Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data

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State Council Notice concerning Printing and Issuance of the Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data

GF No. (2015)50

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies.

Hereby, the “Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data” is printed and issued to you, please implement it earnestly.

State Council

31 August 2015

Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data

Big data means data integration mainly characterized by large quantities, many varieties, rapid access speed and high applied value, and is rapidly developing into a new-generation information technology and service model where data in huge quantities, from varied sources, and of diverse forms are integrated, stored, connected and analysed, where new knowledge is discovered in this manner, value is created, and new capabilities are generated.

The interaction and convergence between information technology, the economy and society has triggered a rapid growth of data, data has become a fundamental strategic national resource, big data is engendering a more important influence on global production, distribution, allocation and consumption activities, as well as economic operating mechanisms, social ways of life and national governance capability. At present, our country has laid a certain basis for the development and application of big data, it holds market advantages and development potential, but there are also problems, such as the fact that government data is insufficiently open and shared, the industrial basis is weak, there is a lack of top-level design and comprehensive planning, the construction of laws and regulation is lagging, the areas of innovative application are not broad, etc., these need to be urgently resolved. In order to implement the policy deployments of the Party Centre and the State Council, comprehensively move the development and application of big data in our country forward, and accelerate the construction of a strong data country, this Outline of Operations is formulated.

I, Development circumstances and importance

At the global level, the use of big data to promote economic development, perfect social governance, improve government services and supervision capacity is becoming a tendency, relevant developed countries have successively strategic big data documents, and have forcefully promoted the development and application of big data. At present, our country is first in the world in terms of the scale of Internet and mobile Internet users, it has rich data resources and market advantages for application, some key big data technology research has seen breakthroughs, and a batch if innovative Internet enterprises and innovative applications have emerged, a number of local governments have already started work on big data. Persisting in innovation driving development, accelerating the deployment of big data, and deepening big data application, have become inherent requirements and necessary choices for stable growth, stimulating reform, adjusting structures, benefiting the people’s livelihood and promoting the modernization of government’s governance capacity.

(1) Big data is becoming a new driver to promote economic transformation and development. Big data-driven organizational models are guiding technology flows, material flows, financial flows and talent flows, and will deeply influence the social division of labour and cooperation, they will also stimulate the intensification and integration of production organization models. Big data promotes the networking, sharing intensification, integration, coordination, openness and highly efficient use of social production factors, and has changed traditional production methods and economic operational mechanisms, they will visibly enhance economic operations levels and efficiency. Big data continues to arouse innovation in commercial models, it incessantly fosters new business models, and has become an important driver for the Internet and other such emerging areas to stimulate business innovation and added value, and to enhance enterprises’ core competitiveness. The big data industry is currently becoming a new economic growth point, and will have an important influence on the structure of the future information industry.

(2) Big data is becoming a new opportunity to remould national competitive advantages. Against the larger background of rapid global informatization, big data has become a fundamental strategic resource for countries, and this is driving a new round of scientific and technological innovation. To fully use our country’s advantages in data scale, and realize the simultaneous upgrading of data scale, quality and application levels, unearth and liberate the potential value of data resources benefits giving even better rein to the strategic role of data resources, strengthening data sovereignty protection capabilities in cyberspace, safeguarding national security, and effectively raising national competitiveness.

(3) Big data is becoming a new channel for governments’ governance capabilities. Big data applications are able to reveal correlations and connections that were difficult to discover with traditional technological methods, it promotes government data openness and sharing, stimulates data convergence and resource integration between social undertakings, and will greatly enhance the government’s ability to analyse data in their entirety, providing new means for effectively dealing with complex social questions. Establishing management mechanisms of “using data to talk, using data for policymaking, using data to manage, and using data to innovate”, and ensuring that scientific policymaking is based on data, will promote the progress of government management ideas and social governance models, accelerate the construction of a rule of law government, an innovative government, a clean government and a service-type government that is suited to the Socialist market economy structure and the development of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and progressively realize the modernization of governments’ governance capabilities.

II, Guiding ideology and general objectives

(1) Guiding ideology. Deeply implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenums of the 18th Party Congress, according to the policy deployments of the Party Centre and the State Council, give rein to the decisive rule of the market in allocating resources, strengthen top-level design and comprehensive planning, forcefully promote the interconnection, openness and sharing of government information systems and public data, accelerate the integration of government information platforms, eliminate isolated information islands, move forward with opening data resources up to society, strengthen government credibility, guide social development, and serve the public and enterprises; with enterprises at the centre, create a favourable and fair environment, expand key big data technology research and development, industry development and talent fostering, strive to move forward with the integration and excavation of data, deepen the innovative application of big data in all sectors, stimulate the healthy development of the big data industry; perfect regulatory structures and standard systems, scientifically standardize the use of big data, realistically guarantee data security. Through stimulating big data development, accelerate the construction of a strong data country, liberate technological bonuses, structural bonuses and innovative bonuses, enhance governments’ governance capabilities, and promote economic transformation and upgrading.

(2) General objectives. Based on our country’s national circumstances and real needs, the following objectives are to be progressively realized in the next five to ten years to promote the development and application of big data:

Forge new social governance models with accurate governance and multilateral cooperation. Big data will be an important method to enhance government’s governance capacity, through the efficient collection, effective integration, and in-depth application of government data and social data, government policymaking and risk prevention levels will be upgraded, the accuracy and efficacy of social governance will be raised and the governance capability for rural society will be strengthened; this will assist the streamlining and decentralization of government, support the transformation from preliminary examination and approval to supervision and management during and after activities, and promote the reform of commercial structures; it will stimulate the organic integration of government supervision and management and social supervision, and effectively muster the vigour of social forces to participate in social governance. By the end of 2017, a cross-departmental data resource sharing and common use structure is to be set up.

