Some Opinions concerning the Use of Big Data to Strengthen Service to and Supervision of Market Subjects
State Council General Office
GBF No. (2015)51
All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:
In order to fully use the advanced ideas, technologies and resources of big data to strengthen service to and supervision of market subjects, move forward government streamlining and decentralization of powers, as well as the transformation of government functions, and raise the government’s governing capacity, with the approval of the State Council, the following Opinions are put forward.
I, Fully understanding the importance of using big data to strengthen service to and supervision of market subjects
The steady progress of government streamlining, decentralization of powers and reform measures for industry and commerce registration has reduced market access barriers, simplified registration procedures, stimulated the vitality of market subjects, and powerfully driven ahead and stimulated employment. In order to ensure that reform measures move forward smoothly and achieve success, it is necessary on the one hand to realistically strengthen and improve government services, fully protect the vigour of entrepreneurs, and ensure that they can remain [in business], hold [their position] and can strengthen [themselves]; on the other hand, it is necessary to realistically strengthen and improve market supervision and management, implement strict management at the same time as broadening entry, maintain a regular market order, and stimulate fair competition in markets.
At present, the number of market subjects is growing rapidly, and the degree of vitality of markets is growing incessantly, the amount of information in society is growing explosively, big data, with its huge quantities, scattered sources and diverse forms, has posed a new challenge for government service and supervision capability, and has brought new opportunities. We must both give high regard to the security problems that information openness and information circulation have brought, and must fully understand the major importance of information openness, integrating information resources and strengthening the application of big data for maintaining national unity, enhancing the State’s governing capacity, and raising the efficiency of economic and social operations. Fully using the advanced ideas, technologies and resources of big data, is a strategic choice to enhance national competitiveness, it is a necessary requirement to increase government service and supervision capacity, benefits the full obtainment and utilization of information by government, to even more accurately understand the needs of market subjects, and increase the focus and efficiency of services and supervision; it benefits the smooth moving forward of government streamlining and decentralization of power, the integration of loosening and management, and the realistic transformation of government functions; it benefits strengthening social supervision, to give rein to the positive role of the public in standardizing the acts of market subjects; it benefits the efficient use of modern information technology, social data resources and socialized information services, and the reduction of administrative supervision costs. Relevant State Council departments and all levels’ local People’s Governments must integrate their work reality, vigorously adopt big data and other modern information technologies in a full, effective, secure and reliable manner, in the process of public services and market supervision, and incessantly enhance the government’s governing capability.
II, General requirements
(1) Guiding ideology. Comprehensively implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and its 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenums, according to the policymaking deployments of the Party Centre and the State Council, focus on enabling the market to play a decisive role in the allocation of resources and give ever more rein to the role of government, move forward with government streamlining, administrative decentralization and the transformation of government functions, fully use big data, cloud computing and other such modern information technologies with the construction of the social credit system, government information openness and data openness as handholds, raise government service levels, strengthen on-going and ex-post supervision and management, maintain a regular market order, stimulate fair competition in markets, liberate the vitality of market subjects, and further optimize the development environment.
(2) Main objectives
Increasing big data utilization capacity, strengthening the efficiency of government services and supervision. Efficiently gather, effectively integrate and fully utilize government data and social data, complete work mechanisms for the governmental use of big data, make the use of big data into an important handhold for raising government governance capability, incessantly raise the focus and efficiency of government services and supervision.
Promoting administrative streamlining, decentralization of powers and the transformation of government functions, stimulate market subjects to operate lawfully and honestly. Use big data to raise government’s public service capacity, strengthen supervision over market subjects during and after operations, and provide basic support to move forward administrative streamlining, decentralization of powers and the transformation of government functions. With the national uniform credit information sharing and exchange platform as a basis, use big data to promote the construction of a social credit system, establish cross-regional and cross-departmental joint credit reward and punishment mechanisms, and build a fair and honest market environment.
