Film Examination Law

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Article 1: All films, irrespective of whether they are produced in this country or abroad, may not be screened if they have not been examined and approved according to this Law. Read the rest of this entry »

Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic

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The First Chinese Soviet National Congress solemnly proclaims to the working masses of the entire world and all of China the fundamental tasks that it must realize in all of China, which is the Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic.

The realization of these tasks has already begun in the present Soviet regions. But the First Chinese Soviet National Congress believes that the completion of these tasks can only occur after the overthrow of the rule of the imperialist Guomindang in all of China and the establishment of Soviet Republic rule in all of China. Furthermore, only at that time can the Constitutional Outline of the Chinese Soviet Republic be concretized, and become the detailed Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic. The National Chinese Soviet Congress sincerely calls upon the working masses of peasants and labourers in all of China to struggle for the realization of these fundamental tasks in all of China, under the leadership of the Provisional Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic. Read the rest of this entry »

Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China for the Period of Political Tutelage

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Formulated on 12 May 1931

Promulgated on 1 July 1931

The National Government has established the Republic of China on the basis of the revolutionary Three Principles of the People and the Five-Powers Constitution. As [we] have gone from the period of military government into the period of political tutelage, it is proper to promulgate the Provisional Constitution, for all to abide by, in order to facilitate the creation of constitutional government, and hand over government [powers] to a government elected by the people. In solemn respect for the testament of the President [Sun Yat-sen] of the Chinese Nationalist Party that founded the Chinese Republic, the National Assembly was convened in the capital. The National Assembly formulated the following Provisional Constitution for the Republic of China During the Period of Political Tutelage Read the rest of this entry »

Film Examination Law

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11 October 1930

 

Article 1: All films, irrespective of whether they are produced in this country or abroad, may not be screened if they have not been examined and approved according to this Law. Read the rest of this entry »

Publishing Law

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Chapter I: General Principles

Article 1: Publications as named in this products, means documents and images printed using mechanic or chemical means for sale or distribution Read the rest of this entry »

Copyright Law of the Republic of China

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Chapter I: General Principles

Article 1: Those registering the right to copy of the listed works according to the law, will have copyright. Read the rest of this entry »

Fundamentals of National Reconstruction

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Sun Yat-sen

Passed at the First National Congress of the Chinese Nationalist Party on 21 January 1924.

I, The National Government is based on the revolutionary Three Principles of the People, and the Five-Powers Constitution, in order to build the Republic of China. Read the rest of this entry »

Manifesto of the Chinese Communist Party

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(November 1920)

Dear comrades! This manifesto has been decided upon by the Chinese Communist Party in November of last year. The content of this Manifesto is only one part concerning the principles of Communism, and because of this, has not been externally published, however, this is a standard for accepting Party members. The Chinese original manuscript of this Manifesto cannot be found in this place, therefore, the brothers have translated this from the English manuscript. As it is more than a year ago that this Manifesto was decided, naturally, there are places that need revision or supplementing by now. I very much hope that all comrades carefully research this Manifesto, because every Communist must pay attention to this sort of important document – the Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moreover, it may raise discussion among the Communists in the Chinese delegation to the Far Eastern Peoples’ Conference. The result of the discussion must be consulted and adopted by the Chinese Communist Party. Read the rest of this entry »

Publishing Law

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Article 1: The act of selling or disseminating volumes or pictures printed using machines or printing plates and other chemical materials is called publishing.

Article 2: The persons involved in publishing are the following:

I, The author.

II, The distributor.

III, The printer. Read the rest of this entry »

Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China

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11 March of the First Year of the Republic of China

Chapter I: General principles

Article 1: The Republic of China is composed of the Chinese people.

Article 2: The sovereignty of the Republic of China lies in the whole body of citizens.

Article 3: The territory of the Republic of China consists of the 22 provinces, Inner and Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Qinghai.

Article 4: The governing power of the Republic of China is exercised by the Assembly, the Provisional Great President, the Ministers and the Courts. Read the rest of this entry »

The Nineteen Major Articles of the Constitution

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Article 1: The Imperial lineage of the Great Qing Empire is unchangeable for all generations.

Article 2: The Emperor is sacred and inviolable.

Article 3: The powers of the Emperor are limited to the provisions of the Constitution. Read the rest of this entry »

Great Qing Copyright Code

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Great Qing Copyright Code

 

Chapter I: General provisions

Article 1: All interests related to the exclusive reproduction of works, are named copyright. Literature and art, drawings, calligraphy books, photographs, engravings and models all are what is named works. Read the rest of this entry »

The Outline of the Constitution Compiled by Imperial Order

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The Great Powers of His Majesty

I, The Great Qing Emperor rules the Great Qing Empire, for all generations, and must be eternally respected.

II, The sacred dignity of His Majesty may not be violated.

III, The power to compose, review and issue laws and deliver proposals. All laws, although they are decided upon by the legislature, that have not yet been approved and promulgated through an imperial edict, cannot be implemented.

IV, The power to convene, open and close, dismiss and dissolve the legislature. At the time of dissolution, the citizens shall be ordered to re-organize elections for new legislative members, where the old members of the dismissed legislature have disobeyed, just like the common masses, they shall be punished according to corresponding laws in consideration of the circumstances.

V, The power to set up civil service pay scales, demote and promote the various directors. The power to employ people is held by His Majesty, with the assistance of the Ministers, the legislature may not intervene.

VI, The power to command the army and navy and to determine the military system. His Majesty dispatches national troops and formulates quota for regular troops, and has full powers to implement. The legislature may not intervene in any army matter.

VII, The power to declare war, make peace, conclude treaties, dispatch envoys and accept envoys. Matters of diplomatic relations are to be decided by His Majesty personally, and are not handed over for resolution to the legislature.

