Central Committee

Implementation Outline for the Construction of a Rule of Law Society (2020-2025) [Excerpts]

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A rule of law society is the foundation for building a rule of law country, building a rule of law society is an important component part of realizing the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity. Building a Socialist rule of law society with faith in the rule of law, fairness and justice, where rights are protected, which is law abiding and sincere, full of vitality, harmonious and orderly is an important step in strengthening the popular masses’ sense of gain, sense of happiness and sense of security. The 19th Party Congress has determined completing a social basis for the rule of law as one important objective in the basic realization of Socialist modernization by 2035, its importance is great, its influence is profound, tasks will be arduous. In order to accelerate the progress of constructing a rule of law society, this Outline is formulated.

I, General requirements

(1) Guiding ideology. Hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, the Scientific Development Concept, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics in a new era as guidance, comprehensively implement the spirit of the 19th Party Congress and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Plenums of the 19thParty Congress, comprehensively implement Xi Jinping Thought on the rule of law, strengthen the “Four Consciousnesses”, uphold the “Four Self-Confidences”, ensure the “Two Safeguards”, unwaveringly march the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in the integrated construction of a rule of law country, a rule of law government and a rule of law society, foster and practice the Socialist core value view, carry forward the Socialist rule of law spirit, build a Socialist rule of law culture, strengthen the vigour and initiative in all of society to strictly practice the rule of law, push all of society to respect the law, study the law, abide by the law and use the law, complete social fairness and justice rule of law protection structures, guarantee the people’s rights, raise society’s rule of law levels, and lay down a firm rule of law basis for the comprehensive construction of a Socialist rule of law country and realizing the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

(2) Main principles. Uphold the concentrated and uniform leadership of the Party; uphold the guiding position of the theory of Socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics; uphold the centrality of the people; uphold respect for and the maintenance of the authority of the Constitution and the laws; uphold the quality of everyone in the face of the law; uphold the unity of rights and duties; uphold the integration of the rule of law, the rule of virtue and self-governance; and uphold the joint construction, joint governance and joint sharing of social governance.

(3) Overall objectives. By the end of 2025, the implementation of the “Eight Five” law popularization plan to be completed; rule of law concepts to have deeply penetrated people’s hearts, structures and standards in the social area to be more completed, clear achievements in the merger of requirements of the Socialist core value view with rule of law construction and social governance, the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations to be effectively protection, rule of law levels of social governance to increase clearly, creating a vivid picture of constructing a rule of law society that conforms to national circumstances, reflects the characteristics of the times, and satisfies the popular masses, and laying a firm basis for the basic completion of a rule of law society by 2013.

[…]

III, Completing structures and standards in the social area

[…]

(11) Advancing the construction of social sincerity. Accelerate the construction of the social credit system, and raise all of society’s sincerity awareness and credit levels. Complete corporate social responsibility laws and systems, strengthen corporate social responsibility awareness, stimulate enterprises to do operate in a sincere, trustworthy and lawful manner. Complete law compliance credit records of citizens and organizations, establish a uniform social credit coding system based on citizens’ identity document numbers and organizational codes. Perfect long-term mechanisms for sincerity construction, complete credit assessment systems covering all of society, establish and perfect punishment mechanisms for untrustworthiness. Establish credit recovery mechanisms and appeals structures in integration with reality. Strengthen sincerity construction in sectoral associations and chambers of commerce, perfect sincerity management and self-discipline mechanisms. Perfect the Nationwide Credit Information Sharing Platform and the National Enterprises Credit Publication System, further strengthen and standardize credit information collection and sharing. Strengthen propaganda and education on sincerity awareness, organize sincerity-themed practice activities, create a benign environment for the construction of the social credit system. Advance the publication of laws in the area of credit.

[…]

VI, Governing cyberspace according to the law

Cyberspace isn’t a land outside the law, promoting social governance to expand from actual society into cyberspace, establish and create comprehensive online governance systems, strengthen network management according to the law, network operations according to the law, and network use according to the law, comprehensively advance rule of law building in cyberspace, and create a clear and crisp cyberspace.

(22) Perfecting legal structures for the network. Promote the expansion of exising laws and regulations to cyberspace through a combination of legislation, reform, abolition and interpretation. Perfect laws and regulations in the area of online information services, revise the Internet information service management rules, research and formulate management rules for the credit information of gravely untrustworthy subjects in the Internet information services area, formulate and perfect standards and management rules for online streaming, self-media, Q&As in knowledge communities and other such new media business models as well as algorithmic recommendations, deep fakes and other such new technology applications. Perfect supplementary regulations and standard systems for the cybersecurity law, establish and complete cybersecurity management structures for critical information infrastructure security protection, data security management and cybersecurity review, etc., and expand guidance on standards for the research, development and application of big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and other such new technologies. Research and formulate the personal information protection law. Complete laws and regulations for intellectual property rights protection of innovative achievements in Internet technology, commercial models, big data, etc. Revise the law on the prevention of crime by minors, formulate regulations for the online protection of minors. Perfect cross-border e-commerce structures, standardize cross-border e-commerce operators’ activities. Vigorously participate in international norms and standard setting for the digital economy, e-commerce, information technology, cybersecurity and other such areas.

(23) Foster a benign online rule of law awareness. Uphold the integration of governing the network according to the law and enhancing the network through virtue, carry forward the main melody of the times and positive social energy. Strengthen and innovate Internet content construction, realize projects on the Socialist core value view, new media broadcasts on Chinese culture, etc. Enhance online media literacy, advance “blacklist” systems and punitive mechanisms against gravely untrustworthy conduct in the online information service area, and advance the institutionalization of line sincerity. Firmly attack the spread of rumours, obscenity, violence, superstition, heresy and other such harmful information in cyberspace according to the law, establish and complete an integrated system to receive and process reports about online violations of law and harmful information. Strengthen education on online literacy and online rule of law for the whole society, formulate guidelines for online literacy education. Strengthen cybersecurity education for youth, guide the youth to go online rationally. Deeply implement the China Good Netizen Project and the Network Public Interest Project, guide netizens in going online in a civilized manner, express themselves rationally, and create an online environment with a crisp atmosphere.

(24) Ensuring citizens use the web safely and according to the law. Firmly establish correct cybersecurity views, prevent cybersecurity risks according to the law. Implement cybersecurity responsibility systems, clarify the cybersecurity responsibilities of management departments and cybersecurity and informatization enterprises. Establish and perfect unified high-efficiency cybersecurity risk reporting mechanisms, research, judgment and handling mechanisms, and complete cybersecurity investigation structures. Strengthen the protection of lawful rights and interests in cyberspace concerning telecommunications secrecy, commercial secrets, personal privacy as well as reputation rights, property rights, etc. Strictly standardize the collection and use of user identities, telecommunications content and other such personal information activities, strengthen punishment of unlawful and illegal acts concerning the illegal acquisition, leaking, selling or provision of citizens’ personal information. Supervise cybersecurity and informatization enterprises in implementing their dominant responsibility, and implement security management responsibilities provided in laws. Complete emergency response mechanisms for sudden network and information incidents, and perfect cybersecurity and informatization joint law enforcement. Strengthen the construction of capabilities to control and punish online unlawful and criminal activities, investigate and prosecute unlawful and criminal activities such as criminal online finance, online slander, online fraud, online sex, attacks, intrusions, etc. Establish and complete information sharing mechanisms, vigorously participate in international attacks against unlawful and criminal activities online.

法治社会建设实施纲要(2020-2025年)》全文如下。

法治社会是构筑法治国家的基础,法治社会建设是实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的重要组成部分。建设信仰法治、公平正义、保障权利、守法诚信、充满活力、和谐有序的社会主义法治社会,是增强人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感的重要举措。党的十九大把法治社会基本建成确立为到2035年基本实现社会主义现代化的重要目标之一,意义重大,影响深远,任务艰巨。为加快推进法治社会建设,制定本纲要。

一、总体要求

(一)指导思想。高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,全面贯彻习近平法治思想,增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,坚定不移走中国特色社会主义法治道路,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,培育和践行社会主义核心价值观,弘扬社会主义法治精神,建设社会主义法治文化,增强全社会厉行法治的积极性和主动性,推动全社会尊法学法守法用法,健全社会公平正义法治保障制度,保障人民权利,提高社会治理法治化水平,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦筑牢坚实法治基础。

(二)主要原则。坚持党的集中统一领导;坚持以中国特色社会主义法治理论为指导;坚持以人民为中心;坚持尊重和维护宪法法律权威;坚持法律面前人人平等;坚持权利与义务相统一;坚持法治、德治、自治相结合;坚持社会治理共建共治共享。

(三)总体目标。到2025年,“八五”普法规划实施完成,法治观念深入人心,社会领域制度规范更加健全,社会主义核心价值观要求融入法治建设和社会治理成效显著,公民、法人和其他组织合法权益得到切实保障,社会治理法治化水平显著提高,形成符合国情、体现时代特征、人民群众满意的法治社会建设生动局面,为2035年基本建成法治社会奠定坚实基础。

三、健全社会领域制度规范

(十一)推进社会诚信建设。加快推进社会信用体系建设,提高全社会诚信意识和信用水平。完善企业社会责任法律制度,增强企业社会责任意识,促进企业诚实守信、合法经营。健全公民和组织守法信用记录,建立以公民身份证号码和组织机构代码为基础的统一社会信用代码制度。完善诚信建设长效机制,健全覆盖全社会的征信体系,建立完善失信惩戒制度。结合实际建立信用修复机制和异议制度,鼓励和引导失信主体主动纠正违法失信行为。加强行业协会商会诚信建设,完善诚信管理和诚信自律机制。完善全国信用信息共享平台和国家企业信用信息公示系统,进一步强化和规范信用信息归集共享。加强诚信理念宣传教育,组织诚信主题实践活动,为社会信用体系建设创造良好环境。推动出台信用方面的法律。

六、依法治理网络空间

网络空间不是法外之地。推动社会治理从现实社会向网络空间覆盖,建立健全网络综合治理体系,加强依法管网、依法办网、依法上网,全面推进网络空间法治化,营造清朗的网络空间。

(二十二)完善网络法律制度。通过立改废释并举等方式,推动现有法律法规延伸适用到网络空间。完善网络信息服务方面的法律法规,修订互联网信息服务管理办法,研究制定互联网信息服务严重失信主体信用信息管理办法,制定完善对网络直播、自媒体、知识社区问答等新媒体业态和算法推荐、深度伪造等新技术应用的规范管理办法。完善网络安全法配套规定和标准体系,建立健全关键信息基础设施安全保护、数据安全管理和网络安全审查等网络安全管理制度,加强对大数据、云计算和人工智能等新技术研发应用的规范引导。研究制定个人信息保护法。健全互联网技术、商业模式、大数据等创新成果的知识产权保护方面的法律法规。修订预防未成年人犯罪法,制定未成年人网络保护条例。完善跨境电商制度,规范跨境电子商务经营者行为。积极参与数字经济、电子商务、信息技术、网络安全等领域国际规则和标准制定。

(二十三)培育良好的网络法治意识。坚持依法治网和以德润网相结合,弘扬时代主旋律和社会正能量。加强和创新互联网内容建设,实施社会主义核心价值观、中华文化新媒体传播等工程。提升网络媒介素养,推动互联网信息服务领域严重失信“黑名单”制度和惩戒机制,推动网络诚信制度化建设。坚决依法打击谣言、淫秽、暴力、迷信、邪教等有害信息在网络空间传播蔓延,建立健全互联网违法和不良信息举报一体化受理处置体系。加强全社会网络法治和网络素养教育,制定网络素养教育指南。加强青少年网络安全教育,引导青少年理性上网。深入实施中国好网民工程和网络公益工程,引导网民文明上网、理性表达,营造风清气正的网络环境。

(二十四)保障公民依法安全用网。牢固树立正确的网络安全观,依法防范网络安全风险。落实网络安全责任制,明确管理部门和网信企业的网络安全责任。建立完善统一高效的网络安全风险报告机制、研判处置机制,健全网络安全检查制度。加强对网络空间通信秘密、商业秘密、个人隐私以及名誉权、财产权等合法权益的保护。严格规范收集使用用户身份、通信内容等个人信息行为,加大对非法获取、泄露、出售、提供公民个人信息的违法犯罪行为的惩处力度。督促网信企业落实主体责任,履行法律规定的安全管理责任。健全网络与信息突发安全事件应急机制,完善网络安全和信息化执法联动机制。加强网络违法犯罪监控和查处能力建设,依法查处网络金融犯罪、网络诽谤、网络诈骗、网络色情、攻击窃密等违法犯罪行为。建立健全信息共享机制,积极参与国际打击互联网违法犯罪活动。

Work Regulations of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

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Deliberated and approved at the CCP Central Committee Politburo meeting of 28 September 2020, and issued on 30 September 2020 by the CCP Central Committee

Chapter I: General Provisions

Article 1: These Regulations are formulated in order to strengthen the work of the Party’s Central Committee, on the basis of the “Charter of the Communist Party of China”.

Article 2: The Party’s highest leading body is the Party’s National Congress and the Central Committee this produces. During times where the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee leads the Party’s overall work, and represents the Chinese Communist Party externally. 

Article 3: The Central Committee holds high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, takes Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought, the scientific development concept, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a new era, it takes the lead in strengthening the “Four Consciousnesses”, steadfastly upholds the “Four Self-Confidences”, ensuring the “Two Safeguards”, it does not forget its original intention, keeps its mission firmly in mind, assumes all responsibility for the entire picture, coordinates all sides, and unites and leads the entire Party, the entire military, the entire country and the people of all ethnicities in the untiring struggle to comprehensively construct a strong, modern Socialist country, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation with a firm and correct political position and political direction. 

