包括改革开放前后两个历史时期,两个时期都不能否定

路是一步一步走过来的,跨出第一步,才有第二步。我们党领导的革命、建设、改革,也是一脉相承、薪火相传、生生不息的壮丽事业。新中国取得的一切成就,都是在新民主主义革命胜利基础上接续奋斗、接力探索的结果。以党的十一届三中全会为标志,新中国历史分为改革开放前后两个历史时期。无数事实表明,这两个历史时期都是不能否定的。

(一)改革开放前的历史,是党领导全国各族人民进行社会主义革命和建设并取得巨大成就的历史

我们党自诞生之日起,就以实现中华民族伟大复兴为己任,肩负起争取民族独立、人民解放和实现国家富强、人民富裕这两大历史任务。党领导人民完成新民主主义革命,实现了中国人民梦寐以求的民族独立、人民解放。这就为在中国建立社会主义制度、进行社会主义建设扫清了障碍,为实现国家富强、人民富裕进而实现中华民族伟大复兴提供了根本政治前提。

改革开放前的奋斗探索,是承接新民主主义革命胜利成果而开始的新的伟大历史进军。新中国成立后,以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体领导人民建立和巩固人民民主专政的国家政权,创造性地实现从新民主主义到社会主义的转变,全面确立社会主义基本制度,成功实现了中国历史上最深刻最伟大的社会变革。党不失时机地提出过渡时期总路线,经过社会主义改造,建立起社会主义基本经济制度。党还领导人民建立起人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度,确立了马克思主义在意识形态领域的指导地位。社会主义制度的确立,符合中国国情和人民根本利益,为当代中国一切发展进步奠定了根本制度基础。

社会主义制度基本建立后,如何在中国建设社会主义,是党面临的崭新课题。党曾经号召学习苏联经验,但很快察觉到苏联模式的局限。毛泽东同志提出把马克思列宁主义同中国实际进行“第二次结合”的任务,要以苏联的经验教训为鉴戒,独立探索适合中国国情的社会主义建设道路。经过实践探索,党积累了领导社会主义建设的重要经验。党团结带领人民全力推进社会主义建设,取得了巨大成就。对改革开放前历史时期的探索成果和巨大成就,必须充分肯定。

毋庸讳言,由于党领导社会主义事业的经验不多,党的领导对形势的分析和对国情的认识有主观主义偏差,也犯过把阶级斗争扩大化、在所有制问题上急于求纯和在经济建设上急于求成的错误。在后来的实践中,由于党在指导思想上“左”倾错误的发展,又发生了“文化大革命”这样全局性的、长时间的严重错误,使党的探索进程遭受严重挫折,给党、国家和各族人民带来严重灾难。这些刻骨铭心的教训,是我们永远不能忘却的。也就是说,不能否定改革开放前的历史时期,那是从整体上说的,并不意味着要忽视甚至掩盖“文化大革命”前和“文化大革命”的错误。对于“文化大革命”前的错误,党的十一届六中全会通过《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》(以下简称“历史决议”)已经作出科学分析和客观评价;对于“文化大革命”,“历史决议”更是从根本上作出彻底否定的明确结论,指出“‘文化大革命’不是也不可能是任何意义上的革命或社会进步”。这些,都是我们必须继续坚持的。

改革开放前的历史时期是同毛泽东同志紧密联系在一起的。不能否定改革开放前的历史时期,也并不意味着要忽视甚至掩盖毛泽东同志晚年的错误。同时,也不能人为夸大毛泽东同志晚年的错误,更不能全盘否定毛泽东同志和毛泽东思想,如果这样做,既违背历史事实和人民意愿,也势必造成十分严重的政治后果。邓小平同志指出:“对毛泽东同志的评价,对毛泽东思想的阐述,不是仅仅涉及毛泽东同志个人的问题,这同我们党、我们国家的整个历史是分不开的。要看到这个全局。”邓小平同志郑重地提出这个重大问题,其基本精神同“历史决议”是完全一致的。“历史决议”指出:“毛泽东同志是伟大的马克思主义者,是伟大的无产阶级革命家、战略家和理论家。他虽然在‘文化大革命’中犯了严重错误,但是就他的一生来看,他对中国革命的功绩远远大于他的过失。他的功绩是第一位的,错误是第二位的。”我们要深刻领会这一论断的精神实质,理直气壮地肯定毛泽东同志的历史地位和毛泽东思想,实事求是地评价改革开放前的历史时期。

