Some Opinions concerning Deepening Structural and Mechanism Reform and Accelerating the Implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy

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13 March 2015

Innovation is an important force in the progressive development of a country and a nation, and is an important force in promoting the progressive development of the entire human society. In the face of a new round of global scientific and technological revolution and major opportunities and challenges in industrial reform, in the face of the trends, changes and characteristics of a new economic normal, and in the face of the historical tasks and demands of the “Two Centenaries” struggle objectives, we must deepen structural and mechanism reform, accelerate the implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy, the following opinions are hereby put forward.

I, General thinking and main objectives

To accelerate the implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy, we must ensure that the market has a decisive role in the allocation of resources and give ever better rein to the role of government, do away with all mental barriers and institutional limitations fettering innovation, arouse the innovative vigour and creative potential of the entire society, enhance the efficiency and productivity of labour, information, knowledge, technology, management and capital, strengthen the linkages between science, technology and the economy, the linkages between innovation achievements and industry, the linkages between innovation programmes and current production forces, the linkages between research and development personnel’s innovative labour with their interests and incomes, strengthen the contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic development, and create a policy environment and institutional environment for mass creation and mass innovation.

– Persist in the orientation toward demand. Tightly grasp major demands for economic and social development, strive to build passageways connecting scientific and technological achievement with the transformation of existing productive forces, strive to eliminate obstacles to innovation by scientists, technological personnel, businesspeople and entrepreneurs, strive to resolve the constraints that factor drivers and investment drivers impose on changing innovation drivers, let innovation truly become a new growth point for creation, and transform the achievements of innovation into tangible industrial activity.

– Persist in putting talent first. We must make talent into the first resource for innovation, and put even more emphasis on training, using and attracting all kinds of talents well, stimulate the rational flow of talent, optimize training, and innovate talent training models; we must put even more emphasis on strengthening incentive mechanisms, and provide profit reciprocation and spiritual encouragement to scientific and technological personnel; we must put even more emphasis on giving rein to the innovative roles of entrepreneurs and skilled technology talent teams, and fully arouse the creative vitality of the entire society.

– Persist in abiding by laws. On the basis if the characteristics of scientific and technological movements, we must grasp the exploration and discovery laws of scientific research well, provide scientists with good conditions and a comfortable environment for diligent study, invention, creation and technological breakthroughs; grasp the market laws of technological innovation, let the market become the main method to optimize the allocation of innovative resources, let enterprises become the dominant force in technological innovation, let the intellectual property rights system become a basic guarantee to encourage innovation; forcefully construct a cultural and social atmosphere of daring to explore, encouraging innovation, and tolerating failure.

– Persist in comprehensive innovation. Put scientific and technological innovation in a central position in the overall picture of national development, comprehensively move scientific and technological structural reform and reform in economic and social areas forward, comprehensively move scientific, technological, management, branding, organizational and commercial model innovation forward, comprehensively move converged military-civilian innovation forward, comprehensively move cooperative inward and outward innovation forward, realize the organically unified and coordinated development of scientific and technological innovation, institutional innovation and openness innovation forward.

By 2020, an institutional environment, and policy and legal system suited to the needs of innovation driving development must be basically formed, to provide powerful guarantees to enter into the ranks of innovative countries. Talent, capital, technology and knowledge are to circulate freely, enterprises, scientific research institutes and higher education institutes are to collaborate in innovation, with creative vitality vying to burst forth, innovation achievements are to gain full protection, the value of innovation is to be reflected more greatly, innovation resource efficiency and productivity is to rise substantially, innovation talents are to reasonably enjoy the benefits of innovation, this ensures that the Innovation Driving Development Strategy will be truly implemented, and so will build new engines to stimulate economic growth, employment and entrepreneurialism, it will build new advantages to participate in international competitiveness and cooperation, it will promote a new structure to shape sustainable development, and stimulate the transformation of economic development methods.

II, Construct a fair and competitive environment to encourage innovation.

Give rein to the fundamental role of market competition in encouraging innovation, create a fair, open and transparent market environment, strengthen the guidance of competition policies and industrial policies over innovation, stimulate the survival of the fittest, and strengthen the innovative drive of market subjects.

(1) Implement strict intellectual property rights protection systems.

Perfect intellectual property rights protection laws, research the reduction of barriers to pursue criminal liability for infringing acts, adjust compensation standards, and explore the implementation of punitive damages systems. Perfect rights holders’ rights defence mechanisms, rationally divide the evidentiary responsibilities of rights holders.

Perfect the legal structure for the protection of commercial secrets, clarify the boundary of commercial secrets and infringing acts, research the formulation of corresponding protection measures, and explore the establishment of pre-trial protection systems. Research intellectual property protection rules for commercial models and other such novel forms of innovation achievements.

Perfect intellectual property rights trial work mechanisms, move forward with the “uniting three trials” of civil, criminal and administrative intellectual property rights cases, vigorously give rein to the role of intellectual property rights courts, explore trial mechanisms for intellectual property cases across regions, destroy local protection for infringing acts.

Complete intellectual property rights investigation and prosecution mechanisms, strengthen the linkage between administrative law enforcement and the judiciary, strengthen comprehensive administrative intellectual property rights law enforcement, complete intellectual property rights defence assistance systems, and ensure that information about infringing acts is channelled into social credit records.

(2) Destroy sector monopolies and market fragmentation inhibiting innovation

Accelerate the reform of monopoly sectors, open up competitive activities in natural monopoly sectors, and establish uniform, transparent, orderly and standardized market environments encouraging innovation.

Realistically strengthen anti-monopoly law enforcement, timely discover and put an end to monopoly agreements, the abuse of a dominant market position and other such monopolistic acts, and provide a broader space for small and mid-size enterprises to innovate and develop.

Destroy local protection, clean away and eliminate provisions and methods that hamper uniform national markets, correct local governments’ acts of improper subsidy or the use of administrative powers to limit or eliminate competition, explore the implementation of fair competition investigation systems.

(3) Improve access management for new technologies, new products and new commercial models

Reform industrial access rules, formulate and implement negative industrial access lists, all kinds of market subjects are permitted to equally enter industries, areas and activities that are not listed on negative lists.

Destroy irrational access obstacles that inhibit the development of new technologies, new products and new commercial models. Establish convenient and effective supervision and management models for innovative products in medicine, medical equipment, etc., deepen examination and approval system reform, enhance evaluation resources in many channels, optimize workflows, shorten periods, and support the development of sub-contracted production and other new organizational models. Implement access policies in a focused manner for new-energy vehicles, wind power, solar power and other such areas.

Improve supervision and management over the Internet, finance, environmental protection, healthcare, culture, education and other such areas, support and encourage the development of new business models and new commercial models.

