Some Opinions concerning the Use of Big Data to Strengthen Service to and Supervision of Market Subjects

Posted on Updated on

State Council General Office

GBF No. (2015)51

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

In order to fully use the advanced ideas, technologies and resources of big data to strengthen service to and supervision of market subjects, move forward government streamlining and decentralization of powers, as well as the transformation of government functions, and raise the government’s governing capacity, with the approval of the State Council, the following Opinions are put forward.

I, Fully understanding the importance of using big data to strengthen service to and supervision of market subjects

The steady progress of government streamlining, decentralization of powers and reform measures for industry and commerce registration has reduced market access barriers, simplified registration procedures, stimulated the vitality of market subjects, and powerfully driven ahead and stimulated employment. In order to ensure that reform measures move forward smoothly and achieve success, it is necessary on the one hand to realistically strengthen and improve government services, fully protect the vigour of entrepreneurs, and ensure that they can remain [in business], hold [their position] and can strengthen [themselves]; on the other hand, it is necessary to realistically strengthen and improve market supervision and management, implement strict management at the same time as broadening entry, maintain a regular market order, and stimulate fair competition in markets.

At present, the number of market subjects is growing rapidly, and the degree of vitality of markets is growing incessantly, the amount of information in society is growing explosively, big data, with its huge quantities, scattered sources and diverse forms, has posed a new challenge for government service and supervision capability, and has brought new opportunities. We must both give high regard to the security problems that information openness and information circulation have brought, and must fully understand the major importance of information openness, integrating information resources and strengthening the application of big data for maintaining national unity, enhancing the State’s governing capacity, and raising the efficiency of economic and social operations. Fully using the advanced ideas, technologies and resources of big data, is a strategic choice to enhance national competitiveness, it is a necessary requirement to increase government service and supervision capacity, benefits the full obtainment and utilization of information by government, to even more accurately understand the needs of market subjects, and increase the focus and efficiency of services and supervision; it benefits the smooth moving forward of government streamlining and decentralization of power, the integration of loosening and management, and the realistic transformation of government functions; it benefits strengthening social supervision, to give rein to the positive role of the public in standardizing the acts of market subjects; it benefits the efficient use of modern information technology, social data resources and socialized information services, and the reduction of administrative supervision costs. Relevant State Council departments and all levels’ local People’s Governments must integrate their work reality, vigorously adopt big data and other modern information technologies in a full, effective, secure and reliable manner, in the process of public services and market supervision, and incessantly enhance the government’s governing capability.

II, General requirements

(1) Guiding ideology. Comprehensively implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and its 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenums, according to the policymaking deployments of the Party Centre and the State Council, focus on enabling the market to play a decisive role in the allocation of resources and give ever more rein to the role of government, move forward with government streamlining, administrative decentralization and the transformation of government functions, fully use big data, cloud computing and other such modern information technologies with the construction of the social credit system, government information openness and data openness as handholds, raise government service levels, strengthen on-going and ex-post supervision and management, maintain a regular market order, stimulate fair competition in markets, liberate the vitality of market subjects, and further optimize the development environment.

(2) Main objectives

Increasing big data utilization capacity, strengthening the efficiency of government services and supervision. Efficiently gather, effectively integrate and fully utilize government data and social data, complete work mechanisms for the governmental use of big data, make the use of big data into an important handhold for raising government governance capability, incessantly raise the focus and efficiency of government services and supervision.

Promoting administrative streamlining, decentralization of powers and the transformation of government functions, stimulate market subjects to operate lawfully and honestly. Use big data to raise government’s public service capacity, strengthen supervision over market subjects during and after operations, and provide basic support to move forward administrative streamlining, decentralization of powers and the transformation of government functions. With the national uniform credit information sharing and exchange platform as a basis, use big data to promote the construction of a social credit system, establish cross-regional and cross-departmental joint credit reward and punishment mechanisms, and build a fair and honest market environment.

Raising government service levels and supervision efficiency, reducing service and supervision costs. Fully use big data ideas, technologies and resources, perfect comprehensive services for market subjects, and strengthen supervision over market subjects across the whole lifespan. On the basis of service and supervision needs, move government procurement services forward in an orderly manner, and incessantly reduce governments’ operational costs.

Organically integrating government supervision and social supervision, building unidirectional market supervision systems. Through government information openness and data openness, as well as social information resource openness and sharing, raise the transparency of market subjects’ production and operational activities. Effectively muster the vigour of social forces to supervise market subjects, and build market supervision structures with broad participation from society.

III, Use big data to raise support levels for market subjects

(3) Using big data to innovate government service ideas and service methods. Fully use big data technologies, vigorously grasp the common and individual needs of different regions, different sectors and different kinds of enterprises, provide more focused services in registration, market access, government procurement, government procurement of services, project investment, policy trends, tendering and bidding, inspection and monitoring, authentication and accreditation, funding guarantees, tax and excise collection, import and export, market expansion, technological transformation, upstream and downstream integration, industrial associations, mergers and acquisitions, training and consultancy, outcome transformation, human resources, legal services, intellectual property rights and other such areas, and promote the sustained development of enterprises.