Establishing new mechanisms for economic activities that are smooth in use, secure and highly efficient. Fully use big data, incessantly raise capabilities for data collection and use in areas such as credit, finance, banking, taxation, agriculture, statistics, import and export, natural resources and the environment, product quality, enterprise registration, supervision and management, etc., enrich data sources for economic statistics, realize that there is even more accurate monitoring, analysis, forecasting, and early warning for economic activities, raise the focus, scientific level and timeliness of policymaking, raise management capabilities in areas such as macro-level management as well as industrial development, the credit system, market supervision and management, etc., guarantee a balance between supply and demand, and stimulate the steady running of the economy.

Build new systems to serve the people’s livelihood that put people first and benefit all of the people. Focus on the construction of a service-type government, comprehensively move forward the broad utilization of big data in areas including public undertakings, urban management, urban and rural environmental affairs, rural life, healthcare and medicine, disaster prevention and relief, social aid, services to the elderly, labour and employment, social security, culture and education, traffic and tourism, quality and security, consumer rights protection, community services, etc., use big data to gain insight into the people’s needs, optimize resource allocation, enrich service content, broaden service channels, expand service scopes, raise service quality, upgrade cities’ outreach capabilities, promote the extension of public services to the grass roots, reduce the gaps between town and country, and between regions, stimulate the creation of service systems for the people’s livelihoods that are fair and universal, convenient and efficient, incessantly satisfy the popular masses’ daily increasing, individualized and diversified needs.

Create new structures and innovative drivers for entrepreneurialism among the masses and innovation among the public. Build legal structures and policy systems for the rational and appropriate publication and sharing of public data resources, build a uniform, open platform for national government data before the end of 2018, take the lead in realizing the rational and appropriate publication of public data to society in important areas such as credit, traffic, healthcare, hygiene, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, natural resources, agriculture, environmental affairs, safety supervision, finance, quality, statistics, air quality, maritime matters, employment registration and supervision, etc., and drive the social public to launch open and innovative value-added and public interest-type big data applications fully release the bonuses from big data, and encourage the masses’ entrepreneurialism and the public’s innovative vitality.

Fostering new business models for the development of high-end, smart, emerging and flourishing industries. Promote the integrated development of big data with cloud computing, the Internet of things, the mobile Internet and other such next-generation information technologies, explore new business models and new modes for big data to develop in coordination with traditional industries, stimulate traditional industries to upgrade and emerging industries to develop, and foster new economic growth points. Build a batch of products, systems and solution plans that satisfy major needs for the application of big data, build secure and trustworthy big data technology systems, big data products and services are to reach international leading levels, domestic market share is to clearly rise. Foster a batch of backbone enterprises and innovative small and mid-size enterprise with clear characteristics, aimed at the world. Build and create a big data industry ecology with multilateral linkages between government, industry, education, research and use, and coordinated development.

III, Main tasks

(1) Accelerating government data openness and sharing, promoting resource integration, enhancing governance capabilities.

  1. Forcefully promote the sharing of government departments’ data. Strengthen top-level design and comprehensive planning, clarify the scope, boundaries and use methods for the sharing of data of various departments, delineate the duties and rights of various departments in data management and sharing, rely on the uniform government data sharing and exchange platform, forcefully move forward with the cross-departmental and cross-regional sharing of fundamental national data resources such as the basic national population database, the legal person and work unit information database, the natural resources, space and land information database, etc., as well as of information systems such as Golden Taxation, Golden Customs, Golden Assets, Golden Application, Golden Shield, Golden Macro-management, Golden Security, Golden Land, Golden Agriculture, Golden Water, Golden Quality, etc. [Translator’s note: these refer to flagship project to informatize these various areas of policy.] Accelerate the interconnection, interactivity and information sharing between the credit systems of various regions, departments, relevant enterprise and undertaking work units and social organizations, enrich credit information services targeted at the public, and raise government service and supervision levels. Integrate the implementation of information projects to benefit the people and the construction of smart cities, promote the vertical and horizontal integration, as well as joint trial points, between central departments and local governments, realize the multilateral data sharing, structural linkage and coordination between public services.
  2. Steadily promote the openness of public data resources. Under the precondition of strengthening security protection and privacy protection according to the law, steadily promote the openness of public data resources. Promote the construction of public body data resource lists for government departments and undertaking work units, according to the method of “incremental progress”, strengthen comprehensive state management over government departments’ data and accelerate the construction of uniform and open platforms for national government data. Formulate data openness plans for public bodies, implement data openness and safekeeping responsibilities, move forward with the uniform collection of public bodies’ data and the concentrated publication to society, increase the extent to which government data openness and sharing are standardized, give priority to promoting the publication of government data collections to society in areas involving the people’s livelihood, protection and services such as credit, traffic, healthcare, hygiene, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, resources, agriculture, environmental affairs, security supervision, finance, quality, statistics, air quality, maritime affairs, enterprise registration and supervision, etc. Establish big data gathering and creation methods with interaction between government and society, and formulate a government data sharing and openness catalogue. Through government data openness and sharing, guide enterprises, sectoral associations, scientific research bodies, social organizations, etc., to actively gather and publish data.


Highlight 1: Government data resource openness and sharing projects

Promoting government data resource sharing. Formulate government data resource sharing management rules, integrate government departments’ public data resources, stimulate interconnection and interaction, raise sharing capabilities, and enhance the consistency and accuracy of government data. Clarify all departments’ data sharing scope, limits and usage methods by the end of 2017, and basically create a structure for cross-departmental resource sharing and common use.

