This is the official translation of this text, as published by Xinhua
Chapter I. Opportunities and Challenges
Chapter II. Basic Principles
1.The Principle of Peace
2.The Principle of Sovereignty
3.The Principle of Shared Governance
4.The Principle of Shared Benefits
Chapter III. Strategic Goals
1. Safeguarding Sovereignty and Security
2. Developing A System of International Rules
3. Promoting Fair Internet Governance
4. Protecting Legitimate Rights and Interests of Citizens
5. Promoting Cooperation on Digital Economy
6. Building Platform for Cyber Culture Exchange
Chapter IV. Plan of Action
1. Peace and Stability in Cyberspace
2. Rule-based Order in Cyberspace
3. Partnership in Cyberspace
4. Reform of Global Internet Governance System
5. International Cooperation on Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Crimes
6. Protection of Citizens’ Rights and Interests Including Privacy
7. Digital Economy and Sharing of Digital Dividends
8. Global Information Infrastructure Development and Protection
9. Exchange of Cyber Cultures
Cyberspace is the common space of activities for mankind. The future of cyberspace should be in the hands of all countries. Countries should step up communications, broaden consensus and deepen cooperation to jointly build a community of shared future in cyberspace.
—Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, 2015/12/16
This translation was kindly provided by Paul Triolo
The Central Cybersecurity and Informatization Leading Group Office, the Central Internet Security and Informatization Leading Group (CCILSG) Office
The People’s Republic of China State Internet Information Office, The State Internet Information Office
Notice of the on Public Consultation on the Measures for the Security Review of Internet Products and Services (Opinion-seeking draft)
In order to improve the security and controllability of network products and services, prevent supply chain security risks, and safeguard national security and the public interest, the CCILSG Office has drafted the Measures for the Security Review of Network Products and Services (draft for soliciting opinions ) “, and it is now open to the public for comments The relevant units and people of all walks of life can make comments according to the following procedure, before March 4, 2017.
First, send comments by letter to: Beijing Dongcheng District, Chaoyang Gate Street 225 State Internet Information Office Cybersecurity Coordination Bureau, Zip Code: 100010, and mark on the envelope “solicited comments.”
Second, by e-mail send to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Annex: Measures for Network Products and Services Security Review (draft)
State Internet Information Office
February 4, 2017
Measures for Network Products and Services Security Review
Article 1: The security and controllability of network products and services directly affect the interests of users and the national security. These Measures are formulated in accordance with the National Security Law of the People’s Republic of China and the Cybersecurity Law of the People’s Republic of China to improve the security and controllability of network products and services, guard against supply chain safety risks, and safeguard national security and the public interest.
Article 2: Important network products and services that are used by the national security and public interest information systems shall undergo a cybersecurity review.
Article 3: A cybersecurity review of network products and services and their providers shall be carried out, insisting on the combination of enterprise commitment and social supervision, combining third-party evaluation and government supervision, combining laboratory testing, on-site inspection, on-line monitoring, and background investigations.
Article 4: The review shall focus on the the security and controllability of network products and services, including:
(1) the risks of illegal control, interference and interruption of the operation of products and services;
(2) risks in the R&D, delivery, and technical support of products and key components;
(3) risks related to product and services providers utilizing the convenience of providing products and services to engage in illegal collection, storage, handling and utilization of user-related information;
(4) products and service providers taking advantage of users’ reliance on products and services, and carrying out unfair competition or harm to the interests of users;
(5) other risks that may endanger national security and the public interest.
Article 5 The State Internet Information Office, in conjunction with relevant departments, shall set up a Cybersecurity Review Committee to review important policies of the cybersecurity review, organize cybersecurity review work, and coordinate the relevant important issues related to the cybersecurity review.
The Cybersecurity Review Office shall concretely organize and implement the cybersecurity review.
Article 6: The Cybersecurity Review Committee shall appoint relevant experts to form a Cybersecurity Review Experts Committee to conduct a comprehensive evaluation on the security risks of network products and services and the security and trustworthiness of suppliers on the basis of the third-party evaluation.
Read the rest of this entry »
New Paper – Cyber China: Updating Propaganda, Public Opinion Work and Social Management for the 21st Century
Recently, I contributed to the European Council on Foreign Relation’s China Analysis series of briefing papers. This paper, “Governing the Web” examines recent changes in Internet governance and regulation in China.
“The internet has gained a new importance in Chinese domestic politics. It is seen as a powerful driver of economic reform, enables more effective social management by government, and realigns the central-local nexus within the party-state architecture.