(4) Raise the efficiency of registration and administrative examination and approval. Accelerate the establishment of uniform social credit coding systems for citizens, legal persons and other organizations. Comprehensively implement the “merge three licences into one” of the industry and commerce business licence and organizational registration code licence and the tax registration licence, as well as the “one licence one code” registration system, and design the system well with simplifying procedures, making matters convenient for market subjects and reducing social burdens as starting points. Encourage the establishment of multi-departmental online parallel project examination and approval platforms, ensure cross-departmental and cross-level project examination, approval and filing are “uniformly accepted, examined concurrently, with shared information, in a transparent and open manner.” Use big data to promote the optimization and reconstruction of administrative workflows.

(5) Raising information service levels. Encourage government departments to use websites, microblogs, WeChat and other such new media, closely connect with enterprise needs, integrate relevant information to provide services to enterprises, organize the launch of activities such as enterprises linking up with financial bodies for fundraising, collaboration and linkages between upstream and downstream enterprises, etc. Fully give rein to the function of public credit service bodies, and provide basic and public credit record inquiry services for judicial and administrative bodies, social credit service bodies, and the social public.

(6) Establish and complete incentive mechanisms to keep trust. In the process of market supervision and public services, under equal conditions, preferential processing and simplified procedures and other such “green channel” supporting and incentive policies are to be implemented for those honestly keeping trust. In the tendering and bidding process for financial subsidies, government procurement, government service procurement, and government investment project construction, market subjects’ credit records should be inspected, or they should be demanded to provide credit reports issued by qualified credit service bodies, and preferentially choose market subjects with a relatively good credit situation.

(7) Strengthen statistical monitoring and data processing services. Innovate statistical survey information gathering, excavation and analysis technologies. Strengthen cross-departmental correlative and comparative data analysis and other such processing work, fully excavate the value of government data. On the basis of macro-economic data, industrial development trends, market demand circumstances, quality management circumstances and other such information, fully utilize big data technologies to improve economic operational monitoring, forecasting and risk assessment, timely provide corresponding information to society, and rationally guide market expectations.

(8) Guide specialized bodies and sectoral organizations to utilize big data to perfect services. Give rein to the coordinating role of government organizations, on the basis of opening government information resources in a lawful and orderly manner, formulate realistic and effective policy measures, to support banking, securities, trust, lending, guaranteeing, insurance and other such specialized service bodies and sectoral and commercial associations to use big data to provide services to enterprises even more conveniently and efficiently, to support enterprise development. Support and promote financial information service enterprises to vigorously use big data to support the launch of new products, and realistically safeguard national financial information security.

(9) Use big data to assess government service results. Comprehensively sue government and social information resources, entrust third-party organs with conducting comprehensive assessments of the outcomes of governments’ provision of public services to market subjects, or conduct special assessments of concrete service policies and measures, and timely adjust or optimize them on the basis of the assessment results, in order to raise the efficiency of administration and services at all levels’ governments and their departments.

IV, use big data to strengthen and improve market supervision

(10) Complete in medias res and ex post supervision mechanisms. Innovate supervision methods for market operations and transactions, in areas including enterprise supervision, environmental protection, food and drug safety, consumer safety, production safety, credit system construction, etc., promote the collection, integration and timely publication to society of data concerning market supervision, market concerning statutory inspections and monitoring, data on violations of laws and trust, data about complaint reports and data concerning enterprises’ violations of laws and regulations that should be made public, encourage and guide enterprises to voluntarily publish ever more production and operational data, sales and logistical data, etc., build big data supervision models, conduct correlative analysis, timely grasp operational acts, laws and characteristics of market subjects, actively discover acts violating laws and regulations, raise government’s capability for scientific policymaking and risk assessment, strengthen in medias res and ex post supervision of market subjects. Integrate and analyse enterprises’ commercial orbit, completely and objectively assess enterprises’ operating situation and credit rank, and realize effective supervision. Establish information sharing platform for administrative law enforcement, the judiciary, finance, etc., and strengthen joint law enforcement capacities.

(11) Establish and complete credit commitment systems. Comprehensively establish market subject pre-access credit commitment systems, require market subjects to make open commitments to society in a standardized manner, to voluntarily accept restraints and punishments after breaking laws or trust. Credit commitments are to be brought into market subjects’ credit records, accept social supervision, and be a basis for reference for supervision in medias res and ex post.

(12) Accelerating the establishment of uniform credit information sharing and exchange platforms. With the Social Credit Information System Precursor Project as basis, fully give rein to the basic role of the national population basic information database, the legal person and work unit information resource base, as well as the supporting role of the enterprise credit information publication system, establish national uniform credit information sharing and exchange platforms, integrate financial, industry and commerce registration, tax payment, social security fee, traffic violation, production safety, quality supervision, statistical survey and other such credit information, and realize the joint construction and sharing of credit information between all localities and all departments. Departments with market supervision roles shall accurately collect market subjects’ credit information in the process of carrying out their duties, establish credit information systems for departments and sectors, and enter this into the national uniform credit information sharing and exchange platform.

(13) Establishing and completing joint punishment mechanisms for trust-breaking. All levels’ People’s Governments shall embed the use of credit information and credit reports into all areas and all stages of administrative management and public services, and use it as a necessary condition or an important basis for reference. Fully give rein to comprehensive supervision and management efficiency in the administrative, judicial, financial and social area, build cross-departmental joint response and trust-breaking restriction mechanisms in areas including market access, administrative approval, qualification assessment, enjoyment of financial subsidies and preferential fiscal policies, enterprise legal representative and responsible person professional qualification inspections, government procurement, government procurement of services, bank credit, tendering and bidding, State-owned land transfer, public listing of enterprises, customs clearance for goods, excise collection, social security fees, foreign exchange management, labour and employment, price formulation, e-commerce, product quality, food and drug security, consumer good safety, intellectual property rights, environmental protection, public order management, population management, border entry and exit management, grant of honorary titles, etc., and impose restrictions or prohibitions on law-violating and trust-breaking subjects. Establish “blacklist” systems in all sectors and market withdrawal mechanisms. Promote that a good credit situation of applicants becomes a necessary condition for all kinds of administrative licences.