Creating uniform sharing and exchange platforms for government data. Fully utilize uniform government e-government networks, build cross-departmental uniform government data exchange and sharing platforms, the central governmental level will realize complete coverage by the uniform data sharing and exchange platform by the end of 2018, and realize that data is shared and exchanged through this uniform platform between information systems including Golden Taxation, Golden Customs, Golden Assets, Golden Application, Golden Shield, Golden Macro-management, Golden Security, Golden Land, Golden Agriculture, Golden Water, Golden Quality, etc.

Create uniform openness platforms for national government data. Establish a data resource list of government departments, undertaking work units and other such public bodies, formulate and implement government data openness and sharing standards, formulate data openness plans. Build a national government data uniform openness platform by the end of 2018. Progressively realize the openness to society of government data collections in areas involving the people’s livelihoods and security services such as credit, traffic, healthcare, hygiene, employment, social security, geography, culture, education, science and technology, natural resources, agriculture, environmental affairs, security supervision, finance, quality, statistics, air quality, maritime affairs, enterprise registration and supervision etc.


  1. Comprehensively planning the construction of a big data infrastructure. Integrate planning for the construction of a national government informatization project, comprehensively plan government data resources and social data resources, arrange basic infrastructure such as national big data platforms, data centres, etc. Accelerate the perfection of the basic national population database, the legal person work unit information database, the natural resources, space and land database and other such fundamental information resources as well as information resources in important areas such as health, employment, social security, energy, credit, statistics, quality, land, agriculture, urban and rural construction, enterprises registration supervision and management, etc., and strengthen integration and linked analysis with social big data. Promote the mobilization of big data applications in the national economy. Strengthen information resource sharing between the military and the people. Fully utilize existing data resources and platform facilities in enterprises and government, focus on the transformation and utilization of existing data centres and server resources, build big data infrastructure that is green and environmental, low-cost, efficient and based on cloud computing, as well as regional and sectoral data integration platforms, while avoiding blind construction and duplicate investment. Strengthen back-ups and protection of important data resources on the Internet.


Highlight 2: National big data resource planning and development projects

Integrating all kinds of government information platforms and information systems. Strictly control the new establishment of platforms, rely on existing platform resources build uniform Internet government data services platforms and information welfare services platforms in district and city-level or higher (including district and city-level) governments, uniformly apply these in grass-roots neighbourhoods and committees, and progressively extend them into the countryside and especially into village communities. Apart from where the State Council has provided otherwise, in principle, no more relevant departments or governments below district and city level (not including district and city level) will be permitted to build new, isolated information platforms and information systems. By the end of 2018, a uniform Internet government data services platform will be built at the Central level; national information welfare trial cities will realize that basic information is gathered, collected and used in a multilateral manner, and will realize that public services and social information services cover all of the people, provide all-weather services and “one-stop” solutions.

Integrating scattered data centre resources. Fully utilize existing government and social data centre resources, use cloud computing technology to integrate scattered data centres with small scales, low efficiency and high energy consumption. build and create a government data centre system with a rational arrangement, appropriate scale, powerful guarantees, which is green and intensive. Comprehensively plan to give rein to the role of all departments’ existing data centres, and strictly control the new construction of data centres by departments. Launch regional trials, move forward the construction of comprehensive big data trials in Guizhou and other such places, and stimulate the integration of regional big data infrastructure and the combined use of data resources.

Accelerate the perfection of State basic information resource systems. Accelerate the perfection of information resources in important areas such as health, social security, employment, energy, credit, statistics, quality, land use, agriculture, urban and rural construction, enterprise registration and supervision, etc. By 2018, national basic information resource systems such as a national population information database with cross-departmental sharing and verification, a legal person work unit information database, a natural resources, space and land use information database will be completed, and integration and interconnected use between information resources in various areas will be realized.

Strengthening the collection and utilization of Internet information. Strengthen top-level design, adopt an international vision, fully use existing resources, strengthen Internet information collection, storage and analysis capabilities, formulate corresponding laws and regulations to perfect Internet information storage, and build Internet information preservation and information service systems.