Raising government service levels and supervision efficiency, reducing service and supervision costs. Fully use big data ideas, technologies and resources, perfect comprehensive services for market subjects, and strengthen supervision over market subjects across the whole lifespan. On the basis of service and supervision needs, move government procurement services forward in an orderly manner, and incessantly reduce governments’ operational costs.
Organically integrating government supervision and social supervision, building unidirectional market supervision systems. Through government information openness and data openness, as well as social information resource openness and sharing, raise the transparency of market subjects’ production and operational activities. Effectively muster the vigour of social forces to supervise market subjects, and build market supervision structures with broad participation from society.
III, Use big data to raise support levels for market subjects
(3) Using big data to innovate government service ideas and service methods. Fully use big data technologies, vigorously grasp the common and individual needs of different regions, different sectors and different kinds of enterprises, provide more focused services in registration, market access, government procurement, government procurement of services, project investment, policy trends, tendering and bidding, inspection and monitoring, authentication and accreditation, funding guarantees, tax and excise collection, import and export, market expansion, technological transformation, upstream and downstream integration, industrial associations, mergers and acquisitions, training and consultancy, outcome transformation, human resources, legal services, intellectual property rights and other such areas, and promote the sustained development of enterprises.
(4) Raise the efficiency of registration and administrative examination and approval. Accelerate the establishment of uniform social credit coding systems for citizens, legal persons and other organizations. Comprehensively implement the “merge three licences into one” of the industry and commerce business licence and organizational registration code licence and the tax registration licence, as well as the “one licence one code” registration system, and design the system well with simplifying procedures, making matters convenient for market subjects and reducing social burdens as starting points. Encourage the establishment of multi-departmental online parallel project examination and approval platforms, ensure cross-departmental and cross-level project examination, approval and filing are “uniformly accepted, examined concurrently, with shared information, in a transparent and open manner.” Use big data to promote the optimization and reconstruction of administrative workflows.
(5) Raising information service levels. Encourage government departments to use websites, microblogs, WeChat and other such new media, closely connect with enterprise needs, integrate relevant information to provide services to enterprises, organize the launch of activities such as enterprises linking up with financial bodies for fundraising, collaboration and linkages between upstream and downstream enterprises, etc. Fully give rein to the function of public credit service bodies, and provide basic and public credit record inquiry services for judicial and administrative bodies, social credit service bodies, and the social public.
(6) Establish and complete incentive mechanisms to keep trust. In the process of market supervision and public services, under equal conditions, preferential processing and simplified procedures and other such “green channel” supporting and incentive policies are to be implemented for those honestly keeping trust. In the tendering and bidding process for financial subsidies, government procurement, government service procurement, and government investment project construction, market subjects’ credit records should be inspected, or they should be demanded to provide credit reports issued by qualified credit service bodies, and preferentially choose market subjects with a relatively good credit situation.
(7) Strengthen statistical monitoring and data processing services. Innovate statistical survey information gathering, excavation and analysis technologies. Strengthen cross-departmental correlative and comparative data analysis and other such processing work, fully excavate the value of government data. On the basis of macro-economic data, industrial development trends, market demand circumstances, quality management circumstances and other such information, fully utilize big data technologies to improve economic operational monitoring, forecasting and risk assessment, timely provide corresponding information to society, and rationally guide market expectations.
(8) Guide specialized bodies and sectoral organizations to utilize big data to perfect services. Give rein to the coordinating role of government organizations, on the basis of opening government information resources in a lawful and orderly manner, formulate realistic and effective policy measures, to support banking, securities, trust, lending, guaranteeing, insurance and other such specialized service bodies and sectoral and commercial associations to use big data to provide services to enterprises even more conveniently and efficiently, to support enterprise development. Support and promote financial information service enterprises to vigorously use big data to support the launch of new products, and realistically safeguard national financial information security.
(9) Use big data to assess government service results. Comprehensively sue government and social information resources, entrust third-party organs with conducting comprehensive assessments of the outcomes of governments’ provision of public services to market subjects, or conduct special assessments of concrete service policies and measures, and timely adjust or optimize them on the basis of the assessment results, in order to raise the efficiency of administration and services at all levels’ governments and their departments.