(14) Establishing product information tracing systems. Strengthen supervision and management of important products that affect the security of the popular masses’ lives and assets, such as food, drugs, agricultural product, daily consumer goods, particular equipment, products with protected geographical indications, etc., use the Internet of Things, RFID and other such information technologies to build product quality tracing systems, shape information chains with inspectable sources, traceable whereabouts and investigatable responsibilities, to make it convenient for supervision and management departments to supervise and manage, and for the social masses to inquire [into the matter].

(15) Strengthening market supervision and management over the e-commerce area. Clarify the responsibilities of e-commerce platforms, strengthen supervision and management of trading activities, promote an identity logo system for online operators, perfect online store real-name systems and trading credit assessment systems, strengthen online payment security protection, strictly attack unlawful and trust-breaking activities in the e-commerce area. Strengthen supervision and management of e-commerce platforms, strengthen e-commerce information collection and analysis, guide the launch of e-commerce website trustworthiness assessment services, broaden the application of website trustworthiness symbols, and promote the construction of a trustworthy trading environment in e-commerce. Complete mechanisms for the protection of rights and interests and the settlement of disputes.

(16) Using big data science to formulate and adjust supervision and management structures and policies. In the process of researching the formulation of market supervision and management systems and policies, we should fully use big data, establish scientific and rational emulation models, forecast the response of supervision targets, markets and society, and compile preparatory plans for risks that may emerge. Track and monitor the real outcomes of relevant systems and policies, regularly assess them and timely adjust them on the basis of requirements.

(17) Promoting the creation of environments and mechanisms for all of society to participate in supervision and management. Through government information openness and data openness, as well as social information resource openness and sharing, raise the transparency of market subject production and trading activities, and create conditions for news media, sectoral organizations, relevant stakeholders and consumers to jointly participate in the supervision and management of market subjects. Guide relevant parties to conduct market, sectoral and social restrictions and punishments against law-breakers and trust-breakers, and create a supervision and management structure with broad participation from the entire society.

V, Moving forward governmental and social information resource openness and sharing.

(18) Further strengthening government information openness and data openness. Except where laws and regulations provide otherwise, information about administrative licensing and administrative punishment shall be made public online within seven working days of the decision being taken, in order to raise administrative management transparency and government credibility. Raise consciousness about government data openness, open up governmental data in an orderly manner, and make it convenient for all of society to exploit and use it.

(19) Forcefully move forward with market subject information publication. Strictly implement the “Provisional Regulations concerning Enterprise Information Openness”, accelerate the implementation of an unusual trading directory and a name-list system for gravely unlawful and trust-breaking enterprises. Build national enterprise credit information publication systems, lawfully publish basic credit information about enterprise registration, administrative licensing and administrative punishments, as well as annual enterprise reports, unusual trading directories and name lists of enterprise gravely breaking the law and breaking trust, raise market transparency, and realize organic linkages and information sharing with the national uniform credit information sharing platform. Support the exploration and development of socialized credit information publication services. Establish the “Credit China” website, collect and integrate credit information held by all localities and all departments that should be made public, realize one-stop inquiry into credit information, and make it convenient for society to understand the credit situation of market subjects. All levels’ governments and their departments must link their websites with the “Credit China” website, and make the government openness information of that work unit and information concerning relevant violations of laws and regulations by market subjects public on the “Credit China” website.

(20) Vigorously promote intra-government information exchange and sharing. Break through regional barriers and departmental splits concerning information, strive to promote information sharing and integration. Information systems already built or currently being built by all localities and all departments must realize interconnection, interaction and information exchange and sharing. Except where laws and regulations clearly provide otherwise, in all cases of application for the establishment of newly-built departmental information system projects, approval will without exception not be granted where interdepartmental information sharing requirements have not been made clear; in all cases where departmental information currently being built cannot interconnect and share information with other departments, it may not be accepted for delivery without exception; all departmental information systems that do not support regional information sharing platform construction and do not provide information to regional information sharing platforms may, without exception, not be approved or accepted for delivery.

(21) Promote openness and sharing of information resources from the entire society. Support credit recording bodies to collect credit information from market transactions and social transactions according to the law, support Internet enterprises, sectoral organizations, news media, scientific research bodies and other such social forces to collect corresponding information according to the law. Guide all kinds of social bodies to integrate and open up data, build information collection, sharing and application mechanisms interconnecting government and society, and build big data resources enabling convergence between government information and social information.

VI, Raising government’s capacity to use big data

(22) Strengthening e-government construction. Complete national e-government networks, integrate network resources, realize interconnection and interaction, and provide services to governments at all levels, as well as their departments, to carry out their duties. Accelerate the construction of the national government informatization project, comprehensively establish national information databases concerning the population, legal persons and work units, natural resources and spatial geography, macroeconomics, etc., accelerate the construction of national important information systems, and raise the informatization levels of government affairs.