  1. Supporting the scientization of macro-level management. Establish a national macro-level management system, timely issue relevant statistical indicators and data, strengthen Internet data resource usage and information services, strengthen integrated analysis and converged usage with government data resources, provide information support for government to launch dynamic analysis and monitoring in sectors such as finance, taxation, auditing, statistics, agriculture, planning, consumption, investment, import and export, urban and rural construction, labour and employment, income allocation, electrical power and industrial operations, quality and security, energy and resource saving, etc., for industrial security monitoring and warning as well as the analysis and policymaking concerning the transformation of development methods, and raise the scientific nature, farsightedness and efficacy of macro-level regulation.
  2. Promote the precisization of government governance. In areas such as enterprise supervision, quality and security, energy savings and consumption reduction, environmental protection, food security, production safety, the construction of the social credit scheme, etc., promote that relevant departments and enterprise and undertaking work units integrate data concerning market supervision and management, inspection and monitoring, violations of laws and trust, enterprise production operations, sales and logistics, complaints and reports, consumer rights protection, etc., and analyse them in an integrated manner, uniformly publish enterprises’ credit information, warn about improper acts by enterprises in advance, enhance government policymaking and risk prevention capabilities, support the strengthening of supervision, management and services during and after activities, and raise the focus and efficacy of supervision, management and services. Promote the improvement of government management and public governance methods, let big data help in realizing the transparent management of governmental negative lists, lists of competences and lists of responsibilities, perfect big data supervision and technological anti-corruption systems, and stimulate government to streamline and decentralize powers, as well as to administer according to the law.
  3. Moving forward with making commercial services more convenient. Accelerate the establishment of uniform social credit code systems for citizens, legal persons and other organizations, rely on nationwide uniform credit information sharing and exchange platforms to build enterprise credit information publication systems and “credit China” websites, share credit information by integration various regions and various areas, and provide one-stop services to citizens to inquire about registration, administrative permission, administrative punishment and all other kinds of credit information to the social public. During reforms to comprehensively carry out the “three licenses into one” and “one licence, one code” registration system for industry and commerce business licences, organizational body codes and taxation registration, vigorously utilize big data methods to simplify procedures. Establish parallel project examination and approval platforms, shape online examination and approval big data bases, and ensure uniform cross-departmental and cross-level project examination and approval, verification and filing acceptance, synchronized processing, information sharing, transparency and openness. Government departments are encouraged to efficiently gather, effectively integrate and fully utilize government data and social data, grasp enterprises’ demands, promote optimization and recreation of administrative management workflows, and provide even more rapid, efficient and focused commercial services, such as registration, market access, etc. use big data and other such methods to realistically follow the operational situation of small and mid-size enterprises, and especially newly established micro enterprises, and provide support for the perfection of corresponding policies.
  4. Stimulating high efficiency security protection. Strengthen data workflows between relevant law enforcement departments, under the precondition that it is permitted by law and security is guarantees, strengthen collection, excavation and correlated analysis of data from areas involving social governance, strengthen data support to appropriate responses to and dealing with major sudden incidents, raise public security guarantee capabilities, promote the construction of smart defence and comprehensive governance public security systems, and safeguard national security and social stability.


Highlight 2: Government governance big data projects

Promoting the application of big data in macro-level regulation and policymaking support, risk prediction, implementation and supervision. Comprehensively plan the use of governmental and social data resources, explore the establishment of national systems for the application of big data in macro-level regulation and policymaking support, risk prediction, implementation and supervision. By 2018, launch trials on the cooperative exploitation and use of big data between government and society, perfect mechanisms for the collection and sue of data concerning the national economy in areas such as finance, taxation, auditing, statistics, agriculture, planning, consumption, investment, import and export, urban and rural construction, labour and employment, income distribution, electrical power and industrial operations, quality and safety, energy and resource consumption reduction, etc., move forward the collection and comprehensive utilization by governments at all levels according to uniform systems, and strengthen support for macro-level policymaking.

Promoting the construction of credit information sharing mechanisms and credit information systems. Accelerate the construction of uniform social credit coding structures, and establish credit information sharing and exchange mechanisms. Fully utilize information resources from all areas of society, promote the convergence of public credit data with Internet, mobile Internet, e-commerce and other such data, encourage Internet enterprises to use big data technology to establish marketized third-party credit information sharing platforms, ensure that the authority of government dominance over the credit assessment system and the scale of Internet big data credit assessment platforms are given full rein, rely on nationwide uniform credit information sharing and exchange platforms, construct enterprise credit information publication systems, realize basic credit information sharing covering all levels of governments and all kinds of credit subjects, begin to build a social credit system, and provide complete and accurate basic credit information services for the sake of economic efficiency.

Construct social governance big data application systems. By 2018, focus on planning to implement regionally coordinated development, new kinds of urbanization and other such major strategies and principal functional areas, explore the launch of a batch of application trials in enterprise supervision and management, quality and safety, quality and sincerity, energy and consumption reduction, environmental protection, food security, production safety, credit system construction, tourist services and other such areas, break through data barriers between governmental departments, enterprise and undertaking work units, and realize cooperative exploitation and comprehensive use. Gather, pool and analyse data from government departments, enterprise and undertaking work units on market supervision and management, inspection and monitoring, law-breaking and breaches of trust, enterprise production and operations, sales and logistics, complaints and reporting, consumer rights defence, etc. in real time, and effectively stimulate the enhancement of social governance capacity at all levels of government.


  1. Accelerating the universalization of public welfare services. Integrate with the development of new types of urbanization, the implementation of information public welfare projects and the construction of smart cities, focus on optimizing and enhancing public welfare services, encouraging social vitality, and stimulating marketized services that utilize big data, guide and encourage enterprises and social bodies to launch innovative applied research, deeply excavate public service data, launch big data application demonstrations in areas such as urban and rural construction, housing and the environment, healthcare and medicine, social aid, services for the elderly, labour and employment, social security, quality and safety, culture and education, transportation and tourism, consumer rights defence, urban and rural services, etc., promote the convergence and integration of traditional public service data and Internet, mobile Internet and wearable technology data, launch all kinds of applications that benefit the people, optimize public resource allocation, and enhance public service levels.


Highlight 4: Public service big data projects

Big data in healthcare and medical services. Build electronic health files and electronic medical history databases, build big data application systems for healthcare and medicine management and services that cover public health, medical services, medical security, drug provision, birth planning and comprehensive management activities. Explore services such as medical appointments, graded diagnosis and treatment, long-distance healthcare, test and examination result sharing, combined prevention and control, integration of medicine and nutrition, health consulting, etc., optimize diagnosis and treatment workflows by creating norms, sharing and mutual trust. Encourage and standardize big data innovation and application research by relevant enterprise and undertaking work units, build comprehensive health services applications.