(二)改革开放后的历史,是党领导全国各族人民成功开创和发展中国特色社会主义的历史

1978年党的十一届三中全会重新确立解放思想、实事求是的思想路线,作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策,实现了新中国成立以来党的历史上具有深远意义的伟大转折。以邓小平同志为核心的党的第二代中央领导集体顺应时代要求和人民期待,以巨大的政治勇气和理论勇气推进改革开放,并明确提出必须搞清楚什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义这个重大理论和实践问题。邓小平同志指出:“我们的经验教训有许多条,最重要的一条,就是要搞清楚这个问题。”正因为这样尖锐地提出问题,才有了邓小平同志对这些重大问题的深入探索和开创性科学回答。1981年,党的十一届六中全会作出“历史决议”,标志着党胜利地完成了指导思想上的拨乱反正。1982年,邓小平同志在党的十二大上发出“走自己的道路,建设有中国特色的社会主义”的响亮号召。经过实践探索,党进一步提出了社会主义初级阶段理论,确立了党在社会主义初级阶段的基本路线,深刻揭示了社会主义的本质。邓小平同志深刻总结历史经验和新鲜经验,第一次比较系统地初步回答了在中国这样一个经济文化比较落后的国家如何建设社会主义、如何巩固和发展社会主义的一系列基本问题,用新的思想观点继承和发展了马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想,开拓了马克思主义新境界,把对社会主义的认识提高到新的科学水平,成功开创了中国特色社会主义。

中国特色社会主义是不断发展、与时俱进的。党的十三届四中全会以后,以江泽民同志为核心的党的第三代中央领导集体成功地把中国特色社会主义推向21世纪。新世纪新阶段,以胡锦涛同志为总书记的党中央成功地在新的历史起点上坚持和发展了中国特色社会主义。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为总书记的党中央团结带领全国各族人民,实现了夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利的良好开局。30多年来,党领导人民坚持和拓展中国特色社会主义道路,坚持和丰富包括邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观在内的中国特色社会主义理论体系,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,使中国特色社会主义焕发出勃勃生机和旺盛活力。

中国特色社会主义一经根植于中华大地,便显示出强大的生命力和感召力,成为引领当代中国发展进步的光辉旗帜。30多年来,党领导人民谱写了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设新的壮丽篇章。经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设取得举世瞩目的巨大成就,党的自身建设大大加强。我国社会生产力、综合国力大幅提升,科技实力、国防实力显著增强。1978年至2012年,国内生产总值由3645亿元增长到51.93万亿元,成为世界第二大经济体。人民生活实现了从温饱不足到总体小康的历史性跨越。今天的中国,人民意气风发,发展日新月异,社会活力迸发,国际地位显著提高。在中国这样一个人口众多、经济文化十分落后的东方大国,在如此短的时间内,以如此快的速度,呈现如此大的变化,这的确是了不起的成就。在此过程中出现一些人们普遍关注而亟待解决的问题是正常的、不奇怪的,决不能因此而否定改革开放后的历史时期。早在1981年,“历史决议”就曾指出:“三中全会以来,我们党已经逐步确立了一条适合我国情况的社会主义现代化建设的正确道路。这条道路还将在实践中不断充实和发展,但是它的主要点,已经可以从建国以来正反两方面的经验、特别是‘文化大革命’的教训中得到基本的总结。”从那以后,党和国家又走过了32年。30多年来,党始终清醒地认识、科学地应对前进道路上出现的问题,坚持用发展的思路解决发展中遇到的困难,用改革的办法解决改革中出现的问题,依靠人民攻坚克难、继续前进,使中国特色社会主义道路越走越宽广。实践雄辩地证明,中国特色社会主义是当代中国发展进步的根本方向和唯一正确道路,只有中国特色社会主义才能发展中国。改革开放后的历史时期的正确方向和巨大成就,必须充分肯定。