(4) Complete industrial technology policies and management structures

Reform industrial supervision and management structures, transform the current focus on preliminary examination and approval into a focus on supervision and management during and after activities, and create an industrial policy orientation that is beneficial to transformation and upgrading and that encourages innovation.

Strengthen the guiding and supervising role of industrial technology policy, clarify and progressively raise environmental, energy, and use, water use, material use, quality and security indicators and corresponding standards, and shape a market access standard system that is uniform, authoritative, open and transparent. Complete technological standard systems, and strengthen the formulation and implementation of binding standards.

Strengthen supervision over the process of implementing industrial technology policy and standards. Strengthen joint administrative law enforcement mechanisms connecting environmental protection, quality inspection, industry and commerce, security supervision and other such departments.

(5) Shape innovation mechanisms with reversed factor pricing

Mainly use mechanisms in which markets decide factor prices, stimulate enterprises to transform from relying on excessive consumption of resources and energy, low capacity and low costs to compete, towards relying on innovation and implementing differentiated competition.

Accelerate the reform of resource taxes, progressively broaden resource taxes to include all natural and ecological space that is occupied, and move forward with transforming the environmental protection fee into a tax. Perfect marketized industrial land use pricing mechanisms. Complete regular growth mechanisms for enterprise salaries, ensure that changes in labour costs are synergistically suited to increased economic quality.

III, Establish market guidance mechanisms for technological innovation

Give rein to the guiding role of markets in the orientation of technological research, the selection of paths and the allocation of all sorts of innovation resources, the adjustment of innovation policymaking and organizational models, strengthening universally beneficial policy support, stimulating enterprises in truly becoming subjects of technological innovation policymaking, research and development input, scientific research organization and the transformation of achievements.

(6) Broaden enterprises’ discourse power in state innovation policymaking

Establish high-level and regularized enterprise technology innovation dialogue and consultancy structures, give rein to the important role of enterprises and entrepreneurs in state innovation policymaking. Attract ever more enterprises to participate in the research and formulation of state technology innovation plans, programmes, policies and standards, corresponding expert consultancy groups are to have a relatively large proportion of industry experts and entrepreneurs.

State science and technology planning must focus on strategic needs, focus on deploying research in crucial areas where the markets cannot effectively allocate resources, The research orientation of technological innovation of competitive enterprises, their technological paths and factor allocation models are to be decided by enterprises autonomously on the basis of market demands.

(7) Perfect industrial technology innovation models with enterprises at the centre

Clearly market-oriented science and technology projects should be led by enterprises, guided by government and implemented jointly with higher education and scientific research institutes. It construction of strategic industrial technology innovation alliances with enterprises in the lead, and cooperation between industry, scholarship and research is encouraged.

Use more post-taxation subsidies, indirect input and other such methods to support enterprises’ autonomous policymaking and initial input, launch efforts to tackle key research and development questions in crucial and general industrial technology, equipment and standards.

Launch trial points for innovation transformation by leading enterprises, explore new mechanisms for government to support enterprises’ technological innovation, management innovation and commercial model innovation.

Perfect new service systems for small and mid-size enterprises, accelerate moving forward with the specialization and marketization of start-up incubators, intellectual property rights services, third-party inspection, monitoring and authentication bodies, expand technology trading markets.

Optimize the distribution of State laboratories, focus laboratories, project laboratories and project (technology) research centres, categorize and integrate them according to their functional orientation, build innovation networks that are open, shared and interactive, establish mechanisms that are effective and open to enterprises, especially small and mid-size enterprises. Explore the adoption of new models with enterprises in the lead, cooperation from institutes and schools, multilateral funding, military-civilian integration and achievement sharing in strategic areas, integrate the creation of a number of industrial innovation centres. Expand the extent to which major research and development infrastructure, large-scale scientific research instruments and basic patent information resources are open to society.

(8) Raise the support strength for universally preferential fiscal policies

Persist in the orientation of structural tax reduction, progressively turn State input methods into enterprises’ technological innovation mainly universally preferential fiscal policies.

Comprehensively plan and research weighted deduction policies for enterprise income tax, perfect the use of calculation methods for enterprise research and development costs, adjust catalogue management methods, broaden the scope of applicability of weighted deduction and universal preferential policies for research and development costs. Perfect methods to accredit high technology enterprises, focus on encouraging small and mid-size enterprises to expand their research and development strength.

(9) Complete procurement policies with preferential use of innovative products

Establish and complete policy systems to support the procurement of innovative products and services that conform to international norms, implement and perfect corresponding government procurement measures to stimulate the innovative development of small and mid-size enterprises, expand the procurement strength for innovative products and services. Encourage the adoption of first-sale, ordering and other non-tendered procurement methods, as well as providing support through government procurement services and other such methods, in order to stimulate the research, development and scaled-up application of innovative products.

Research and perfect policies for the use of first-generation major technology equipment, complete the preparation and use of incentive and control mechanisms for work units in product innovation, value-added services, demonstration, application and other such stages.

Ease the bounds for civilian enterprises and scientific research work units to enter into military goods research, development, production, maintenance and purchasing.

IV, Strengthen the function of financial innovation

Give rein to the boosting role of financial innovation in technological innovation, foster and expand start-up investment and capital markets, raise the flexibility and convenience of credit support for innovation, and create a good environment for all kinds of financial tools to support innovation and development in a coordinated manner.

(10) Expand the scope of investment in start-ups

Research and formulate laws and regulations for angel investment. According to the orientation and needs of fiscal reform, comprehensively research corresponding fiscal support policies for the investment during seeding period or newly established period of innovation activities, including angel investment.

Research and broaden preferential fiscal policies to stimulate start-up investment enterprises’ development, appropriately relax conditions and limitations on start-up investment enterprises investing in high technology enterprises, and on the basis of trials, let the scope of start-up investment enterprises investment deduction policies expand to include legal persons and partners in limited partnership start-up investment enterprises.

Integrate State-owned enterprise reform with the establishment of State-owned capital start-up investment funds, perfect incentive and constrain mechanisms for State-owned investment bodies. According to the principle of marketization, research the establishment of a State new industry start-up investment guidance fund, drive social capital to support strategic new industries and high technology industries during the early and middle periods, and to support the development of innovative enterprises during the start-up period.

Perfect regulations for foreign-invested start-up investment enterprises, effectively use foreign capital to invest in the area of innovation. Research corresponding policies for a fund for insurance for start-up investors.

(11) Strengthen support for technological innovation through capital markets

Accelerate start-up board market reform, strengthen institutional arrangements that are suited to the development of innovative and maturing enterprises, broaden the economic coverage of service entities, strengthen the funds circulation, M&A and trading functions of the nationwide small and mid-size enterprise stock transfer system, and standardize regional stock markets for the development of and service to small and micro-enterprises. Strengthen the organic connection of different levels of capital markets.