IV, use big data to strengthen and improve market supervision
(10) Complete in medias res and ex post supervision mechanisms. Innovate supervision methods for market operations and transactions, in areas including enterprise supervision, environmental protection, food and drug safety, consumer safety, production safety, credit system construction, etc., promote the collection, integration and timely publication to society of data concerning market supervision, market concerning statutory inspections and monitoring, data on violations of laws and trust, data about complaint reports and data concerning enterprises’ violations of laws and regulations that should be made public, encourage and guide enterprises to voluntarily publish ever more production and operational data, sales and logistical data, etc., build big data supervision models, conduct correlative analysis, timely grasp operational acts, laws and characteristics of market subjects, actively discover acts violating laws and regulations, raise government’s capability for scientific policymaking and risk assessment, strengthen in medias res and ex post supervision of market subjects. Integrate and analyse enterprises’ commercial orbit, completely and objectively assess enterprises’ operating situation and credit rank, and realize effective supervision. Establish information sharing platform for administrative law enforcement, the judiciary, finance, etc., and strengthen joint law enforcement capacities.
(11) Establish and complete credit commitment systems. Comprehensively establish market subject pre-access credit commitment systems, require market subjects to make open commitments to society in a standardized manner, to voluntarily accept restraints and punishments after breaking laws or trust. Credit commitments are to be brought into market subjects’ credit records, accept social supervision, and be a basis for reference for supervision in medias res and ex post.
(12) Accelerating the establishment of uniform credit information sharing and exchange platforms. With the Social Credit Information System Precursor Project as basis, fully give rein to the basic role of the national population basic information database, the legal person and work unit information resource base, as well as the supporting role of the enterprise credit information publication system, establish national uniform credit information sharing and exchange platforms, integrate financial, industry and commerce registration, tax payment, social security fee, traffic violation, production safety, quality supervision, statistical survey and other such credit information, and realize the joint construction and sharing of credit information between all localities and all departments. Departments with market supervision roles shall accurately collect market subjects’ credit information in the process of carrying out their duties, establish credit information systems for departments and sectors, and enter this into the national uniform credit information sharing and exchange platform.
(13) Establishing and completing joint punishment mechanisms for trust-breaking. All levels’ People’s Governments shall embed the use of credit information and credit reports into all areas and all stages of administrative management and public services, and use it as a necessary condition or an important basis for reference. Fully give rein to comprehensive supervision and management efficiency in the administrative, judicial, financial and social area, build cross-departmental joint response and trust-breaking restriction mechanisms in areas including market access, administrative approval, qualification assessment, enjoyment of financial subsidies and preferential fiscal policies, enterprise legal representative and responsible person professional qualification inspections, government procurement, government procurement of services, bank credit, tendering and bidding, State-owned land transfer, public listing of enterprises, customs clearance for goods, excise collection, social security fees, foreign exchange management, labour and employment, price formulation, e-commerce, product quality, food and drug security, consumer good safety, intellectual property rights, environmental protection, public order management, population management, border entry and exit management, grant of honorary titles, etc., and impose restrictions or prohibitions on law-violating and trust-breaking subjects. Establish “blacklist” systems in all sectors and market withdrawal mechanisms. Promote that a good credit situation of applicants becomes a necessary condition for all kinds of administrative licences.
(14) Establishing product information tracing systems. Strengthen supervision and management of important products that affect the security of the popular masses’ lives and assets, such as food, drugs, agricultural product, daily consumer goods, particular equipment, products with protected geographical indications, etc., use the Internet of Things, RFID and other such information technologies to build product quality tracing systems, shape information chains with inspectable sources, traceable whereabouts and investigatable responsibilities, to make it convenient for supervision and management departments to supervise and manage, and for the social masses to inquire [into the matter].