二、改革开放前后两个历史时期本质上都是党领导人民进行社会主义建设的实践探索,不能相互否定

站在中国特色社会主义事业发展全局看,改革开放前后两个历史时期既有重大区别,又有本质联系。我们要坚持辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的基本观点,在充分肯定各自历史贡献、充分注意各自历史特点基础上,牢牢把握两个历史时期的辩证统一,决不能相互否定。

(一)改革开放前社会主义的实践探索为改革开放后社会主义的实践探索提供了重要条件

中国特色社会主义是在改革开放历史新时期开创的,但也是在新中国已经建立起社会主义基本制度并进行20多年建设的基础上开创的。党的十八大高度评价以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体对探索适合中国国情的社会主义建设道路作出的重要贡献,强调党在社会主义建设中取得的独创性理论成果和巨大成就,为新的历史时期开创中国特色社会主义提供了宝贵经验、理论准备、物质基础。这是完全符合历史事实的正确结论。

1956年党的八大前后,以毛泽东同志发表《论十大关系》、《关于正确处理人民内部矛盾的问题》等为主要标志,党对适合中国国情的社会主义建设道路的探索有了一个良好开端。经过实践探索特别是总结经验教训,党就探索这条道路逐步形成了一些十分重要而又具有长远指导意义的思想观点。主要是:生产力和生产关系、经济基础和上层建筑的矛盾是社会主义社会的基本矛盾,人民对于经济文化迅速发展的需要同当前经济文化不能满足人民需要的状况之间的矛盾是我国国内的主要矛盾,发展生产力是根本任务;要把党和国家的工作重点转到技术革命和社会主义建设上来;要坚持以农业为基础和工业为主导,以农轻重为序安排国民经济,走一条中国工业化的道路;社会主义发展目标是建设现代工业、现代农业、现代科学技术、现代国防;社会主义可分为“不发达”和“比较发达”两个阶段;必须扩大社会主义民主,坚持民主集中制,加强社会主义法制建设,反对领导机关和领导干部官僚化、特殊化;必须正确区分和处理敌我矛盾和人民内部矛盾,等等。党还提出了建设社会主义经济、政治、文化以及国防和军队建设、外交工作等一系列重要指导方针和政策主张。尽管上述正确的思想观点和方针政策有的并没有得到贯彻落实,有的没有坚持下去,但党在这一时期的经验总结和认识成果,为开创和发展中国特色社会主义提供了重要思想来源。中国特色社会主义理论体系对毛泽东思想的继承和发展,不仅包括对毛泽东思想活的灵魂即实事求是、群众路线、独立自主的继承和发展,也包括对探索中正确的经验总结和独创性理论成果的继承和发展。正如习近平同志所指出的:“毛泽东同志带领我们党在艰辛探索中形成的重要思想成果,是我们党的宝贵财富,也是中国特色社会主义理论体系的重要思想来源。”

新中国成立后,党领导人民恢复国民经济并开展有计划的经济建设,实施并提前完成第一个五年计划。社会主义基本制度建立后,党领导人民开展全面的社会主义建设,尽管经历严重曲折,但各方面建设仍取得了巨大成就。其中最重要的成就是在“一穷二白”基础上建立了独立的比较完整的工业体系和国民经济体系,使古老的中国以崭新的姿态巍然屹立于世界东方。经济发展速度尽管有起伏,但总体上看还是比较快的。1952年至1978年,工农业总产值年均增长8.2%,其中工业年均增长11.4%。我国经济实力、科技实力、国防实力显著增强。国内生产总值从1952年的679亿元增加到1978年的3645亿元。这个数字虽然不是很高,但在原有基础上的增长还是比较明显的。以“两弹一星”为代表的尖端科学技术取得重大突破。邓小平同志后来评价说:“如果六十年代以来中国没有原子弹、氢弹,没有发射卫星,中国就不能叫有重要影响的大国,就没有现在这样的国际地位。这些东西反映一个民族的能力,也是一个民族、一个国家兴旺发达的标志。”随着经济发展,人民生活水平逐步得到提高。总的来看,改革开放后的历史时期所赖以进行社会主义现代化建设的物质技术基础,是在这个时期建设起来的;经济文化建设等方面的骨干力量和他们的工作经验也是在这个时期培养和积累起来的。这是这个时期党的工作的主导方面。