Give rein to the role of the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges’ shareholding mortgage and fund circulation mechanisms, support innovative and start-up enterprises meeting conditions to distribute company bonds. Support enterprises meeting conditions to distribute high-yield programme bonds, to raise funds for use in expanding input into innovation.

Promote the revision of corresponding laws and regulations, and explore the launch of intellectual property rights securitization services. Launch trials for crowd-funded shareholding, vigorously explore and standardize the development of Internet finance in service of innovation.

(12) Broaden indirect funding channel for technological innovation

Perfect laws concerning commercial banking. Choose financial bodies in the banking sector that meet conditions to explore trials to provide financial service methods combining shares and debts for enterprises’ innovation activities, and realize lending relationships with start-up investment and stock investment bodies.

Policy banks will, under the guidance of corresponding departments and supervisory bodies, accelerate innovation of financial products and service methods within their business scope, to expand credit support for enterprises’ innovation activities that meet conditions.

Steadily develop people-run banks, establish corresponding supervision and management systems, and support financial product innovations directed at the innovation needs of small and mid-size enterprises.

Establish marketized risk compensation mechanisms for intellectual property rights mortgage finance, simplify intellectual property rights mortgage finance processes. Accelerate the development of science and technology insurance, and move forward patent insurance trials.

V, Perfect incentive policies for the transformation of achievements

Strengthen respect for knowledge and respect for innovation, fully reflect the distributional orientation of the value of intellectual labour, and let scientific personnel obtain reasonable rewards for innovation activities, reflect innovation values through the application of achievements, and create wealth through the transformation of achievements.

(13) Accelerate the decentralization of science and technology achievement use, management and income powers

Incessantly summarize the experience of trials, integrate the categorized reform requirements of undertaking work units, as quickly as possible lower the use powers, management powers and income rights for scientific and technological achievements created with support of the financial administration and do not involve national defence, national security, the national interest or major social and public interests to programme undertaking work units meeting conditions. Work units’ controlling departments and financial departments are no longer to require examination, approval or filing for the use or management of scientific and technologic achievements within the country, income generated through the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is to be left with the work unit completely and brought into the work unit’s budget, uniform management is implemented, and operational income is not to be turned over to the Treasury.

(14) Raise the proportion of benefit for scientific research personnel from the transformation of achievements

Perfect professional invention systems, promote the revision of the Patent Law, the Company Law and other such relevant matters, perfect scientific and technological achievement, intellectual property ownership and profit sharing mechanisms, raise the proportion of backbone teams and major inventors. Perfect reward and compensation systems, and complete dispute resolution and legal relief systems for professional inventions.

Revise the provisions of corresponding laws and policies, In higher education institutes and scientific research institutes that are established with funding from the financial administration, the income from professional inventions and achievements is to be reasonably divided between contributing personnel and their work unit, it is permitted that the proportion of income used to reward scientific research personnel, backbone technology personnel and other major contributing personnel and teams is raised from the present minimum level of 20% to a minimum level of 50%.

State owned enterprise and undertaking work units are to calculate rewards for professional inventors and personnel or teams having made important contributions to the transformation of scientific and technological achievements as part of the salary value for that year, and not as a basic number for salary values.

(15) Expand shareholding incentives for scientific and technological personnel

Encourage all kinds of enterprises to muster the innovative vigour of scientific and technological personnel through shareholding, options, bonuses and other incentive methods.

In enterprises where higher education institutes and scientific research institutes, or other undertaking work units, are shareholders through the value of their scientific and technology achievements, limitations on shareholding incentives and share sales with respect to time limits from the establishment of the company or profit levels are to be relaxed.

Establish incentive systems to stimulate innovation in State-owned enterprises, implement shareholding rights and bonus rights incentives for technological personnel with major contributions to innovation.

Vigorously summarize the experience of trials, grasp the definition of conditions and standards for scientific and technological small and mid-size enterprises. Scientific research personnel in high technology enterprises and scientific or technological small and mid-size enterprises will in principle, when they receive income from shareholding rights or bonuses after the transformation of achievements, pay personal income tax in stages within a five years. Integrate this with personal income tax reform, and research policies to further incentivize innovation by scientific research personnel.

VI, Build even more efficient scientific research system.

Give rein to the leading and supporting role of scientific and technological research in driving innovation, respect laws, strengthen encouragement, divide work rationally, reform in a categorized manner, strengthen higher education institutes and scientific research institutes’ original innovation capacity and capacities to transform the general research and development of scientific research institutions.

(16) Optimize support methods for basic research

Realistically expand financial input into basic research, perfect mechanisms combining stable support and competitive support, expand stable support strength, support research organs in autonomously arranging their scientific research programmes, broaden the academic autonomy of higher education institutes and scientific research institutes and individuals’ power to select their research topics.

Reform scientific research planning and management methods in the area of basic research, abide by the laws of science, and establish tolerant systems supporting “non-consensus” innovation programmes.

Reform higher education institutes’ and scientific research institutes’ employment systems, optimize salary structures, and ensure that scientific research personnel enjoy reasonable levels of salary and remuneration. Perfect internal allocation systems, focus on favouring crucial positions, professional backbones and persons with prominent professional achievement.

(17) Expand encouragement for results in scientific research work.

Perfect undertaking work units’ result-based salary systems, complete allocation incentive mechanisms to encourage innovation and creation. Perfect management systems for overhead expenses in scientific research project, to strengthen incentives for results, and rationally compensate the work units that undertake projects for their overhead expenses and result-oriented payments. Work units undertaking projects should take into account the real contributions of scientific research personnel, openly and fairly arrange for result-oriented payments, which fully reflect the innovation value of scientific research personnel.

(18) Reform the scientific research evaluation system in higher education institutes and scientific research institutes

Strengthen categorized assessment of research activities in higher education institutes and scientific research institutes. Implement similar evaluation for basic research and advanced research, give prominence to medium and long term objectives, shift the evaluation focus from research achievement quantity to research quality, the value of original innovation and real contributions.

Strengthen State objectives and social responsibility evaluation of public interest research, regularly organize third-party evaluation for public interest research bodies, make the evaluation results into an important basis for financial support, and guide the establishment of mechanisms for public interest research bodies to rely on State resources to serve sectoral innovation.

(19) Deepen the transformation of scientific research institute reform

Persist in the direction of the turning technological development research bodies into enterprises, it is permitted to transform research institutes that undertake relatively many sectoral general research tasks into industrial technology research and development groups, conduct categorized management and categorized assessment of sectoral general technological research and market operation activities.

Promote the deep marketization reform of scientific research bodies that mainly engage in production and operations activities, let them attract social capital or go on the market completely, vigorously develop mixed ownership systems, and move forward the establishment of industrial technology alliances.