(15) Strengthening market supervision and management over the e-commerce area. Clarify the responsibilities of e-commerce platforms, strengthen supervision and management of trading activities, promote an identity logo system for online operators, perfect online store real-name systems and trading credit assessment systems, strengthen online payment security protection, strictly attack unlawful and trust-breaking activities in the e-commerce area. Strengthen supervision and management of e-commerce platforms, strengthen e-commerce information collection and analysis, guide the launch of e-commerce website trustworthiness assessment services, broaden the application of website trustworthiness symbols, and promote the construction of a trustworthy trading environment in e-commerce. Complete mechanisms for the protection of rights and interests and the settlement of disputes.
(16) Using big data science to formulate and adjust supervision and management structures and policies. In the process of researching the formulation of market supervision and management systems and policies, we should fully use big data, establish scientific and rational emulation models, forecast the response of supervision targets, markets and society, and compile preparatory plans for risks that may emerge. Track and monitor the real outcomes of relevant systems and policies, regularly assess them and timely adjust them on the basis of requirements.
(17) Promoting the creation of environments and mechanisms for all of society to participate in supervision and management. Through government information openness and data openness, as well as social information resource openness and sharing, raise the transparency of market subject production and trading activities, and create conditions for news media, sectoral organizations, relevant stakeholders and consumers to jointly participate in the supervision and management of market subjects. Guide relevant parties to conduct market, sectoral and social restrictions and punishments against law-breakers and trust-breakers, and create a supervision and management structure with broad participation from the entire society.
V, Moving forward governmental and social information resource openness and sharing.
(18) Further strengthening government information openness and data openness. Except where laws and regulations provide otherwise, information about administrative licensing and administrative punishment shall be made public online within seven working days of the decision being taken, in order to raise administrative management transparency and government credibility. Raise consciousness about government data openness, open up governmental data in an orderly manner, and make it convenient for all of society to exploit and use it.
(19) Forcefully move forward with market subject information publication. Strictly implement the “Provisional Regulations concerning Enterprise Information Openness”, accelerate the implementation of an unusual trading directory and a name-list system for gravely unlawful and trust-breaking enterprises. Build national enterprise credit information publication systems, lawfully publish basic credit information about enterprise registration, administrative licensing and administrative punishments, as well as annual enterprise reports, unusual trading directories and name lists of enterprise gravely breaking the law and breaking trust, raise market transparency, and realize organic linkages and information sharing with the national uniform credit information sharing platform. Support the exploration and development of socialized credit information publication services. Establish the “Credit China” website, collect and integrate credit information held by all localities and all departments that should be made public, realize one-stop inquiry into credit information, and make it convenient for society to understand the credit situation of market subjects. All levels’ governments and their departments must link their websites with the “Credit China” website, and make the government openness information of that work unit and information concerning relevant violations of laws and regulations by market subjects public on the “Credit China” website.
(20) Vigorously promote intra-government information exchange and sharing. Break through regional barriers and departmental splits concerning information, strive to promote information sharing and integration. Information systems already built or currently being built by all localities and all departments must realize interconnection, interaction and information exchange and sharing. Except where laws and regulations clearly provide otherwise, in all cases of application for the establishment of newly-built departmental information system projects, approval will without exception not be granted where interdepartmental information sharing requirements have not been made clear; in all cases where departmental information currently being built cannot interconnect and share information with other departments, it may not be accepted for delivery without exception; all departmental information systems that do not support regional information sharing platform construction and do not provide information to regional information sharing platforms may, without exception, not be approved or accepted for delivery.
(21) Promote openness and sharing of information resources from the entire society. Support credit recording bodies to collect credit information from market transactions and social transactions according to the law, support Internet enterprises, sectoral organizations, news media, scientific research bodies and other such social forces to collect corresponding information according to the law. Guide all kinds of social bodies to integrate and open up data, build information collection, sharing and application mechanisms interconnecting government and society, and build big data resources enabling convergence between government information and social information.