(23) Strengthening and standardizing governmental data collection. Establish and complete government data collection rules, and clarify information collection regulations. All departments must, in the process of carrying out their duties, record and collect corresponding information in a lawful, timely, accurate, standardized and complete manner, appropriately store and timely renew it. Strengthen records of relevant information concerning market subjects, create credit files, create a “blacklist” of market subjects gravely violating the law or breaking the trust, and make this public

(24) Establishing government information resource management systems. Completely move forward the electronization and systematization of government information management. Explore the establishment of government information resource catalogues. Expand innovation strengths in areas such as strategic planning, management methods, technological methods, guarantee measures, etc., strengthen government information resource management capabilities, fully excavate the value of government information resources. Encourage localities to suit measures to local conditions, and unite their government information resource management strengths, comprehensively plan and move forward the construction, management, exploitation and use of government information resources.

(25) Strengthen government information standardization construction and categorized management. Establish and complete government informatization construction and government information resource management standard systems. Strictly differentiate between secret-related information and non-secret-related information, move forward categorized management of government information in the collection, sharing and usage stages, and rationally establish the scope of government information openness.

(26) Promoting government to purchase big data resources and technical services from social forces. All localities and all departments must, according to the principles of what is beneficial for the transformation of governmental functioning, what is beneficial to reduce administrative costs, and what is beneficial to enhance service quality levels and financial efficiency, fully give rein to the superiorities of market bodies in information infrastructure construction, information technology, information resource integration, exploitation and services, etc., strengthen cooperation between government and enterprises through government procurement of services, collaboration agreements, legally mandated provision and other such means, and provide support and guarantees for scientific governmental policymaking, supervision and management according to the law, and efficient services. According to the requirements of standards, security and the economy, establish and complete mechanisms for government to purchase information products and information technology services from social forces, and strengthen purchasing requirement management and result evaluation. Strengthen assessment of the accuracy and reliability of purchased information resources..

VII, Vigorously fostering and developing socialized credit reporting services

(27) Promoting credit reporting bodies to establish market subject credit records. Support deep cooperation between credit reporting bodies and government departments, enterprise and undertaking work units, social organizations, etc., launch credit reporting activities according to the law, establish credit record systems targeted at natural persons, legal persons and other organizations, collect, arrange, process and store credit information created during market transactions and social transactions according to the law, adopt reasonable measures to protect the accuracy of credit information, establish market subject credit records covering all areas and all segments of the economy and society.

(28) Encourage credit reporting bodies to launch specialized credit reporting services. Guide credit reporting bodies to forcefully strengthen innovation in credit services and products on the basis of market demand, and provide specialized credit reporting services. Establish, complete and strictly implement internal risk prevention, conflict of interest avoidance and information security protection rules and structures, and provide convenient and efficient credit reporting services to consumers. Further broaden the application of credit reports in administrative management, public services and areas such as banking, securities, insurance, etc.

(29) Forcefully fostering and developing the credit services sector. Encourage the development of credit service sectors such as information inquiry, credit assessment, credit guarantees and credit insurance. Credit service bodies meeting conditions are to enjoy all national and local preferential policies concerning modern services industries and high technology industries according to relevant regulations. Strengthen supervision and management of the credit service market, further raise the market creditability and social influence of the credit service sector. Support and encourage domestic powerful credit service bodies to participate in international cooperation, expand international markets, and provide services for our country’s enterprises engaging in overseas mergers and acquisitions, international tendering and bidding, etc.

VIII, Complete guarantee measures, strengthen organizational leadership

(30) Enhancing industrial support capacities. Further complete innovation systems, encourage corresponding enterprises, higher education institutes and scientific research bodies to launch industrial-educational-research collaboration, move forward with coordinated and integrated big data innovation, accelerate breakthroughs in key common big data technologies including large-scale data storage, non-related databases, data mining, smart data analysis, data visualization, etc., and support innovation of products such as high-performance computers, storage facilities, network facilities, smart terminals and large-scale common database software. Support enterprise work units in launching the construction of common big data technology service platforms. Encourage big data enterprises having indigenous intellectual property rights and technological innovation capabilities to strengthen and grow. Promote innovative applications of big data in all areas, enhance social governance, public service and scientific policymaking levels, and foster new growth points. Implement and perfect fiscal, financial, industrial and talent policies supporting the development of the big data industry, and promote the accelerated development of the big data industry.

(31) Establishing and perfecting management systems. Deal well with the relationship between big data development, services, applications and security. Accelerate the research, perfection and standardization of management structures for e-governance, to supervise cross-border information flows, protect national economic security and information security, and protect enterprises’ commercial secrets and personal privacy, and accelerate the formulation and promulgation of corresponding laws and regulations. Establish uniform social credit coding structures. Establish and complete government information recording and collecting structures in all departments. Establish government information resource management structures, and strengthen intellectual property rights protection. Accelerate the promulgation of policies and opinions concerning moving forward public information resource openness and sharing. Formulate rules and an information catalogue for governmental credit information openness and sharing, promote the promulgation of corresponding regulations, with provisions on government departments’ use of credit information and credit reports in administrative management and public services, and provide a basis for the joint punishment of unlawful and trust-breaking acts by market subjects.

(32) Perfecting standards and norms. Establish big data standard systems, research and formulate basic standards, technological standards, applied standards and management standards concerning big data. Accelerate the establishment of technological standards for government information gathering, storage, openness, sharing, use, quality protection and security management. Guide the establishment of inter-enterprise information sharing and exchange standards and norms, stimulate the exploitation and use of information resources.