A number of teams in scientific research institutes under transformation, whose basic research abilities are relatively strong, are to be guided on the basis of a clear direction and standards, to come back to the public interest, participate in the construction of State focus laboratories, and supported to continue to undertake State work.

(20) Establish higher education institute and scientific research institute technology transformation mechanisms

Progressively realize a separation between higher education institutes and scientific research institutes and their subordinate companies, in principle, higher education institutes and scientific research institutes are no longer to set up new enterprises, and the external dissemination of scientific and technological achievements through licensing methods must be strengthened.

Strengthen higher education institutes’ and scientific research institutes’ intellectual property rights management, clarify the functional orientation of their subordinate technology transformation bodies, and strengthen their rights and obligations to apply for and utilize intellectual property rights.

Establish and perfect statistical and reporting systems for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements by higher education institutes and scientific research institutes, support the creation of scientific and technological achievements through funding by the finance administration, except for matters involving national defence, national security, the national interest and major social and public interests, it is permitted that the State forces the implementation of licensing where transformation has not taken place in a reasonable time period.

VII, Innovate mechanisms for fostering, using and attracting talent

Concentrate on constructing a line of new-type talent ranks on a large scale, who are rich in an innovative spirit, and who dare to bear risks, foster and attract talents according to the laws of innovation, let talents circulate freely according to the laws of the market, and realistically ensure everyone can apply their talents, talents are put to full use, and they are used successfully

(21) Build innovative types of talent fostering models

Launch heuristic, exploratory and research-oriented teaching method reform trials, carry forward a scientific spirit, create an innovation culture that encourages innovation and tolerates failure. Reform basic education and training methods, respect individual development, and strengthen training concerning interests, likes and creative thinking.

Put talent training central, strive to raise undergraduate teaching quality, accelerate the transformation of a number of common undergraduate higher education institutes into applied technology higher education institutes, launch joint school-company student recruitment and training models, expand collaborative school-company education channels and methods.

Categorically reform graduate student training methods, explore new training models for degree graduate students integrating science and education, expand the proportion of socialist degree graduate students, enhance the convergence of education and practice.

Encourage higher education institutes to compare themselves to similar international top-flight disciplines, launch international disciplinary evaluations, broaden cooperation and exchange, and steadily enhance the process of internationalization in higher education.

(22) Establish and complete two-way circulation mechanisms for scientific research talent

Improve scientific research personnel’s remuneration and position management systems, do away with structural and mechanistic obstacles to talent circulation, and stimulate scientific research personnel to rationally circulate between undertaking work units and enterprises.

Personnel of scientific research institutes meeting conditions may, with the permission of their work unit, take their scientific research projects and achievements to enterprises to launch innovation work or establish enterprises, with maintenance of a basic salary.

It is permitted that higher education institutes and scientific research institutes establish a certain proportion of mobile positions, and attract entrepreneurs with practical innovation experience and enterprise science and technology talents part-time. There will be trials with making experience with having a position in enterprise into a necessary condition for new appointments of engineering teaching staff in higher education institutes.

Accelerate social security system reform, perfect policies for scientific research personnel to continue their social security relationships when they circulate between enterprises, and stimulate the free two-way circulation of talent.

(23) Implement even more structures to attract competitive talent

Formulate life-ling residence management opinions for foreigners, accelerate legislation concerning the management of life-long residence for foreigners, standardize and relax conditions for technological talents to obtain foreigner life-long residence permits, explore the establishment of a technological migrant system. In the setting up science and technology enterprises and other such innovation activities, high-level talents with a foreign nationality that have a life-long foreigner residence permit are to be granted equal treatment to Chinese citizens.

Accelerate the formulation of work management regulations for foreigners in China, foreign talents meeting conditions are to be granted convenient work permits, foreign talents meeting conditions and their accompanying dependents are to be given convenient visas and residence permits. High-level foreign scientific and technological innovation talents meeting certain conditions are to be exempt from age limitations on work permission in China.

Concentrate on major national needs and face the world in attracting chief scientists and other high-level scientific and technological innovation talents. Establish systems for visiting scholars. Broadly attract foreign high-level talents to come (back) to China and engage in innovative research.

Steadily enhance the external openness of the human resources market, progressively relax foreign capital shareholding requirements and minimum registered capital requirements for foreign-invested intermediary talent service bodies. Encourage domestic human resources services bodies meeting conditions to go out and launch cooperation with foreign human resources service bodies, establish branch organs abroad, and vigorously participate in international talent competition and cooperation.

VIII, Promote the creation of a new situation of deeply converged, open innovation

Persist in integrating import and export, enter into global innovation network with an even more energetic attitude, attract global innovation resources with an even more broad mind, promote technology and standard export with even more vigorous tactics, and build open innovation mechanisms at a high level.

(24) Encourage cross-border circulation of innovation factors

For foreign exchange necessary to launch international research and development cooperation programmes, it is implemented that research and developments make commitment first, and commerce, science and technology, and taxation departments jointly supervise the matter afterwards.

Categorized management will be conducted over scientific research personnel leaving the country for work reasons, and quantitative restriction and management policies to temporarily leave the country for work reasons will be relaxed.

Reform inspection and management, conduct categorized management on equipment, samples and specimens required for research and development, under the precondition of guaranteeing security, adopt focus verification, spot checks, inspection exemption and other measures to raise the efficiency if verification.

(25) Optimize foreign innovation investment management systems.

Complete comprehensive coordination mechanisms, to resolve major issues in a coordinate manner, joint forces to support domestic technology, products and brands to march out, and expand international markets. Strengthen technology trading measure evaluation and risk prevention mechanisms.

Research the establishment of foreign innovation investment funds through sponsoring by State-owned focus finance bodies, foreign exchange reserves are to participate in the establishment of fund work through debt, shareholding and other methods, use global innovation resources even more and even better.

Encourage publicly-traded enterprises to invest in innovation-type programmes abroad, reform investment information disclosure systems, under the precondition that corresponding departments determine that there is no influence on national security and economic security, and on the basis of progress of commercial negotiations between Chinese and foreign enterprises, disclose information at a suitable time.

(26) Broaden the external openness of science and technology planning

Formulate management rules for the external openness of State science and technology plans, according to the principle of reciprocal openness and guaranteeing security, vigorously encourage and guide foreign-funded research and development bodies to participate in and undertake State science and technology planning programmes.

In areas such as fundamental research and research on major global questions, comprehensively consider the needs of State science and technology development and strategic objective, research and sponsor international big science plans and projects, attract top-level foreign scientists and teams to participate. Vigorously participate in large-scale international science and technology cooperation plans. Guide foreign-funded research and development centres to launch high-added value original research and development activities, guide internationally renowned scientific research bodies to come to China and jointly establish international science and technology centres.