“Nevertheless, there are international tensions, particularly in the relationship with the United States. Concerns about information and network security have driven China to pursue a policy of software indigenisation and to raise the requirements for foreign technology suppliers. They also fuel the hawkish voices that are already prominent in Chinese public discourse.
“If China and the international community wish to continue reaping the benefits of burgeoning technological change, it will be necessary to achieve some level of mutual co-operation that addresses China’s security concerns while maintaining the operational openness and ethos of collaboration at the heart of the internet’s architecture.”
The full paper can be downloaded free of charge on the ECFR website.
GF No. (2015)40
All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all subordinate bodies:
“Internet Plus” is the profound integration of the innovation achievements of the Internet with all areas of the economy and society, it promotes technological progress, efficiency improvement and organizational reform, it enhances innovation and productivity in the real economy and creates new, even broader economic and social development circumstances with the Internet as basic infrastructure and innovation of factors. In a new round of scientific and technological revolution, as well as industrial reform worldwide, the Internet has vast prospects and limitless potential for converged development with all areas, it has already become an unstoppable tide of the times, and is having a strategic and comprehensive influence on the economic and social development of all countries. Vigorously giving rein to the comparative advantages that our country’s Internet has already created, grasping opportunities, strengthening confidence and accelerating the development of “Internet Plus”, will benefit the remoulding of innovation systems, stimulating innovative dynamism, fostering new business models and innovative public service models, and has an important role in the forging of mass entrepreneurship, mass innovation and strengthening the “double engine” of public products and public services, in actively adapting to and guiding the new normal of economic development, shaping new drivers for economic development and realizing the qualitative improvement and efficiency of the Chinese economy. Read the rest of this entry »
Notice concerning the Standardization of the Online Reprinting Copyright Order (National Copyright Administration, April 2015)
While many scholars have debated the question whether the Internet would change China, the question whether China would change the Internet has received less attention. However, the Internet’s arrival in China meant it entered into a highly complex, historically formed political culture. This created a lens through which government has perceived the potential harms and benefits of Internet technology, and a normative basis for a governing strategy. This essay attempts a preliminary exploration of how the cultural elements of Chinese politics, deeply influenced by both Confucian and Leninist tenets, have interacted with information technology. It is available free of charge through SSRN.
Ladies, gentlemen, friends:
Hello, everyone! Welcome to this thousand year-old town, with a long history and a gathering of talents, to together attend the first World Internet Conference. Here, I express warm congratulations on the convention of the Conference! And I express a sincere welcome to the honoured guests who have travelled from afar.
The Internet is one of the most important technological inventions of the 20th Century, and will profoundly influence humankind’s social and civilizational progress. As General Xi Jinping pointed out: “In the present world, a new round of scientific and technological revolution with information technology at the core is being fostered into life, the Internet is becoming more of a leading force for innovation driving development every day, it deeply changed people’s ways of production and life, and powerfully promotes social development” At present, the number of netizens in the world has reached 3 billion, a dissemination rate of 40%, network interconnection and information interflow has been realized on a global scale, and the world has truly become a global village. With “An Interconnected World, Shared and Governed by All” as its theme, it responds to the concerns of international society, and has an extremely important significance in promoting the balanced, secure and sustainable development of the global internet, giving better rein to the important role of the Internet in global economic and social development, stimulating the shared enjoyment of the fruits of Internet development by the people of all nations, and enhancing the prosperity of humankind.
Ladies, gentlemen: The Chinese government attaches great importance to the development of the Internet. Twenty years ago, China fully accessed the complete functions of the Internet, opening up a new era of interconnection and interflow with the world. In these 20 years, China has vigorously merged into the great wave of global Internet development, innovated Chinese practices to move Internet development forward, formulated national informatization development plans, implemented the “broadband China” strategy, and arranged the development of third-generation and fourth-generation mobile telecommunications, it rolled out “three-network integration” in the entire country, vigorously developed the Internet of things, big data, and cloud computing, and accelerated the promotion of e-commerce, e-government, smart cities and other such Internet applications, greatly stimulating information consumption, etc. Through twenty years of efforts, China has now become the county with the largest netizen population in the entire world, the largest worldwide production base of electronic products, and the most mature information construction market in the world. The TD-SCDMA and TD-LTE standards proposed by China have respectively become third-generation and fourth-generation mainstream technological standards for international mobile telecommunications; broadband networks cover the entire country, and there are now 640 million Internet users, 530 million mobile broadband users, and the number of mobile phone users is about 1.3 billion; the market value of publicly-traded Internet companies is higher then 39,5 trillion Yuan, and four companies, Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu and JD.com have entered into the list of the ten strongest global Internet companies; information consumption is rapidly growing, amounting to 1,9 trillion Yuan in the first three quarters of this year, or 18% in relative terms. China’s Internet is developing formidably, greatly stimulating economic development, social perfection and improvement in the livelihood of the population, extending to China’s 1.3 billion people.