(33) Strengthening the protection of cyber and information security. Implement the requirements of the National multi-level protection system for information security, strengthen management of important data involving national security, strengthen risk assessment and security management of big data-related technologies, facilities and services. Expand technological research and development, as well as financial input, for cyber and information security, establish and complete information security protection systems. Adopt necessary management and technology measures to realistically protect the security of State information as well as the security of information of citizens, legal persons and other organizations.

(34) Strengthening talent team construction. Encourage higher education institutes, human resource service bodies and enterprises to focus on fostering cross-disciplinary comprehensive, applied and innovative big data specialists and talents, perfect big data technology, management and service talent training systems. Strengthen training of government work personnel, and strengthen capabilities to use big data.

(35) Strengthening leadership, and clarifying the division of work. All localities and all department must realistically strengthen organizational leadership over the use of big data, and according to the division of responsibilities and work, research and promulgate concrete plans and implementation rules, carry out big data usage work in their localities and departments well, and incessantly raise service and supervision capabilities.

(36) Connecting with reality, giving prominence to focus points. Closely integrate the reality of all localities and all departments, and integrate data resources in providing services to society, government and enterprises. In areas such as commercial registration, statistics and surveys, quality supervision, competition law enforcement, consumer rights protection, etc., tale the lead in launching big data demonstration applications and projects, and realize the assembly and integration of big data. Implement big data demonstration applications and projects in areas such as macro-level management, tax collection, resource use and environmental protection, food and drug security, production safety, social credit system construction, healthcare and medicine, labour protection, education and culture, transportation and tourism, financial services, services to small and mid-size enterprises, industrial production, modern agriculture, trade and logistics, comprehensive social governance, income allocation adjustment, etc.

All localities and all departments must strengthen supervision and inspection of the implementation of tasks listed in this Opinion, and promote the broad utilization of big data in the processes of service and supervision. The Development and Reform Commission is responsible for the comprehensive planning, follow-up analysis, supervision and inspection of the implementation of this Opinion, to ensure that all tasks and measures are implemented satisfactorily.