IX, Strengthen comprehensive innovation policy coordination

Give even better rein to the government’s role in moving innovation forward. Reform science and technology management systems, accelerate innovation policy evaluation, examination and result assessment, and shape a long-lasting and effective innovation governance system with clear duties and responsibilities, vigorous performance, powerful coordination.

(27) Strengthen the comprehensive planning of innovation policies

Strengthen the comprehensive coordination and effective linkage of policies, plans and reform measures in science, technology, the economy, society and other such areas, and strengthen converged civil-military innovation. Give rein to the supporting role of science and technology circles and think tanks in innovation policymaking.

Establish innovation policy coordination and examination mechanisms, organize the launch of a clean-up of innovation policies, timely eliminate policy clauses that violate new laws, impede emerging industries and emerging business models, and inspect whether newly enacted policies constrain innovation or not.

Establish innovation policy survey and evaluation systems, broadly hear the opinions of enterprises and the social masses, regularly conduct follow-up analysis of policy implementation, and timely adjust and perfect them.

(28) Perfect evaluation systems oriented towards innovation drivers

Improve and perfect GDP calculation methods, to reflect the economic value of innovation. Research and establish Innovation Driving Development evaluation indicators combining science and technology innovation, intellectual property rights and industrial development, and bring them into national economic and social development planning.

Complete technological innovation and operational assessment systems for State-owned enterprises, enlarge the proportion of technological innovation in the operational assessment of State-owned enterprises. Conduct categorized assessment of State-owned enterprises’ research and development input and output, creates assessment mechanisms that encourage innovation and tolerate failure. Bring the results of Innovation Driving Development into the assessment scope for local leading cadres.

(29) Reform science and technology management structures.

Transform government science and technology management functions, establish mechanisms that rely on specialist bodies to manage scientific research programmes, government departments are no longer to directly manage concrete programmes, they are mainly responsible for scientific and technological development plans, schemes, policies, deployments, assessment and supervision.

Establish open and uniform national science and technology management platforms, complete mechanisms for the comprehensive planning and coordination of macro-level science and technology policymaking, strengthen departments’ functionality and division of labour, comprehensively link basic research, applied research, the transformation of achievements, industrial development and other such segments.

Further clarify the science and technology management powers and functional orientation of the Centre and localities, establish joint coordination mechanisms with integrated powers and responsibilities, and raise administrative effect. 0

(30) Move forward with comprehensive innovation reform trials

Following the law that innovative areas are highly concentrated, provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) meeting conditions are to systematically move forward comprehensive innovation reform trials, they are authorized to launch reform trials for intellectual property rights, scientific research institutes, higher education, talent circulation, international cooperation, financial innovation, incentive mechanisms, market access, etc., they must strive to make breakthroughs in focus areas and crucial segments, timely summarize and disseminate experience, play a demonstration and leading role, and stimulate the profound implementation of the Innovation Driving Development strategy.

All levels’ Party Committees and governments must give this matter high attention, strengthen leadership, and make deepening structural and mechanism reform, as well as accelerating the implementation of the Innovation Driving Development strategy into a major task to implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and its 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenums, and implement it earnestly. Relevant sides must cooperate closely, reform tasks must be divided, time forms and roadmaps made clear, and responsible departments and persons appointed. Propaganda and public opinion guidance concerning a culture of innovation must be strengthened, in order to propagate reform experiences, respond to social concerns and guide social public opinion, creating a good social environment for innovation.

中共中央国务院关于深化体制机制改革加快实施创新驱动发展战略的若干意见
(二〇一五年三月十三日)
创新是推动一个国家和民族向前发展的重要力量,也是推动整个人类社会向前发展的重要力量。面对全球新一轮科技革命与产业变革的重大机遇和挑战,面对经济发展新常态下的趋势变化和特点,面对实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史任务和要求,必须深化体制机制改革,加快实施创新驱动发展战略,现提出如下意见。

一、总体思路和主要目标

加快实施创新驱动发展战略,就是要使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,破除一切制约创新的思想障碍和制度藩篱,激发全社会创新活力和创造潜能,提升劳动、信息、知识、技术、管理、资本的效率和效益,强化科技同经济对接、创新成果同产业对接、创新项目同现实生产力对接、研发人员创新劳动同其利益收入对接,增强科技进步对经济发展的贡献度,营造大众创业、万众创新的政策环境和制度环境。

——坚持需求导向。紧扣经济社会发展重大需求,着力打通科技成果向现实生产力转化的通道,着力破除科学家、科技人员、企业家、创业者创新的障碍,着力解决要素驱动、投资驱动向创新驱动转变的制约,让创新真正落实到创造新的增长点上,把创新成果变成实实在在的产业活动。

——坚持人才为先。要把人才作为创新的第一资源,更加注重培养、用好、吸引各类人才,促进人才合理流动、优化配置,创新人才培养模式;更加注重强化激励机制,给予科技人员更多的利益回报和精神鼓励;更加注重发挥企业家和技术技能人才队伍创新作用,充分激发全社会的创新活力。

——坚持遵循规律。根据科学技术活动特点,把握好科学研究的探索发现规律,为科学家潜心研究、发明创造、技术突破创造良好条件和宽松环境;把握好技术创新的市场规律,让市场成为优化配置创新资源的主要手段,让企业成为技术创新的主体力量,让知识产权制度成为激励创新的基本保障;大力营造勇于探索、鼓励创新、宽容失败的文化和社会氛围。

——坚持全面创新。把科技创新摆在国家发展全局的核心位置,统筹推进科技体制改革和经济社会领域改革,统筹推进科技、管理、品牌、组织、商业模式创新,统筹推进军民融合创新,统筹推进引进来与走出去合作创新,实现科技创新、制度创新、开放创新的有机统一和协同发展。

到2020年,基本形成适应创新驱动发展要求的制度环境和政策法律体系,为进入创新型国家行列提供有力保障。人才、资本、技术、知识自由流动,企业、科研院所、高等学校协同创新,创新活力竞相迸发,创新成果得到充分保护,创新价值得到更大体现,创新资源配置效率大幅提高,创新人才合理分享创新收益,使创新驱动发展战略真正落地,进而打造促进经济增长和就业创业的新引擎,构筑参与国际竞争合作的新优势,推动形成可持续发展的新格局,促进经济发展方式的转变。

二、营造激励创新的公平竞争环境

发挥市场竞争激励创新的根本性作用,营造公平、开放、透明的市场环境,强化竞争政策和产业政策对创新的引导,促进优胜劣汰,增强市场主体创新动力。

(一)实行严格的知识产权保护制度

完善知识产权保护相关法律,研究降低侵权行为追究刑事责任门槛,调整损害赔偿标准,探索实施惩罚性赔偿制度。完善权利人维权机制,合理划分权利人举证责任。

完善商业秘密保护法律制度,明确商业秘密和侵权行为界定,研究制定相应保护措施,探索建立诉前保护制度。研究商业模式等新形态创新成果的知识产权保护办法。

完善知识产权审判工作机制,推进知识产权民事、刑事、行政案件的“三审合一”,积极发挥知识产权法院的作用,探索跨地区知识产权案件异地审理机制,打破对侵权行为的地方保护。