VI, Raising government’s capacity to use big data
(22) Strengthening e-government construction. Complete national e-government networks, integrate network resources, realize interconnection and interaction, and provide services to governments at all levels, as well as their departments, to carry out their duties. Accelerate the construction of the national government informatization project, comprehensively establish national information databases concerning the population, legal persons and work units, natural resources and spatial geography, macroeconomics, etc., accelerate the construction of national important information systems, and raise the informatization levels of government affairs.
(23) Strengthening and standardizing governmental data collection. Establish and complete government data collection rules, and clarify information collection regulations. All departments must, in the process of carrying out their duties, record and collect corresponding information in a lawful, timely, accurate, standardized and complete manner, appropriately store and timely renew it. Strengthen records of relevant information concerning market subjects, create credit files, create a “blacklist” of market subjects gravely violating the law or breaking the trust, and make this public
(24) Establishing government information resource management systems. Completely move forward the electronization and systematization of government information management. Explore the establishment of government information resource catalogues. Expand innovation strengths in areas such as strategic planning, management methods, technological methods, guarantee measures, etc., strengthen government information resource management capabilities, fully excavate the value of government information resources. Encourage localities to suit measures to local conditions, and unite their government information resource management strengths, comprehensively plan and move forward the construction, management, exploitation and use of government information resources.
(25) Strengthen government information standardization construction and categorized management. Establish and complete government informatization construction and government information resource management standard systems. Strictly differentiate between secret-related information and non-secret-related information, move forward categorized management of government information in the collection, sharing and usage stages, and rationally establish the scope of government information openness.
(26) Promoting government to purchase big data resources and technical services from social forces. All localities and all departments must, according to the principles of what is beneficial for the transformation of governmental functioning, what is beneficial to reduce administrative costs, and what is beneficial to enhance service quality levels and financial efficiency, fully give rein to the superiorities of market bodies in information infrastructure construction, information technology, information resource integration, exploitation and services, etc., strengthen cooperation between government and enterprises through government procurement of services, collaboration agreements, legally mandated provision and other such means, and provide support and guarantees for scientific governmental policymaking, supervision and management according to the law, and efficient services. According to the requirements of standards, security and the economy, establish and complete mechanisms for government to purchase information products and information technology services from social forces, and strengthen purchasing requirement management and result evaluation. Strengthen assessment of the accuracy and reliability of purchased information resources..
VII, Vigorously fostering and developing socialized credit reporting services
(27) Promoting credit reporting bodies to establish market subject credit records. Support deep cooperation between credit reporting bodies and government departments, enterprise and undertaking work units, social organizations, etc., launch credit reporting activities according to the law, establish credit record systems targeted at natural persons, legal persons and other organizations, collect, arrange, process and store credit information created during market transactions and social transactions according to the law, adopt reasonable measures to protect the accuracy of credit information, establish market subject credit records covering all areas and all segments of the economy and society.
(28) Encourage credit reporting bodies to launch specialized credit reporting services. Guide credit reporting bodies to forcefully strengthen innovation in credit services and products on the basis of market demand, and provide specialized credit reporting services. Establish, complete and strictly implement internal risk prevention, conflict of interest avoidance and information security protection rules and structures, and provide convenient and efficient credit reporting services to consumers. Further broaden the application of credit reports in administrative management, public services and areas such as banking, securities, insurance, etc.
(29) Forcefully fostering and developing the credit services sector. Encourage the development of credit service sectors such as information inquiry, credit assessment, credit guarantees and credit insurance. Credit service bodies meeting conditions are to enjoy all national and local preferential policies concerning modern services industries and high technology industries according to relevant regulations. Strengthen supervision and management of the credit service market, further raise the market creditability and social influence of the credit service sector. Support and encourage domestic powerful credit service bodies to participate in international cooperation, expand international markets, and provide services for our country’s enterprises engaging in overseas mergers and acquisitions, international tendering and bidding, etc.