Article 4: The Central Committee will firmly grasp the following principles in conducting its work:

(1) Upholding Party leadership over all work, ensuring the concentrated and united leadership of the Party centre.

(2) Upholding and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics, comprehensively implementing the Party’s basic theory, basic line and basic general plan. 

(3) Upholding liberating thoughts, seeking truth from facts, progressing with the times, seeking reality in a pragmatic manner.

(4) Upholding service to the people with all hearts and minds, putting the people central, governing for the sake of the people, and relying on the people in governing.

(5) Upholding democratic centralism, fully carrying intra-Party democracy forward, implementing correct and effective centralization, safeguarding Party unity and uniformity.

(6) Upholding strict Party management and Party governance, forever preserving the Party’s advanced nature and purity.

Chapter II: Leading position

Article 5: The Central Committee, the Politburo, and the Politburo Standing Committee are the brains and central axis of the Party’s organizational system, they grasp the orientation, plan the overall picture, direct policy and stimulate reform in the undertaking of advancing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. Only the Party Centre has the power to decide and resolve major issues of programmes and policies involving the entire Party and the entire country.

The Party Centre’s major policy decisions and arrangements are the basis for the entire Party, the entire military, the entire country and the people of all ethnicities to unify thoughts, unify intentions and unify actions.

Article 6: The Party Centre embodies the magnificent struggle, the magnificent project, the magnificent undertaking and the magnificent dream, it comprehensively advances the general “Five into One” arrangement, it coordinates the advance of the strategic “Four Comprehensives” arrangement, it completely leads work in all areas and all aspects including stable reform and development, internal politics, foreign affairs and national defence, governing the Party, governing the country, and governing the military, etc., and implements concentrated and united leadership over major work in the Party’s and the country’s undertaking and development.

Article 7: All levels’ Peoples Congresses, governments, consultative conferences, supervision bodies, judicial bodies, procuratorate bodies and armed forces, all democratic parties and non-party affiliated persons, people’s organizations, enterprise and undertaking work units, grass-roots mass self-governance organizations, social organizations, etc., must all consciously accept the leadership of the Party Centre.

Article 8: All organizations of entire Party and the entire body of Party members must consciously serve the Party Centre, emulate the Party Centre, determinedly uphold the authority of the Party Centre and its concentrated, united leadership, and consciously maintain a high degree of consistency with the Party Centre in their thoughts, their politics and their actions. 

Chapter III: Leadership systems

Article 9: The Central Committee is produced through election by the Party’s National Congress, it is composed of Committee members and alternate members, with a term of office of five years. If the National Congress is organized earlier or later, the Central Committee’s term of office will correspondingly change. 

The number of Central Committee members and alternate members is decided by the National Congress. Central Committee members and alternate members must have more than five years of Party seniority. The selection shall bring together governing backbones and excellent representatives from all regions, all departments, all battle fronts and all sectors of the Party, with firm politics, excellent qualities, a balanced distribution and a rational structure, who are able to take up the historical burden of governing the Party, the country and the military, and advancing the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era.

If a Central Committee membership post is vacant, the Central Committee alternate members will successively fill vacancies according to the number of votes they received.

Article 10: The Politburo, Politburo Standing Committee and General Secretary are chose by the whole Central Committee. The Central Committee General Secretary must be produced from the members of the Politburo Standing Committee.

The Central Secretariat is the office body of the Politburo and its Standing Committee; its members are nominated by the members of the Politburo Standing Committee, and passed by the whole Central Committee.

The Central leading bodies and Central leaders produced by every Central Committee will, during the sitting period of the next National Congress, continue to take charge of everyday Party work, until the point where the next Central Committee has produced new Central leading organs and Central leaders.

Article 11: Under the leadership of the Party Centre, the Central Military Commission exercises the duties and responsibilities of the highest military leading body of Party and State. A chairman responsibility system is implemented for the Central Military Commission.

Article 12: Under the leadership of the Party Centre, the Central Discipline Inspection Committee (National Supervision Committee) exercises the duties and responsibilities of the highest disciplinary inspection body of the Party (and the highest supervisory body of the State).

Article 13: The Party Centre establishes several policy-making and deliberation coordination bodies who, under the leadership of the Party Centre, are responsible for top-level design, comprehensive planning and coordination, overall advance and supervision of implementation in related major work areas.

The Party Centre establishes several work bodies who, under the leadership of the Party Centre, are in charge of or conduct relevant Centre work.

The Party Centre establishes Party Groups in the National People’s Congress, the State Council, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, etc., who are responsible to the Party Centre and implement the Party Centre’s policy decisions and arrangements. 

Chapter IV: Leadership powers

Article 14: During periods where the Party’s National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee executes the resolutions of the National Congress, and exercises the following powers:

(1) It convenes the National Congress, deciding on the number and selection methods for National Congress delegates; discussing the Central Committee report to the National Congress, the Central Discipline Inspection Committee report to the National Congress, the revision draft of the Party Charter, and decides on requesting inspection and deliberation by the National Congress. When necessary, it decides to convene a national Party delegate conference, and decides the quota and production rules of national Party conference delegates.

(2) It elects and produces Central leading bodies and the Central Committee General Secretary, it passes the members of the Central Secretariat, it decides on the members composing the Central Military Commission, approves the standing committee, secretary and vice-secretary elected and produced by the plenary session of the Central Discipline Inspection Committee; it elects more or supplementary members of Central leading bodies, supplements members of the Central Secretariat and members composing the Central Military Commission.

(3) It hears and discusses the work report of the Politburo.

(4) It discusses and decides upon major issues relating to the entire picture of the development of the Party and State’s undertaking.

(5) It discusses and decides upon recommendation of candidates for national president and vice-president, and recommendation of candidates for leading positions in the National People’s Congress, State Council, Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, Central Military Commission, National Supervision Committee, Supreme People’s Court, and Supreme People’s Procuratorate.

(6) It decides upon filling vacant Central Committee positions; it decides or retroactively recognizes punishments of Central Committee members and alternate members by dismissal from intra-Party positions, Party probation or removal of Party membership.

(7) It discusses and decides upon other major issues and matters concerning the Party’s governance of the country and management of the administration, as well as Party management and Party governance. 

During periods where the Central Committee plenary meeting is not in session, the Central Committee’s duties are exercised by the Politburo and its Standing Committee.

Article 15: The politburo executes the resolutions and decisions of the National Congress and the Central Committee, it reports its work to the plenary Central Committee and accepts its supervision, and exercises the following powers.

(1) It convenes and chairs the plenary meetings of the Central Committee, researches and decides upon issues and matters to be submitted to the plenary Central Committee meeting for deliberation.

(2) It discusses and decides upon major issues and affairs relating to the entire picture of the development of the Party and State’s undertaking

(3) During periods where the Central Committee plenary meeting is not in session, it decides upon punishing Central Committee members and alternate members with dismissal from intra-Party positions, Party probation or removal of Party membership, in expectation of recognition when the Central Committee plenary conference convenes; it decides upon removing from Party membership of Central Committee members and alternate members gravely violating criminal law.

(4) It recommends, nominates, appoints and dismisses cadres according to relevant regulations,; and decides ways of dealing with or punishing relevant Party leading cadres.

(5) It researches and decides upon other major issues and matters that should be decided by the Politburo.

Article 16: The Politburo Standing Committee executes the decisions and resolutions, of the National Congress and the Central Committee, it organizes the implementation of the programmes and policies formulated by the Politburo, and exercises the following powers:

(1) It handles the daily work of the Party Centre.

(2) It researches and discusses major issues and matters relating to the entire picture of the development of the Party and State’s undertaking and puts forward opinions, submitting then to the Politburo for deliberation.

(3) It researches and decides upon major issues and matters concerning Party and State work.

(4) It decides on the handling and work arrangements for major sudden incidents.

(5) It listens to the Central Secretariat work report ad the work reports of the Central Discipline Inspection Committee (National Supervision Council), the National People’s Congress Party Group, the State Council Party Group, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Party Group, the Supreme People’s Court Party Group, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate Party Group, etc.

(6) It recommends, nominates, appoints and dismisses cadres according to relevant regulations; and decides ways of dealing with or publishing relevant Party cadres.

(7) It researches and decides upon other major issues and matters that should be decided by the Politburo Standing Committee.

Article 17: The Central Committee General Secretary is responsible for convening the meetings of the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee, and chairs the work of the Central Secretariat.

Article 18: The Central Secretariat arranges and conducts its work according to the instructions of the Politburo, the Politburo Standing Committee and the Central Committee General Secretary.

Chapter V: Leadership methods

Article 19: The Party Centre deeply grasps the governance laws of the Communist Party, the laws of Socialist construction, and the laws of human social development, it upholds and develops Marxist ways of thinking and ways of working, it adapts to new times and new requirements, improves and perfects leadership methods, strengthens the construction of the Party’s long-term governance capacity, and raises the Party’s level of scientific governance, democratic governance, and governance according to the law.

Article 20: The Party Centre holds high the banner and directs the orientation, it navigates and steers the ship, and leads the advanced direction of the undertaking of the Party and the State. It strengthens political leadership, unwaveringly marching the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. It strengthens ideological leadership, and uses Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era to arm the entire Party and educate the people. It strengthens leadership in demeanour, and concentrates the Party’s hearts, the military’s hearts and the people’s hearts with the force of formidable truths and the force of human dignity. 

Article 21: The Party Centre assumes responsibility of the entire picture and coordinates all sides, it ensures that the entire Party, the entire military, the entire country and the people of all ethnicities advance together with united determination, united actions and in step. It  takes charge of all work matters, comprehensively advancing the undertaking of the Party and the State in all aspects. It takes charge of forces of all sides, leading all levels’ and all kinds of organizations and the broad Party members, cadres and the masses to act unitedly. It takes charge of national governance, upholds and perfects the Socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and advances the modernization of the national governance system and governing capacity.

Article 22: The Party Centre leads the entire Party in a magnificent self-revolution and a magnificent social revolution with a high sense of responsibility, a strong worrying mentality, and a dauntless revolutionary spirit, incessantly promoting the advance of the magnificent undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics in a new era.

Chapter VI: Policy decisions and arrangements

Article 23: The Party Centre makes policy decisions on major issues in Party and State work according to the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, individual fermentation, and decisions by meetings. On the basis of requirement, meetings of the plenary Central Committee, the Politburo or the Politburo Standing Committee are convened to discuss and decide on matters.

When the Party Centre makes major policy decisions and arrangements, it must deeply investigate and research matters, broadly listen to opinions and suggestions from all sides, strengthen analysis and elucidation, concentrate a consensus of wisdom, ensure scientific policymaking, democratic policymaking, and policymaking according to the law.  

Article 24: The Central Committee’s plenary meeting is to be organized at least once every year. The agenda of the meeting will be determined after soliciting opinions from a certain scope inside the Party.

The Central Committee’s plenary meeting may only be convened if more than half of the Central Committee members are present at the meeting venue. If Central Committee members and alternate members cannot participate for some reason, they shall ask for leave before the meeting, their opinions may be expressed in written form. On the basis of requirement, it may be arranged for relevant persons to attend the meeting in a non-voting capacity. 

On the basis of differences in matters under discussion and decision, methods such as raising hands, secret ballots, etc. are adopted to make decisions by vote, where affirmative votes exceed half of the number of members, they are passed. The opinions of non-present members is not counted into the vote tally. Alternate members do not participate in voting.

Punishment of Central Committee members and alternate members by dismissal from intra-Party positions, Party probation or removal of Party membership must be decided by a two-thirds majority of the Central Committee’s plenary meeting. During periods where the Central Committee’s plenary meeting is not in session, this may be decided first by the Politburo, in expectation of the convention of a plenary Central Committee meeting, at which time it will be recognized.

Article 25: Politburo meetings are generally organized regularly, in the event of important circumstances, they may be organized whenever necessary. The topic of the meeting is decided by the Central Committee General Secretary.

Politburo meetings may only be convened if more than half of the Politburo members are present at the meeting venue. On the basis of requirement, it may be arranged for relevant persons to attend the meeting in a non-voting capacity.

Politburo meetings shall, when deciding issues, fully discuss them, and where they involve multiple matters, conduct item-by-item discussion and decisions.

Article 26: Politburo Standing Committee meetings are generally organized regularly, in the event of important circumstances, they may be organized whenever necessary. The topic of the meeting is decided by the Central Committee General Secretary.

Politburo Standing Committee meetings may only be convened if more than half of the Politburo members are present at the meeting venue. On the basis of requirement, it may be arranged for relevant persons to attend the meeting in a non-voting capacity.

Politburo Standing Committee meetings shall, when deciding issues, fully discuss them, and where they involve multiple matters, conduct item-by-item discussion and decisions.

Article 27: The Central Secretariat convenes office meetings to research and discuss relevant matters according to the policy decisions and arrangements of the Central Committee, and the instructions and requirements of the General Secretary. The topics of the meetings are decided by the Central Committee General Secretary.

Article 28: The Party Centre convenes work conferences, special topic conferences, etc. on the basis of requirements, to analyse trends and arrange work. 

Article 29: According to the policy decisions and arrangements of the Central Committee, and the instructions and requirements of the General Secretary, the Party Centre’s policy decision, deliberation and coordination bodies convene meetings, to research policy decisions, and arrange and coordinate major work in relevant areas. The topic of the meeting is determined or authorized by the General Secretary. 

After relevant matters are deliberated by a meeting of a Central policy decision, deliberation and coordinating body, it is submitted to a Politburo Standing Committee meeting for deliberation on the basis of requirement. 