历史已经证明,如果没有1949年建立新中国并进行社会主义革命和建设,积累了重要的思想、物质、制度条件,积累了正反两方面经验,改革开放就很难顺利推进,中国特色社会主义也很难成功开创。

(二)改革开放后社会主义的实践探索是对改革开放前社会主义实践探索的坚持、改革、发展

早在改革开放初期,邓小平同志就指出:“现在我们还是把毛泽东同志已经提出、但是没有做的事情做起来,把他反对错了的改正过来,把他没有做好的事情做好。今后相当长的时期,还是做这件事。”事实正是如此,党在改革开放前的社会主义实践探索中提出的许多正确主张,在改革开放后得到了真正贯彻;改革开放后的社会主义实践探索,是对改革开放前社会主义实践探索的坚持、改革、发展。历史就是这样在矛盾运动中发展进步的。

改革开放之初,党就强调要坚持中国共产党的领导和社会主义制度。邓小平同志指出:“我们实行改革开放,这是怎样搞社会主义的问题。作为制度来说,没有社会主义这个前提,改革开放就会走向资本主义。”他强调:“一个公有制占主体,一个共同富裕,这是我们必须坚持的社会主义的根本原则。”面对社会上有人鼓吹照抄照搬西方制度的思潮,党及时地、旗帜鲜明地提出必须在思想政治上坚持四项基本原则,即必须坚持社会主义道路,坚持无产阶级专政即人民民主专政,坚持共产党的领导,坚持马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想,强调这是立国之本,从而保证了改革开放从一起步就具有坚定明确的社会主义方向。

党强调改革是新的时代条件下进行的新的伟大革命,是社会主义制度的自我完善和发展。改革开放使我国成功实现了从高度集中的计划经济体制到充满活力的社会主义市场经济体制、从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大历史转折。如果没有1978年党果断决定实行改革开放,并坚定不移推进改革开放,坚定不移把握改革开放的正确方向,社会主义中国就不可能有今天这样的大好局面。历史证明,改革开放是决定当代中国命运的关键抉择,是发展中国特色社会主义、实现中华民族伟大复兴的必由之路。

在改革开放历史新时期,党领导人民成功开创了中国特色社会主义,这是继承和发展改革开放前社会主义实践探索提供的思想、物质、制度成果基础上取得的最重要、最根本的成就。中国特色社会主义,既坚持了科学社会主义基本原则,又根据时代条件赋予其鲜明的中国特色,从理论和实践结合上系统回答了在中国这样人口多、底子薄的东方大国建设什么样的社会主义、怎样建设社会主义这个根本问题。党强调,中国特色社会主义是马克思主义的社会主义而不是别的什么主义,不论怎么改革、怎么开放,都必须始终坚持中国特色社会主义道路、理论体系、制度。30多年的实践证明,中国特色社会主义在新中国成立以后取得巨大成就的基础上,又取得了举世瞩目的更大成就。这是它得以站得住、行得远的一个重要原因。

党的十八大报告对中国特色社会主义道路、理论体系、制度的内涵作了系统概括,提出了夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利的八项基本要求,这些都是在新的历史条件下科学社会主义基本原理的重要体现和实际应用。事实无可辩驳地表明:如同改革开放30多年来取得的巨大成就不容否定一样,我国改革开放的社会主义性质也是不能否定和无法否定的。

(三)坚持用历史的观点、实践的观点、辩证的观点正确看待改革开放前后两个历史时期

改革开放前后两个历史时期是两个相互联系又有重大区别的时期。看到相互联系,就是说这种联系并不只是时间上的顺延和承续,而是在坚持社会主义发展方向、基本制度、根本任务、奋斗目标基础上的联系,两个历史时期之间决不是彼此割裂的,更不是根本对立的;看到重大区别,主要是指在进行社会主义建设的思想指导、方针政策、实际工作上有着很大差别,也包括进行社会主义实践探索的内外条件、实践基础等方面存在很大差别。其中,有的差别是具有转折意义的,比如,从“以阶级斗争为纲”到“以经济建设为中心”,从高度集中的计划经济体制到社会主义市场经济。而前后两个时期的联系则大多是本质的、内在的,都是党领导人民进行社会主义建设的实践探索。只有正确认识这种联系与区别,才能看到,无论用哪一个历史时期否定另一个历史时期,都是对自己这个历史时期的否定,也才能更加自觉地坚持“两个不能否定”。