VIII, Complete guarantee measures, strengthen organizational leadership
(30) Enhancing industrial support capacities. Further complete innovation systems, encourage corresponding enterprises, higher education institutes and scientific research bodies to launch industrial-educational-research collaboration, move forward with coordinated and integrated big data innovation, accelerate breakthroughs in key common big data technologies including large-scale data storage, non-related databases, data mining, smart data analysis, data visualization, etc., and support innovation of products such as high-performance computers, storage facilities, network facilities, smart terminals and large-scale common database software. Support enterprise work units in launching the construction of common big data technology service platforms. Encourage big data enterprises having indigenous intellectual property rights and technological innovation capabilities to strengthen and grow. Promote innovative applications of big data in all areas, enhance social governance, public service and scientific policymaking levels, and foster new growth points. Implement and perfect fiscal, financial, industrial and talent policies supporting the development of the big data industry, and promote the accelerated development of the big data industry.
(31) Establishing and perfecting management systems. Deal well with the relationship between big data development, services, applications and security. Accelerate the research, perfection and standardization of management structures for e-governance, to supervise cross-border information flows, protect national economic security and information security, and protect enterprises’ commercial secrets and personal privacy, and accelerate the formulation and promulgation of corresponding laws and regulations. Establish uniform social credit coding structures. Establish and complete government information recording and collecting structures in all departments. Establish government information resource management structures, and strengthen intellectual property rights protection. Accelerate the promulgation of policies and opinions concerning moving forward public information resource openness and sharing. Formulate rules and an information catalogue for governmental credit information openness and sharing, promote the promulgation of corresponding regulations, with provisions on government departments’ use of credit information and credit reports in administrative management and public services, and provide a basis for the joint punishment of unlawful and trust-breaking acts by market subjects.
(32) Perfecting standards and norms. Establish big data standard systems, research and formulate basic standards, technological standards, applied standards and management standards concerning big data. Accelerate the establishment of technological standards for government information gathering, storage, openness, sharing, use, quality protection and security management. Guide the establishment of inter-enterprise information sharing and exchange standards and norms, stimulate the exploitation and use of information resources.
(33) Strengthening the protection of cyber and information security. Implement the requirements of the National multi-level protection system for information security, strengthen management of important data involving national security, strengthen risk assessment and security management of big data-related technologies, facilities and services. Expand technological research and development, as well as financial input, for cyber and information security, establish and complete information security protection systems. Adopt necessary management and technology measures to realistically protect the security of State information as well as the security of information of citizens, legal persons and other organizations.
(34) Strengthening talent team construction. Encourage higher education institutes, human resource service bodies and enterprises to focus on fostering cross-disciplinary comprehensive, applied and innovative big data specialists and talents, perfect big data technology, management and service talent training systems. Strengthen training of government work personnel, and strengthen capabilities to use big data.
(35) Strengthening leadership, and clarifying the division of work. All localities and all department must realistically strengthen organizational leadership over the use of big data, and according to the division of responsibilities and work, research and promulgate concrete plans and implementation rules, carry out big data usage work in their localities and departments well, and incessantly raise service and supervision capabilities.
(36) Connecting with reality, giving prominence to focus points. Closely integrate the reality of all localities and all departments, and integrate data resources in providing services to society, government and enterprises. In areas such as commercial registration, statistics and surveys, quality supervision, competition law enforcement, consumer rights protection, etc., tale the lead in launching big data demonstration applications and projects, and realize the assembly and integration of big data. Implement big data demonstration applications and projects in areas such as macro-level management, tax collection, resource use and environmental protection, food and drug security, production safety, social credit system construction, healthcare and medicine, labour protection, education and culture, transportation and tourism, financial services, services to small and mid-size enterprises, industrial production, modern agriculture, trade and logistics, comprehensive social governance, income allocation adjustment, etc.
All localities and all departments must strengthen supervision and inspection of the implementation of tasks listed in this Opinion, and promote the broad utilization of big data in the processes of service and supervision. The Development and Reform Commission is responsible for the comprehensive planning, follow-up analysis, supervision and inspection of the implementation of this Opinion, to ensure that all tasks and measures are implemented satisfactorily.
State Council General Office
24 June 2015