Article 30: The Party Centre conducts consultation on major Party and State programmes and policies, major issues, major personnel arrangements, etc., it listens to opinions and suggestions from all democratic parties’ centres, the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce, and non-party affiliated persons and representatives, who report on major situations, communicate thoughts, and enhance consensus.

Chapter VII: Self-construction

Article 31: The members composing the Central Committee, the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee must make the “Two Upholds” into a fundamental political requirement, take the lead in achieving the “Two Upholds”, ensure the smooth passing of Party  Centre decrees, and strict enforcement of orders and prohibitions, and ensure the Party Centre’s policy decisions and arrangements touch the ground and become effective.

Article 32: The members composing the Central Committee, the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee must keep firmly in mind that they a member of the Party’s highest leading bodies, uphold organizational principles and the principles of the Party nature, closely observe political discipline and political manners, conduct affairs according to procedures, conduct affairs according to norms, and conduct affairs according to the collective will, upholding and maintaining the unity of the Party.

The members composing the Central Committee, the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee shall consciously execute the Party Charter and other such intra-Party regulations, consciously implement the Party’s mass line, strictly implement the Centre’s eight rules, uphold a spirit of opposing formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, consciously struggle with privileged thinking and privileged appearances, and maintain a upright and just, honest and clean political quality throughout.

Politburo members shall timely submit reports to the Party Centre on major policy decisions, major matters and major circumstances. Where it is necessary, in the process of execution, to adjust major Party Centre policies or decisions and major work arrangements, it must be reported to the Party Centre for approval. 

Article 33: The members composing the Central Committee, the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee shall take the lead in carrying forward intra-Party democracy, and earnestly implement the democratic centralist principles and procedures determined in the Party Charter and other such intra-Party regulations. The Politburo annually organizes a democratic life meeting. The Central Committee members and alternate members participating in plenary Central Committee meetings shall vigorously express opinions and put forward suggestions on Party and State work.

Chapter VIII: Supplementary provisions

Article 34: The interpretation of these Regulations is the responsibility of the Central Committee General Office

Article 35: These Regulations take effect on the date of promulgation.

中国共产党中央委员会工作条例
(2020年9月28日中共中央政治局会议审议批准 2020年9月30日中共中央发布)

第一章 总则

第一条 为了加强党的中央委员会工作,根据《中国共产党章程》,制定本条例。

第二条 党的最高领导机关,是党的全国代表大会和它所产生的中央委员会。在全国代表大会闭会期间,中央委员会领导党的全部工作,对外代表中国共产党。

第三条 中央委员会高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,带头增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,不忘初心、牢记使命,总揽全局、协调各方,以坚定正确的政治立场和政治方向,团结带领全党全军全国各族人民为全面建成社会主义现代化强国、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦不懈奋斗。

第四条 中央委员会开展工作,牢牢把握以下原则:

(一)坚持党对一切工作的领导,确保党中央集中统一领导。

(二)坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,全面贯彻党的基本理论、基本路线、基本方略。

(三)坚持解放思想,实事求是,与时俱进,求真务实。

(四)坚持全心全意为人民服务,以人民为中心,为人民执政、靠人民执政。

(五)坚持民主集中制,充分发扬党内民主,实行正确有效集中,维护党的团结统一。

(六)坚持从严管党治党,永葆党的先进性和纯洁性。

第二章 领导地位

第五条 中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会是党的组织体系的大脑和中枢,在推进中国特色社会主义事业中把方向、谋大局、定政策、促改革。涉及全党全国性的重大方针政策问题,只有党中央有权作出决定和解释。

党中央重大决策部署,是全党全军全国各族人民统一思想、统一意志、统一行动的依据。

第六条 党中央统揽伟大斗争、伟大工程、伟大事业、伟大梦想,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,全面领导改革发展稳定、内政外交国防、治党治国治军等各领域各方面工作,对党和国家事业发展重大工作实行集中统一领导。

第七条 各级人大、政府、政协、监察机关、审判机关、检察机关,武装力量,各民主党派和无党派人士,人民团体,企事业单位,基层群众性自治组织,社会组织等,都必须自觉接受党中央领导。

第八条 全党各个组织和全体党员必须自觉服从党中央,向党中央看齐,坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,自觉在思想上政治上行动上同党中央保持高度一致。

第三章 领导体制

第九条 中央委员会由党的全国代表大会选举产生,由委员和候补委员组成,每届任期五年。全国代表大会如提前或者延期举行,中央委员会的任期相应地改变。

中央委员会委员和候补委员的名额,由全国代表大会决定。中央委员会委员和候补委员必须有五年以上的党龄。人选应当集中各地区、各部门、各条战线、各个行业党的执政骨干和优秀代表,政治坚定、素质优良、分布均衡、结构合理,能够担负起治党治国治军、推进新时代中国特色社会主义事业的历史重任。

中央委员会委员出缺,由中央委员会候补委员按照得票多少依次递补。

第十条 中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会和中央委员会总书记,由中央委员会全体会议选举。中央委员会总书记必须从中央政治局常务委员会委员中产生。

中央书记处是中央政治局和它的常务委员会的办事机构;成员由中央政治局常务委员会提名,中央委员会全体会议通过。

每届中央委员会产生的中央领导机构和中央领导人,在下届全国代表大会开会期间,继续主持党的经常工作,直到下届中央委员会产生新的中央领导机构和中央领导人为止。

第十一条 在党中央领导下,中央军事委员会履行党和国家的最高军事领导机关职责。中央军事委员会实行主席负责制。

第十二条 在党中央领导下,中央纪律检查委员会(国家监察委员会)履行党的最高纪律检查机关(国家最高监察机关)职责。

第十三条 党中央设立若干决策议事协调机构,在党中央领导下,负责相关重大工作的顶层设计、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实。

党中央设立若干工作机关,在党中央领导下,主管或者办理中央相关工作。

党中央在全国人大常委会、国务院、全国政协、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院等设立党组,对党中央负责,贯彻执行党中央决策部署。

第四章 领导职权

第十四条 在党的全国代表大会闭会期间,中央委员会执行全国代表大会的决议,行使以下职权:

(一)召集全国代表大会,决定全国代表大会代表的名额和选举办法;讨论中央委员会向全国代表大会的报告、中央纪律检查委员会向全国代表大会的报告、党章修正案,并决定提请全国代表大会审查和审议。必要时决定召开党的全国代表会议,决定全国代表会议代表的名额和产生办法。

(二)选举产生中央领导机构和中央委员会总书记,通过中央书记处成员,决定中央军事委员会组成人员,批准中央纪律检查委员会全体会议选举产生的常务委员会和书记、副书记;增选、增补中央领导机构成员,增补中央书记处成员、中央军事委员会组成人员。

(三)听取和讨论中央政治局工作报告。

(四)讨论和决定关系党和国家事业发展全局的重大问题。

(五)讨论决定国家主席、副主席推荐人选,全国人大常委会、国务院、全国政协、中央军事委员会、国家监察委员会、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院领导人员推荐人选。

(六)决定递补中央委员会委员;决定或者追认给以中央委员会委员、候补委员撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍的处分。

(七)讨论和决定党治国理政、管党治党中其他重大问题和事项。

中央委员会全体会议闭会期间,中央委员会的职权由中央政治局和它的常务委员会行使。

第十五条 中央政治局贯彻执行全国代表大会和中央委员会的决议、决定,向中央委员会全体会议报告工作,接受监督,行使以下职权:

(一)召集并主持中央委员会全体会议,研究决定提请中央委员会全体会议审议的问题和事项。

(二)讨论和决定关系党和国家事业发展全局的重大问题和事项。

(三)中央委员会全体会议闭会期间,决定给以中央委员会委员、候补委员撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍的处分,待召开中央委员会全体会议时予以追认;决定开除严重触犯刑律的中央委员会委员、候补委员党籍。

(四)按照有关规定推荐、提名、任免干部;决定对有关党的领导干部的处理处分事项。

(五)研究决定其他应当由中央政治局决定的重大问题和事项。

第十六条 中央政治局常务委员会贯彻执行全国代表大会和中央委员会的决议、决定,组织实施中央政治局制定的方针政策,行使以下职权:

(一)处理党中央日常工作。

(二)研究讨论关系党和国家事业发展全局的重大问题和事项并提出意见,提交中央政治局审议。

(三)研究决定党和国家工作中的重大问题和事项。

(四)对重大突发性事件作出处置决定和工作部署。

(五)听取中央书记处工作报告和中央纪律检查委员会(国家监察委员会)、全国人大常委会党组、国务院党组、全国政协党组、最高人民法院党组、最高人民检察院党组等的工作汇报。

(六)按照有关规定推荐、提名、任免干部;决定对有关党的领导干部的处理处分事项。

(七)研究决定其他应当由中央政治局常务委员会决定的重大问题和事项。

第十七条 中央委员会总书记负责召集中央政治局会议和中央政治局常务委员会会议,并主持中央书记处的工作。

第十八条 中央书记处根据中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会和中央委员会总书记的指示安排开展工作。

第五章 领导方式

第十九条 党中央深刻把握共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律,坚持和发展马克思主义思想方法和工作方法,适应新时代新要求,改进和完善领导方式,加强党的长期执政能力建设,提高党科学执政、民主执政、依法执政水平。

第二十条 党中央举旗定向、掌舵领航,指引党和国家事业的前进方向。加强政治引领,坚定不移走中国特色社会主义道路。加强思想引领,用习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想武装全党、教育人民。加强风范引领,以强大真理力量和人格力量凝聚党心军心民心。

第二十一条 党中央总揽全局、协调各方,确保全党全军全国各族人民统一意志、统一行动、步调一致向前进。统揽各项工作,整体推进党和国家各方面事业。统揽各方力量,领导各级各类组织和广大党员、干部、群众一体行动。统揽国家治理,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。

第二十二条 党中央以高度的责任担当、强烈的忧患意识、无畏的革命精神,领导全党以伟大自我革命引领伟大社会革命,把新时代中国特色社会主义伟大事业不断推向前进。

第六章 决策部署

第二十三条 党中央按照集体领导、民主集中、个别酝酿、会议决定的原则,对党和国家工作的重大问题作出决策。根据需要,分别召开中央委员会全体会议、中央政治局会议、中央政治局常务委员会会议讨论决定。

党中央作出重大决策部署,必须深入调查研究,广泛听取各方面意见和建议,加强分析论证,凝聚智慧共识,做到科学决策、民主决策、依法决策。

第二十四条 中央委员会全体会议每年至少举行一次。会议议题由中央政治局在党内一定范围征询意见后确定。

中央委员会全体会议应当有半数以上中央委员会委员到会方可召开。中央委员会委员、候补委员因故不能参加会议的应当在会前请假,其意见可以用书面形式表达。根据需要,可以安排有关人员列席会议。

根据讨论和决定事项的不同,采用举手、无记名投票等方式进行表决,赞成票超过应到会委员半数的为通过。未到会委员的意见不计入票数。候补委员不参加表决。

对中央委员会委员、候补委员给以撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍的处分,必须由中央委员会全体会议三分之二以上的多数决定。在中央委员会全体会议闭会期间,可以先由中央政治局作出处理决定,待召开中央委员会全体会议时予以追认。

第二十五条 中央政治局会议一般定期召开,遇有重要情况可以随时召开。会议议题由中央委员会总书记确定。

中央政治局会议应当有半数以上中央政治局委员到会方可召开。根据需要,可以安排有关人员列席会议。

中央政治局会议在决定问题时应当经过充分讨论,涉及多个事项的应当逐项进行讨论和决定。

第二十六条 中央政治局常务委员会会议一般定期召开,遇有重要情况可以随时召开。会议议题由中央委员会总书记确定。

中央政治局常务委员会会议应当有半数以上中央政治局常务委员会委员到会方可召开。根据需要,可以安排有关人员列席会议。

中央政治局常务委员会会议在决定问题时应当经过充分讨论,涉及多个事项的应当逐项进行讨论和决定。

第二十七条 按照党中央决策部署和中央委员会总书记指示要求,中央书记处召开办公会议研究讨论有关事项。会议议题由中央委员会总书记确定。

第二十八条 党中央根据需要召开工作会议、专题会议等,分析形势,部署工作。

第二十九条 按照党中央决策部署和中央委员会总书记指示要求,党中央决策议事协调机构召开会议,研究决定、部署协调相关领域重大工作。会议议题由中央委员会总书记确定或者审定。

有关事项经党中央决策议事协调机构会议审议后,根据需要提请中央政治局常务委员会会议审议。

第三十条 党中央就党和国家重要方针政策、重大问题、重要人事安排等进行协商,听取各民主党派中央、全国工商联和无党派人士代表的意见和建议,通报重要情况,沟通思想、增进共识。

第七章 自身建设

第三十一条 中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会的组成人员必须将“两个维护”作为根本政治要求,带头做到“两个维护”,确保党中央政令畅通、令行禁止,确保党中央决策部署落地见效。

第三十二条 中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会的组成人员必须牢记自己是党的最高领导机关的一员,坚持组织原则和党性原则,严守政治纪律和政治规矩,按程序办事、按规则办事、按集体意志办事,坚决维护党的团结统一。

中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会的组成人员应当自觉执行党章等党内法规,自觉贯彻党的群众路线,严格执行中央八项规定,坚决反对形式主义、官僚主义、享乐主义和奢靡之风,自觉同特权思想和特权现象作斗争,始终保持清正廉洁的政治本色。