Big data in social security services. Build uniform social aid, social welfare and social security big data platforms that extend from cities to villages, strengthen linkages with data in relevant departments and information sharing, support the application of big data in policy formulation and implementation result follow-up and evaluation in labour recruitment and social security funding supervision and management, inspection and control of healthcare services and activities by healthcare insurers, labour guarantee supervision, internal control and auditing as well as humanpower resource social security. Utilize big data to innovate service models, and provide even more individualized and focused services to the social masses.

Big data in education and culture. Perfect education management public service platforms, and promote the concomitant collection and nationwide connection and sharing of basic education data. Establish basic databases on students entering school at the right age, students’ basic databases and life-long electronic learning files at all stages, realize that students’ learning files are linked vertically across stages of education. Promote the creation of educational resource clouds computing services that cover the entire country, with coordinated services, and comprehensive network connections. Explore giving rein to the supporting role of big data in reforming educational methods, stimulate education fairness and enhance education quality. Strengthen the construction of electronic libraries, archives, museums, art galleries, cultural halls, and other such public interest facilities, build platforms for comprehensive big data services in cultural dissemination, to disseminate Chinese culture and provide cultural services to society.

Big data in transportation and tourism services. Explore the launch of cross-departmental and cross-regional data integration and coordinated innovation concerning transportation, public security, weather, security inspection, earthquakes, mapping, etc. Establish comprehensive transportation service big data platforms, jointly use big data to enhance coordinated management and public service capacities, vigorously guide society to optimize resources, use transportation big data to launch travel information services, transportation guidance and other such value-added services. Establish multimedia centres for tourism complaints and evaluation, realize supervision of tourist flows, early warning and timely traffic management guidance for touristic cities and major scenic areas, and provide powerful support to standardize market order, make it convenient for tourists to travel, enhance tourism service levels, stimulate tourism consumption and the transformation and upgrading of the tourism industry.


(2) Promoting industrial innovation and development, fostering new business models, assist economic transformation.

  1. Developing industrial big data. Promote the utilization of big data in the entire lifecycle of products, and in all segments of industry chains, such as industrial research, development and design, production and manufacturing, business management, market retail, after-sales service, etc., analyse and become aware of user demands, raise products’ added value, and create smart factories. Establish industrial big data resource integration, analysis and application platforms aimed at different industries and different segments. Grasp the opportunities for cross-border convergence of the Internet, stimulate the utilization of big data, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, 3D printing technology, individualized custom production, etc., in the entire industry chains of manufacturing, and promote the transformation of production models and industrial upgrading.
  2. Developing new types of industrial big data. Forcefully foster new business models in Internet finance, data services, data mining, data chemistry, data materials, data drug manufacturing etc., enhance capabilities to gather, collect, analyse and utilize corresponding industrial big data resources, fully excavate the potential of data resources to support innovation, promote innovation in technological research and development systems, change in management methods, innovation in commercial models and restructuring of industrial value chains, promote data integration and coordinated innovation across regions and across sectors, stimulate the development of strategic new industries, the development of innovation in the services sector and the expansion of information consumption, explore the creation of new business models and new modes of coordinated development, and foster new economic growth points.


Highlight 5: Big data projects in industry and new industries


Industrial big data applications. Use big data to promote the profound convergence of informatization and industrialization, research and promote the application of big data in all segments of industrial chains, such as research, development and design, production and manufacturing, business management, market retail, after-sales services, etc., research big data analysis and application platforms aimed at different sectors and different segments, select model enterprises, focus sectors and focus regions to launch industrial and enterprise big data application project trials, and vigorously promote the networking and smartification of the manufacturing sector.

Big data applications in the services sector. Use big data to support brand building, product orientation, accurate marketing, authentication and identification, quality and sincerity enhancement, custom services, etc., research and develop big data solutions and plans aimed at the services sector, expand the scope of services, strengthen service capabilities, enhance service quality, and encourage innovative commercial models, service content and service creation.

Fostering new business models for data application. Vigorously promote the integration of different sectors’ big data, and the convergence of big data with other sectors, forcefully foster new business models in Internet finance, data services, data processing and analysis, data audiovisuals, data mining, data chemistry, data materials, data drug manufacturing, etc.

Big data applications in e-commerce. Promote the application of big data in e-commerce, fully utilize the big data resources created in e-commerce in government supervision, control and services of markets, e-commerce enterprises shall submit data to government departments according to the law.


  1. Developing agricultural and rural big data. Build comprehensive information service systems aimed at agriculture and the countryside, provide comprehensive, effective and convenient information services to peasants’ production and life, reduce the digital divide between town and country, and stimulate the unification of urban and rural development. Strengthen the construction of economic agricultural and rural big data, perfect data collection, transmission and sharing infrastructure in villages and counties, establish agricultural and rural data collection, operation, application and service systems, strengthen villages’ ecological governance, and strengthen villages’ social governance capacity. Comprehensively plan domestic and international agricultural data resources, strengthen the integration and use of agricultural resource factor data, and enhance prediction and early warning capabilities. Integrate and build national agricultural big data centres, promote that the agricultural data resources of all regions, all sectors and all areas are shared and opened up, and strengthen data resource excavation and use. Accelerate research and development on key technology in agricultural big data, expand demonstrations, and enhance the smartification of production, the networking of operations, the efficiency of management and the convenience of services.