中国特色社会主义,是科学社会主义理论逻辑和中国社会发展历史逻辑的辩证统一。强调“两个不能否定”,就要把这两个历史时期放到历史发展的长河中特别是放到党的90多年历史中去观察、去把握,既注重分析前一时期为后一个时期提供了什么,又注重分析后一时期从前一个时期扬弃或拨正了哪些内容,提供和增添了哪些内容。这样,才能正确认识各个历史时期在探索、开创、发展中国特色社会主义历程中独特的地位和作用,尊重历史而不歪曲或割断历史,实事求是而不拔高或苛求前人,自觉做到新民主主义革命胜利的成果决不能丢失、社会主义革命和建设的成就决不能否定、改革开放和社会主义现代化建设的方向决不能动摇。

三、在正确认识和把握改革开放前后两个历史时期基础上坚持和发展中国特色社会主义

习近平总书记指出:“一个国家实行什么样的主义,关键要看这个主义能否解决这个国家面临的历史性课题。”中国特色社会主义,凝结着实现中华民族伟大复兴这个近代以来中华民族最根本的梦想,也体现着近现代以来中国人民对社会主义的美好憧憬和不懈探索。正确认识和把握改革开放前后两个历史时期,就要在新的历史条件下毫不动摇地坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。

(一)正确认识和把握改革开放前后两个历史时期是对党的历史的尊重和珍惜,有利于增强党的历史自信

我们党是在异常复杂环境中团结带领全国各族人民进行革命、建设、改革并创造了伟大奇迹的党,是一个经得起胜利和挫折、高潮和低潮、顺境和逆境考验的党。其中,有危难之际的绝处逢生,有挫折之后的毅然奋起,有失误之后的拨乱反正,有磨难面前的百折不挠,既充满艰险又充满神奇,既历尽苦难又辉煌迭出。90多年党的历史,是几代共产党人在同一信仰凝聚下、同一信念引领下、同一追求驱动下始终不渝的奋斗探索历程。中国特色社会主义,就是几代共产党人历经千辛万苦、付出各种代价开创和发展起来的。历史和现实一再证明,只有社会主义能够救中国,只有中国特色社会主义才能发展中国。坚持“两个不能否定”,不仅是对改革开放前后两个时期历史事实的尊重和珍惜,也是对90多年来党的整个历史的应有的自信。

(二)正确认识和把握改革开放前后两个历史时期是应对意识形态领域挑战、推动党和人民事业发展的现实需要

正确认识和把握改革开放前后社会主义实践探索的关系,不只是一个历史问题,更主要的是一个现实的政治问题。这个重大政治问题处理不好,就会产生严重政治后果。如果用不正确的观点简单地否定这两个时期或者其中的任何一个时期,必然导致对中国共产党的领导和社会主义制度的否定,也必然导致对改革开放和中国特色社会主义的否定。我们一定要有这样的政治上的清醒。

古人说:“灭人之国,必先去其史。”从国内外敌对势力这个方面分析,他们否定改革开放前的历史时期,就是要否定我们党的重大历史贡献,放大我们党在实践探索中的失误和挫折,把中国共产党妖魔化,进而从根本上否定中国共产党的执政地位;他们否定改革开放后的历史时期,就是要否定改革开放的社会主义性质,夸大改革开放中出现的困难、矛盾和问题,把中国特色社会主义妖魔化,进而动摇中国人民团结奋斗的共同思想基础。敌对势力这两个方面的否定,从根本上说,都是对历史事实的背离,都是想搞乱人心,企图瓦解中国共产党执政的历史依据和思想根基,进而毁掉社会主义中国的未来和广大中国人民的福祉。“前车之覆,后车之鉴。”苏联解体、苏共垮台的一个重要原因,就是全面否定苏联历史、苏共历史,否定列宁等领袖人物,搞历史虚无主义,把人们的思想搞乱了。因而,正确认识和把握改革开放前后两个历史时期,是一个事关党、国家、人民前途命运的重大政治问题。在这样的大是大非面前,我们每一个共产党员特别是领导干部,都应该坚决捍卫党的历史,认真学习党的历史,自觉运用党的历史。