中央政治局委员应当及时将工作中的重大决策、重大事项、重要情况向党中央请示报告。在执行过程中需要对党中央决策、决定和重大工作部署作出调整的,必须报党中央批准。

第三十三条 中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会的组成人员应当带头发扬党内民主,认真执行党章等党内法规确定的民主原则和程序。中央政治局每年召开民主生活会。中央委员会委员、候补委员参加中央委员会全体会议,应当积极就党和国家工作发表意见、提出建议。

第八章 附则

第三十四条 本条例由中央办公厅负责解释。

第三十五条 本条例自发布之日起施行。

Opinions concerning Stimulating the Healthy and Orderly Development of the Mobile Internet

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Central Committee General Office

State Council General Office

Following the swift development of information network technology and the broad popularization of smart mobile terminals, mobile Internet has, with its prominent advantages of broad availability, connectivity, smartness and universality, powerfully promoted a profound convergence between the Internet and the real economy, it has become a new area for innovative development, a new platform for public services, and a new channel for information sharing. In order to deeply implement General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thinking about the strong cyber power strategy, and stimulate the orderly and healthy development of our country’s mobile Internet, the following opinions are hereby put forward. Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Accelerating the Construction of Credit Supervision, Warning and Punishment Mechanisms for Persons Subject to Enforcement for Trust-Breaking

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Opinions concerning Accelerating the Construction of Credit Supervision, Warning and Punishment Mechanisms for Persons Subject to Enforcement for Trust-Breaking

CCP Central Committee General Office, State Council General Office

Information concerning people who are subject to enforcement for trust-breaking through a judicial procedure by a People’s Court is an important component of social credit information. Conducting credit supervision, warning and punishment of people subject to enforcement for trust-breaking, benefits stimulating persons subject to enforcement to consciously implement their duties established in valid legal documents, raises judicial credibility, and moves forward the construction of the social credit system. In order to accelerate the construction of credit supervision, warning and punishment mechanisms for people subject to enforcement for trust-breaking, the following Opinions are hereby formulated. Read the rest of this entry »

Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy

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Central Committee General Office

State Council General Office

27 July 2016

In the present world, information technology innovation changes every day, and a tide of informatization, characterized by digitization, networking and smartification has vigorously arisen. Without informatization, there is no modernization. Adapting to and leading a new normal in economic development, and strengthening new development drivers, require informatization to penetrate into the entire process of our country’s modernization, and the acceleration and liberation of the huge potential of informatization development. Driving modernization with informatization and building a strong network power are major measures in the “Four Comprehensive” strategic positioning, and are necessary choices to realize the “Two Centenaries” struggle objective and the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

This Strategy Outline is an adjustment and development of the “National Informatization Development Strategy 2006-2020” on the basis of new circumstances, it is a programmatic document to standardize and guide national informatization development in the next ten years it is an important component part of the national strategy system, and is an important basis for the formulation of plans and policies in the area of informatization. Read the rest of this entry »

Communiqué of the Fifth Plenary Meeting of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

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Passed by the Fifth Plenary Meeting of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on 29 October 2015)

The Fifth Plenary Meeting of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party was convened in Beijing from 26 to 29 October 2015.

199 Central Committee members and 156 alternate Central Committee members attended the meeting. The Central Discipline Inspection Committee Standing Committee members and responsible comrades from relevant sides attended the meeting in a non-voting capacity. A number of grass-roots comrades from among the representatives at the 18th Party Congress, experts and scholars also attended in a non-voting capacity.

The Plenum was hosted by the Central Politburo. Central Committee General Secretary Xi Jinping gave an important speech.

The Plenum heard and discussed the work report that the Central Politburo entrusted Xi Jinping to present, and deliberated and passed the “CCP Central Committee Proposals concerning Formulating the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development.” Xi Jinping provided an explanation concerning the “Proposals (Discussion Draft)” to the Plenum. Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Letting Socialist Literature and Art Flourish

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Central Committee

3 October 2015

In order to implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 3rd and 4th Plenums of the 18th Party Congress, earnestly implement the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speech at the Forum on Literature and Art, and let Socialist literature and art flourish, the following opinions are put forward. Read the rest of this entry »

Notice concerning Adjustment of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s Relevant Duties and Bodies

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To: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Your Ministry’s “Letter concerning Submitting the Opinions on Adjustment of Duties, Bodies and Personnel Allocation” (GXBR No. (2015)10) and relevant supplementary opinions (GRH No. (2015)50) have been received and read. After researching the matter and submitting it for approval to leading comrades in the State Council and Central Organization Department, hereby, matters concerning the adjustment of duties and bodies in your Ministry are notified as follows:

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Some Opinions concerning Deepening Structural and Mechanism Reform and Accelerating the Implementation of the Innovation-Driven Development Strategy

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13 March 2015

Innovation is an important force in the progressive development of a country and a nation, and is an important force in promoting the progressive development of the entire human society. In the face of a new round of global scientific and technological revolution and major opportunities and challenges in industrial reform, in the face of the trends, changes and characteristics of a new economic normal, and in the face of the historical tasks and demands of the “Two Centenaries” struggle objectives, we must deepen structural and mechanism reform, accelerate the implementation of the Innovation-driven Development Strategy, the following opinions are hereby put forward.

I, General thinking and main objectives

To accelerate the implementation of the Innovation-driven Development Strategy, we must ensure that the market has a decisive role in the allocation of resources and give ever better rein to the role of government, do away with all mental barriers and institutional limitations fettering innovation, arouse the innovative vigour and creative potential of the entire society, enhance the efficiency and productivity of labour, information, knowledge, technology, management and capital, strengthen the linkages between science, technology and the economy, the linkages between innovation achievements and industry, the linkages between innovation programmes and current production forces, the linkages between research and development personnel’s innovative labour with their interests and incomes, strengthen the contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic development, and create a policy environment and institutional environment for mass creation and mass innovation.

– Persist in the orientation toward demand. Tightly grasp major demands for economic and social development, strive to build passageways connecting scientific and technological achievement with the transformation of existing productive forces, strive to eliminate obstacles to innovation by scientists, technological personnel, businesspeople and entrepreneurs, strive to resolve the constraints that factor drivers and investment drivers impose on changing innovation drivers, let innovation truly become a new growth point for creation, and transform the achievements of innovation into tangible industrial activity.

– Persist in putting talent first. We must make talent into the first resource for innovation, and put even more emphasis on training, using and attracting all kinds of talents well, stimulate the rational flow of talent, optimize training, and innovate talent training models; we must put even more emphasis on strengthening incentive mechanisms, and provide profit reciprocation and spiritual encouragement to scientific and technological personnel; we must put even more emphasis on giving rein to the innovative roles of entrepreneurs and skilled technology talent teams, and fully arouse the creative vitality of the entire society.

– Persist in abiding by laws. On the basis if the characteristics of scientific and technological movements, we must grasp the exploration and discovery laws of scientific research well, provide scientists with good conditions and a comfortable environment for diligent study, invention, creation and technological breakthroughs; grasp the market laws of technological innovation, let the market become the main method to optimize the allocation of innovative resources, let enterprises become the dominant force in technological innovation, let the intellectual property rights system become a basic guarantee to encourage innovation; forcefully construct a cultural and social atmosphere of daring to explore, encouraging innovation, and tolerating failure.

– Persist in comprehensive innovation. Put scientific and technological innovation in a central position in the overall picture of national development, comprehensively move scientific and technological structural reform and reform in economic and social areas forward, comprehensively move scientific, technological, management, branding, organizational and commercial model innovation forward, comprehensively move converged military-civilian innovation forward, comprehensively move cooperative inward and outward innovation forward, realize the organically unified and coordinated development of scientific and technological innovation, institutional innovation and openness innovation forward.

By 2020, an institutional environment, and policy and legal system suited to the needs of innovation-driven development must be basically formed, to provide powerful guarantees to enter into the ranks of innovative countries. Talent, capital, technology and knowledge are to circulate freely, enterprises, scientific research institutes and higher education institutes are to collaborate in innovation, with creative vitality vying to burst forth, innovation achievements are to gain full protection, the value of innovation is to be reflected more greatly, innovation resource efficiency and productivity is to rise substantially, innovation talents are to reasonably enjoy the benefits of innovation, this ensures that the Innovation-driven Development Strategy will be truly implemented, and so will build new engines to stimulate economic growth, employment and entrepreneurialism, it will build new advantages to participate in international competitiveness and cooperation, it will promote a new structure to shape sustainable development, and stimulate the transformation of economic development methods.

II, Construct a fair and competitive environment to encourage innovation.

Give rein to the fundamental role of market competition in encouraging innovation, create a fair, open and transparent market environment, strengthen the guidance of competition policies and industrial policies over innovation, stimulate the survival of the fittest, and strengthen the innovative drive of market subjects.

(1) Implement strict intellectual property rights protection systems.

Perfect intellectual property rights protection laws, research the reduction of barriers to pursue criminal liability for infringing acts, adjust compensation standards, and explore the implementation of punitive damages systems. Perfect rights holders’ rights defence mechanisms, rationally divide the evidentiary responsibilities of rights holders.

Perfect the legal structure for the protection of commercial secrets, clarify the boundary of commercial secrets and infringing acts, research the formulation of corresponding protection measures, and explore the establishment of pre-trial protection systems. Research intellectual property protection rules for commercial models and other such novel forms of innovation achievements.

Perfect intellectual property rights trial work mechanisms, move forward with the “uniting three trials” of civil, criminal and administrative intellectual property rights cases, vigorously give rein to the role of intellectual property rights courts, explore trial mechanisms for intellectual property cases across regions, destroy local protection for infringing acts.

Complete intellectual property rights investigation and prosecution mechanisms, strengthen the linkage between administrative law enforcement and the judiciary, strengthen comprehensive administrative intellectual property rights law enforcement, complete intellectual property rights defence assistance systems, and ensure that information about infringing acts is channelled into social credit records.

(2) Destroy sector monopolies and market fragmentation inhibiting innovation

Accelerate the reform of monopoly sectors, open up competitive activities in natural monopoly sectors, and establish uniform, transparent, orderly and standardized market environments encouraging innovation.

Realistically strengthen anti-monopoly law enforcement, timely discover and put an end to monopoly agreements, the abuse of a dominant market position and other such monopolistic acts, and provide a broader space for small and mid-size enterprises to innovate and develop.

Destroy local protection, clean away and eliminate provisions and methods that hamper uniform national markets, correct local governments’ acts of improper subsidy or the use of administrative powers to limit or eliminate competition, explore the implementation of fair competition investigation systems.

(3) Improve access management for new technologies, new products and new commercial models

Reform industrial access rules, formulate and implement negative industrial access lists, all kinds of market subjects are permitted to equally enter industries, areas and activities that are not listed on negative lists.

Destroy irrational access obstacles that inhibit the development of new technologies, new products and new commercial models. Establish convenient and effective supervision and management models for innovative products in medicine, medical equipment, etc., deepen examination and approval system reform, enhance evaluation resources in many channels, optimize workflows, shorten periods, and support the development of sub-contracted production and other new organizational models. Implement access policies in a focused manner for new-energy vehicles, wind power, solar power and other such areas.

Improve supervision and management over the Internet, finance, environmental protection, healthcare, culture, education and other such areas, support and encourage the development of new business models and new commercial models.

(4) Complete industrial technology policies and management structures

Reform industrial supervision and management structures, transform the current focus on preliminary examination and approval into a focus on supervision and management during and after activities, and create an industrial policy orientation that is beneficial to transformation and upgrading and that encourages innovation.

Strengthen the guiding and supervising role of industrial technology policy, clarify and progressively raise environmental, energy, and use, water use, material use, quality and security indicators and corresponding standards, and shape a market access standard system that is uniform, authoritative, open and transparent. Complete technological standard systems, and strengthen the formulation and implementation of binding standards.

Strengthen supervision over the process of implementing industrial technology policy and standards. Strengthen joint administrative law enforcement mechanisms connecting environmental protection, quality inspection, industry and commerce, security supervision and other such departments.

(5) Shape innovation mechanisms with reversed factor pricing

Mainly use mechanisms in which markets decide factor prices, stimulate enterprises to transform from relying on excessive consumption of resources and energy, low capacity and low costs to compete, towards relying on innovation and implementing differentiated competition.

Accelerate the reform of resource taxes, progressively broaden resource taxes to include all natural and ecological space that is occupied, and move forward with transforming the environmental protection fee into a tax. Perfect marketized industrial land use pricing mechanisms. Complete regular growth mechanisms for enterprise salaries, ensure that changes in labour costs are synergistically suited to increased economic quality.

III, Establish market guidance mechanisms for technological innovation

Give rein to the guiding role of markets in the orientation of technological research, the selection of paths and the allocation of all sorts of innovation resources, the adjustment of innovation policymaking and organizational models, strengthening universally beneficial policy support, stimulating enterprises in truly becoming subjects of technological innovation policymaking, research and development input, scientific research organization and the transformation of achievements.

(6) Broaden enterprises’ discourse power in state innovation policymaking

Establish high-level and regularized enterprise technology innovation dialogue and consultancy structures, give rein to the important role of enterprises and entrepreneurs in state innovation policymaking. Attract ever more enterprises to participate in the research and formulation of state technology innovation plans, programmes, policies and standards, corresponding expert consultancy groups are to have a relatively large proportion of industry experts and entrepreneurs.

State science and technology planning must focus on strategic needs, focus on deploying research in crucial areas where the markets cannot effectively allocate resources, The research orientation of technological innovation of competitive enterprises, their technological paths and factor allocation models are to be decided by enterprises autonomously on the basis of market demands.