健全知识产权侵权查处机制,强化行政执法与司法衔接,加强知识产权综合行政执法,健全知识产权维权援助体系,将侵权行为信息纳入社会信用记录。

(二)打破制约创新的行业垄断和市场分割

加快推进垄断性行业改革,放开自然垄断行业竞争性业务,建立鼓励创新的统一透明、有序规范的市场环境。

切实加强反垄断执法,及时发现和制止垄断协议和滥用市场支配地位等垄断行为,为中小企业创新发展拓宽空间。

打破地方保护,清理和废除妨碍全国统一市场的规定和做法,纠正地方政府不当补贴或利用行政权力限制、排除竞争的行为,探索实施公平竞争审查制度。

(三)改进新技术新产品新商业模式的准入管理

改革产业准入制度,制定和实施产业准入负面清单,对未纳入负面清单管理的行业、领域、业务等,各类市场主体皆可依法平等进入。

破除限制新技术新产品新商业模式发展的不合理准入障碍。对药品、医疗器械等创新产品建立便捷高效的监管模式,深化审评审批制度改革,多种渠道增加审评资源,优化流程,缩短周期,支持委托生产等新的组织模式发展。对新能源汽车、风电、光伏等领域实行有针对性的准入政策。

改进互联网、金融、环保、医疗卫生、文化、教育等领域的监管,支持和鼓励新业态、新商业模式发展。

(四)健全产业技术政策和管理制度

改革产业监管制度,将前置审批为主转变为依法加强事中事后监管为主,形成有利于转型升级、鼓励创新的产业政策导向。

强化产业技术政策的引导和监督作用,明确并逐步提高生产环节和市场准入的环境、节能、节地、节水、节材、质量和安全指标及相关标准,形成统一权威、公开透明的市场准入标准体系。健全技术标准体系,强化强制性标准的制定和实施。

加强产业技术政策、标准执行的过程监管。强化环保、质检、工商、安全监管等部门的行政执法联动机制。

(五)形成要素价格倒逼创新机制

运用主要由市场决定要素价格的机制,促使企业从依靠过度消耗资源能源、低性能低成本竞争,向依靠创新、实施差别化竞争转变。

加快推进资源税改革,逐步将资源税扩展到占用各种自然生态空间,推进环境保护费改税。完善市场化的工业用地价格形成机制。健全企业职工工资正常增长机制,实现劳动力成本变化与经济提质增效相适应。
三、建立技术创新市场导向机制

发挥市场对技术研发方向、路线选择和各类创新资源配置的导向作用,调整创新决策和组织模式,强化普惠性政策支持,促进企业真正成为技术创新决策、研发投入、科研组织和成果转化的主体。

(六)扩大企业在国家创新决策中话语权

建立高层次、常态化的企业技术创新对话、咨询制度,发挥企业和企业家在国家创新决策中的重要作用。吸收更多企业参与研究制定国家技术创新规划、计划、政策和标准,相关专家咨询组中产业专家和企业家应占较大比例。

国家科技规划要聚焦战略需求,重点部署市场不能有效配置资源的关键领域研究,竞争类产业技术创新的研发方向、技术路线和要素配置模式由企业依据市场需求自主决策。

(七)完善企业为主体的产业技术创新机制

市场导向明确的科技项目由企业牵头、政府引导、联合高等学校和科研院所实施。鼓励构建以企业为主导、产学研合作的产业技术创新战略联盟。

更多运用财政后补助、间接投入等方式,支持企业自主决策、先行投入,开展重大产业关键共性技术、装备和标准的研发攻关。

开展龙头企业创新转型试点,探索政府支持企业技术创新、管理创新、商业模式创新的新机制。

完善中小企业创新服务体系,加快推进创业孵化、知识产权服务、第三方检验检测认证等机构的专业化、市场化改革,壮大技术交易市场。

优化国家实验室、重点实验室、工程实验室、工程(技术)研究中心布局,按功能定位分类整合,构建开放共享互动的创新网络,建立向企业特别是中小企业有效开放的机制。探索在战略性领域采取企业主导、院校协作、多元投资、军民融合、成果分享的新模式,整合形成若干产业创新中心。加大国家重大科研基础设施、大型科研仪器和专利基础信息资源等向社会开放力度。

(八)提高普惠性财税政策支持力度

坚持结构性减税方向,逐步将国家对企业技术创新的投入方式转变为以普惠性财税政策为主。

统筹研究企业所得税加计扣除政策,完善企业研发费用计核方法,调整目录管理方式,扩大研发费用加计扣除优惠政策适用范围。完善高新技术企业认定办法,重点鼓励中小企业加大研发力度。

(九)健全优先使用创新产品的采购政策

建立健全符合国际规则的支持采购创新产品和服务的政策体系,落实和完善政府采购促进中小企业创新发展的相关措施,加大创新产品和服务的采购力度。鼓励采用首购、订购等非招标采购方式,以及政府购买服务等方式予以支持,促进创新产品的研发和规模化应用。

研究完善使用首台(套)重大技术装备鼓励政策,健全研制、使用单位在产品创新、增值服务和示范应用等环节的激励和约束机制。

放宽民口企业和科研单位进入军品科研生产和维修采购范围。

四、强化金融创新的功能

发挥金融创新对技术创新的助推作用,培育壮大创业投资和资本市场,提高信贷支持创新的灵活性和便利性,形成各类金融工具协同支持创新发展的良好局面。

(十)壮大创业投资规模

研究制定天使投资相关法规。按照税制改革的方向与要求,对包括天使投资在内的投向种子期、初创期等创新活动的投资,统筹研究相关税收支持政策。

研究扩大促进创业投资企业发展的税收优惠政策,适当放宽创业投资企业投资高新技术企业的条件限制,并在试点基础上将享受投资抵扣政策的创业投资企业范围扩大到有限合伙制创业投资企业法人合伙人。

结合国有企业改革设立国有资本创业投资基金,完善国有创投机构激励约束机制。按照市场化原则研究设立国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金,带动社会资本支持战略性新兴产业和高技术产业早中期、初创期创新型企业发展。

完善外商投资创业投资企业规定,有效利用境外资本投向创新领域。研究保险资金投资创业投资基金的相关政策。

(十一)强化资本市场对技术创新的支持

加快创业板市场改革,健全适合创新型、成长型企业发展的制度安排,扩大服务实体经济覆盖面,强化全国中小企业股份转让系统融资、并购、交易等功能,规范发展服务小微企业的区域性股权市场。加强不同层次资本市场的有机联系。