In the present and future period, China will be in a crucial period to comprehensively construct a moderately prosperous society and realize the “Two Centuries” struggle objective. In this period, the Internet must have an even greater role. China’s government will respect the principles of positive use, scientific development, management according to the law, and protection for security, accelerate the construction of next-generation national information network infrastructure, strengthen innovation of information and telecommunications technology, promote the profound convergence of the Internet with the economy and society, strengthen Internet governance according to the law, and fully give rein to the important role of the Internet in stimulating sustained and healthy economic development. We will better use the Internet to transform and upgrade traditional industries, foster and develop new industries and new business models, promote economic upgrading, synergy and improvements, and march towards middle and high-end levels. We will better use the Internet to stimulate technological exchange and cooperation, raise scientific and technological innovation capacities, and promote the realization of innovation spurring development. We will better use the Internet to accelerate the construction of e-government services, stimulate the openness of government information, strengthen supervision over government, and enhance administrative efficiency and capacity. We will better use the Internet to strengthen the dissemination of excellent culture, strengthen the overall strength of the cultural industries, and effectively satisfy the people’s various spiritual and cultural demands. We will even better use the Internet to strengthen and improve education, healthcare, traffic, sanitation and other such public services, provide convenience to people’s lives, and realistically guarantee and improve the people’s livelihoods.
Ladies, gentlemen: The development of the Internet faces both rare historical opportunities, and quite a few risks and challenges. Building, using and managing the Internet well relates to national sovereignty, dignity and development interests, it relates to international security and social stability, it relates to the flourishing and development of the global economy, it is urgently necessary for international society to jointly take up their responsibilities, jointly respond to challenges, strive for common governance, and realize common gains. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out in his words of congratulations to this Conference that: “China is willing to join hands with all countries in the world, in line with the principles of mutual respect and mutual trust, to deepen international cooperation, respect network sovereignty, safeguard cybersecurity, jointly build a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace, establish a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system.” To this end, I raise the following four proposals:
First, promoting the interconnection and interflow of Internet infrastructure. Network infrastructure is the bedrock of Internet development. To strengthen exchange and cooperation in the area of the Internet, we must promote the interconnection and interflow of basic infrastructure. The Chinese side is willing to strengthen cooperation with the entire world, accelerate the pace of construction of network infrastructure and telecommunications infrastructure, forcefully upgrade broadband levels, promote the research, development and spread of a new generation of mobile telecommunications technologies, and erect an information highway connecting the world. At present, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund are vigorously planning, and the construction of network infrastructure will also become a focus area for investment.
Second, stimulating the flourishing and development of the Internet economy. At present, the network economy has become one of the areas of the global economy that develops most rapidly, has the greatest potential, where cooperation is most dynamic. China is willing to, together with international society, formulate and perfect norms for trade in cyberspace, strengthen the effective linkage of laws and policies, launch cross-border e-commerce cooperation, raise the levels of convenience in customs clearance, logistics, etc., oppose trade protectionism, shape a global online market, and promote the flourishing and development of the global network economy.
Third, strengthen Internet technology cooperation and sharing. Technological innovation is a fundamental driver of network development, Internet cooperation is an important basis for technological innovation. We hope that all countries in the world grasp the historical opportunity of a new round of technological revolution, strengthen technological cooperation in network telecommunications, mobile Internet, cloud computing, the Internet of things, big data and other such areas, jointly resolve development difficulties in Internet technology, and jointly promote the development of new industries and new business models. The crux for Internet technology breakthroughs is to rely on talent. We are willing to launch broad talent exchange with all countries, and jointly foster top-notch innovative network talents. China will vigorously create a fine environment for foreign talents to innovate and start up businesses, we warmly welcome foreign network experts and excellent talents to come to China for exchange and cooperation, start-up businesses and development.
Fourth, realizing powerful guarantees for Internet security. The Internet is a double-edged sword, if it is used well, it is the treasure of Ali Baba; if it is not used well, it is Pandora’s box. Cybersecurity is a common challenge that human society faces, effectively responding to it is the common responsibility of all countries’ governments. All countries worldwide should strengthen cooperation, fully reflect the different concerns of various countries concerning cybersecurity, attack cybercrime according to the law, strongly attack acts of cyber terrorism, joint forces to attack cyber attacks and violations of privacy, jointly safeguard online sovereignty security, data security, technology security and application security, and let the Internet become a safe web and a care-free web.