State Council General Office

24 June 2015

国务院办公厅关于运用大数据
加强对市场主体服务和监管的若干意见
国办发〔2015〕51号

各省、自治区、直辖市人民政府,国务院各部委、各直属机构:
为充分运用大数据先进理念、技术和资源,加强对市场主体的服务和监管,推进简政放权和政府职能转变,提高政府治理能力,经国务院同意,现提出以下意见。
一、充分认识运用大数据加强对市场主体服务和监管的重要性
  简政放权和工商登记制度改革措施的稳步推进,降低了市场准入门槛,简化了登记手续,激发了市场主体活力,有力带动和促进了就业。为确保改革措施顺利推进、取得实效,一方面要切实加强和改进政府服务,充分保护创业者的积极性,使其留得下、守得住、做得强;另一方面要切实加强和改进市场监管,在宽进的同时实行严管,维护市场正常秩序,促进市场公平竞争。
当前,市场主体数量快速增长,市场活跃度不断提升,全社会信息量爆炸式增长,数量巨大、来源分散、格式多样的大数据对政府服务和监管能力提出了新的挑战,也带来了新的机遇。既要高度重视信息公开和信息流动带来的安全问题,也要充分认识推进信息公开、整合信息资源、加强大数据运用对维护国家统一、提升国家治理能力、提高经济社会运行效率的重大意义。充分运用大数据的先进理念、技术和资源,是提升国家竞争力的战略选择,是提高政府服务和监管能力的必然要求,有利于政府充分获取和运用信息,更加准确地了解市场主体需求,提高服务和监管的针对性、有效性;有利于顺利推进简政放权,实现放管结合,切实转变政府职能;有利于加强社会监督,发挥公众对规范市场主体行为的积极作用;有利于高效利用现代信息技术、社会数据资源和社会化的信息服务,降低行政监管成本。国务院有关部门和地方各级人民政府要结合工作实际,在公共服务和市场监管中积极稳妥、充分有效、安全可靠地运用大数据等现代信息技术,不断提升政府治理能力。
二、总体要求
  (一)指导思想。全面贯彻落实党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中全会精神,按照党中央、国务院决策部署,围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,推进简政放权和政府职能转变,以社会信用体系建设和政府信息公开、数据开放为抓手,充分运用大数据、云计算等现代信息技术,提高政府服务水平,加强事中事后监管,维护市场正常秩序,促进市场公平竞争,释放市场主体活力,进一步优化发展环境。
(二)主要目标。
  提高大数据运用能力,增强政府服务和监管的有效性。高效采集、有效整合、充分运用政府数据和社会数据,健全政府运用大数据的工作机制,将运用大数据作为提高政府治理能力的重要手段,不断提高政府服务和监管的针对性、有效性。
推动简政放权和政府职能转变,促进市场主体依法诚信经营。运用大数据提高政府公共服务能力,加强对市场主体的事中事后监管,为推进简政放权和政府职能转变提供基础支撑。以国家统一的信用信息共享交换平台为基础,运用大数据推动社会信用体系建设,建立跨地区、多部门的信用联动奖惩机制,构建公平诚信的市场环境。
提高政府服务水平和监管效率,降低服务和监管成本。充分运用大数据的理念、技术和资源,完善对市场主体的全方位服务,加强对市场主体的全生命周期监管。根据服务和监管需要,有序推进政府购买服务,不断降低政府运行成本。
政府监管和社会监督有机结合,构建全方位的市场监管体系。通过政府信息公开和数据开放、社会信息资源开放共享,提高市场主体生产经营活动的透明度。有效调动社会力量监督市场主体的积极性,形成全社会广泛参与的市场监管格局。
三、运用大数据提高为市场主体服务水平
  (三)运用大数据创新政府服务理念和服务方式。充分运用大数据技术,积极掌握不同地区、不同行业、不同类型企业的共性、个性化需求,在注册登记、市场准入、政府采购、政府购买服务、项目投资、政策动态、招标投标、检验检测、认证认可、融资担保、税收征缴、进出口、市场拓展、技术改造、上下游协作配套、产业联盟、兼并重组、培训咨询、成果转化、人力资源、法律服务、知识产权等方面主动提供更具针对性的服务,推动企业可持续发展。
(四)提高注册登记和行政审批效率。加快建立公民、法人和其他组织统一社会信用代码制度。全面实行工商营业执照、组织机构代码证和税务登记证“三证合一”、“一照一码”登记制度改革,以简化办理程序、方便市场主体、减轻社会负担为出发点,做好制度设计。鼓励建立多部门网上项目并联审批平台,实现跨部门、跨层级项目审批、核准、备案的“统一受理、同步审查、信息共享、透明公开”。运用大数据推动行政管理流程优化再造。
(五)提高信息服务水平。鼓励政府部门利用网站和微博、微信等新兴媒体,紧密结合企业需求,整合相关信息为企业提供服务,组织开展企业与金融机构融资对接、上下游企业合作对接等活动。充分发挥公共信用服务机构作用,为司法和行政机关、社会信用服务机构、社会公众提供基础性、公共性信用记录查询服务。
(六)建立健全守信激励机制。在市场监管和公共服务过程中,同等条件下,对诚实守信者实行优先办理、简化程序等“绿色通道”支持激励政策。在财政资金补助、政府采购、政府购买服务、政府投资工程建设招投标过程中,应查询市场主体信用记录或要求其提供由具备资质的信用服务机构出具的信用报告,优先选择信用状况较好的市场主体。
(七)加强统计监测和数据加工服务。创新统计调查信息采集和挖掘分析技术。加强跨部门数据关联比对分析等加工服务,充分挖掘政府数据价值。根据宏观经济数据、产业发展动态、市场供需状况、质量管理状况等信息,充分运用大数据技术,改进经济运行监测预测和风险预警,并及时向社会发布相关信息,合理引导市场预期。
(八)引导专业机构和行业组织运用大数据完善服务。发挥政府组织协调作用,在依法有序开放政府信息资源的基础上,制定切实有效的政策措施,支持银行、证券、信托、融资租赁、担保、保险等专业服务机构和行业协会、商会运用大数据更加便捷高效地为企业提供服务,支持企业发展。支持和推动金融信息服务企业积极运用大数据技术开发新产品,切实维护国家金融信息安全。