在如何看待改革开放前后两个历史时期问题上,还有一种情况,就是在人民内部也存在一些模糊认识。这种模糊认识虽然性质完全不同于前一种情况,但也是需要通过正确的教育和引导来加以澄清的。如果不能了解和认识党的历史发展的主流和本质,如果不能正确对待党所走过的弯路,就会动摇对党的信赖,动摇对中国特色社会主义的信念,动摇对实现中华民族伟大复兴的信心,最终受到损害的还是党和国家的事业,以及与这个事业紧密联系在一起的广大人民群众的根本利益。因而,我们要坚持准确宣传党的历史,教育广大人民群众正确认识和对待党的历史,进一步坚定跟党走中国特色社会主义道路的决心和信心。

(三)正确认识和准确把握改革开放前后两个历史时期,在中国特色社会主义道路上奋力实现中国梦

当前,党和人民在以习近平同志为总书记的党中央领导下,正满怀中国特色社会主义的道路自信、理论自信、制度自信,为全面建成小康社会、夺取中国特色社会主义新胜利而努力奋斗。正确认识和准确把握改革开放前后两个历史时期的社会主义实践探索,对于我们进一步增强坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的自觉性、坚定性,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗,具有重要的激励和启示作用。

改革开放前后社会主义实践探索的历史告诉我们,实现中国梦,必须坚定不移走中国道路。在改革开放前的历史时期,党为探索适合中国国情的社会主义建设道路付出了艰辛努力,形成了一系列重要认识成果。改革开放以来,党立足社会主义初级阶段基本国情,不断深化对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识,成功开创了中国特色社会主义道路。在新的征程上,我们一定要坚持把马克思主义同中国实际和时代特征相结合,坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,既不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路,坚定不移沿着正确的中国道路奋勇前进。

改革开放前后社会主义实践探索的历史又告诉我们,实现中国梦,必须大力弘扬中国精神。在改革开放前的历史时期,党坚持马克思主义的指导地位,用爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义教育人民,培育和形成了雷锋精神、“铁人”精神、焦裕禄精神、“两弹一星”精神等富有时代特色的精神。改革开放以来,党坚持用马克思主义中国化最新成果武装全党、教育人民,以一往无前的进取精神和波澜壮阔的创新实践,谱写了改革开放和社会主义现代化建设事业的辉煌篇章。在新的征程上,我们一定要大力弘扬以爱国主义为核心的民族精神和以改革创新为核心的时代精神,不断增强团结一心的精神纽带、自强不息的精神动力,永远朝气蓬勃迈向未来。
改革开放前后社会主义实践探索的历史还告诉我们,实现中国梦,必须广泛凝聚中国力量。在改革开放前的历史时期,我国实现了从几千年封建专制政治向人民民主政治的伟大跨越,人民成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。在激情燃烧的建设岁月,党和人民休戚与共、同甘共苦,艰苦奋斗、无私奉献,汇聚成建设社会主义的强大力量。改革开放以来,党把全国各族人民团结凝聚在中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜下,为实现中华民族伟大复兴而共同奋斗。在新的征程上,我们一定要牢记使命、同心同德,不为任何风险所惧,不被任何干扰所惑,用亿万人民的奋斗和智慧汇集起不可战胜的磅礴力量。

回顾历史,党和人民充满自信;展望未来,伟大祖国前程似锦。让我们紧密团结在以习近平同志为总书记的党中央周围,在中国特色社会主义道路上奋力开拓,为实现伟大的中国梦而不懈奋斗!

One thought on “Correctly Deal With Both Historical Periods Before and After Reform and Opening Up

    rudijancsi said:
    January 4, 2014 at 4:56 pm

    http://www.rudolfjanos.hu penzért Rudijani

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