Ladies, gentlemen! Take a look into the future, the great changes, great developments and great convergence of the global Internet has become an irreversible historical tide. Let us join hands, incessantly deepen exchange and cooperation, let the Internet enrich all of human kind even better, and let the world become ever more beautiful. Lastly, I wish the Conference is crowned with complete success! Thank you, everyone!
Presenting the Standing Committee, a collective academic blog on all things China.
The Internet figured heavily in Xi Jinping’s recent visit to Brazil. With the push of a button, Xi and President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil inaugurated the Portugese language service of Chinese search giant Baidu. The telecommunications technology company Huawei signed an agreement to create an R&D centre in Brazil, focusing on mobile, big data and security technology. Alibaba, China’s largest e-commerce corporation, is teaming up with Correios, the state-owned post company, to develop logistical procedures and payment services for Brazilian small businesses.
Xi also made Internet governance a main theme in his speech to the Brazilian National Congress. He reiterated China’s basic position that the sovereignty of individual countries should be the basis of international cooperation. “In the current world, the development of the Internet has posed new challenges to national sovereignty, security and development interests, and we must respond to this earnestly. Although the Internet has the…
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Copyright Self-Discipline Declaration for the Internet Sector of China (2010, independent Internet companies)
Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China for the Period of Political Tutelage (National Government, 1931)
Fundamentals of National Reconstruction (Sun Yat-Sen/GMD Central Committee, 1924)
This article by Zhang Qianfan was posted on the author’s blog on 22 August 2013. This blog is now no longer accessible. The current translation has been made on the basis of a reblogged version.
Since May of this year, anti-constitutionalist discourse has caused a stir. An extremely small number of people who call themselves “scholars”, propagate that “the crucial factors of constitutionalism are capitalist and not Socialist”, “it is a roundabout manner of denying China’s development model”, that in China “it can only be like climbing trees to catch fish” and other such viewpoints. In a short time, constitutionalism has become “a sensitive word”, it has become a conceptual “forbidden area”, after “the market economy”, “the rule of law” and “human rights”. In fact, this discourse with a fifties-sixties accent is contradictory from front to back, confused in its logic, ridiculously childish and not even worth refuting, but in view of the fact that it has confused public opinion, harmed the country and the people after its publication in mainstream media, it has gravely harmed the image of the governing party and the government, it seems that it is necessary to clarify the basic idea and common knowledge about constitutionalism, in order to ensure correct understanding of the facts, distinguish right and wrong, and clarify true and false. The author believes that in constitutionalism, there is not only no difference about whether “it is surnamed Socialist or capitalist”, but it has an irreplaceable function for China’s social stability and the long-term governance of the governing party. Read the rest of this entry »
State Council Secretariat Notice concerning Printing and Issuing the Provisions on the Main Duties, Internal Structuring and Personnel Allocation of the State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television (2013)
Recently, the Office for the Marxist Theory Research and Construction Project, which is subordinate to the Central Propaganda Department, issued a call for proposals, in which it requested a number of specific research institutions to file projects in relation to fifteen broad headings related to the Chinese Dream.
1, The historical origins and contemporary background of the Chinese Dream
2, The opportunities and challenges faced in realizing the Chinese Dream
3, The basic content and main characteristics of the Chinese Dream
4, The Chinese Dream, the Party’s governance concepts and the country’s development objectives
5, The Chinese Dream is a dream that relies on the people and benefits the people
6, Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the necessary path to realize the Chinese Dream
7, The Chinese Dream and carrying forward the Chinese spirit
8, The Chinese Dream and concentrating China’s strengths
9, The Chinese Dream and constructing the Socialist core value system
10, The Chinese Dream and realizing the “Two Centuries” struggle objective
11, The Chinese Dream, national defence and military construction
12, Realizing the Chinese Dream and taking real action to rejuvenate the country
13, The Chinese Communist Party is the leading core for realizing the Chinese Dream
14, Realizing the Chinese Dream benefits the civilizational progress of the world
15, The Chinese Dream and work in all areas.