(九)运用大数据评估政府服务绩效。综合利用政府和社会信息资源,委托第三方机构对政府面向市场主体开展公共服务的绩效进行综合评估,或者对具体服务政策和措施进行专项评估,并根据评估结果及时调整和优化,提高各级政府及其部门施政和服务的有效性。
四、运用大数据加强和改进市场监管
  (十)健全事中事后监管机制。创新市场经营交易行为监管方式,在企业监管、环境治理、食品药品安全、消费安全、安全生产、信用体系建设等领域,推动汇总整合并及时向社会公开有关市场监管数据、法定检验监测数据、违法失信数据、投诉举报数据和企业依法依规应公开的数据,鼓励和引导企业自愿公示更多生产经营数据、销售物流数据等,构建大数据监管模型,进行关联分析,及时掌握市场主体经营行为、规律与特征,主动发现违法违规现象,提高政府科学决策和风险预判能力,加强对市场主体的事中事后监管。对企业的商业轨迹进行整理和分析,全面、客观地评估企业经营状况和信用等级,实现有效监管。建立行政执法与司法、金融等信息共享平台,增强联合执法能力。
(十一)建立健全信用承诺制度。全面建立市场主体准入前信用承诺制度,要求市场主体以规范格式向社会作出公开承诺,违法失信经营后将自愿接受约束和惩戒。信用承诺纳入市场主体信用记录,接受社会监督,并作为事中事后监管的参考。
(十二)加快建立统一的信用信息共享交换平台。以社会信用信息系统先导工程为基础,充分发挥国家人口基础信息库、法人单位信息资源库的基础作用和企业信用信息公示系统的依托作用,建立国家统一的信用信息共享交换平台,整合金融、工商登记、税收缴纳、社保缴费、交通违法、安全生产、质量监管、统计调查等领域信用信息,实现各地区、各部门信用信息共建共享。具有市场监管职责的部门在履职过程中应准确采集市场主体信用记录,建立部门和行业信用信息系统,按要求纳入国家统一的信用信息共享交换平台。
(十三)建立健全失信联合惩戒机制。各级人民政府应将使用信用信息和信用报告嵌入行政管理和公共服务的各领域、各环节,作为必要条件或重要参考依据。充分发挥行政、司法、金融、社会等领域的综合监管效能,在市场准入、行政审批、资质认定、享受财政补贴和税收优惠政策、企业法定代表人和负责人任职资格审查、政府采购、政府购买服务、银行信贷、招标投标、国有土地出让、企业上市、货物通关、税收征缴、社保缴费、外汇管理、劳动用工、价格制定、电子商务、产品质量、食品药品安全、消费品安全、知识产权、环境保护、治安管理、人口管理、出入境管理、授予荣誉称号等方面,建立跨部门联动响应和失信约束机制,对违法失信主体依法予以限制或禁入。建立各行业“黑名单”制度和市场退出机制。推动将申请人良好的信用状况作为各类行政许可的必备条件。
(十四)建立产品信息溯源制度。对食品、药品、农产品、日用消费品、特种设备、地理标志保护产品等关系人民群众生命财产安全的重要产品加强监督管理,利用物联网、射频识别等信息技术,建立产品质量追溯体系,形成来源可查、去向可追、责任可究的信息链条,方便监管部门监管和社会公众查询。
(十五)加强对电子商务领域的市场监管。明确电子商务平台责任,加强对交易行为的监督管理,推行网络经营者身份标识制度,完善网店实名制和交易信用评价制度,加强网上支付安全保障,严厉打击电子商务领域违法失信行为。加强对电子商务平台的监督管理,加强电子商务信息采集和分析,指导开展电子商务网站可信认证服务,推广应用网站可信标识,推进电子商务可信交易环境建设。健全权益保护和争议调处机制。
(十六)运用大数据科学制定和调整监管制度和政策。在研究制定市场监管制度和政策过程中,应充分运用大数据,建立科学合理的仿真模型,对监管对象、市场和社会反应进行预测,并就可能出现的风险提出处置预案。跟踪监测有关制度和政策的实施效果,定期评估并根据需要及时调整。
(十七)推动形成全社会共同参与监管的环境和机制。通过政府信息公开和数据开放、社会信息资源开放共享,提高市场主体生产经营活动的透明度,为新闻媒体、行业组织、利益相关主体和消费者共同参与对市场主体的监督创造条件。引导有关方面对违法失信者进行市场性、行业性、社会性约束和惩戒,形成全社会广泛参与的监管格局。
五、推进政府和社会信息资源开放共享
  (十八)进一步加大政府信息公开和数据开放力度。除法律法规另有规定外,应将行政许可、行政处罚等信息自作出行政决定之日起7个工作日内上网公开,提高行政管理透明度和政府公信力。提高政府数据开放意识,有序开放政府数据,方便全社会开发利用。
(十九)大力推进市场主体信息公示。严格执行《企业信息公示暂行条例》,加快实施经营异常名录制度和严重违法失信企业名单制度。建设国家企业信用信息公示系统,依法对企业注册登记、行政许可、行政处罚等基本信用信息以及企业年度报告、经营异常名录和严重违法失信企业名单进行公示,提高市场透明度,并与国家统一的信用信息共享交换平台实现有机对接和信息共享。支持探索开展社会化的信用信息公示服务。建设“信用中国”网站,归集整合各地区、各部门掌握的应向社会公开的信用信息,实现信用信息一站式查询,方便社会了解市场主体信用状况。各级政府及其部门网站要与“信用中国”网站连接,并将本单位政务公开信息和相关市场主体违法违规信息在“信用中国”网站公开。
(二十)积极推进政府内部信息交换共享。打破信息的地区封锁和部门分割,着力推动信息共享和整合。各地区、各部门已建、在建信息系统要实现互联互通和信息交换共享。除法律法规明确规定外,对申请立项新建的部门信息系统,凡未明确部门间信息共享需求的,一概不予审批;对在建的部门信息系统,凡不能与其他部门互联共享信息的,一概不得通过验收;凡不支持地方信息共享平台建设、不向地方信息共享平台提供信息的部门信息系统,一概不予审批或验收。
(二十一)有序推进全社会信息资源开放共享。支持征信机构依法采集市场交易和社会交往中的信用信息,支持互联网企业、行业组织、新闻媒体、科研机构等社会力量依法采集相关信息。引导各类社会机构整合和开放数据,构建政府和社会互动的信息采集、共享和应用机制,形成政府信息与社会信息交互融合的大数据资源。
六、提高政府运用大数据的能力
  (二十二)加强电子政务建设。健全国家电子政务网络,整合网络资源,实现互联互通,为各级政府及其部门履行职能提供服务。加快推进国家政务信息化工程建设,统筹建立人口、法人单位、自然资源和空间地理、宏观经济等国家信息资源库,加快建设完善国家重要信息系统,提高政务信息化水平。