(7) Perfect industrial technology innovation models with enterprises at the centre

Clearly market-oriented science and technology projects should be led by enterprises, guided by government and implemented jointly with higher education and scientific research institutes. It construction of strategic industrial technology innovation alliances with enterprises in the lead, and cooperation between industry, scholarship and research is encouraged.

Use more post-taxation subsidies, indirect input and other such methods to support enterprises’ autonomous policymaking and initial input, launch efforts to tackle key research and development questions in crucial and general industrial technology, equipment and standards.

Launch trial points for innovation transformation by leading enterprises, explore new mechanisms for government to support enterprises’ technological innovation, management innovation and commercial model innovation.

Perfect new service systems for small and mid-size enterprises, accelerate moving forward with the specialization and marketization of start-up incubators, intellectual property rights services, third-party inspection, monitoring and authentication bodies, expand technology trading markets.

Optimize the distribution of State laboratories, focus laboratories, project laboratories and project (technology) research centres, categorize and integrate them according to their functional orientation, build innovation networks that are open, shared and interactive, establish mechanisms that are effective and open to enterprises, especially small and mid-size enterprises. Explore the adoption of new models with enterprises in the lead, cooperation from institutes and schools, multilateral funding, military-civilian integration and achievement sharing in strategic areas, integrate the creation of a number of industrial innovation centres. Expand the extent to which major research and development infrastructure, large-scale scientific research instruments and basic patent information resources are open to society.

(8) Raise the support strength for universally preferential fiscal policies

Persist in the orientation of structural tax reduction, progressively turn State input methods into enterprises’ technological innovation mainly universally preferential fiscal policies.

Comprehensively plan and research weighted deduction policies for enterprise income tax, perfect the use of calculation methods for enterprise research and development costs, adjust catalogue management methods, broaden the scope of applicability of weighted deduction and universal preferential policies for research and development costs. Perfect methods to accredit high technology enterprises, focus on encouraging small and mid-size enterprises to expand their research and development strength.

(9) Complete procurement policies with preferential use of innovative products

Establish and complete policy systems to support the procurement of innovative products and services that conform to international norms, implement and perfect corresponding government procurement measures to stimulate the innovative development of small and mid-size enterprises, expand the procurement strength for innovative products and services. Encourage the adoption of first-sale, ordering and other non-tendered procurement methods, as well as providing support through government procurement services and other such methods, in order to stimulate the research, development and scaled-up application of innovative products.

Research and perfect policies for the use of first-generation major technology equipment, complete the preparation and use of incentive and control mechanisms for work units in product innovation, value-added services, demonstration, application and other such stages.

Ease the bounds for civilian enterprises and scientific research work units to enter into military goods research, development, production, maintenance and purchasing.

IV, Strengthen the function of financial innovation

Give rein to the boosting role of financial innovation in technological innovation, foster and expand start-up investment and capital markets, raise the flexibility and convenience of credit support for innovation, and create a good environment for all kinds of financial tools to support innovation and development in a coordinated manner.

(10) Expand the scope of investment in start-ups

Research and formulate laws and regulations for angel investment. According to the orientation and needs of fiscal reform, comprehensively research corresponding fiscal support policies for the investment during seeding period or newly established period of innovation activities, including angel investment.

Research and broaden preferential fiscal policies to stimulate start-up investment enterprises’ development, appropriately relax conditions and limitations on start-up investment enterprises investing in high technology enterprises, and on the basis of trials, let the scope of start-up investment enterprises investment deduction policies expand to include legal persons and partners in limited partnership start-up investment enterprises.

Integrate State-owned enterprise reform with the establishment of State-owned capital start-up investment funds, perfect incentive and constrain mechanisms for State-owned investment bodies. According to the principle of marketization, research the establishment of a State new industry start-up investment guidance fund, drive social capital to support strategic new industries and high technology industries during the early and middle periods, and to support the development of innovative enterprises during the start-up period.

Perfect regulations for foreign-invested start-up investment enterprises, effectively use foreign capital to invest in the area of innovation. Research corresponding policies for a fund for insurance for start-up investors.

(11) Strengthen support for technological innovation through capital markets

Accelerate start-up board market reform, strengthen institutional arrangements that are suited to the development of innovative and maturing enterprises, broaden the economic coverage of service entities, strengthen the funds circulation, M&A and trading functions of the nationwide small and mid-size enterprise stock transfer system, and standardize regional stock markets for the development of and service to small and micro-enterprises. Strengthen the organic connection of different levels of capital markets.

Give rein to the role of the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges’ shareholding mortgage and fund circulation mechanisms, support innovative and start-up enterprises meeting conditions to distribute company bonds. Support enterprises meeting conditions to distribute high-yield programme bonds, to raise funds for use in expanding input into innovation.

Promote the revision of corresponding laws and regulations, and explore the launch of intellectual property rights securitization services. Launch trials for crowd-funded shareholding, vigorously explore and standardize the development of Internet finance in service of innovation.

(12) Broaden indirect funding channel for technological innovation

Perfect laws concerning commercial banking. Choose financial bodies in the banking sector that meet conditions to explore trials to provide financial service methods combining shares and debts for enterprises’ innovation activities, and realize lending relationships with start-up investment and stock investment bodies.

Policy banks will, under the guidance of corresponding departments and supervisory bodies, accelerate innovation of financial products and service methods within their business scope, to expand credit support for enterprises’ innovation activities that meet conditions.

Steadily develop people-run banks, establish corresponding supervision and management systems, and support financial product innovations directed at the innovation needs of small and mid-size enterprises.

Establish marketized risk compensation mechanisms for intellectual property rights mortgage finance, simplify intellectual property rights mortgage finance processes. Accelerate the development of science and technology insurance, and move forward patent insurance trials.

V, Perfect incentive policies for the transformation of achievements

Strengthen respect for knowledge and respect for innovation, fully reflect the distributional orientation of the value of intellectual labour, and let scientific personnel obtain reasonable rewards for innovation activities, reflect innovation values through the application of achievements, and create wealth through the transformation of achievements.

(13) Accelerate the decentralization of science and technology achievement use, management and income powers

Incessantly summarize the experience of trials, integrate the categorized reform requirements of undertaking work units, as quickly as possible lower the use powers, management powers and income rights for scientific and technological achievements created with support of the financial administration and do not involve national defence, national security, the national interest or major social and public interests to programme undertaking work units meeting conditions. Work units’ controlling departments and financial departments are no longer to require examination, approval or filing for the use or management of scientific and technologic achievements within the country, income generated through the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is to be left with the work unit completely and brought into the work unit’s budget, uniform management is implemented, and operational income is not to be turned over to the Treasury.

(14) Raise the proportion of benefit for scientific research personnel from the transformation of achievements

Perfect professional invention systems, promote the revision of the Patent Law, the Company Law and other such relevant matters, perfect scientific and technological achievement, intellectual property ownership and profit sharing mechanisms, raise the proportion of backbone teams and major inventors. Perfect reward and compensation systems, and complete dispute resolution and legal relief systems for professional inventions.

Revise the provisions of corresponding laws and policies, In higher education institutes and scientific research institutes that are established with funding from the financial administration, the income from professional inventions and achievements is to be reasonably divided between contributing personnel and their work unit, it is permitted that the proportion of income used to reward scientific research personnel, backbone technology personnel and other major contributing personnel and teams is raised from the present minimum level of 20% to a minimum level of 50%.

State owned enterprise and undertaking work units are to calculate rewards for professional inventors and personnel or teams having made important contributions to the transformation of scientific and technological achievements as part of the salary value for that year, and not as a basic number for salary values.

(15) Expand shareholding incentives for scientific and technological personnel

Encourage all kinds of enterprises to muster the innovative vigour of scientific and technological personnel through shareholding, options, bonuses and other incentive methods.

In enterprises where higher education institutes and scientific research institutes, or other undertaking work units, are shareholders through the value of their scientific and technology achievements, limitations on shareholding incentives and share sales with respect to time limits from the establishment of the company or profit levels are to be relaxed.

Establish incentive systems to stimulate innovation in State-owned enterprises, implement shareholding rights and bonus rights incentives for technological personnel with major contributions to innovation.

Vigorously summarize the experience of trials, grasp the definition of conditions and standards for scientific and technological small and mid-size enterprises. Scientific research personnel in high technology enterprises and scientific or technological small and mid-size enterprises will in principle, when they receive income from shareholding rights or bonuses after the transformation of achievements, pay personal income tax in stages within a five years. Integrate this with personal income tax reform, and research policies to further incentivize innovation by scientific research personnel.

VI, Build even more efficient scientific research system.

Give rein to the leading and supporting role of scientific and technological research in driving innovation, respect laws, strengthen encouragement, divide work rationally, reform in a categorized manner, strengthen higher education institutes and scientific research institutes’ original innovation capacity and capacities to transform the general research and development of scientific research institutions.

(16) Optimize support methods for basic research

Realistically expand financial input into basic research, perfect mechanisms combining stable support and competitive support, expand stable support strength, support research organs in autonomously arranging their scientific research programmes, broaden the academic autonomy of higher education institutes and scientific research institutes and individuals’ power to select their research topics.

Reform scientific research planning and management methods in the area of basic research, abide by the laws of science, and establish tolerant systems supporting “non-consensus” innovation programmes.

Reform higher education institutes’ and scientific research institutes’ employment systems, optimize salary structures, and ensure that scientific research personnel enjoy reasonable levels of salary and remuneration. Perfect internal allocation systems, focus on favouring crucial positions, professional backbones and persons with prominent professional achievement.

(17) Expand encouragement for results in scientific research work.

Perfect undertaking work units’ result-based salary systems, complete allocation incentive mechanisms to encourage innovation and creation. Perfect management systems for overhead expenses in scientific research project, to strengthen incentives for results, and rationally compensate the work units that undertake projects for their overhead expenses and result-oriented payments. Work units undertaking projects should take into account the real contributions of scientific research personnel, openly and fairly arrange for result-oriented payments, which fully reflect the innovation value of scientific research personnel.

(18) Reform the scientific research evaluation system in higher education institutes and scientific research institutes

Strengthen categorized assessment of research activities in higher education institutes and scientific research institutes. Implement similar evaluation for basic research and advanced research, give prominence to medium and long term objectives, shift the evaluation focus from research achievement quantity to research quality, the value of original innovation and real contributions.

Strengthen State objectives and social responsibility evaluation of public interest research, regularly organize third-party evaluation for public interest research bodies, make the evaluation results into an important basis for financial support, and guide the establishment of mechanisms for public interest research bodies to rely on State resources to serve sectoral innovation.

(19) Deepen the transformation of scientific research institute reform

Persist in the direction of the turning technological development research bodies into enterprises, it is permitted to transform research institutes that undertake relatively many sectoral general research tasks into industrial technology research and development groups, conduct categorized management and categorized assessment of sectoral general technological research and market operation activities.

Promote the deep marketization reform of scientific research bodies that mainly engage in production and operations activities, let them attract social capital or go on the market completely, vigorously develop mixed ownership systems, and move forward the establishment of industrial technology alliances.

A number of teams in scientific research institutes under transformation, whose basic research abilities are relatively strong, are to be guided on the basis of a clear direction and standards, to come back to the public interest, participate in the construction of State focus laboratories, and supported to continue to undertake State work.

(20) Establish higher education institute and scientific research institute technology transformation mechanisms

Progressively realize a separation between higher education institutes and scientific research institutes and their subordinate companies, in principle, higher education institutes and scientific research institutes are no longer to set up new enterprises, and the external dissemination of scientific and technological achievements through licensing methods must be strengthened.

Strengthen higher education institutes’ and scientific research institutes’ intellectual property rights management, clarify the functional orientation of their subordinate technology transformation bodies, and strengthen their rights and obligations to apply for and utilize intellectual property rights.

Establish and perfect statistical and reporting systems for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements by higher education institutes and scientific research institutes, support the creation of scientific and technological achievements through funding by the finance administration, except for matters involving national defence, national security, the national interest and major social and public interests, it is permitted that the State forces the implementation of licensing where transformation has not taken place in a reasonable time period.

VII, Innovate mechanisms for fostering, using and attracting talent

Concentrate on constructing a line of new-type talent ranks on a large scale, who are rich in an innovative spirit, and who dare to bear risks, foster and attract talents according to the laws of innovation, let talents circulate freely according to the laws of the market, and realistically ensure everyone can apply their talents, talents are put to full use, and they are used successfully

(21) Build innovative types of talent fostering models

Launch heuristic, exploratory and research-oriented teaching method reform trials, carry forward a scientific spirit, create an innovation culture that encourages innovation and tolerates failure. Reform basic education and training methods, respect individual development, and strengthen training concerning interests, likes and creative thinking.

Put talent training central, strive to raise undergraduate teaching quality, accelerate the transformation of a number of common undergraduate higher education institutes into applied technology higher education institutes, launch joint school-company student recruitment and training models, expand collaborative school-company education channels and methods.

Categorically reform graduate student training methods, explore new training models for degree graduate students integrating science and education, expand the proportion of socialist degree graduate students, enhance the convergence of education and practice.

Encourage higher education institutes to compare themselves to similar international top-flight disciplines, launch international disciplinary evaluations, broaden cooperation and exchange, and steadily enhance the process of internationalization in higher education.

(22) Establish and complete two-way circulation mechanisms for scientific research talent

Improve scientific research personnel’s remuneration and position management systems, do away with structural and mechanistic obstacles to talent circulation, and stimulate scientific research personnel to rationally circulate between undertaking work units and enterprises.

Personnel of scientific research institutes meeting conditions may, with the permission of their work unit, take their scientific research projects and achievements to enterprises to launch innovation work or establish enterprises, with maintenance of a basic salary.