发挥沪深交易所股权质押融资机制作用,支持符合条件的创新创业企业发行公司债券。支持符合条件的企业发行项目收益债,募集资金用于加大创新投入。

推动修订相关法律法规,探索开展知识产权证券化业务。开展股权众筹融资试点,积极探索和规范发展服务创新的互联网金融。

(十二)拓宽技术创新的间接融资渠道

完善商业银行相关法律。选择符合条件的银行业金融机构,探索试点为企业创新活动提供股权和债权相结合的融资服务方式,与创业投资、股权投资机构实现投贷联动。

政策性银行在有关部门及监管机构的指导下,加快业务范围内金融产品和服务方式创新,对符合条件的企业创新活动加大信贷支持力度。

稳步发展民营银行,建立与之相适应的监管制度,支持面向中小企业创新需求的金融产品创新。

建立知识产权质押融资市场化风险补偿机制,简化知识产权质押融资流程。加快发展科技保险,推进专利保险试点。
五、完善成果转化激励政策

强化尊重知识、尊重创新,充分体现智力劳动价值的分配导向,让科技人员在创新活动中得到合理回报,通过成果应用体现创新价值,通过成果转化创造财富。

(十三)加快下放科技成果使用、处置和收益权

不断总结试点经验,结合事业单位分类改革要求,尽快将财政资金支持形成的,不涉及国防、国家安全、国家利益、重大社会公共利益的科技成果的使用权、处置权和收益权,全部下放给符合条件的项目承担单位。单位主管部门和财政部门对科技成果在境内的使用、处置不再审批或备案,科技成果转移转化所得收入全部留归单位,纳入单位预算,实行统一管理,处置收入不上缴国库。

(十四)提高科研人员成果转化收益比例

完善职务发明制度,推动修订专利法、公司法等相关内容,完善科技成果、知识产权归属和利益分享机制,提高骨干团队、主要发明人受益比例。完善奖励报酬制度,健全职务发明的争议仲裁和法律救济制度。

修订相关法律和政策规定,在利用财政资金设立的高等学校和科研院所中,将职务发明成果转让收益在重要贡献人员、所属单位之间合理分配,对用于奖励科研负责人、骨干技术人员等重要贡献人员和团队的收益比例,可以从现行不低于20%提高到不低于50%。

国有企业事业单位对职务发明完成人、科技成果转化重要贡献人员和团队的奖励,计入当年单位工资总额,不作为工资总额基数。

(十五)加大科研人员股权激励力度

鼓励各类企业通过股权、期权、分红等激励方式,调动科研人员创新积极性。

对高等学校和科研院所等事业单位以科技成果作价入股的企业,放宽股权奖励、股权出售对企业设立年限和盈利水平的限制。

建立促进国有企业创新的激励制度,对在创新中作出重要贡献的技术人员实施股权和分红权激励。

积极总结试点经验,抓紧确定科技型中小企业的条件和标准。高新技术企业和科技型中小企业科研人员通过科技成果转化取得股权奖励收入时,原则上在5年内分期缴纳个人所得税。结合个人所得税制改革,研究进一步激励科研人员创新的政策。

六、构建更加高效的科研体系

发挥科学技术研究对创新驱动的引领和支撑作用,遵循规律、强化激励、合理分工、分类改革,增强高等学校、科研院所原始创新能力和转制科研院所的共性技术研发能力。

(十六)优化对基础研究的支持方式

切实加大对基础研究的财政投入,完善稳定支持和竞争性支持相协调的机制,加大稳定支持力度,支持研究机构自主布局科研项目,扩大高等学校、科研院所学术自主权和个人科研选题选择权。

改革基础研究领域科研计划管理方式,尊重科学规律,建立包容和支持“非共识”创新项目的制度。

改革高等学校和科研院所聘用制度,优化工资结构,保证科研人员合理工资待遇水平。完善内部分配机制,重点向关键岗位、业务骨干和作出突出成绩的人员倾斜。

(十七)加大对科研工作的绩效激励力度

完善事业单位绩效工资制度,健全鼓励创新创造的分配激励机制。完善科研项目间接费用管理制度,强化绩效激励,合理补偿项目承担单位间接成本和绩效支出。项目承担单位应结合一线科研人员实际贡献,公开公正安排绩效支出,充分体现科研人员的创新价值。

(十八)改革高等学校和科研院所科研评价制度

强化对高等学校和科研院所研究活动的分类考核。对基础和前沿技术研究实行同行评价,突出中长期目标导向,评价重点从研究成果数量转向研究质量、原创价值和实际贡献。

对公益性研究强化国家目标和社会责任评价,定期对公益性研究机构组织第三方评价,将评价结果作为财政支持的重要依据,引导建立公益性研究机构依托国家资源服务行业创新机制。

(十九)深化转制科研院所改革

坚持技术开发类科研机构企业化转制方向,对于承担较多行业共性科研任务的转制科研院所,可组建成产业技术研发集团,对行业共性技术研究和市场经营活动进行分类管理、分类考核。

推动以生产经营活动为主的转制科研院所深化市场化改革,通过引入社会资本或整体上市,积极发展混合所有制,推进产业技术联盟建设。

对于部分转制科研院所中基础研究能力较强的团队,在明确定位和标准的基础上,引导其回归公益,参与国家重点实验室建设,支持其继续承担国家任务。

(二十)建立高等学校和科研院所技术转移机制

逐步实现高等学校和科研院所与下属公司剥离,原则上高等学校、科研院所不再新办企业,强化科技成果以许可方式对外扩散。

加强高等学校和科研院所的知识产权管理,明确所属技术转移机构的功能定位,强化其知识产权申请、运营权责。

建立完善高等学校、科研院所的科技成果转移转化的统计和报告制度,财政资金支持形成的科技成果,除涉及国防、国家安全、国家利益、重大社会公共利益外,在合理期限内未能转化的,可由国家依法强制许可实施。
七、创新培养、用好和吸引人才机制