According to the notice, proposals needed to be filed before the end of June, with a decision being made early July, and finished “research achievements” to be submitted before the end of August. These will primarily appear in the form of theoretical articles, probably in Qiushi or similar journals; as internal reports or survey reports; in main Central newspapers; or be sent to relevant departments for reference. Funding will provided at the end of the year, on the basis of the quantity and quality of “research achievements”. Read the rest of this entry »
According to Caixin, Jiao Li (焦利), who was the head of CCTV until November last year, and was appointed as Vice-Chairman of the General Administration of Press and Publications, has been removed from his position. Jiao seems to have been the latest victim of the Bo Xilai fallout. Both men started their careers in Liaoning Province. Jiao worked his way through the ranks of the Liaoning Daily, becoming editor-in-chief and chair of its Party Committee. In 1997, he became a member of the Liaoning provincial propaganda department and joined the Central Propaganda Department in 2008. In May 2009, he was appointed as CCTV director. Here, he suspended a news anchor on request of Bo Xilai. However, he was removed from his position after only two and a half years in office, prompting suspicions that Jiao had ruffled feathers in his handling of news items. He also made himself unpopular among staff through the appointments and dismissals he made. Furthermore, Jiao’s private life came under scrutiny. He allegedly had a relationship with Tang Can, a singer who, according to rumours, has been secretly sentenced to 15 years in July after being involved in numerous high-level scandals, and was closely acquainted with Bo Xilai. Officially, he was transferred to a vice-director position in the General Administration of Press and Publications, but has not been seen in public events since. Now, it seems that he has been removed from all State posts and expelled from the Party.
This calls into question his relationship with Li Changchun, a fellow Liaoninger, number 5 in the Standing Committee and propaganda chief, and Liu Yunshan, director of the Central Propaganda department and Standing Committee hopeful at the 18th Party Committee. Rumours indicate that although Li distanced himself from Jiao as scandal started to broaden, Liu tried to protect Jiao, on whose assistance he relied in the CPD.
Unfortunately, in this case, most we have to go on are reports by partisan overseas Chinese media, which may not necessarily reliable. However, let’s assume, for the sake of the argument, that they are true. This might have interesting consequences for the relationship between the propaganda apparat and the Standing Committee. Propaganda is, together with discipline inspection and personnel appointments, one of the three large supporting pillars of the Party, and the head of the propaganda apparat has been a Standing Committee member since 1989, when the structure was overhauled. There has been an increasing emphasis on media and culture in recent years but until now, the institutions in those fields have generally been staffed by the conservative side of the Party. It is not unimaginable to think that in the raging political crisis, control over propaganda, and therefore the tools of public opinion guidance, has been one of the major points of conflict for the next round of appointments. Also, political battles in China often are fought through underlings. For example, Chen Liangyu’s dismissal in 2003 signalled Hu Jintao’s consolidation of power over the Shanghai faction, while the dismissal of his right hand man Ling Jihua was considered to be a great weakening of his power. It seems inconceivable that Jiao’s dismissal, especially at this time, has nothing to do with Liu Yunshan’s Standing Committee aspirations. However, there are different options. Liu might now be out of the running for one of the spots, but it might also be the case that Jiao’s dismissal is part of a compromise in which Liu will succeed Li Changchun, but will be beholden to other factions in the Party. One more story on the rumour mill, one more reason to watch the line-up, somewhere by this time next month.
In the past few years Africa has attracted unprecedented interest from international media players. In January 2012 China Central Television (CCTV) launched its new platform, CCTV Africa, providing information on Africa to Chinese, African and global audiences. Al Jazeera, as a relatively new player on the continent, has become increasingly popular and is exploring the possibility to launch of a new channel in Kiswahili, while actors which have broadcasted to Africa for a long time, such as the BBC, are developing a new strategy for the continent. This conference explores these transformations together with the very actors that are transforming old and new media on the African continent.
Registration and Welcome: Iginio Gagliardone, University of Oxford
Panel 1: 9.00-11.00 The New Face of International Broadcasting in Africa
Song Jianing, Bureau Chief, CCTV Africa
Mohamed Adow, Director, Al-Jazeera Kiswahili
Mary Harper, Africa Editor, BBC
Nicole Stremlau, University of Oxford (Chair)
Panel 2: 11.30-13.00 Reflecting on the Shift: Implications for Africa and Beyond
Martin Davies, CEO Frontier Advisory Africa
Yushan Wu, South African Institute of International Affairs
Winston Mano, University of Westminster
Chris Alden, London School of Economics (Chair)
Lunch in Hall: 13.00-14.00
Panel 3: 14.00-16.00 New Media and New Technologies
Wang Chaowen, General Director, Xinhua Africa Bureau
Yawei Liu, Director, China Programme, The Carter Center
Timothy Garton-Ash, University of Oxford
Martin Plaut, BBC (Chair)
Early bird registration is £20 (£15 students) before 26 October. £30 thereafter until final deadline 2 November, and includes lunch. There is also a cocktail dinner with speakers at Oriel College for £30. Register at http://oucan.politics.ox.ac.uk. Please contact email@example.com with any queries.