It is permitted that higher education institutes and scientific research institutes establish a certain proportion of mobile positions, and attract entrepreneurs with practical innovation experience and enterprise science and technology talents part-time. There will be trials with making experience with having a position in enterprise into a necessary condition for new appointments of engineering teaching staff in higher education institutes.

Accelerate social security system reform, perfect policies for scientific research personnel to continue their social security relationships when they circulate between enterprises, and stimulate the free two-way circulation of talent.

(23) Implement even more structures to attract competitive talent

Formulate life-ling residence management opinions for foreigners, accelerate legislation concerning the management of life-long residence for foreigners, standardize and relax conditions for technological talents to obtain foreigner life-long residence permits, explore the establishment of a technological migrant system. In the setting up science and technology enterprises and other such innovation activities, high-level talents with a foreign nationality that have a life-long foreigner residence permit are to be granted equal treatment to Chinese citizens.

Accelerate the formulation of work management regulations for foreigners in China, foreign talents meeting conditions are to be granted convenient work permits, foreign talents meeting conditions and their accompanying dependents are to be given convenient visas and residence permits. High-level foreign scientific and technological innovation talents meeting certain conditions are to be exempt from age limitations on work permission in China.

Concentrate on major national needs and face the world in attracting chief scientists and other high-level scientific and technological innovation talents. Establish systems for visiting scholars. Broadly attract foreign high-level talents to come (back) to China and engage in innovative research.

Steadily enhance the external openness of the human resources market, progressively relax foreign capital shareholding requirements and minimum registered capital requirements for foreign-invested intermediary talent service bodies. Encourage domestic human resources services bodies meeting conditions to go out and launch cooperation with foreign human resources service bodies, establish branch organs abroad, and vigorously participate in international talent competition and cooperation.

VIII, Promote the creation of a new situation of deeply converged, open innovation

Persist in integrating import and export, enter into global innovation network with an even more energetic attitude, attract global innovation resources with an even more broad mind, promote technology and standard export with even more vigorous tactics, and build open innovation mechanisms at a high level.

(24) Encourage cross-border circulation of innovation factors

For foreign exchange necessary to launch international research and development cooperation programmes, it is implemented that research and developments make commitment first, and commerce, science and technology, and taxation departments jointly supervise the matter afterwards.

Categorized management will be conducted over scientific research personnel leaving the country for work reasons, and quantitative restriction and management policies to temporarily leave the country for work reasons will be relaxed.

Reform inspection and management, conduct categorized management on equipment, samples and specimens required for research and development, under the precondition of guaranteeing security, adopt focus verification, spot checks, inspection exemption and other measures to raise the efficiency if verification.

(25) Optimize foreign innovation investment management systems.

Complete comprehensive coordination mechanisms, to resolve major issues in a coordinate manner, joint forces to support domestic technology, products and brands to march out, and expand international markets. Strengthen technology trading measure evaluation and risk prevention mechanisms.

Research the establishment of foreign innovation investment funds through sponsoring by State-owned focus finance bodies, foreign exchange reserves are to participate in the establishment of fund work through debt, shareholding and other methods, use global innovation resources even more and even better.

Encourage publicly-traded enterprises to invest in innovation-type programmes abroad, reform investment information disclosure systems, under the precondition that corresponding departments determine that there is no influence on national security and economic security, and on the basis of progress of commercial negotiations between Chinese and foreign enterprises, disclose information at a suitable time.

(26) Broaden the external openness of science and technology planning

Formulate management rules for the external openness of State science and technology plans, according to the principle of reciprocal openness and guaranteeing security, vigorously encourage and guide foreign-funded research and development bodies to participate in and undertake State science and technology planning programmes.

In areas such as fundamental research and research on major global questions, comprehensively consider the needs of State science and technology development and strategic objective, research and sponsor international big science plans and projects, attract top-level foreign scientists and teams to participate. Vigorously participate in large-scale international science and technology cooperation plans. Guide foreign-funded research and development centres to launch high-added value original research and development activities, guide internationally renowned scientific research bodies to come to China and jointly establish international science and technology centres.

IX, Strengthen comprehensive innovation policy coordination

Give even better rein to the government’s role in moving innovation forward. Reform science and technology management systems, accelerate innovation policy evaluation, examination and result assessment, and shape a long-lasting and effective innovation governance system with clear duties and responsibilities, vigorous performance, powerful coordination.

(27) Strengthen the comprehensive planning of innovation policies

Strengthen the comprehensive coordination and effective linkage of policies, plans and reform measures in science, technology, the economy, society and other such areas, and strengthen converged civil-military innovation. Give rein to the supporting role of science and technology circles and think tanks in innovation policymaking.

Establish innovation policy coordination and examination mechanisms, organize the launch of a clean-up of innovation policies, timely eliminate policy clauses that violate new laws, impede emerging industries and emerging business models, and inspect whether newly enacted policies constrain innovation or not.

Establish innovation policy survey and evaluation systems, broadly hear the opinions of enterprises and the social masses, regularly conduct follow-up analysis of policy implementation, and timely adjust and perfect them.

(28) Perfect evaluation systems oriented towards innovation drivers

Improve and perfect GDP calculation methods, to reflect the economic value of innovation. Research and establish Innovation-driven Development evaluation indicators combining science and technology innovation, intellectual property rights and industrial development, and bring them into national economic and social development planning.

Complete technological innovation and operational assessment systems for State-owned enterprises, enlarge the proportion of technological innovation in the operational assessment of State-owned enterprises. Conduct categorized assessment of State-owned enterprises’ research and development input and output, creates assessment mechanisms that encourage innovation and tolerate failure. Bring the results of Innovation-driven Development into the assessment scope for local leading cadres.

(29) Reform science and technology management structures.

Transform government science and technology management functions, establish mechanisms that rely on specialist bodies to manage scientific research programmes, government departments are no longer to directly manage concrete programmes, they are mainly responsible for scientific and technological development plans, schemes, policies, deployments, assessment and supervision.

Establish open and uniform national science and technology management platforms, complete mechanisms for the comprehensive planning and coordination of macro-level science and technology policymaking, strengthen departments’ functionality and division of labour, comprehensively link basic research, applied research, the transformation of achievements, industrial development and other such segments.

Further clarify the science and technology management powers and functional orientation of the Centre and localities, establish joint coordination mechanisms with integrated powers and responsibilities, and raise administrative effect. 0

(30) Move forward with comprehensive innovation reform trials

Following the law that innovative areas are highly concentrated, provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) meeting conditions are to systematically move forward comprehensive innovation reform trials, they are authorized to launch reform trials for intellectual property rights, scientific research institutes, higher education, talent circulation, international cooperation, financial innovation, incentive mechanisms, market access, etc., they must strive to make breakthroughs in focus areas and crucial segments, timely summarize and disseminate experience, play a demonstration and leading role, and stimulate the profound implementation of the Innovation-driven Development strategy.

All levels’ Party Committees and governments must give this matter high attention, strengthen leadership, and make deepening structural and mechanism reform, as well as accelerating the implementation of the Innovation-driven Development strategy into a major task to implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and its 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenums, and implement it earnestly. Relevant sides must cooperate closely, reform tasks must be divided, time forms and roadmaps made clear, and responsible departments and persons appointed. Propaganda and public opinion guidance concerning a culture of innovation must be strengthened, in order to propagate reform experiences, respond to social concerns and guide social public opinion, creating a good social environment for innovation.

 

中共中央国务院关于深化体制机制改革加快实施创新驱动发展战略的若干意见
(二〇一五年三月十三日)
创新是推动一个国家和民族向前发展的重要力量,也是推动整个人类社会向前发展的重要力量。面对全球新一轮科技革命与产业变革的重大机遇和挑战,面对经济发展新常态下的趋势变化和特点,面对实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史任务和要求,必须深化体制机制改革,加快实施创新驱动发展战略,现提出如下意见。

一、总体思路和主要目标

加快实施创新驱动发展战略,就是要使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,破除一切制约创新的思想障碍和制度藩篱,激发全社会创新活力和创造潜能,提升劳动、信息、知识、技术、管理、资本的效率和效益,强化科技同经济对接、创新成果同产业对接、创新项目同现实生产力对接、研发人员创新劳动同其利益收入对接,增强科技进步对经济发展的贡献度,营造大众创业、万众创新的政策环境和制度环境。

——坚持需求导向。紧扣经济社会发展重大需求,着力打通科技成果向现实生产力转化的通道,着力破除科学家、科技人员、企业家、创业者创新的障碍,着力解决要素驱动、投资驱动向创新驱动转变的制约,让创新真正落实到创造新的增长点上,把创新成果变成实实在在的产业活动。

——坚持人才为先。要把人才作为创新的第一资源,更加注重培养、用好、吸引各类人才,促进人才合理流动、优化配置,创新人才培养模式;更加注重强化激励机制,给予科技人员更多的利益回报和精神鼓励;更加注重发挥企业家和技术技能人才队伍创新作用,充分激发全社会的创新活力。

——坚持遵循规律。根据科学技术活动特点,把握好科学研究的探索发现规律,为科学家潜心研究、发明创造、技术突破创造良好条件和宽松环境;把握好技术创新的市场规律,让市场成为优化配置创新资源的主要手段,让企业成为技术创新的主体力量,让知识产权制度成为激励创新的基本保障;大力营造勇于探索、鼓励创新、宽容失败的文化和社会氛围。

——坚持全面创新。把科技创新摆在国家发展全局的核心位置,统筹推进科技体制改革和经济社会领域改革,统筹推进科技、管理、品牌、组织、商业模式创新,统筹推进军民融合创新,统筹推进引进来与走出去合作创新,实现科技创新、制度创新、开放创新的有机统一和协同发展。

到2020年,基本形成适应创新驱动发展要求的制度环境和政策法律体系,为进入创新型国家行列提供有力保障。人才、资本、技术、知识自由流动,企业、科研院所、高等学校协同创新,创新活力竞相迸发,创新成果得到充分保护,创新价值得到更大体现,创新资源配置效率大幅提高,创新人才合理分享创新收益,使创新驱动发展战略真正落地,进而打造促进经济增长和就业创业的新引擎,构筑参与国际竞争合作的新优势,推动形成可持续发展的新格局,促进经济发展方式的转变。

二、营造激励创新的公平竞争环境

发挥市场竞争激励创新的根本性作用,营造公平、开放、透明的市场环境,强化竞争政策和产业政策对创新的引导,促进优胜劣汰,增强市场主体创新动力。

(一)实行严格的知识产权保护制度

完善知识产权保护相关法律,研究降低侵权行为追究刑事责任门槛,调整损害赔偿标准,探索实施惩罚性赔偿制度。完善权利人维权机制,合理划分权利人举证责任。

完善商业秘密保护法律制度,明确商业秘密和侵权行为界定,研究制定相应保护措施,探索建立诉前保护制度。研究商业模式等新形态创新成果的知识产权保护办法。

完善知识产权审判工作机制,推进知识产权民事、刑事、行政案件的“三审合一”,积极发挥知识产权法院的作用,探索跨地区知识产权案件异地审理机制,打破对侵权行为的地方保护。

健全知识产权侵权查处机制,强化行政执法与司法衔接,加强知识产权综合行政执法,健全知识产权维权援助体系,将侵权行为信息纳入社会信用记录。

(二)打破制约创新的行业垄断和市场分割

加快推进垄断性行业改革,放开自然垄断行业竞争性业务,建立鼓励创新的统一透明、有序规范的市场环境。

切实加强反垄断执法,及时发现和制止垄断协议和滥用市场支配地位等垄断行为,为中小企业创新发展拓宽空间。

打破地方保护,清理和废除妨碍全国统一市场的规定和做法,纠正地方政府不当补贴或利用行政权力限制、排除竞争的行为,探索实施公平竞争审查制度。

(三)改进新技术新产品新商业模式的准入管理

改革产业准入制度,制定和实施产业准入负面清单,对未纳入负面清单管理的行业、领域、业务等,各类市场主体皆可依法平等进入。

破除限制新技术新产品新商业模式发展的不合理准入障碍。对药品、医疗器械等创新产品建立便捷高效的监管模式,深化审评审批制度改革,多种渠道增加审评资源,优化流程,缩短周期,支持委托生产等新的组织模式发展。对新能源汽车、风电、光伏等领域实行有针对性的准入政策。

改进互联网、金融、环保、医疗卫生、文化、教育等领域的监管,支持和鼓励新业态、新商业模式发展。

(四)健全产业技术政策和管理制度

改革产业监管制度,将前置审批为主转变为依法加强事中事后监管为主,形成有利于转型升级、鼓励创新的产业政策导向。

强化产业技术政策的引导和监督作用,明确并逐步提高生产环节和市场准入的环境、节能、节地、节水、节材、质量和安全指标及相关标准,形成统一权威、公开透明的市场准入标准体系。健全技术标准体系,强化强制性标准的制定和实施。

加强产业技术政策、标准执行的过程监管。强化环保、质检、工商、安全监管等部门的行政执法联动机制。

(五)形成要素价格倒逼创新机制

运用主要由市场决定要素价格的机制,促使企业从依靠过度消耗资源能源、低性能低成本竞争,向依靠创新、实施差别化竞争转变。

加快推进资源税改革,逐步将资源税扩展到占用各种自然生态空间,推进环境保护费改税。完善市场化的工业用地价格形成机制。健全企业职工工资正常增长机制,实现劳动力成本变化与经济提质增效相适应。
三、建立技术创新市场导向机制