VIII, The power of admonition and imposing curfews. In times of emergency, the liberties of subjects may be limited by imperial decree.

IX, The power to ennoble, reward and pardon. Honour comes from His Majesty, and it is not for Ministers to act on their own initiative.

X, The power to command the judiciary. Appointments in judicial government offices, are to be conducted in accordance with laws composed and reviewed by the Emperor, and these are not to be altered through imperial decree at any time. Judicial power is held by His Majesty, judges are appointed by His Majesty and administer the law on his behalf, they are not to be altered through imperial decree at any time, where cases involve important matters, orders composed and reviews by the emperor must be the standard, in order to avoid divergence.

XI, The power to issue orders and cause orders to be given. Already determined laws, without being submitted to the legislature for assistance in memorializing and composition, may not be revised or abolished through an imperial order. Laws are for the purpose of His Majesty implementing His judicial powers, orders are for the purpose of His Majesty implementing His administrative powers, the two powers are separated, therefore, laws are not to be revised or altered through orders.

XII, At times when the legislature is adjourned, in the event of emergencies, imperial decrees may be issued to replace laws, and the necessary finances may be raised through imperial decree. By the time of convention in the year thereafter, this must be submitted to the legislature for consultation.

XIII, The expenses of the Imperial House, shall be paid by the national treasury according to the regular quota determined by His Majesty, the legislature may not discuss this.

XIV, The great ceremonies of the Imperial House shall be decided by His Majesty in command of the Imperial Family and specially appointed Ministers, the legislature may not intervene.

 

The rights and obligations of subjects (the detailed catalogue will be determined when drafting the Constitution)

I, Those among the subjects that have suitable qualifications determined through laws and orders, may become civil and military officials and members of the legislature.

II, Within the scope of the law, subjects are allowed to be free in all matters concerning speech, writing, publishing and assembly or association.

III, Subjects may not be subject to arrest, custody or punishment outside the provisions of the law.

IV, Subjects may request judges to try cases they present.

V, Subjects shall accept the findings of judicial government offices as determined by the law.

VI, Subjects’ property and residence may not be invaded without cause.

VII, Subjects have the obligation to pay taxes and serve in the military according to the provisions of the law.

VIII, Subjects tax payments, where they have not been altered by newly determined law, shall be paid as before.

IX, Subjects have the obligation to observe national laws.

 

钦定宪法大纲

 

君上大权

 

一、大清皇帝统治大清帝国,万世一系,永永尊戴。

二、君上神圣尊严,不可侵犯。

三、钦定颁行法律及发交议案之权。凡法律虽经议院议决,而未奉诏命批准颁布者,不能见诸施行。

四、召集、开闭、停展及解散议院之权。解散之时,即令国民重行选举新议员,其被解散之旧员, 即与齐民无异,倘有抗违,量其情节以相当之法律处治。

五、设官制禄及黜陟百司之权。用人之权,操之君上,而大臣辅弼之,议院不得干预。

六、统率陆海军及编定军制之权。君上调遣全国军队,制定常备兵额,得以全权执行。凡一切军事,皆非议院所得干预。

七、宣战、讲和、订立条约及派遣使臣与认受使臣之权。国交之事,由君上亲裁,不付议院议决。

八、宣告戒严之权。当紧急时,得以诏令限制臣民之自由。

九、爵赏及恩赦之权。恩出自君上,非臣下所得擅专。

十、总揽司法权。委任审判衙门,遵钦定法律行之,不以诏令随时更改。司法之权,操诸君上,审判官本由君上委任,代行司法,不以诏令随时更改者,案件关系至重,故必以已经钦定为准,免涉分歧。

十一、发命令及使发命令之权。惟已定之法律,非交议院协赞奏经钦定时,不以命令更改废止。法律为君上实行司法权之用,命令为君上实行行政权之用,两权分立,故不以命令改废法律

十二、在议院闭会时,遇有紧急之事,得发代法律之诏令,并得以诏令筹措必需之财用。惟至次年会期,须交议院协议。

十三、皇室经费,应由君上制定常额,自国库提支,议院不得置议。

十四、皇室大典,应由君上督率皇族及特派大臣议定,议院不得干预。

臣民权利义务

附臣民权利义务(其细目当于宪法起草时酌定)

一、 臣民中有合于法律命令所定资格者,得为文武官吏及议员。

二、 臣民于法律范围以内,所有言论、著作、出版及集会、结社等事,均准其自由。

三、 臣民非按照法律所定,不加以逮捕、监禁、处罚。

四、 臣民可以请法官审判其呈诉之案件。

五、 臣民应专受法律所定审判衙门之审判。

六、 臣民之财产及居住,无故不加侵扰。

七、 臣民按照法律所定,有纳税、当兵之义务。

八、 臣民现完之赋税,非经新定法律更改,悉仍照旧输纳。

九、 臣民有遵守国家法律之义务。

Great Qing Newspaper Code

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Article 1: All those opening up newspaper offices to distribute newspapers, shall write up all listed materials, and twenty days before distribution, present it to the government office of the local official in charge for application with the governor-general of that province, who will seek advice from and file it with the Ministry of Civil Affairs; 1, the name; 2, the style; 3, the full names, antecedents and addresses of the distributor, editor and printer, 4, the name and address of the distribution office and the print shop. Read the rest of this entry »

Great Qing Special Code for Printed Materials

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Since the Wuxu year [1898], the number of periodicals has risen vigorously, and newspapers are also often bound in volumes and sold at fixed prices. Therefore, in the 6th month of the 32 Year of Guangxu [1906], the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Inspection and the Ministry of Education, have jointly determined the “Great Qing Special Code for Printed Materials” as follows:

Chapter I: Outline Read the rest of this entry »