Highlight 6 Modern agricultural big data projects

Comprehensive agricultural and rural information services. Fully utilize existing data resources, perfect data collection and sharing functions, perfect data collection and information dissemination functions for information to enter into villages, households and village-level stations, build survey and analysis projects for data concerning global agricultural product production, consumption, storage, import, export, pricing, costs, etc., build comprehensive information service platforms aimed at agriculture and the countryside, cover segments including agricultural production, operations, management, services and rural environmental governance, etc., integrate public interest services, services that are convenient to the people, e-commerce and online services, provide comprehensive, efficient and convenient information services to the production and life of agriculture and peasants, strengthen survey and analysis of global agriculture, guide domestic product production and consumption, perfect agricultural product price-setting mechanisms, reduce the digital divide between town and country, and stimulate the unification of urban and rural development.

Agricultural resource and factor data sharing. Us the Internet of Things, cloud computing, satellite sensing and other such technologies to establish resource and factor data monitoring systems for our country’s agriculture including ploughing, grasslands, woodlands, irrigation infrastructure, water resources, agricultural facilities and equipment, new types of management subjects, agricultural labour, finance and capital, etc., stimulate information sharing on the agricultural environment, air, ecological affairs, etc., build agricultural resource and factor data sharing platforms, provide agricultural resource data inquiry services for all levels’ governments, enterprises and peasants, encourage all kinds of market subjects to fully excavate platform data, and open up services such as fertilization on the basis of soil monitoring, common prevention and governance, agricultural insurance, etc.

Agricultural product quality and security information services. Establish data sharing mechanisms for agricultural products’ ecological environment, production materials, production processes, market circulation, processing and storage, inspection and monitoring, etc., move forward with realizing automatized data collection, networked transmission, standardized processing and visible utilization, raise the truthfulness, accuracy, timeliness and connectivity of data, link up and share information with e-commerce trading platforms for agricultural products, ensure that information at all segments can be consulted, sources can be traced, pathways can be tracked and responsibilities can be investigated, move forward with ensuring that information about important production materials such as seeds, pesticides, fertilizer, etc., can be traced, provide agricultural product quality and security information systems to producers and consumers, and stimulate the safety of agricultural product consumption.


  1. Developing big data for innovation by the masses. In step with the national strategy of innovation driving development, implement the big data innovation action plan, encourage enterprises and the masses to excavate and use open data resources, arouse the innovative and entrepreneurial vitality, stimulate the profound convergence of innovation chains and industry chains, promote the organic integration of big data development, scientific research and innovation, create scientific research and innovation models driven by big data, create channels between technological innovation, the economy and society, and promote mass innovation, open innovation and common innovation.


Highlight 7: Big data projects for mass innovation

Big data innovation and application. Encourage enterprises and the public to unearth and use open data resources through methods such as application innovation and exploitation competitions, service outsourcing, social crowdsourcing, booster plans, subsidies and rewards, application training, etc., and arouse innovative and entrepreneurial vitality.

Big data innovation services. Research and develop a batch of big data public service products aimed at economic and social development needs, realize the convergence of big data in different sectors and areas, expand the scope of services and raise service capabilities.

Developing scientific big data. Vigorously promote the progressive opening up and sharing of scientific data obtained or produced through public interest-type scientific research activities supported financially by the state, build national major scientific big data infrastructure, realize the authoritative compilation, long-term storage, integrated management and comprehensive sharing of important national scientific and technological data. Develop scientific big data application service centres aimed at economic and social development needs, and support the resolution of major issues concerning economic and social development, and national security.

Big data application in knowledge services. Use big data, cloud computing and other such technologies to conduct large-scale integration of knowledge in all areas, build a body of knowledge resource bases with a clear hierarchy, comprehensive coverage and accurate content, establish national knowledge service platforms and knowledge resource services centres, create national knowledge services systems with national platforms at the centre and sectoral platforms as support, which cover the main areas of the national economy, and have a rational structuring and mutual interconnection, in order to provide meticulous and high-level knowledge services for production and life. Raise our country’s production and supply capabilities of knowledge resources.


  1. Moving forward basic research and breakthroughs in core technology. Focus on data science theory systems, big data calculation systems and analysis theory, the exploration of big data-driven disruptive application models and other such major basic research and arrange this in a far-sighted manner, launch data science research, guide and encourage explorations in the areas of big data theory, methodology and crucial applications. Adopt coordinated innovation models that integrate government, industry, education and research, as well as open innovation models based on open-source communities to strengthen the pursuit of breakthroughs in crucial areas of technology such as massive data storage, data cleansing, data analysis and excavation, data visualization, information security and privacy protection etc., and create secure and reliable big data technology systems. Support innovation in natural language understanding, machine learning, deep learning and other such man-made smart technologies, enhance data analysis and processing capabilities, knowledge discovery capabilities and policymaking assistance capabilities.
  2. Creating big data product systems. Focus on data collection, arrangement, analysis, excavation, display, application and other such segments in supporting the development of large-size common massive data storage and management software, big data analysis and excavation software, data visualization software and other such software products and massive data storage facilities, big data integration and other such hardware, drive the development of core and basic information technology products including chips, operating systems, etc., forge big data products and systems that are relatively complete. Forcefully develop big data solution plants that are integrated with major sectoral areas and industrial workflows, as well as data application needs.


Highlight 8: Key big data technology and product research, development and industrialization projects

Support research and development of key big data technologies meeting conditions through optimized and integrated national science and technology plans (earmarks, funds, etc.)

Strengthening basic research on big data . Blend data science, computer science, social science and other applied sciences, give priority to the relevance of research and complex networks, explore the establishment of data science systems; research new systems and big data analysis theory aimed at big data computing, make breakthroughs in big data cognition and processing technology bottlenecks; aim at networks, security, finance, organism studies, medicine, healthcare and other such focus needs, and explore the establishment of data science-driven sectoral application models.