发挥市场对技术研发方向、路线选择和各类创新资源配置的导向作用,调整创新决策和组织模式,强化普惠性政策支持,促进企业真正成为技术创新决策、研发投入、科研组织和成果转化的主体。

(六)扩大企业在国家创新决策中话语权

建立高层次、常态化的企业技术创新对话、咨询制度,发挥企业和企业家在国家创新决策中的重要作用。吸收更多企业参与研究制定国家技术创新规划、计划、政策和标准,相关专家咨询组中产业专家和企业家应占较大比例。

国家科技规划要聚焦战略需求,重点部署市场不能有效配置资源的关键领域研究,竞争类产业技术创新的研发方向、技术路线和要素配置模式由企业依据市场需求自主决策。

(七)完善企业为主体的产业技术创新机制

市场导向明确的科技项目由企业牵头、政府引导、联合高等学校和科研院所实施。鼓励构建以企业为主导、产学研合作的产业技术创新战略联盟。

更多运用财政后补助、间接投入等方式,支持企业自主决策、先行投入,开展重大产业关键共性技术、装备和标准的研发攻关。

开展龙头企业创新转型试点,探索政府支持企业技术创新、管理创新、商业模式创新的新机制。

完善中小企业创新服务体系,加快推进创业孵化、知识产权服务、第三方检验检测认证等机构的专业化、市场化改革,壮大技术交易市场。

优化国家实验室、重点实验室、工程实验室、工程(技术)研究中心布局,按功能定位分类整合,构建开放共享互动的创新网络,建立向企业特别是中小企业有效开放的机制。探索在战略性领域采取企业主导、院校协作、多元投资、军民融合、成果分享的新模式,整合形成若干产业创新中心。加大国家重大科研基础设施、大型科研仪器和专利基础信息资源等向社会开放力度。

(八)提高普惠性财税政策支持力度

坚持结构性减税方向,逐步将国家对企业技术创新的投入方式转变为以普惠性财税政策为主。

统筹研究企业所得税加计扣除政策,完善企业研发费用计核方法,调整目录管理方式,扩大研发费用加计扣除优惠政策适用范围。完善高新技术企业认定办法,重点鼓励中小企业加大研发力度。

(九)健全优先使用创新产品的采购政策

建立健全符合国际规则的支持采购创新产品和服务的政策体系,落实和完善政府采购促进中小企业创新发展的相关措施,加大创新产品和服务的采购力度。鼓励采用首购、订购等非招标采购方式,以及政府购买服务等方式予以支持,促进创新产品的研发和规模化应用。

研究完善使用首台(套)重大技术装备鼓励政策,健全研制、使用单位在产品创新、增值服务和示范应用等环节的激励和约束机制。

放宽民口企业和科研单位进入军品科研生产和维修采购范围。

四、强化金融创新的功能

发挥金融创新对技术创新的助推作用,培育壮大创业投资和资本市场,提高信贷支持创新的灵活性和便利性,形成各类金融工具协同支持创新发展的良好局面。

(十)壮大创业投资规模

研究制定天使投资相关法规。按照税制改革的方向与要求,对包括天使投资在内的投向种子期、初创期等创新活动的投资,统筹研究相关税收支持政策。

研究扩大促进创业投资企业发展的税收优惠政策,适当放宽创业投资企业投资高新技术企业的条件限制,并在试点基础上将享受投资抵扣政策的创业投资企业范围扩大到有限合伙制创业投资企业法人合伙人。

结合国有企业改革设立国有资本创业投资基金,完善国有创投机构激励约束机制。按照市场化原则研究设立国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金,带动社会资本支持战略性新兴产业和高技术产业早中期、初创期创新型企业发展。

完善外商投资创业投资企业规定,有效利用境外资本投向创新领域。研究保险资金投资创业投资基金的相关政策。

(十一)强化资本市场对技术创新的支持

加快创业板市场改革,健全适合创新型、成长型企业发展的制度安排,扩大服务实体经济覆盖面,强化全国中小企业股份转让系统融资、并购、交易等功能,规范发展服务小微企业的区域性股权市场。加强不同层次资本市场的有机联系。

发挥沪深交易所股权质押融资机制作用,支持符合条件的创新创业企业发行公司债券。支持符合条件的企业发行项目收益债,募集资金用于加大创新投入。

推动修订相关法律法规,探索开展知识产权证券化业务。开展股权众筹融资试点,积极探索和规范发展服务创新的互联网金融。

(十二)拓宽技术创新的间接融资渠道

完善商业银行相关法律。选择符合条件的银行业金融机构,探索试点为企业创新活动提供股权和债权相结合的融资服务方式,与创业投资、股权投资机构实现投贷联动。

政策性银行在有关部门及监管机构的指导下,加快业务范围内金融产品和服务方式创新,对符合条件的企业创新活动加大信贷支持力度。

稳步发展民营银行,建立与之相适应的监管制度,支持面向中小企业创新需求的金融产品创新。

建立知识产权质押融资市场化风险补偿机制,简化知识产权质押融资流程。加快发展科技保险,推进专利保险试点。
五、完善成果转化激励政策

强化尊重知识、尊重创新,充分体现智力劳动价值的分配导向,让科技人员在创新活动中得到合理回报,通过成果应用体现创新价值,通过成果转化创造财富。

(十三)加快下放科技成果使用、处置和收益权

不断总结试点经验,结合事业单位分类改革要求,尽快将财政资金支持形成的,不涉及国防、国家安全、国家利益、重大社会公共利益的科技成果的使用权、处置权和收益权,全部下放给符合条件的项目承担单位。单位主管部门和财政部门对科技成果在境内的使用、处置不再审批或备案,科技成果转移转化所得收入全部留归单位,纳入单位预算,实行统一管理,处置收入不上缴国库。

(十四)提高科研人员成果转化收益比例

完善职务发明制度,推动修订专利法、公司法等相关内容,完善科技成果、知识产权归属和利益分享机制,提高骨干团队、主要发明人受益比例。完善奖励报酬制度,健全职务发明的争议仲裁和法律救济制度。

修订相关法律和政策规定,在利用财政资金设立的高等学校和科研院所中,将职务发明成果转让收益在重要贡献人员、所属单位之间合理分配,对用于奖励科研负责人、骨干技术人员等重要贡献人员和团队的收益比例,可以从现行不低于20%提高到不低于50%。

国有企业事业单位对职务发明完成人、科技成果转化重要贡献人员和团队的奖励,计入当年单位工资总额,不作为工资总额基数。

(十五)加大科研人员股权激励力度

鼓励各类企业通过股权、期权、分红等激励方式,调动科研人员创新积极性。

对高等学校和科研院所等事业单位以科技成果作价入股的企业,放宽股权奖励、股权出售对企业设立年限和盈利水平的限制。

建立促进国有企业创新的激励制度,对在创新中作出重要贡献的技术人员实施股权和分红权激励。

积极总结试点经验,抓紧确定科技型中小企业的条件和标准。高新技术企业和科技型中小企业科研人员通过科技成果转化取得股权奖励收入时,原则上在5年内分期缴纳个人所得税。结合个人所得税制改革,研究进一步激励科研人员创新的政策。

六、构建更加高效的科研体系

发挥科学技术研究对创新驱动的引领和支撑作用,遵循规律、强化激励、合理分工、分类改革,增强高等学校、科研院所原始创新能力和转制科研院所的共性技术研发能力。

(十六)优化对基础研究的支持方式

切实加大对基础研究的财政投入,完善稳定支持和竞争性支持相协调的机制,加大稳定支持力度,支持研究机构自主布局科研项目,扩大高等学校、科研院所学术自主权和个人科研选题选择权。

改革基础研究领域科研计划管理方式,尊重科学规律,建立包容和支持“非共识”创新项目的制度。

改革高等学校和科研院所聘用制度,优化工资结构,保证科研人员合理工资待遇水平。完善内部分配机制,重点向关键岗位、业务骨干和作出突出成绩的人员倾斜。

(十七)加大对科研工作的绩效激励力度

完善事业单位绩效工资制度,健全鼓励创新创造的分配激励机制。完善科研项目间接费用管理制度,强化绩效激励,合理补偿项目承担单位间接成本和绩效支出。项目承担单位应结合一线科研人员实际贡献,公开公正安排绩效支出,充分体现科研人员的创新价值。

(十八)改革高等学校和科研院所科研评价制度

强化对高等学校和科研院所研究活动的分类考核。对基础和前沿技术研究实行同行评价,突出中长期目标导向,评价重点从研究成果数量转向研究质量、原创价值和实际贡献。

对公益性研究强化国家目标和社会责任评价,定期对公益性研究机构组织第三方评价,将评价结果作为财政支持的重要依据,引导建立公益性研究机构依托国家资源服务行业创新机制。

(十九)深化转制科研院所改革

坚持技术开发类科研机构企业化转制方向,对于承担较多行业共性科研任务的转制科研院所,可组建成产业技术研发集团,对行业共性技术研究和市场经营活动进行分类管理、分类考核。

推动以生产经营活动为主的转制科研院所深化市场化改革,通过引入社会资本或整体上市,积极发展混合所有制,推进产业技术联盟建设。

对于部分转制科研院所中基础研究能力较强的团队,在明确定位和标准的基础上,引导其回归公益,参与国家重点实验室建设,支持其继续承担国家任务。

(二十)建立高等学校和科研院所技术转移机制

逐步实现高等学校和科研院所与下属公司剥离,原则上高等学校、科研院所不再新办企业,强化科技成果以许可方式对外扩散。

加强高等学校和科研院所的知识产权管理,明确所属技术转移机构的功能定位,强化其知识产权申请、运营权责。

建立完善高等学校、科研院所的科技成果转移转化的统计和报告制度,财政资金支持形成的科技成果,除涉及国防、国家安全、国家利益、重大社会公共利益外,在合理期限内未能转化的,可由国家依法强制许可实施。
七、创新培养、用好和吸引人才机制

围绕建设一支规模宏大、富有创新精神、敢于承担风险的创新型人才队伍,按照创新规律培养和吸引人才,按照市场规律让人才自由流动,实现人尽其才、才尽其用、用有所成。

(二十一)构建创新型人才培养模式

开展启发式、探究式、研究式教学方法改革试点,弘扬科学精神,营造鼓励创新、宽容失败的创新文化。改革基础教育培养模式,尊重个性发展,强化兴趣爱好和创造性思维培养。

以人才培养为中心,着力提高本科教育质量,加快部分普通本科高等学校向应用技术型高等学校转型,开展校企联合招生、联合培养试点,拓展校企合作育人的途径与方式。

分类改革研究生培养模式,探索科教结合的学术学位研究生培养新模式,扩大专业学位研究生招生比例,增进教学与实践的融合。

鼓励高等学校以国际同类一流学科为参照,开展学科国际评估,扩大交流合作,稳步推进高等学校国际化进程。

(二十二)建立健全科研人才双向流动机制

改进科研人员薪酬和岗位管理制度,破除人才流动的体制机制障碍,促进科研人员在事业单位和企业间合理流动。

符合条件的科研院所的科研人员经所在单位批准,可带着科研项目和成果、保留基本待遇到企业开展创新工作或创办企业。

允许高等学校和科研院所设立一定比例流动岗位,吸引有创新实践经验的企业家和企业科技人才兼职。试点将企业任职经历作为高等学校新聘工程类教师的必要条件。

加快社会保障制度改革,完善科研人员在企业与事业单位之间流动时社保关系转移接续政策,促进人才双向自由流动。

(二十三)实行更具竞争力的人才吸引制度

制定外国人永久居留管理的意见,加快外国人永久居留管理立法,规范和放宽技术型人才取得外国人永久居留证的条件,探索建立技术移民制度。对持有外国人永久居留证的外籍高层次人才在创办科技型企业等创新活动方面,给予中国籍公民同等待遇。

加快制定外国人在中国工作管理条例,对符合条件的外国人才给予工作许可便利,对符合条件的外国人才及其随行家属给予签证和居留等便利。对满足一定条件的国外高层次科技创新人才取消来华工作许可的年龄限制。

围绕国家重大需求,面向全球引进首席科学家等高层次科技创新人才。建立访问学者制度。广泛吸引海外高层次人才回国(来华)从事创新研究。

稳步推进人力资源市场对外开放,逐步放宽外商投资人才中介服务机构的外资持股比例和最低注册资本金要求。鼓励有条件的国内人力资源服务机构走出去与国外人力资源服务机构开展合作,在境外设立分支机构,积极参与国际人才竞争与合作。

八、推动形成深度融合的开放创新局面

坚持引进来与走出去相结合,以更加主动的姿态融入全球创新网络,以更加开阔的胸怀吸纳全球创新资源,以更加积极的策略推动技术和标准输出,在更高层次上构建开放创新机制。

(二十四)鼓励创新要素跨境流动

对开展国际研发合作项目所需付汇,实行研发单位事先承诺,商务、科技、税务部门事后并联监管。

对科研人员因公出国进行分类管理,放宽因公临时出国批次限量管理政策。

改革检验管理,对研发所需设备、样本及样品进行分类管理,在保证安全前提下,采用重点审核、抽检、免检等方式,提高审核效率。

(二十五)优化境外创新投资管理制度

健全综合协调机制,协调解决重大问题,合力支持国内技术、产品、标准、品牌走出去,开拓国际市场。强化技术贸易措施评价和风险预警机制。

研究通过国有重点金融机构发起设立海外创新投资基金,外汇储备通过债权、股权等方式参与设立基金工作,更多更好利用全球创新资源。

鼓励上市公司海外投资创新类项目,改革投资信息披露制度,在相关部门确认不影响国家安全和经济安全前提下,按照中外企业商务谈判进展,适时披露有关信息。

(二十六)扩大科技计划对外开放

制定国家科技计划对外开放的管理办法,按照对等开放、保障安全的原则,积极鼓励和引导外资研发机构参与承担国家科技计划项目。

在基础研究和重大全球性问题研究等领域,统筹考虑国家科研发展需求和战略目标,研究发起国际大科学计划和工程,吸引海外顶尖科学家和团队参与。积极参与大型国际科技合作计划。引导外资研发中心开展高附加值原创性研发活动,吸引国际知名科研机构来华联合组建国际科技中心。