围绕建设一支规模宏大、富有创新精神、敢于承担风险的创新型人才队伍,按照创新规律培养和吸引人才,按照市场规律让人才自由流动,实现人尽其才、才尽其用、用有所成。

(二十一)构建创新型人才培养模式

开展启发式、探究式、研究式教学方法改革试点,弘扬科学精神,营造鼓励创新、宽容失败的创新文化。改革基础教育培养模式,尊重个性发展,强化兴趣爱好和创造性思维培养。

以人才培养为中心,着力提高本科教育质量,加快部分普通本科高等学校向应用技术型高等学校转型,开展校企联合招生、联合培养试点,拓展校企合作育人的途径与方式。

分类改革研究生培养模式,探索科教结合的学术学位研究生培养新模式,扩大专业学位研究生招生比例,增进教学与实践的融合。

鼓励高等学校以国际同类一流学科为参照,开展学科国际评估,扩大交流合作,稳步推进高等学校国际化进程。

(二十二)建立健全科研人才双向流动机制

改进科研人员薪酬和岗位管理制度,破除人才流动的体制机制障碍,促进科研人员在事业单位和企业间合理流动。

符合条件的科研院所的科研人员经所在单位批准,可带着科研项目和成果、保留基本待遇到企业开展创新工作或创办企业。

允许高等学校和科研院所设立一定比例流动岗位,吸引有创新实践经验的企业家和企业科技人才兼职。试点将企业任职经历作为高等学校新聘工程类教师的必要条件。

加快社会保障制度改革,完善科研人员在企业与事业单位之间流动时社保关系转移接续政策,促进人才双向自由流动。

(二十三)实行更具竞争力的人才吸引制度

制定外国人永久居留管理的意见,加快外国人永久居留管理立法,规范和放宽技术型人才取得外国人永久居留证的条件,探索建立技术移民制度。对持有外国人永久居留证的外籍高层次人才在创办科技型企业等创新活动方面,给予中国籍公民同等待遇。

加快制定外国人在中国工作管理条例,对符合条件的外国人才给予工作许可便利,对符合条件的外国人才及其随行家属给予签证和居留等便利。对满足一定条件的国外高层次科技创新人才取消来华工作许可的年龄限制。

围绕国家重大需求,面向全球引进首席科学家等高层次科技创新人才。建立访问学者制度。广泛吸引海外高层次人才回国(来华)从事创新研究。

稳步推进人力资源市场对外开放,逐步放宽外商投资人才中介服务机构的外资持股比例和最低注册资本金要求。鼓励有条件的国内人力资源服务机构走出去与国外人力资源服务机构开展合作,在境外设立分支机构,积极参与国际人才竞争与合作。

八、推动形成深度融合的开放创新局面

坚持引进来与走出去相结合,以更加主动的姿态融入全球创新网络,以更加开阔的胸怀吸纳全球创新资源,以更加积极的策略推动技术和标准输出,在更高层次上构建开放创新机制。

(二十四)鼓励创新要素跨境流动

对开展国际研发合作项目所需付汇,实行研发单位事先承诺,商务、科技、税务部门事后并联监管。

对科研人员因公出国进行分类管理,放宽因公临时出国批次限量管理政策。

改革检验管理,对研发所需设备、样本及样品进行分类管理,在保证安全前提下,采用重点审核、抽检、免检等方式,提高审核效率。

(二十五)优化境外创新投资管理制度

健全综合协调机制,协调解决重大问题,合力支持国内技术、产品、标准、品牌走出去,开拓国际市场。强化技术贸易措施评价和风险预警机制。

研究通过国有重点金融机构发起设立海外创新投资基金,外汇储备通过债权、股权等方式参与设立基金工作,更多更好利用全球创新资源。

鼓励上市公司海外投资创新类项目,改革投资信息披露制度,在相关部门确认不影响国家安全和经济安全前提下,按照中外企业商务谈判进展,适时披露有关信息。

(二十六)扩大科技计划对外开放

制定国家科技计划对外开放的管理办法,按照对等开放、保障安全的原则,积极鼓励和引导外资研发机构参与承担国家科技计划项目。

在基础研究和重大全球性问题研究等领域,统筹考虑国家科研发展需求和战略目标,研究发起国际大科学计划和工程,吸引海外顶尖科学家和团队参与。积极参与大型国际科技合作计划。引导外资研发中心开展高附加值原创性研发活动,吸引国际知名科研机构来华联合组建国际科技中心。

九、加强创新政策统筹协调

更好发挥政府推进创新的作用。改革科技管理体制,加强创新政策评估督查与绩效评价,形成职责明晰、积极作为、协调有力、长效管用的创新治理体系。

(二十七)加强创新政策的统筹

加强科技、经济、社会等方面的政策、规划和改革举措的统筹协调和有效衔接,强化军民融合创新。发挥好科技界和智库对创新决策的支撑作用。

建立创新政策协调审查机制,组织开展创新政策清理,及时废止有违创新规律、阻碍新兴产业和新兴业态发展的政策条款,对新制定政策是否制约创新进行审查。

建立创新政策调查和评价制度,广泛听取企业和社会公众意见,定期对政策落实情况进行跟踪分析,并及时调整完善。

(二十八)完善创新驱动导向评价体系

改进和完善国内生产总值核算方法,体现创新的经济价值。研究建立科技创新、知识产权与产业发展相结合的创新驱动发展评价指标,并纳入国民经济和社会发展规划。

健全国有企业技术创新经营业绩考核制度,加大技术创新在国有企业经营业绩考核中的比重。对国有企业研发投入和产出进行分类考核,形成鼓励创新、宽容失败的考核机制。把创新驱动发展成效纳入对地方领导干部的考核范围。

(二十九)改革科技管理体制

转变政府科技管理职能,建立依托专业机构管理科研项目的机制,政府部门不再直接管理具体项目,主要负责科技发展战略、规划、政策、布局、评估和监管。

建立公开统一的国家科技管理平台,健全统筹协调的科技宏观决策机制,加强部门功能性分工,统筹衔接基础研究、应用开发、成果转化、产业发展等各环节工作。

进一步明晰中央和地方科技管理事权和职能定位,建立责权统一的协同联动机制,提高行政效能。

(三十)推进全面创新改革试验

遵循创新区域高度集聚的规律,在有条件的省(自治区、直辖市)系统推进全面创新改革试验,授权开展知识产权、科研院所、高等教育、人才流动、国际合作、金融创新、激励机制、市场准入等改革试验,努力在重要领域和关键环节取得新突破,及时总结推广经验,发挥示范和带动作用,促进创新驱动发展战略的深入实施。

各级党委和政府要高度重视,加强领导,把深化体制机制改革、加快实施创新驱动发展战略,作为落实党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中全会精神的重大任务,认真抓好落实。有关方面要密切配合,分解改革任务,明确时间表和路线图,确定责任部门和责任人。要加强对创新文化的宣传和舆论引导,宣传改革经验、回应社会关切、引导社会舆论,为创新营造良好的社会环境。

 

One thought on “Some Opinions concerning Deepening Structural and Mechanism Reform and Accelerating the Implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy

    […] Some Opinions concerning Deepening Structural and Mechanism Reform and Accelerating the Implementati… Innovation is an important force in the progressive development of a country and a nation, and is an important force in promoting the progressive development of the entire human society. In the face of a new round of global scientific and technological revolution and major opportunities and challenges in industrial reform, in the face of the trends, changes and characteristics of a new economic normal, and in the face of the historical tasks and demands of the “Two Centenaries” struggle objectives, we must deepen structural and mechanism reform, accelerate the implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy, the following opinions are hereby put forward. […]

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