Research and development of big data technology products. Expand input, strengthen research and development of technology products in areas such as data storage, integration, analysis, processing, visualization, security and privacy protection, etc., maker breakthroughs in key technology bottlenecks. Create a batch of big data processing, analysis and visualization software, as well as hardware support platforms and other such products by 2020.

Enhance big data technology service capabilities. Stimulate the profound integration of big data and applications in all sectors, create a batch of representative application cases, drive research and development of big data technologies and products through applications, and create mature big data solutions and plans aimed at all sectors.


  1. Perfecting big data industry chains. Support enterprises in launching third-party data analysis and excavation services, technology outsourcing services and knowledge flow outsourcing services based on big data. Encourage enterprises to vigorously develop new business models such as Internet finance and mobile finance, etc., on the basis of data resources and the characteristics of their sector. Promote the profound convergence of big data with the mobile Internet the Internet of Things and cloud computing, deepen the innovative application of big data in various sectors, vigorously explore innovative, coordinated and win-win application models and commercial models. Strengthen the construction of big data application innovation, build big data industry systems with links between government, industry, education, research and users, and coordinated development of small, mid-size and large enterprises. Build and perfect big data industry public service support systems, build big data open-source communities and industrial unions, stimulate coordinated innovation, accelerate the construction of a technological basis for the quality of the big data industry involving measurement, standardization, inspection, monitoring, authentication and approval.


Highlight 9: Projects to enhance support for the big data industry

Fostering backbone enterprises. Perfect policy systems, strive to create a desirable atmosphere with a favourable services environment and low factor costs, and accelerate the fostering of leading big data backbone enterprises. Fully give rein to the driving role of backbone enterprises, to create a big data industry ecology and system where large, small and mid-size enterprises mutually support each other, coordinate and cooperate. Foster 10 internationally leading big data core enterprises, and 500 big data application, services and product manufacturing enterprises by 2020.

Public services in the big data industry. Integrate excellent public service resources, assemble large amounts of data resources, create a public service platform aimed at areas involving big data, and provide public services to enterprises and users including research, development and design, industrialization of technology, human resources, market promotion, evaluation and assessment, accreditation and approval, testing and monitoring, propaganda and exhibition, marketing of applications, sectoral consulting, investment, education and training.

Public service big data for small, mid-size and micro-enterprises. Integrate existing public service systems for small, mid-size and micro-enterprises and data resources, link up the public service online management systems created in all provinces (regions and cities) for small, mid-size and micro-enterprises, create nationwide, uniform public service big data platforms for small, mid-size and micro-enterprises, provide all kinds of public services to small, mid-size and micro-enterprises including technological services, comprehensive services, commercial services, etc.


(3) Strengthening security protection, raising management levels, stimulating healthy development.

  1. Completing big data security protection systems. Strengthen research on cybersecurity issues within the big data environment and research on cybersecurity technology based on big data, implement graded information security protection, risk evaluation and other such cybersecurity rules, and establish and complete big data security protection systems. Build big data security evaluation systems. Realistically strengthen the security protection of key information infrastructure, ensure monitoring and assessment of the reliability and security of big data platforms and service providers, as well as evaluation and monitoring of the security of applications, provision of warnings and risk evaluation. Clarify the boundaries of the scope, responsibilities of subjects and concrete demands in relation to cybersecurity protection in all segments including data collection, transmission, storage, application and openness, realistically strengthen the protection of information involving the national interest, public security, commercial secrets, personal privacy, scientific research and production in the military industry, etc. Appropriately deal with the relationship between development and innovation on the one hand, and protecting security on the other, cautiously supervise and manage matters, protect innovation, explore and perfect security and encryption management standardization measures, and realistically ensure data security.
  2. Strengthening security support. Adopt secure and trustworthy products and services, enhance security and reliability levels in infrastructure and key facilities. Build national cybersecurity information collection, sharing and joint analysis platforms, stimulate the integration of data concerning cybersecurity and the rational allocation of resources, enhance the capabilities to handle emergency response for major cybersecurity incidents; deepen the construction of cybersecurity prevention systems and situational awareness capabilities, strengthen capabilities for security protection and identification of security incidents in cyberspace. Launch security monitoring and early warning reporting work, strengthen anti-attack, anti-leakage and anti-infiltration monitoring, early warning, control and emergency response capabilities in the big data environment.


Highlight 10: Network and big data security protection projects

Constructing a network and big data security support system. Adopt secure and reliable products and services in areas involving national security and stability, and realize that the key equipment of crucial departments is secure and reliable by 2020. Perfect cybersecurity encryption and defence systems.

Constructing big data security protection systems. Clarify the boundaries of the scope, responsibilities of subjects and concrete demands for the protection of cybersecurity in all segments including data collection, transmission, storage, use, openness, etc., and construct and perfect security and encryption protection systems of important data resources and information systems in finance, energy, transportation, telecommunications, statistics, radio and television, public security, public undertakings, etc.

Constructing big data support systems for cybersecurity information sharing and major risk identification. Through tracking and analysis of the characteristics, methods and models of cybersecurity threats, realize timely identification and effective prevention of new technologies and new methods used in cybersecurity threats. Strengthen resource integration and information sharing, build cybersecurity information sharing mechanisms, promote information sharing on online risks between government, sectors and enterprises, and provide warnings, identifications and instructions for response in case of major cybersecurity incidents, through big data analysis.