九、加强创新政策统筹协调

更好发挥政府推进创新的作用。改革科技管理体制,加强创新政策评估督查与绩效评价,形成职责明晰、积极作为、协调有力、长效管用的创新治理体系。

(二十七)加强创新政策的统筹

加强科技、经济、社会等方面的政策、规划和改革举措的统筹协调和有效衔接,强化军民融合创新。发挥好科技界和智库对创新决策的支撑作用。

建立创新政策协调审查机制,组织开展创新政策清理,及时废止有违创新规律、阻碍新兴产业和新兴业态发展的政策条款,对新制定政策是否制约创新进行审查。

建立创新政策调查和评价制度,广泛听取企业和社会公众意见,定期对政策落实情况进行跟踪分析,并及时调整完善。

(二十八)完善创新驱动导向评价体系

改进和完善国内生产总值核算方法,体现创新的经济价值。研究建立科技创新、知识产权与产业发展相结合的创新驱动发展评价指标,并纳入国民经济和社会发展规划。

健全国有企业技术创新经营业绩考核制度,加大技术创新在国有企业经营业绩考核中的比重。对国有企业研发投入和产出进行分类考核,形成鼓励创新、宽容失败的考核机制。把创新驱动发展成效纳入对地方领导干部的考核范围。

(二十九)改革科技管理体制

转变政府科技管理职能,建立依托专业机构管理科研项目的机制,政府部门不再直接管理具体项目,主要负责科技发展战略、规划、政策、布局、评估和监管。

建立公开统一的国家科技管理平台,健全统筹协调的科技宏观决策机制,加强部门功能性分工,统筹衔接基础研究、应用开发、成果转化、产业发展等各环节工作。

进一步明晰中央和地方科技管理事权和职能定位,建立责权统一的协同联动机制,提高行政效能。

(三十)推进全面创新改革试验

遵循创新区域高度集聚的规律,在有条件的省(自治区、直辖市)系统推进全面创新改革试验,授权开展知识产权、科研院所、高等教育、人才流动、国际合作、金融创新、激励机制、市场准入等改革试验,努力在重要领域和关键环节取得新突破,及时总结推广经验,发挥示范和带动作用,促进创新驱动发展战略的深入实施。

各级党委和政府要高度重视,加强领导,把深化体制机制改革、加快实施创新驱动发展战略,作为落实党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中全会精神的重大任务,认真抓好落实。有关方面要密切配合,分解改革任务,明确时间表和路线图,确定责任部门和责任人。要加强对创新文化的宣传和舆论引导,宣传改革经验、回应社会关切、引导社会舆论,为创新营造良好的社会环境。

CCP General Office and State Council General Office Opinions concerning Strengthening the Construction of New Types of Think Tanks with Chinese Characteristics

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In order to deeply implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 3rd and 4th Plenums of the 18th Party Congress, strengthen the construction of new types of think tanks with Chinese characteristics and establish and complete a policymaking consultancy system, the following Opinion is formulated.

I, Major significance

(1) New kinds of think tanks with Chinese characteristics are an important support for scientific, democratic and lawful policymaking by the Party and the government. A policymaking consultancy system is an important content of the construction of our country’s Socialist democratic politics. Our Party has always given high regard to policymaking consultancy wok. Since reform and opening up, our country’s think tank construction undertaking has developed rapidly, providing powerful intelligence support to Party and government policymaking. At present, the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society has entered a decisive stage, analysing and explaining difficult questions of reform, development and stability and responding to global issues is complex and difficult without precedent, this urgently requires the completion of a policymaking support system with Chinese characteristics, the forceful strengthening of think tank construction, the support of scientific policymaking through scientific consulting, and the guidance of scientific development through scientific policymaking. Read the rest of this entry »

“Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”

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The “Opinion concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”, published today, is the latest of a series of documents aimed at imposing stricter political discipline and control in China’s academia. The original document has not been published. The following is a translation of Xinhua’s summary.

The Central Committee General Office and the State Council General Office have recently issued the “Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”. The “Opinion” emphatically points out that ideological work is an extremely important work of our Party and our country, higher education is a forward battlefield in ideological work, and shoulders the important tasks of studying, researching and propagating Marxism, fostering and carrying forward the Socialist core value system, and providing talent guarantees and intelligent support for the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Doing higher education propaganda and ideology work well and strengthening the construction of the higher education ideological battlefields are strategic projects, steadfast projects and projects of casting souls, they relate to Party leadership over higher education, relate to the comprehensive implementation of the Party’s educational policies, relate to successors for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and have an extremely important and profound significance for consolidating the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area and consolidating a common ideological basis for the united struggle of the entire Party, the entire country and all the people.

The “Opinion” consists of seven parts: I, Strengthening and improving higher education propaganda and ideology work is a major and urgent strategic task; II, guiding ideology, basic principles and main tasks; III, realistically promoting the entry of the theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics into textbooks, classrooms and minds; IV, Forcefully raising the ideological and political quality of higher education teaching teams; V, incessantly expanding higher education mainstream ideology and public opinion; VI, Striving to strengthen management of the higher education propaganda and ideology battlefield; VII, Realistically strengthening Party leadership over higher education propaganda and ideology work. Read the rest of this entry »

Work Regulations for Leading Party and Government Cadre Promotions and Appointments

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Chapter I: General provisions

Article 1: In order to earnestly implement the Party’s cadre line, principles and policies, implement the requirement to strictly govern the Party and strictly manage cadres, establish scientific and standard promotion and appointment systems for leading cadres in Party and government, form promotion and appointment mechanisms that are effective and potent, convenient and easy to use, and benefit excellent talents to come to the fore, move forward cadre team reform, making them younger, more knowledgeable and specialized, construct a line of high-quality Party and government leading cadre teams that hold high the magnificent banner of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, and have firm convictions, serve the people, are diligent and pragmatic in government affairs, who dare to take charge, and are honest and clean, guarantee the complete implementation of the Party’s mass line and the smooth development of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, on the basis of the “Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party” and relevant laws and regulations, these Regulations are formulated. Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Fostering and Practicing the Socialist Core Value View

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The Socialist core value view is the core of the Socialist core value system, it reflects the fundamental nature and fundamental characteristics of the Socialist core value system, reflects the rich content and practical requirements of the Socialist core value system, and is a highly condensed and concentrated expression of the Socialist core value system. In order to implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, vigorously foster and practice the Socialist core value view, the following opinions are hereby put forward. Read the rest of this entry »

Five-Year Planning Outline for Central Intra-Party Regulation Formulation Work (2013-2017)

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In order to implement the Centre’s requirements concerning strengthening intra-Party regulation formulation systems, completely raise the scientific levels of Party building, according to the relevant provisions of the “Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party” and the “CCP Intra-Party Regulation Formulation Regulations”, and on the basis of the general deployment of the 18th Party Congress concerning Party building, this planning outline is formulated.

I, Guiding ideology, work objectives and basic requirements

1. Guiding ideology. Persist in taking Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, completely implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and study the spirit of the series of important speeches by General Secretary Xi Jinping, closely grasp this main line of strengthening the construction of the Party’s governing ability, advancedness and purity, persist in liberating thoughts, reform and innovation, persist in the facts that the Party must manage the Party and that the Party must be governed strictly, with the Party Constitution at the basis, with the democratic centralism system at the core, vigorously move intra-Party regulation formulation work forward, accelerate the building of intra-Party regulation systems and structures, and provide real institutional guarantees for the comprehensive increase of the scientific level of Party building, strengthening and perfecting the Party’s leadership and guaranteeing that the Party becomes the strong leading core of the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics from beginning to end. Read the rest of this entry »

Liu Qibao: Some Points of Understanding concerning the Theoretical Structure of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics.

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This article by Central Propaganda Department director Liu Qibao was published in today’s People’s Daily.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics is composed of a path, a theoretical structure and an institutional system, it is the basic achievement for which the Party and the people have struggled, and that they have created and accumulated over more than ninety years. The theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics is an important component part, it is the newest achievement of the Sinification of Marxism, and is the guidebook for action in persisting in and developing Socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the China of the present, persisting in the theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics means persisting in Marxism and persisting in scientific Socialism. We must earnestly study the Report of the 18th Party Congress and the series of important speeches by comrade Xi Jinping, earnestly study Party history and national history, incessantly deepen understanding of the theoretical structure of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, persist in self-confidence about Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and struggle even better for the complete construction of a moderately prosperous society, and for realizing the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the nation. Read the rest of this entry »

Central Propaganda Department Theory Bureau Notice concerning Reporting Topics on Deepening Research on the Chinese Dream

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All provincial (regional, municipal) Party Committee Propaganda Departments, the Seven Nationwide Theory Research Centres for the Theoretical System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, the relevant controlling departments for the project.

In order to implement the spirit of the Central leading comrades’ instructions and incessantly deepen research and elaboration of major issues related to the Chinese Dream, the Marxist Theory, Research and Construction Project Office drafted batches of focus research topics, and organises project experts and theory workers in launching research. Hereby, the relevant mattes are notified as follows. Read the rest of this entry »

Communiqué on the Current State of the Ideological Sphere (Document No. 9)

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Report concerning the Present Situation in the Ideological Area

The mainstream situation in the ideological area.

Since the 18th Party Congress, two plenary meetings have been successfully organized under the firm leadership of the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, and the situation in all the undertakings of the Party and the State are good, the Party’s work style and the government work style bring a new atmosphere every day, the cohesion and centripetal force of the entire nation is further strengthening, self-confidence about the path, self-confidence about theory and self-confidence about the system has been further enhanced, and the mainstream of ideology is positive, healthy and upward. This is mainly reflected in: the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and a series of important speeches by General Secretary Xi Jinping greatly unified the thoughts of the entire Party and the people in the entire country, and the common ideological basis for united struggle is being incessantly consolidates; the new generation of collective Central leadership has rolled out a series of new measures to govern the country, it elaborated the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, it improved work styles, closely connected with the masses, rigorously enforced diligence and thrift, and opposed extravagance and waste, it expanded anti-corruption and pro honesty strength, gaining the praise and endorsement of the broad cadres and masses; it persist in making scientific development into the main theme, making the acceleration of transforming economic methods into the main thread, and making raising economic growth quality and productivity into the central task, economic development maintains favourable tendencies, which buoyed the people’s faith in the prospects for development; it strive to guarantee and improve the people’s livelihoods, rolling out new measures for the benefit and welfare of the people, and people yearn ever more for future beautiful lives; studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th Party Congress has been made into the primary political task on the propaganda, ideology and culture front, which rapidly aroused enthusiasm and provided deep guidance, the theme of the times and the main melody of Socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese Dream have been sung, positive propaganda has been strengthened and expanded, guidance over profound issues has been strengthened and management of the ideological battlefield has been strengthened, stimulating ideological unity and cohesion of forces, creating a favourable atmosphere and providing spiritual strength for the realization of new developments in the undertakings of the Party and the country. Read the rest of this entry »

Speech at “The Road to Rejuvenation”

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Xi Jinping

29 November 2012

We just visited the exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation”, this exhibition reviews the yesterday of the Chinese nation, displays the today of the Chinese nation, and announces the tomorrow of the Chinese nation. After I saw it, I had many thoughts and feelings, it brings deep education and enlightenment.

The yesterday of the Chinese nation can well be called “an impregnable pass like a wall of iron”, this nation of ours suffered very gravely after the beginning of the modern era, it made enormous sacrifices, such as been rarely seen in the history of the world. But because the Chinese people have never surrendered, and incessantly rose with force and spirit to resist, we grasped hold of our own fate in the end. We began the magnificent process of arranging the construction of our own country. This has fully displayed the magnificent national spirit with nationalism at the core. Read the rest of this entry »

Notice concerning Accrediting the First Batch of Mixed State-Level Culture, Science and Technology Demonstration Bases

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GKFG No. [2012]631

Relevant provincial, municipal and plan-listed city science and technology offices (committees, bureaus), Party Committee propaganda departments, cultural offices (bureaus), radio, film and television bureaus, press and publications bureaus:

according to the requirements of the 6th Plenum of the 17th Party Congress concerning “Rely on State high and new technology parks, State sustainable development test regions, etc., to build mixed State-level culture, science and technology demonstration bases”, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Central Propaganda Department have, together with the Ministry of Culture, SARFT and the General Administration of Press and Publications, launched the mixed State-level culture, science and technology demonstration base accreditation work. Through organizing expert appraisal and joint research by relevant departments, it has decided to accredit the Beijing Zhongguancun mixed State-level culture, science and technology demonstration base and 15 others to become the first batch of mixed State-level culture, science and technology demonstration bases (see attachment for a name list). Read the rest of this entry »

Notice concerning Launching a Special Campaign Attacking “News Blackmail” to Control Paid-For News

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All provincial, autonomous region and municipal and the Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps publication bureaus, “sweeping pornography and striking illegality” offices, discipline inspection groups’ supervision offices inside bureaus, all relevant Centre and State organs, all democratic parties, all people’s organizations’ periodical controlling departments, all Centre newspaper and periodical publishing work units. Read the rest of this entry »