(二十三)加强和规范政府数据采集。建立健全政府大数据采集制度,明确信息采集责任。各部门在履职过程中,要依法及时、准确、规范、完整地记录和采集相关信息,妥善保存并及时更新。加强对市场主体相关信息的记录,形成信用档案,对严重违法失信的市场主体,按照有关规定列入“黑名单”并公开曝光。
(二十四)建立政府信息资源管理体系。全面推行政府信息电子化、系统化管理。探索建立政府信息资源目录。在战略规划、管理方式、技术手段、保障措施等方面加大创新力度,增强政府信息资源管理能力,充分挖掘政府信息资源价值。鼓励地方因地制宜统一政府信息资源管理力量,统筹推进政府信息资源的建设、管理和开发利用。
(二十五)加强政府信息标准化建设和分类管理。建立健全政府信息化建设和政府信息资源管理标准体系。严格区分涉密信息和非涉密信息,依法推进政府信息在采集、共享、使用等环节的分类管理,合理设定政府信息公开范围。
(二十六)推动政府向社会力量购买大数据资源和技术服务。各地区、各部门要按照有利于转变政府职能、有利于降低行政成本、有利于提升服务质量水平和财政资金效益的原则,充分发挥市场机构在信息基础设施建设、信息技术、信息资源整合开发和服务等方面的优势,通过政府购买服务、协议约定、依法提供等方式,加强政府与企业合作,为政府科学决策、依法监管和高效服务提供支撑保障。按照规范、安全、经济的要求,建立健全政府向社会力量购买信息产品和信息技术服务的机制,加强采购需求管理和绩效评价。加强对所购买信息资源准确性、可靠性的评估。
七、积极培育和发展社会化征信服务
  (二十七)推动征信机构建立市场主体信用记录。支持征信机构与政府部门、企事业单位、社会组织等深入合作,依法开展征信业务,建立以自然人、法人和其他组织为对象的征信系统,依法采集、整理、加工和保存在市场交易和社会交往活动中形成的信用信息,采取合理措施保障信用信息的准确性,建立起全面覆盖经济社会各领域、各环节的市场主体信用记录。
(二十八)鼓励征信机构开展专业化征信服务。引导征信机构根据市场需求,大力加强信用服务产品创新,提供专业化的征信服务。建立健全并严格执行内部风险防范、避免利益冲突和保障信息安全的规章制度,依法向客户提供便捷高效的征信服务。进一步扩大信用报告在行政管理和公共服务及银行、证券、保险等领域的应用。
(二十九)大力培育发展信用服务业。鼓励发展信用咨询、信用评估、信用担保和信用保险等信用服务业。对符合条件的信用服务机构,按有关规定享受国家和地方关于现代服务业和高新技术产业的各项优惠政策。加强信用服务市场监管,进一步提高信用服务行业的市场公信力和社会影响力。支持鼓励国内有实力的信用服务机构参与国际合作,拓展国际市场,为我国企业实施海外并购、国际招投标等提供服务。
八、健全保障措施,加强组织领导
  (三十)提升产业支撑能力。进一步健全创新体系,鼓励相关企业、高校和科研机构开展产学研合作,推进大数据协同融合创新,加快突破大规模数据仓库、非关系型数据库、数据挖掘、数据智能分析、数据可视化等大数据关键共性技术,支持高性能计算机、存储设备、网络设备、智能终端和大型通用数据库软件等产品创新。支持企事业单位开展大数据公共技术服务平台建设。鼓励具有自主知识产权和技术创新能力的大数据企业做强做大。推动各领域大数据创新应用,提升社会治理、公共服务和科学决策水平,培育新的增长点。落实和完善支持大数据产业发展的财税、金融、产业、人才等政策,推动大数据产业加快发展。
(三十一)建立完善管理制度。处理好大数据发展、服务、应用与安全的关系。加快研究完善规范电子政务,监管信息跨境流动,保护国家经济安全、信息安全,以及保护企业商业秘密、个人隐私方面的管理制度,加快制定出台相关法律法规。建立统一社会信用代码制度。建立健全各部门政府信息记录和采集制度。建立政府信息资源管理制度,加强知识产权保护。加快出台关于推进公共信息资源开放共享的政策意见。制定政务信用信息公开共享办法和信息目录。推动出台相关法规,对政府部门在行政管理、公共服务中使用信用信息和信用报告作出规定,为联合惩戒市场主体违法失信行为提供依据。
(三十二)完善标准规范。建立大数据标准体系,研究制定有关大数据的基础标准、技术标准、应用标准和管理标准等。加快建立政府信息采集、存储、公开、共享、使用、质量保障和安全管理的技术标准。引导建立企业间信息共享交换的标准规范,促进信息资源开发利用。
(三十三)加强网络和信息安全保护。落实国家信息安全等级保护制度要求,加强对涉及国家安全重要数据的管理,加强对大数据相关技术、设备和服务提供商的风险评估和安全管理。加大网络和信息安全技术研发和资金投入,建立健全信息安全保障体系。采取必要的管理和技术手段,切实保护国家信息安全以及公民、法人和其他组织信息安全。
(三十四)加强人才队伍建设。鼓励高校、人力资源服务机构和企业重点培养跨界复合型、应用创新型大数据专业人才,完善大数据技术、管理和服务人才培养体系。加强政府工作人员培训,增强运用大数据能力。
(三十五)加强领导,明确分工。各地区、各部门要切实加强对大数据运用工作的组织领导,按照职责分工,研究出台具体方案和实施办法,做好本地区、本部门的大数据运用工作,不断提高服务和监管能力。
(三十六)联系实际,突出重点。紧密结合各地区、各部门实际,整合数据资源为社会、政府、企业提供服务。在工商登记、统计调查、质量监管、竞争执法、消费维权等领域率先开展大数据示范应用工程,实现大数据汇聚整合。在宏观管理、税收征缴、资源利用与环境保护、食品药品安全、安全生产、信用体系建设、健康医疗、劳动保障、教育文化、交通旅游、金融服务、中小企业服务、工业制造、现代农业、商贸物流、社会综合治理、收入分配调节等领域实施大数据示范应用工程。
各地区、各部门要加强对本意见落实工作的监督检查,推动在服务和监管过程中广泛深入运用大数据。发展改革委负责对本意见落实工作的统筹协调、跟踪了解、督促检查,确保各项任务和措施落实到位。

附件:重点任务分工及进度安排表

国务院办公厅
2015年6月24日

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s