IV, Policy mechanisms

(1) Perfecting organization and implementation mechanisms. Establish national comprehensive planning and coordination mechanisms for the development and application of big data, promote the creation of work structures where duties are clear, with coordination and common progress. Strengthen research on major issues concerning big data, accelerate the formulation and promulgation of supplementary policies, and strengthen the comprehensive management of national data resources. Strengthen the coordination between policies and plans for big data and for the Internet of things, smart cities, cloud computing, etc. Strengthen coordination between the centre and the localities, guide all local levels’ governments to integrate their own circumstances, rationally orient and scientifically plan matters, include big data into the economic, social and urbanization development plans for all regions, formulate and promulgate policy measures to stimulate the development of the big data industry, give prominence to regional characteristics and division of labour, grasp the implementation of measures well, and realize scientific and orderly development. Establish big data expert consultancy committees, to provide policymaking consultancy for big data development, application and the implementation of corresponding projects. All relevant departments must further unify thoughts, earnestly implement all tasks put forward in this Action Plan, and jointly promote the creation of a good setup for public information resource sharing and common use, and the healthy and safe development of the big data industry.

(2) Accelerating the construction of legal and regulatory structures. Revise the government information openness regulations. Vigorously research structures in the areas of data openness and protection, etc., realize standardized management of the collection, transmission, storage, use and openness of data resources, stimulate that government data is open to the greatest degree, within the principle that risk is controllable, and clarify the scope of powers and responsibilities of governments in comprehensively utilizing big data of market subjects. Formulate government information resource management rules, and establish government department data resource management, sharing and re-use rules. Research and promote legislation work for online personal information protection, determine the scope and methods of personal information collection and use, clarify the rights, responsibilities and duties of corresponding subjects, and strengthen management and punishment of abuse of data, infringement of personal privacy and other such acts. Promote the promulgation of corresponding laws and regulations, strengthen the security protection of basic information networks and important information systems in crucial sectoral areas, and guarantee the security of online data. Research and promote legislation work concerning data resource rights and interests.

(3) Completing market development mechanisms. Establish marketized data application mechanisms, under the precondition of ensuring fair competition, support social capital to participate in the construction of public services. Encourage cooperation between government, enterprises and social bodies through government procurement, service outsourcing, social mass participation and many other such methods, rely on specialized enterprises to launch government big data applications and reduce social management costs. Guide and foster big data exchange markets, launch data exchange market trials aimed at application, explore the launch of big data derivative product exchange, encourage that market subjects in every segment of the industrial chain engage in data exchange and trading stimulate data resource flows, build and complete data resource trading mechanisms and valuation mechanisms, and standardize trading activities.

(4) Establishing standard and norm systems. Move forward with the construction of big data industry standard systems, accelerate the establishment of data standard and statistics standard systems for government departments, undertaking work units and other such public bodies, promote the formulation and implementation of crucial standards for data gathering, government data openness, quota and specifications, categorization catalogues, exchange access, inquiry access, data quality, data trading, technology products, security and encryption, etc. Accelerate the establishment of big data market trading standard systems. Launch standard testing and application trials and demonstrations, establish standards compliance assessment systems, fully give rein to the role of standards in fostering service markets, enhancing service capabilities and supporting sectoral management. Vigorously participate in the formulation of relevant international standards.

(5) Expanding financial support. Strengthen central financial guidance, concentrate forces to support core and key big data technology breakthroughs, the construction of industry chains, major application demonstrations and the construction of public service platforms. Use existing financial channels to promote the construction of a batch of internationally leading major demonstration projects. Perfect supplementary policies for government procurement of big data services, expand support for cooperation between government departments and enterprises to exploit big data. Encourage financial bodies to strengthen an enhance financial support, and expand support for big data enterprises. Encourage big data enterprises to go onto the market for finance, strive to create a more comfortable financial policy environment for enterprise mergers and acquisitions. Guide entrepreneurial investment funds to invest in the big data industry, and encourage the establishment of a batch of start-up investment funds to invest in the area of the big data industry.

(6) Strengthening specialist talent training. Innovate talent training models, establish and complete multi-level and multi-categorical big data talent training systems. Encourage higher education institutes to establish majors in data science and data projects, focus on training specialist data engineers and other such specialized big data talents. Encourage the adoption of inter-school joint training methods to launch cross-disciplinary comprehensive big data talent training, forcefully train cross-disciplinary comprehensive talents that have knowledge about many disciplines including statistical analysis, computer technology, economic management, etc. Encourage cooperation between higher education institutes, vocational schools and enterprises strengthen practical training of vocational skilled talents, vigorously train big data technology and applied innovation-type talents. Rely on socialized education resources to launch big data knowledge dissemination, education and training, and raise society’s overall understanding and application levels.

(7) Stimulating international exchange and cooperation. Persist in the principles of equal cooperation, mutual benefit and win-win, establish and perfect international cooperation mechanisms, vigorously move forward big data technology exchange and cooperation, fully use international innovation resources, and stimulate the development of big data-related technology. Integrate big data application innovation needs to vigorously guide high-end big data talents and leading talents, perfect supplementary measures, encourage foreign high-end talents to return home and start up businesses. Guide domestic enterprises to strengthen cooperative research and development concerning key big data technologies and products with international excellent enterprises, support domestic enterprises to participate in global market competition, vigorously launch international markets, and create some big data enterprises and products that are internationally competitive.







专栏1 政府数据资源共享开放工程


专栏2 国家大数据资源统筹发展工程


专栏3 政府治理大数据工程


专栏4 公共服务大数据工程


专栏5 工业和新兴产业大数据工程


专栏6 现代农业大数据工程


专栏7 万众创新大数据工程


专栏8 大数据关键技术及产品研发与产业化工程


专栏9 大数据产业支撑能力提升工程


专栏10 网络和大数据安全保障工程



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